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 Research US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. II, Vol. 1., Ch. 1

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

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SERIES II, VOL I.
PRISONERS OF WAR, ETC.
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THE TEXAS SURRENDER.

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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Feb.5, 1861.–The civil authorities of Texas appoint a commission to confer with the U. S. officer commanding that military department.
9, 1861.–Bvt. Maj. Gen. David E. Twiggs, U. S. Army, appoints a military commission to meet the commissioners of Texas.
16, 1861.–The Texas commissioners demand the surrender of all U. S. military posts and public property in Texas.
18, 1861.–Bvt. Maj. Gen. David E. Twiggs, U. S. Army, commanding the Department of Texas, surrenders the military posts and public property to the authorities of Texas, under stipulations that the U. S. troops be permitted to retain their arms and retire unmolested.
Mar.1, 1861.–Bvt. Maj. Gen. David E. Twiggs, U. S. Army, dismissed the service by order of President Buchanan.
5, 1861.–All the U. S. troops in the Department of Texas ordered to the coast for transportation to New York.
26, 1861.–Col. Earl Van Dorn, C. S. Army, reports his arrival in Texas for the purpose of securing the adhesion of the U. S. troops to the Confederate cause.
Apr.11, 1861.–Col. Earl Van Dorn, C. S. Army, ordered to assume command in Texas and make prisoners of all U. S. troops remaining in the State who refuse to espouse the Confederate cause.
23, 1861.–Col. Carlos A. Waite, U. S. Army, commanding the Department of Texas, and his staff officers made prisoners of war at San Antonio.
25, 1861.–U. S. troops under Maj. Caleb C. Sibley, U. S. Army, surrender, near Indianola, as prisoners of war to Col. Earl Van Dorn, C. S. Army, and sign a parole not to take up arms against the Confederate States until exchanged or released therefrom.
30, 1861.–Maj. Caleb C. Sibley’s detachment of paroled U. S. troops sail for New York.
May9, 1861.–Detachment of U. S. troops under command of Bvt. Lieut. Col. Isaac V. D. Reeve, U. S. Army, surrender at San Lucas Spring to Col. Earl Van Dorn, C. S. Army.
10, 1861.–Col. Earl Van Dorn, C. S. Army, reports to his Government the capture of the last column of U. S. troops in Texas.
Nov.1, 1861.–Beginning of negotiations for the release and exchange of the U. S. officers and men surrendered in Texas.

CONTENTS.

Delivery of the Forts and Public Property and Attempted Withdrawal of U. S. Troops.2
Surrender of the U. S. Troops to the Confederate Forces as Prisoners of War.39
Disposition and Negotiations for the Release and Exchange of the Union Prisoners.61
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Delivery of the Forts and Public Property and Attempted Withdrawal of U. S. Troops.

UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

[For Reports, Correspondence, etc., between the Headquarters of the Army and General Twiggs, and other important records relating to this event, not included herein, see Series I, Vol. I, pp. 503-636.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 19, 1861.*

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith the proceedings of a military commission, constituted by virtue of Special Orders, No. 20, of this year, from this department, to meet the commissioners on the part of the State of Texas. It will be observed that the meetings of the commissioners were abruptly terminated by the entrance into this city, on the morning of the 16th instant (before day), of an armed body of State troops, numbering over 1,000 men, under Col. Ben. McCulloch. On that morning I received a summons requiring me “to deliver up all military posts and public property held by or under your control.” It is herewith, marked No. 2. I immediately (with Major Nichols) proceeded to my office and found the troops and public property surrounded by the Texans. After a conversation with the commissioners, in presence of all my staff and the officers of the post, it was agreed that the U. S. troops should march out of the city, taking with them their arms, clothing, camp and garrison equipage, and all the necessaries for a march out of Texas.

On the 17th instant I received another summons from the commissioners (copy herewith, marked No. 3), to which I replied under the same date, a copy of which is herewith, marked No. 4. The commissioners replied to this (copy herewith, No. 5), stating the conditions of the march out of Texas (see letter referred to in the proceedings of the commission) and demanding the surrender of the guns of the light batteries, a demand to which I could not accede. The commissioners were instructed to demand that the route of the troops should be by way of the coast. 1 objected to this strongly until I found that unless I yielded that point there would be immediate collision, and deeming it probable that by yielding this I could save the guns of the light batteries, I reluctantly did so. (See my letter of the 18th instant, marked No. 6, addressed to that body.) The commissioners in reply (copy herewith, No. 7) accepted my conditions. I have to remark that whilst the commissioners were in session the State troops were in rapid march upon the city of San Antonio. General Orders, No. 5 (herewith, No. 8), will inform you of the disposition of the troops. A copy of the circular of the commissioners is also herewith, No. 9.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. E. TWIGGS, Bvt. Maj. Gen., U. S. Army, Comdg. the Department of Texas.

* This report with its inclosures was transmitted to Washington February 26, 1861, by special messenger. See Special Orders, No. 34, p. 8.

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[Inclosure No. 1.]

Proceedings of a military commission constituted by virtue of the following order, viz:

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 20.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 9, 1861.

A military commission, to consist of Maj. David U. Vinton, quartermaster, Maj. Sackfield Maclin, paymaster, and Capt. Robert H. K. Whiteley, Ordnance Department, is hereby appointed to meet the commissioners on behalf of the convention of the people of Texas-Messrs. Thomas J. Devine, Samuel A. Maverick, and P. N. Luckett-at such times and places as maybe agreed upon, to transact such business as relates to the disposition of the public property upon the demand of the State of Texas.

By order of Brevet Major-General Twiggs:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

The commission met at 4 p.m. February 9, 1861.

Present: Maj. D. H. Vinton, quartermaster; Maj. S. Maclin, paymaster; Capt. H. H. K. Whiteley, Ordnance Department.*

[FEBRUARY 16, 1861.]

The military commission met pursuant to adjournment, and finding that during the past night the town of San Antonio had been invaded by armed bodies of Texans, who had seized the property belonging to the United States, it was deemed that no further proceedings on the part of the commission would be of any avail, and they therefore respectfully submit their proceedings at this point for the consideration of the major-general commanding the department, and adjourned sine die.

D. H. VINTON, Major and Quartermaster, SACKFIELD MACLIN, Paymaster, U. S. Army, R. H. K. WHITELEY, Captain of Ordnance, Military Commission.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 16, 1861.

Approved.

D. E. TWIGGS, Brevet Major-General, U. S. Army.

* Proceedings of this commission omitted; for which see Series I, Vol. 1, pp. 504-510. For the order appointing the commissioners of the State of Texas and the authority therefor, see p. 25 of this volume.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

SAN ANTONIO, February 16, 1861-6 a.m.

OFFICER IN COMMAND Of THE DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS.

SIR: You are hereby required, in the name and by the authority of the people of the State of Texas, in convention assembled, to deliver up all military posts and public property held by or under your control.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

THOS. J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of the Committee of Public Safety.

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[Inclosure No. 3.]

SAN ANTONIO, February 17, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. DAVID E. TWIGGS, Commanding Department of Texas.

SIR: In our communication of the 16th instant we required a delivery up by you of the positions held and public property held by or under your control as commander in this department. As no reply, save your verbal declaration (which declaration was that you “gave up everything”), has been given to our note, and as the undersigned are most anxious to avoid even the possibility of a collision between the Federal troops and the force acting on behalf of the State of Texas-a collision which all reflecting persons desire to avoid, and the consequences of which no man can predict-we again demand the surrender up to the undersigned of all the posts and public property held by you or under your control in this department.

Please answer immediately.

We have the honor to remain, your, obedient servants,

THOS. J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of the Committee of Public Safety.

[Inclosure No. 4.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 17, 1861.

Messrs. THOS. J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of the Convention of the People of Texas.

GENTLEMEN: In reply to your communication of this date, I have to say that you are already aware of my views in regard to the delivery of the public property of this department, and I now repeat that I will direct the positions held by the Federal troops to be turned over to the authorized agents of the State of Texas, provided the troops retain their arms and clothing, camp and garrison equipage, quartermaster’s stores, subsistence, medical, hospital stores, and such means of transportation of every kind as may be necessary for an efficient and orderly movement of the troops from Texas, prepared for attack or defense against aggression from any source.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. E. TWIGGS, Brevet Major-General, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure No. 5.]

SAN ANTONIO, February 17, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. DAVID E. TWIGGS, U. S. Army, Commanding Department of Texas.

SIR: In reply to your communication of this date, we have to say that we accept the terms therein set forth, with the conditions stated in our note of the 14th instant, viz, that the troops shall leave Texas by the way of the coast, and, upon arriving at the point or points of embarkation, will deliver up to the authorized agents appointed for that purpose all means of transportation of every kind used by them, as likewise the artillery, if any be taken.

Respectfully, &c.,

THOS. J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of the Committee of Public Safety.

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[Inclosure No. 6.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 18, 1861.

Messrs. THOS. J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of the Convention of the People of Texas.

GENTLEMEN: Your communication of the 17th instant, which you say is a reply to mine written yesterday, the 17th instant, was received last night. I consent to the conditions that the troops shall leave Texas by the way of the coast, with the provision expressed in my communication of yesterday.

As to the condition of surrendering the guns of the light batteries, that, you must see, would be an act which would cast a lasting disgrace upon the arms of the United States, and under no circumstances can I believe that the State of Texas would demand such a sacrifice at my hands, and more particularly so after I have yielded so much to meet what I deemed to be due to the State, and to avoid any unnecessary collision between the Federal and State troops. In this view of the case, I am sure you will not insist in a demand which, you must see, I am not at liberty to grant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. E. TWIGGS, Brevet Major-General, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure No. 7.]

SAN ANTONIO, February 18, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. DAVID E. TWIGGS, U. S. Army Commanding Department of Texas.

SIR: In reply to your communication of this date, we have to say that we accept the terms therein stated, viz, that the two batteries of light artillery, with the arms for the infantry and cavalry, shall be retained by the troops under your command; all other public property, as set forth in our previous communication, to be delivered up to agents authorized to receive it.

We remain, respectfully, your obedient servants,

THOS. J. DEVINE, P. N. LUCKETT, S. A. MAVERICK, Commissioners on behalf of Committee on Public Safety.

[Inclosure No. 8.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 5.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 18, 1861.

The State of Texas having demanded through its commissioners the delivery of the military posts and public property within the limits of this command, and the commanding general desiring to avoid even the possibility of a collision between the Federal and State troops, the posts will be evacuated by their garrisons, and these will take up as soon as the necessary preparations can be made the line of march out of Texas by way of the coast, marching out with their arms (the light batteries with their guns), clothing, camp and garrison equipage, quartermaster’s stores, subsistence, medical, hospital stores, and such means {p.6} of transportation of every kind as may be necessary for an efficient and orderly movement of the troops, prepared for attack or defense against aggressions from any source.

The troops will carry with them provisions as far as the coast.

By order of Brevet Major-General Twiggs:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 9.]

CIRCULAR.]

SAN ANTONIO, February 18, 1861.

The undersigned, commissioners on the part of the State of Texas, fully empowered to exercise the authority undertaken by them, have formally and solemnly agreed with Bvt. Maj. Gen. David E. Twiggs, U. S. Army, commanding the Department of Texas, that the troops of the United States shall leave the soil of the State by the way of the coast; that they shall take with them the arms of the respective corps, including the battery of light artillery at Fort Duncan and the battery of the same character at Fort Brown, and shall be allowed the necessary means for regular and comfortable movement, provisions, tents, &c., and transportation.

It is the desire of the commission that there shall be no infraction of this agreement on the part of the people of the State. It is their wish, on the contrary, that every facility shall be afforded the troops. They are our friends. They have heretofore afforded to our people all the protection in their power, and we owe them every consideration.

The public property at the various posts, other than that above recited for the use of the troops, will be turned over to agents to be appointed by the commission, who will give due and proper receipts for the whole to the officers of the Army whom they relieve from the custody of the public property.

THOS. J. DEVINE, P. N. LUCKETT, S. A. MAVERICK, Commissioners on behalf of Committee of Public Safety.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 27.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 18, 1861.

I. The State troops having taken possession of the city of San Antonio and the property that belonged to the Federal Government, the officers of the general staff-viz, Bvt. Maj. W. A. Nichols, assistant adjutant-general; Maj. D. H. Vinton, quartermaster; Capt. A. W. Reynolds, assistant quartermaster; Military Store-keeper R. M. Potter; Capt. W. B. Blair, commissary of subsistence; Surg. E. H. Abadie, Medical Department; Maj. S. Maclin, paymaster; Maj. D. McClure, paymaster; Bvt. Second Lieuts. W. H. Echols and Nicolas Bowen, Topographical Engineers, and Capt. R. H. K. Whiteley, Ordnance Department-will, as soon as their several functions shall cease, proceed to Washington City, D. C., and report to the chiefs of their respective bureaus. The chief quartermaster will advance to each officer named the mileage from this place to Washington City.

By order of Brevet Major-General Twiggs:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 32.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 24, 1861.

The commissioners on the part of the State of Texas having turned over to the Quartermaster’s Department twenty-six wagons and teams for the movement of the troops on the line above Fort Clark, those posts-viz, Fort Bliss, Fort Quitman, Fort Davis, Fort Stockton, Fort Lancaster, and Camp Hudson-will be evacuated by their garrisons in the following manner: The most remote garrison will move first, and the garrison of each succeeding post two days after the passage of the command which precedes it. They will direct their march upon Indianola, where transports will be in readiness for their embarkation. The troops will march with their arms and ammunition, the necessary clothing and camp equipage, and, as the means of transportation are limited, no extra baggage will be allowed. Lieut. Henry W. Freedley, Third Infantry, is appointed acting assistant quartermaster of the train. Special instructions will be given to him. Agents on the part of the State will be sent up to the several posts to receive the public property.

By order of Col. C. A. Waite:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 25, 1861.

As some of the companies in the department have already evacuated their posts, deeming the requirements of General Orders, No. 5, immediate, the department commander calls the attention of post commanders to the condition therein expressed, viz., “as soon as the necessary preparations can be made.” The “necessary preparations” will be made at these headquarters, and no troops will be put in motion until orders for such purpose shall be issued from the department. Should, however, any of the companies within this command have left their stations and be found, on receipt of these instructions, on the march for the coast, they-will not consider the above requirements as operative upon them, but will continue their line of march.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 26, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Army, New York.

COLONEL: I have the honor to inclose herewith a statement of the number of troops serving in the Department of Texas, and have to request that transportation may be furnished for them from Indianola and Brazos Santiago to such points as the lieutenant-general commanding the Army shall direct. My arrangements are that the Third Infantry and two companies of the Second Cavalry shall embark at the Brazos, and that the remaining eight companies of the Second Cavalry, the five companies of the First Infantry, and the nine companies of the Eighth Infantry shall proceed to Indianola and take shipping at that place.

...

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

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[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 26, 1861.

Statement of the number of troops to be removed from the Department of Texas, in compliance with General Twiggs’ agreement with the commissioners on the part of the State of Texas.


Companies.Medical officers.Field officers.Company officers.Ordinance sergeants and stewards.Enlisted men.Laundresses.Officers’ servants.Aggregate.
To embark at the Brazos.
Third Infantry10332547624034871
Two companies, E and G, second Cavalry.2612186141
Total123331488348401,012
To embark at Indianola.
Second Cavalry (eight companies)8421735883225671
First Infantry (five companies)5221343852017443
Eighth Infantry (nine companies)9511944723621558
Total2211549111,44588631,672
Grand total3414880152,3281361032,684

Besides the officers and enlisted men included in the above list, there is one doctor and one paymaster stationed at Fort Brown, and one paymaster at Fort Bliss. One ordnance sergeant is stationed at Brazos Santiago, and a hospital steward at Fort Brown.

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 34.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 26, 1861.

Bvt. Lieut. Col. D. T. Chandler, U. S. Army, will proceed to the headquarters of the Army and deliver the dispatches with which he is charged. He will travel with all possible haste, as it is important that the information contained in the communications intrusted to his charge should reach Washington as early as possible.

On arriving in Louisiana Colonel Chandler will communicate with the governor of that State, and ascertain if a safe transit for the troops evacuating Texas will be afforded through the State of Louisiana, with permission to purchase the necessary supplies and secure the required means of transportation. For this purpose he will deliver a communication addressed to the governor of that State by the commissioners on behalf of the committee of public safety of the State of Texas. After having complied with these instructions Colonel Chandler will return to San Antonio.

By order of Col. C. A. Waite:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 26, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters of the Army, &c.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that in compliance with Special Orders, No. 22, Adjutant-General’s Office, Washington, January 28, 1861, 1 assumed command of the Department of Texas on the 19th instant.

I send herewith by Bvt. Lieut. Col. D. T. Chandler, U. S. Army, a communication, dated the 19th instant, of Brevet Major-General Twiggs, giving a full account of the forcible entry into and occupation of this city by the troops of this State, on the 16th instant, together with the proceedings of the military commission therein referred to, and the papers connected with it.*

...

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

* See report of Twiggs and inclosures, p. 2, et seq.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 36.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, February 27, 1861.

Department Special Orders, No. 32, of February 24, 1861, are modified as follows:

The garrisons of the posts above Fort Clark-viz, Fort Bliss, Fort Quitman, Fort Davis, Fort Stockton, Fort Lancaster, and Camp Hudson-instead of marching as therein directed, will march upon the coast as soon as the means of transportation shall be received by them.

The public property at the several posts, except what is expressly mentioned in Department General Orders, No. 5, and the circular of the commissioners on behalf of committee of public safety, under date of San Antonio, February 18, 1861, will be turned over to authorized agents of the State of Texas, who will give due and proper receipts for the same. Should, however, any agent on the part of the State fail to appear or any one refuse to give the proper receipts, the commanding officer will call a board of survey, with instructions to make inventories of the property to be abandoned. (See General Orders, No. 22, of 1859, from the War Department.)

By order of Col. C. A. Waite:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 5.}

WAR DEPT., ADJT. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, March 1, 1861.

The following order is published for the information of the Army:

WAR DEPARTMENT, March 1, 1861.

By the direction of the President of the United States, it is ordered that Brig. Gen. David E. Twiggs, major-general by brevet, be, and is hereby, dismissed from the Army of the United States for his treachery to the flag of his country in having surrendered, {p.10} on the 18th of February, 1861, on the demand of the authorities of Texas, the military posts and other property of the United States in his department and under his charge.

J. HOLT, Secretary of War.

By order of the Secretary of War:

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, San Antonio Barracks, Tex., March 1, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of Texas, San Antonio, Tex.

SIR: Pursuant to the orders of the commander of the department, I have the honor to submit the following report of the taking possession of the public property in San Antonio on the morning of the 16th ultimo:

...

I had ordered that our men should not leave their quarters, but should be prepared to resist any attempt to take their arms; and between 9 and 10 o’clock, wishing to relieve them from this constraint, and to avoid any chance of accidental collision, I proposed to move the command into camp at a convenient distance from town. The commissioners objected to this arrangement unless I would assure them that I would not move from the camp except to leave Texas by the coast. I told them I could give no such assurance without the consent of the general commanding, as I might be otherwise ordered. After some discussion of the feasibility of the plan of the troops going out by Indianola and up the Mississippi, with the approbation of General Twiggs, who was present, I gave the assurance asked for, and immediately issued the necessary orders for the companies to go into camp. The headquarters of the post and Eighth Infantry and band of the Eighth remain in town.

As required by the colonel commanding the department the reports of Major Smith and Captain King are submitted herewith.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth Infantry, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

CAMP SAN PEDRO, TEX., February 23, 1861.

Lieut. Col. WILLIAM HOFFMAN, Eighth infantry, Commanding San Antonio Barracks.

COLONEL: In compliance with instructions that I should report such information as I possess on the subject of the events which transpired in San Antonio on the 16th instant, I have the honor to state as follows:

For several days previous to the 16th there were many rumors of the formation of forces to take possession of the public property at the depots. They were not generally credited until the 14th, when more reliable information was received that a strong force of citizens was collecting from the counties to the east and northeast. This was confirmed on the 15th, and it was generally understood that several hundred men would enter the city the next morning. The orders given to the guard were that they should not resist a large organized force, but {p.11} to preserve the public property from depredation by individuals or any mob, as usual. The troops, consisting of Company I of the First and A of the Eighth Infantry, were to form at quarters and await further orders in case of the approach of any considerable force.

At fifteen minutes of 4 o’clock on the morning of the 16th I received a message from the officer of the day that a large armed force was entering the city. Repairing to my company quarters, a low, one-story building, marked B on the accompanying plot,* situated in the yard used as a depot for ordnance, the men were formed, and ordered to remain at their quarters. I then proceeded to the Army offices in the building marked A, where officers were awaiting developments rather than orders, it being understood that no resistance would be made. A few minutes after, some eighty armed citizens took position across the street at the point C, and another party in the lot at H. Returning towards my company quarters, I found a strong party on the street leading to the plaza, some of them ascending the stairs to the second story of the ordnance building, D. Approaching them, I was accosted by two persons, who seemed surprised at being observed. One of them was announced as Colonel McCulloch. I informed him that the house on the corner was occupied by soldiers. He said he could not help that. I asked, “Perhaps you will tell me what you intend to do;” to which he replied that his force was in commanding positions, and would take possession of all the public property, after which, if anything was wanted, it would have to be asked of the commissioners, and that the persons of my men were secure, and would not be molested. During this conversation he gave me to understand that the force on the east side of the river served to prevent my company and that of the First Infantry at F from uniting. In the meantime his people were mounting to the roof of the ordnance building, of the house adjoining on the south, and of the Masonic Hall at G. About one hour after this conversation, having heard that it was intended to demand the arms in the hands of our men, I sought Colonel McCulloch, and asked him if I had understood him rightly that the persons of the soldiers would not be molested. He answered, “Yes.” I stated that they would consider their persons very much molested if their arms were interfered with. He replied, “That is a question for the commissioners to determine.” I added that such an attempt would be followed by serious consequences, which would be painful to all concerned and suggested that he would confer with his commissioners on that subject if he had not been instructed upon it. He signified his intention to obey their instructions, whatever they might be, at any cost, and added, “Some of you had better arrange this matter quickly, or my men will do it for you,” thus intimating that they might not be controlled.

Near 7 o’clock Colonel McCulloch came to me with a letter addressed to the commander of the Department of Texas. I informed him that I was not the officer, and referred him to you as commanding the post. These matters were all reported to you.

At 10 o’clock I particularly reported the situation of my company, in contracted quarters, and so completely surrounded and commanded by the citizens’ force that no man could move without having several hundred guns pointed at him, at the option of that force, and that they had been in this situation nearly six hours. You notified the department commander of this. It seemed to be of consequence, in yielding to the Texas commissioners, that these two companies should leave the State {p.12} by the way of the coast.” On this point you are better informed than I am; my knowledge of it is incomplete. I understood, however, that our troops would not be permitted to leave their quarters if this demand was not acceded to, and that it was the one measure to restore quiet.

About 11 o’clock the order was given to prepare to go into camp, and at 3 p.m. the two companies marched out of the city, and formed their camp at this place.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

LARKIN SMITH, Major by Brevet, Captain, Eighth Infantry.

* Omitted as unimportant.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

CAMP SAN PEDRO, TEX., March 1, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. HOFFMAN, Eighth Infantry, Commanding San Antonio Barracks, Tex.

SIR: By your order, I report to you that I was on duty as officer of the day at San Antonio Barracks on the 15th ultimo. At night the guard at the Alamo had orders not to load their muskets, and not to resist in case an armed force attempted to seize the public property. Some time before daybreak the corporal at the Alamo reported to me that the citizen troops we had been expecting for a day or two had arrived in the city. Our soldiers were notified of it, and the sentinels withdrawn from their posts.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. H. KING, Captain, First Infantry.

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SAN ANTONIO, TEX., March 2, 1861.

We, the commissioners on behalf of the committee of public safety, will place at the disposal of the commanding officer of the troops in Texas such means of transportation as are at our command, to be used by said troops in transporting their baggage, provisions, forage, and other supplies to such points on the coast as have been selected for embarkation.

THOS. J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of Committee of Public Safety.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 41.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, March 5, 1861.

The garrisons of the following-named posts will march for the coast, via San Antonio, as soon as they receive the requisite means of transportation, viz, Fort Inge, Camp Wood, Fort Mason, Camp Colorado, Fort Chadbourne, and Camp Cooper. Upon arriving at Green Lake, some twenty-miles from Indianola, the troops will find a camp established, where they will remain until the transports are ready for their embarkation. It is desirable that sufficient provisions and forage be taken to last to that point. If the means of transportation will not permit recourse must be had to the several posts on the line of march.

By order of Col. C. A. Waite:

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.13}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, March 6, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communications forwarded by Major Porter,* assistant adjutant-general, which were delivered to me on the 4th instant by Lieutenant Major, Second Cavalry. Major Porter was to leave Indianola on the 2d instant for Brazos Santiago.

The difficulty of placing provisions at Brazos Santiago for the use of the troops whilst awaiting the arrival of the transports, the collection of a large Texan force at Brownsville or in its vicinity, which would render a depot at that place insecure, and the small number of United States troops on the Rio Grande below Fort McIntosh, have induced me to change my arrangements so far as to have all the troops embark at Indianola. Should it, however, be deemed expedient hereafter to have a part of the troops embark at the Brazos, the transports can easily be ordered from Indianola to that point. I have, therefore, to request that all of the vessels sent out to take the troops may be directed to proceed to Indianola.

Two companies of the Third Infantry (Johns’ and Clitz’s) were ordered to Fort Brown from Ringgold Barracks to relieve the artillery, and as it is probable that they reached that post before the arrival at Brazos of the steamer Daniel Webster, I presume they embarked with the artillery. Major Porter wrote me that he would “make every effort to take with me [him] the garrison of Ringgold Barracks.”

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

P. S.-I beg that it may be borne in mind that I am dependent entirely on the commissioners on the part of Texas for the use of the means of transportation, which were heretofore under the control of the quartermaster’s department. As difficulties are daily occurring to retard our operations, and frequently to delay the march of the troops, I cannot feel that certainty of having them at the points selected for concentration at any given time that I should do if entirely independent of the commissioners and free to act agreeably to my own judgment.

Very respectfully,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

* See Thomas to Waite, February 7, Series I, Vol. I, p. 587.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, March 12, 1861.

Col. CARLOS A. WAITE, U. S. Army, or SENIOR OFFICER ON DUTY WITH U. S. TROOPS AT BRAZOS AND INDIANOLA, TEX.

SIR: The general-in-chief directs that the troops arriving at Brazos and at Indianola, Tex., for embarkation shall proceed to the harbor of New York, where they will receive further orders.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.14}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, March 12, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that a communication, under date of 25th ultimo,* was received on the 8th instant from Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Reeve, captain, Eighth Infantry, advising me of the arrival at that post [Fort Bliss] of the “four companies of the Eighth Infantry recently stationed in the Department of New Mexico-the last one, Company B (Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Reeve’s), arriving on the 21st instant” (February).

Brevet Major Sprague’s company (E, Eighth Infantry) left Fort Bliss the 25th ultimo for Fort Davis, under Lieutenant Frank, Eighth Infantry.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

* Omitted.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, March 13, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.

COLONEL: The want of co-operation on the part of the commissioners, who have the entire control of the means of transportation; the great distance from this place to El Paso; the uncertainty in relation to the condition of things at the several posts on the upper Rio Grande, especially in regard to their facilities for the transportation of baggage, supplies, &c., and the difficulties which attend the march of troops and the movement of trains at this season of the year over a large portion of the route-have caused so many delays that I was not able until yesterday to entirely complete the arrangements necessary to bring the troops down from those distant posts.

The three companies at El Paso will probably leave that post about the 25th of this month, and, with the four companies now at Fort Quitman, Fort Davis, and Fort Stockton, may be expected to be at the coast and ready to embark in about forty days from that date. The last returns show the strength of the several companies to be 14 officers and about 426 enlisted men, laundresses, &c. As it is not possible for the companies above mentioned to embark before the first week in May, transports for that number of troops will not be required until that time.

To a certain extent the same uncertainty as to the time the troops can be assembled and ready for embarkation which prevented my stating in any of my former communications the exact time the transports would be wanted still hangs over our future movements. This arises from the confused condition of affairs in this department, the interference of the commissioners, and my having but a limited control over the means necessary to move the troops.

I am now concentrating the troops at a camp established at Green Lake, some twenty miles from Indianola, the nearest point to the coast where pure water, fuel, and good grazing can easily be obtained.

By my present arrangements, I think I shall be able to assemble by the 10th of April and have ready for the transports some 45 officers and {p.15} 1,300 men, and by the 10th of May I hope to have the remainder of the troops in a position ready to embark. All the troops will embark at Indianola.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, March 16, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Army headquarters, Washington, D. C.

COLONEL: I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of a letter* received from Maj. O. C. Sibley, Third Infantry, reporting the movements of the troops on the Rio Grande. The distance from Fort McIntosh to Fort Brown is about 230 miles, and Major Sibley’s command may be expected to arrive at the latter place about the 24th instant.

I have not recently received any official information of the condition of affairs at Fort Brown, but, from the reports which have reached me, do not anticipate any difficulty with the State troops.

Colonel Bonneville being out of the department, and Colonel Backus having received a leave of absence on account of his health, the command of the Third Infantry will devolve on Major Sibley.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, Commanding Department.

* See Series I, Vol. I, p. 534, for Sibley’s letter.

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[For Reports, Orders, Correspondence, etc., relating to the surrender of Forts Brown, Chadbourne, and Camps Cooper and Colorado, in the State of Texas, and the seizure of public funds sent to pay the U. S. troops, see Series I, Vol. I, p. 535 et seq.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, March 27, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: In case the difficulty between the General Government and the seceding States should result in hostilities, there is reason to apprehend that an attempt may be made to prevent the embarkation of the troops and to detain them as prisoners of war. This can only be effected by their seizing and removing all lighters, preventing transports of light draught entering the bay at Indianola, and by cutting off our supplies of provisions, &c. To avoid an attempt of that kind, and to be prepared to meet it if made, I am concentrating the troops at the camp near Green Lake as rapidly as possible. This camp is full twenty-miles from Indianola and is the nearest place to the coast where fresh water can be obtained. The difficulty, amounting almost to impossibility, of supplying the troops with water at Indianola prevents my moving them down to that place. Not a line has been received at these headquarters from {p.16} the Headquarters of the Army or from the War Department since I entered upon duty as the department commander, except unimportant matters, and I am inclined to believe, from inspection of the envelopes, that they have been opened, and that all important communications have been withheld.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

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STEAMER DANIEL WEBSTER, New York Harbor, March 30, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington City.

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival to-day in this steamer with Companies M, Second Artillery, and C and E, Third Infantry, Capt. W. B. Johns commanding. The troops will land at Fort Hamilton in compliance with instructions to Major French.

In obedience to the orders of the general-in-chief* I sailed the 15th of February in this steamer for Brazos Santiago, with recruits, provisions, and medical stores for the garrisons of Forts Taylor and Jefferson, Fla., and provisions for the troops to embark at Brazos Santiago. The recruits (sixty-two) for Fort Taylor and all stores for the two forts were landed on the 23d and 25th of February. I landed at Indianola on the 2d of March and forwarded the dispatches in my possession addressed to the commander of the Department of Texas. On the 3d instant, on arriving off Brazos, I availed myself of an opportunity offered by a commissioner of the State coming on board to enter the harbor and proceed to Fort Brown, which place I arrived at that night at 12 o’clock.

As the garrison of Fort Duncan had not arrived nor been heard from, I delivered to the commander of Fort Brown the instructions for Major French, and under the authority of my instructions issued the annexed letters, the provisions in which I considered essential for the comfort and speedy embarkation of the command and the security of the public property at the post, and to suppress any meditated design or attempt at intimidation. I then proceeded to the mouth of the Rio Grande to prepare the means for a speedy embarkation. I returned to Fort Brown on the 6th instant.

Major French, with three companies of artillery, arrived on the 8th, and on the 11th, the earliest practicable moment, collected the command at the mouth of the river, whence all embarked on the night of the 19th instant, Brazos Santiago was occupied by Texas volunteers, and hence, deeming it prudent, I arranged to embark at the mouth of the Rio Grande, which proved of no disadvantage. The garrisons of Forts Jefferson and Taylor were re-enforced on the 24th instant by the companies assigned them in instructions. Assistant Surgeon L’Engle, the only medical officer available at Fort Brown, relieved Surgeon McLaren at Fort Jefferson.

In a separate communication I have stated my reasons for chartering the steamer General Rusk, but I wish to add here that without her aid the troops and batteries would now, in all probability, be on the Rio Grande. I was informed at Key West that certain parties (secessionists, some holding office) expressed themselves in strong and bitter {p.17} terms to the captain of the Rusk and against the agent of the company in Galveston for permitting the vessel to take re-enforcements to these forts. The Rusk was chartered with the knowledge (understanding) on the part of the captain and agent (E. B. Nichols, commissioner) that a portion of the troops destined for these forts would be placed on the Rusk. I make this last remark as I have heard the captain stated he was deceived in the terms of the charter. I am surprised to see in an annexed letter from Colonel Backus that the secretary of the commissioner (Mr. Waller) was urging the surrender of the barracks at Fort Brown, General Nichols having assured me on the 13th instant that the secretary had instructions not to make such a demand, and that the fort would not be asked for till the army was ready to embark.

Accompanying this are copies of all correspondence connected with my mission.

In testimony of the character of that portion of the army which came under my observation on the Rio Grande, I wish to state that I never saw a more orderly and better disposed and more easily controlled body of men, each man apparently seconding every effort and wish of the officers to sustain under trying circumstances a well-earned reputation for discipline and loyalty. A few weak men yielded to temptation and persuasions and deserted their flag for another service. Whatever character they may assume with their confederates, that borne in our service is, in every case coming to my knowledge, sustained by their acts on deserting, and carries conviction that the army alone is the gainer.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-Three days from Brazos Santiago, on the 22d instant, spoke the Star of the West, bound to that port. Three companies of the Third Infantry and two of the Second Cavalry, with Colonel Backus and Major Backus [Sibley], will probably embark upon her.

* For Porter’s instructions see Series I, Vol. I, p. 588.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 4, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. BACKUS, Third Infantry, Commanding Ringgold Barracks, Tex.

COLONEL: By authority and in the name of the general-in-chief I call upon you to act as circumstances may indicate the best for the service for the following purposes:

First. To dispatch the accompanying communication to the commander of Fort McIntosh, and in case the garrison of that post is marching or is to march in this direction, to expedite, if necessary, the movement and arrange that they do not want for provisions, &c.

Second. To hasten Major French’s command to this post.

Third. To repair to this post, as soon as practicable, and also dispatch here Captain Bowman’s company, giving the preference to the battery, if Major French’s command has not passed your post and a steamer be available and his progress be expedited.

Fourth. To leave at your post in charge of agents appointed by you for the Government, or otherwise dispose of it according to regulations, property which will not be needed and interferes with your progress, and to bring the provisions on hand which will not be required for the troops above.

{p.18}

I wish to take from this post with the artillery two companies of infantry, and desire to re-enforce this garrison by every man that can be obtained from above. Funds to defray expenses of transportation will be furnished on arrival.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Sub-inclosure, No. 1.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 4, 1861.

Maj. C. C. SIBLEY, Third Infantry, Commanding Fort McIntosh, Tex.

SIR: Under the impression that you with the garrison of Fort McIntosh may be marching in this direction or intending to march, and have received no orders from department headquarters to move toward San Antonio, in the name and by authority of the general-in-chief I call upon you to hasten to this post. Funds to defray expenses of transportation will be supplied on arrival. If you have knowledge of the advance in this direction of the troops from above, I desire you to communicate and hasten their march. Provisions are not abundant here, so you must husband your supply.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Sub-inclosure No. 2.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 4, 1861.

Maj. W. H. FRENCH, Comdg. Battalion First Artillery, en route to Fort Brown, Tex.

SIR: I have caused to be sent to your aid several wagons pertaining to this command, and by authority of the general-in-chief urge you to hasten to this post. On arrival, you will be furnished with orders for the future. If Captain Bowman’s company be in your rear and en route, needing aid to bring him here with expedition, I desire you to press on to him any of this transportation which can be spared.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 4, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Brown, Tex.

SIR: I have the honor to deliver for your immediate action, and for transfer to the senior with the detachment to embark on the steamer Daniel Webster, now at Brazos Santiago, the orders for the removal of the artillery from Texas, which orders indicate infantry may embark on the same vessel. By the authority and in the name of the general-in-chief I call upon you to hold in readiness to embark with the artillery the two companies of the Third Infantry now at hand. If possible to take it another company will be ordered on board. The security of this post, until all the troops moving here shall be ready to embark, will alone, under existing circumstances, cause this infantry, or a portion of it, to be left here. For reasons of which the demand will indicate {p.19} the necessity, especially when known that the steamer is not very capacious and was not chartered to carry so large a command, I have to insist:

First. That beyond the batteries, arms, ammunition, &c., all supplies, public material, and company luggage be left behind, to be disposed of under future orders, or carried off for these companies by the other troops.

Second. That the men go on board with five days’ cooked provisions and canteens filled, about two days’ hard bread, and other parts of the ration may be supplied from the stores on board.

Third. That before the troops the batteries be sent on board and as much of the luggage as possible, and when prepared the troops embarked as rapidly as possible.

I have quartermasters’ funds (specie on board ship and deposit in New York) to defray the expenses of transportation, and will transfer them to your quartermaster as they may be required, and also leave some here on my departure.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

RINGGOLD BARRACKS, TEX., February 6, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Fort Brown, Brownsville, Tex.

MAJOR: Your letter of March 4 reached me at daylight this morning and found me executing nearly every item of your instructions. I sent an express to Major Sibley two days since urging him to move at once for Brownsville. I sent another express this morning with your letter, and hope it may meet him on the road. I leave forage for him at this post; he has subsistence sufficient to take him down. Major French will probably reach you before this letter; he left Edinburg this morning. Company A, Third Infantry, leaves by land to-morrow, and should be at Brownsville on the 11th. The baggage goes by steamer, and, being an invalid, I shall go by the same means. I send down all the corn and flour we can spare. Major French wrote in pencil on the envelope of your letter to me something about a train coming up for my use and for Major Sibley’s use. If a train comes it will be sent to meet Major Sibley and expedite his movement. Our property is already on board the steamer Mustang, and we need no train.

I am, most respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

E. BACKUS, Lieutenant-Colonel Third Infantry, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 4.]

ARTILLERY BATTALION, Camp at La Blanca, Tex., about Fifty Miles from Brownsville, March 6, 1861-1 p.m.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Fort Brown, Ter.

MAJOR: Your communication of the 4th instant reached me in camp at 3.30 p.m. yesterday at the Tortugas, thirty-three miles from here. I met the wagons this morning at 7.30 o’clock six miles this side of Edinburg. The heat of the weather and the lengthened marches compelled {p.20} me to take all the wagons for my command, particularly as Major Shepherd has seized three of my wagons for his own use at Duncan, obliging me to throw out on the road ordnance stores to lighten my forge and battery wagons and causing unnecessary privations to my men. I will be in Brownsville on the day after to-morrow morning. The two communications for Forts Ringgold Barracks and McIntosh were at once sent forward.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. FRENCH, Brevet-Major, U. S. Army.

P. S.-I left Duncan at 3 p.m. 20th ultimo.

[Inclosure No. 5.]

FORT MCINTOSH, TEX., March 9, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Fort Brown, Tex.

MAJOR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th instant, and in reply have to state that I shall commence the march with the garrison of this post at the earliest moment possible.

Transportation cannot be in readiness before day after to-morrow. I shall take rations for the command for thirty days. I have heard of no troops from above on the march in this direction. It was rumored that the garrison of Fort Duncan were to have commenced the march several days since; doubtless on San Antonio.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, Commanding Post.

[Inclosure No. 6.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 9, 1861.

Maj. W. H. FRENCH, Comdg. Battalion First and Second Arty., Fort Brown, Tex.

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the steamer Daniel Webster lies off Brazos Santiago prepared, except with a supply of water, to receive your command. Water will be sent by the first steamer communicating, which will be the one taking a battery. I am directed to take on board as many infantry as the steamer can carry to Key West, and have caused to be held in readiness the two companies of infantry now here. I desire these companies to embark with you, and also a third company, if it arrives in time to cause no delay, unless the future commander shall require them to remain to secure this post, and the supplies needed for the troops en route to it, until all are ready to embark. The ship will necessarily be crowded for three or four days, but if the suggestions in my letter of the 4th instant to the post commander be carried out, much inconvenience will be avoided.

I inclose a list* of supplies on board ship. Medical supplies will be required for the voyage, and a hospital steward to be left at Fort Taylor. I have arranged to the utmost of my power to facilitate your movements, and if I can in any manner aid you in future it will be my pleasure as well as my duty.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Porter to commanding officer, Fort Brown, p. 15.

{p.21}

[Inclosure No. 7.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 9, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Brown, Tex.

SIR: I to-day notified the commander of the artillery battalion to embark on the steamer Daniel Webster; that I desired, under the authority of the general-in-chief, to embark with him the two companies of infantry now here, and a third company, should it arrive in time to cause no delay, unless the commander of this post shall require them to secure this post, and the supplies needed for troops en route to it, until all shall be ready to embark. I do not insist upon removing these infantry companies, though I am anxious to do so, and will be much gratified to know that I can remove them without fear of a collision between the future garrison and the authorities of Texas.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 5.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., March 10, 1861.

Capt. W. B. JOHNS, Third Infantry, Commanding Fort Brown, Tex.

SIR: By order of the general-in-chief I call upon you to turn over the command of this post to the proper officer and unite your companies to those which are to embark on the steamer Daniel Webster. Brevet Major French is the senior officer, to whom you will report. Lieut. J. W. Alley, acting assistant quartermaster and acting assistant commissary of subsistence, will remain to turn over the property for which he is and may become responsible, and then be ordered to join his company.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Indorsement.]

[On a copy furnished Captain Stoneman was added:]

Copy for the information of Capt. George Stoneman, First [Second] Cavalry, who will relieve Captain Johns in command of the post.

By command of Lieut. Gen. Winfield Scott:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 9.]

HEADQUARTERS, Fort McIntosh, Tex., March 11, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Fort Brown, Tex.

MAJOR: I have to report that I shall commence my march for Fort Brown to-morrow. I was not able to move to-day in consequence of unavoidable delay in procuring the necessary transportation-Mexican carts.

I would state that I received an express order to-day from San Antonio, by which Major Nichols informs me that it was the intention of the commander of the department to order the troops at this post and Ringgold {p.22} Barracks via San Patricio and Indianola, as the object no doubt is to get the troops out of Texas with as much dispatch as possible. I shall not change my arrangements of marching on Fort Brown.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, Commanding Post.

[Inclosure No. 10.]

MOUTH OF THE RIO GRANDE, March 13, 1861.

Maj. W. H. FRENCH, Commanding Battalion of Artillery and Infantry, Mouth of the Rio Grande, Tex.

MAJOR: I contracted to-day with the agent of the Southern Steamship Company to transport on the steamer Rusk to Tortugas and Key West such portion of your command as cannot be embarked on the Webster. The contract I inclose, and inform you the Rusk will be at your disposal; and I desire, in the name of the general-in-chief, that you will consider your instructions so amended as to authorize you to take her.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 11.]

MOUTH OF THE RIO GRANDE. March 19, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. BACKUS, Third infantry, Commanding Fort Brown. Tex.

COLONEL: A steamer will be at Brazos on Monday or Tuesday to take troops to Tortugas and Key West, and I wish Assistant Surgeon L’Engle, or any other medical officer at hand, ordered, in the name of the general-in-chief, to join the command on board for duty at Fort Jefferson, Tortugas. I desire the company of infantry now with you to be held in readiness to embark on the same steamer, to be transferred to one at Key West to sail to New York harbor. I will give you timely notice by express when it should be at Brazos Santiago. I think, however, there is little chance of its going, but I notify you that no delay may arise. I make these calls by authority of the general-in-chief.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-If an hospital steward can be spared be pleased to order him to accompany Assistant Surgeon L’Engle, to be assigned to duty at Key West.

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure No. 12.]

FORT BROWN. TEX., March 16, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Mouth of the Rio Grande, Tex.

MAJOR: The mail brought me letters* from Major Sibley, which I inclose that you may read. He will probably be at Ringgold to-morrow, {p.23} where he will meet my train and forage. I send you a copy of Major Nichols’ letter of March 7. I presume Colonel Waite was not then aware of the orders you had issued by the authority of General Scott. Major Sibley is to come this way, as Major Vinton writes to him. I think all of the troops present should, if possible, embark at Brazos, or at the mouth of the river. Doctor L’Engle will come down to-morrow I suppose. The hospital steward (Bowie) I have not found. I sent him an order to report at this office (through Captain Stoneman). I have heard from neither. On my return I found Captain Stoneman had moved his camp out of town. I suppose he will go to Green Lake if he can get there. Major Sibley may be here in eight days. I shall have no guard after Captain Bowman leaves. If the information I send you induces any change please send me a note by expressman to-night, so as to reach me early to-morrow. I sent an express to Major Sibley yesterday. I shall know what medical officer is coming very soon. The provisions I will not send down until I hear from you.

Very truly, yours,

E. BACKUS, Lieutenant-Colonel Third Infantry, Commanding.

P. S.-I have kept no copy of this. Bowie, the steward, is said to have deserted last night.

E. B.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp on Green Lake, Tex., April 11, 1861.

Maj. W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. San Antonio, Tex.

MAJOR: The Empire City will doubtless sail to-morrow morning. Major Sibley still delaying, I have ordered Captain Johnson, Second Cavalry, with the Fort Mason garrison, to report to Major Shepherd. He will do so to-day, and, as the weather is very favorable, the troops will almost certainly embark to-morrow. Captain Johnson will return to camp in case Major Sibley arrives this evening.

There will then be left here for the Star of the West, if Captain Johnson’s command goes-Major Sibley’s three companies, say 200 persons; Captain Granger’s and Captain Wallace’s companies, 141 persons; noncommissioned staff and band, First Infantry, 17 persons; Captain Jordan’s company (D), Eighth Infantry, 45 persons; my company (A), Eighth Infantry, 52; total, 455. This number may be increased ten by the detached men and laundresses on the way.

...

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

LARKIN SMITH, Brevet Major, Commanding.

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Memorandum of movements in Texas.

Lieutenant Collins left Washington March 20 with the original dispatches to Colonel Waite. Arrived at Powder Horn, Tex., at 8 a.m. March 29. Left an hour after for San Antonio, where Colonel Waite was. His dispatches were opened by Captain King, First Infantry, commanding at Indianola, and he then proceeded on to San Antonio.

Lieutenant Bell started from Washington March 22. Arrived at Indianola at the same time with Lieutenant Collins, but had no communication {p.24} with him. His dispatches, containing the postscript added to the original addressed to Colonel Waite, were opened by Captain King and sent to Maj. Larkin Smith, at Green Lake. Major Smith immediately dispatched an officer with them to intercept Lieutenant Collins on his way to Colonel Waite, at San Antonio, with orders to deliver them in person if he missed Lieutenant Coffins.

Major Smith, in a letter of March 29 and in a memorandum, gives his reasons why the instructions in the dispatches could not be complied with, and why the embarkation of certain troops in readiness was not stopped:

Unless he has organized one within a few days (three) Governor Houston nor any other executive authority has any force in arms in defense of the Federal Government. Should an intrenched camp be established near Indianola the troops yet to arrive, especially those to come from the remote posts, will have their supplies cut off and be subjected to opposition from the whole State.

The only fresh water near Indianola is at Green Lake, about twenty miles off. There are no tools, ammunition, or horses with the six companies of cavalry. Colonel Waite has promised to carry out the agreement in good faith. All preparations axe made to embark the companies on the steamer. If they should be delayed suspicions would arise among persons attached to the Southern Confederation on the spot; some officers and many men would leave. There was an officer date of the U. S. Army, now of the Confederate, at Indianola) who had offered advanced rank to United States officers who would leave, and a change of plan would have turned those inclined to waver. It may be remarked that though the loss of such individuals might be small to the Government the disorganizing effect would be dangerous.

The following companies of the Second Cavalry and First Infantry, under command of Captain King, First Infantry, left the wharf at Powder Horn at 10 a.m. the 30th March, and at 3 p.m. had nearly embarked on the steamship Coatzcoalcos: Cavalry, six companies, dismounted; infantry, three companies-King’s, Caldwell’s, and Carpenter’s; in all, about 610 officers and men.

The infantry companies of Captains Caldwell and Carpenter are to be landed at Key West. The steamships (transports) Empire City and Star of the West were off the pass. The U. S. steamer Mohawk (convoy) arrived off the pass at Indianola at 12 m. March 29 and took up a position to command the entrance.

Maj. Larkin Smith remained encamped at Green Lake March 30, the only company left there.

Colonel Waite writes at San Antonio, March 27:

In case difficulty between the General Government and the seceding States should result in hostilities there is reason to apprehend that an attempt may be made to prevent the embarkation of the troops and to detain them as prisoners of war. This can only be effected by their seizing and removing all lighters, preventing transports of light draft entering the bay at Indianola, and by cutting off our supplies of provisions, &c.

This is the colonel’s reason for concentrating the troops at Green Lake. Colonel Waite reports that, besides the troops above enumerated, two companies Eighth Infantry and four companies Third Infantry were on their way to Green Lake, “and that probably before the end of the month (March) four additional companies will arrive at San Antonio on their way to Green Lake.* The remainder of the companies {p.25} in this department will reach Green Lake by the 15th or 20th April, except seven companies of the Eighth Infantry stationed at Forts Bliss, Quitman, Davis, and Stockton, which cannot be at the coast and ready to embark before the first week in May.”

Lieutenant Bell states that the vessel laden with oil for the lighthouses on the coast of Texas which was seized some time ago by the Texas authorities had been released and allowed to depart.

* There were thirty-three companies in Texas. Seven companies would reach Green Lake by the 15th or 20th of April, as above.-[Inserted in red ink by General Townsend.]

CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE. ETC.

THE STATE OF TEXAS, County of Travis:

By virtue of the authority vested in the committee of public safety, as will appear by the accompanying resolutions, adopted by the convention of the people of the State of Texas, by their delegates in convention assembled, at the city of Austin, on the 28th day of January, 1861, you, Thomas J. Devine, Samuel A. Maverick, P. N. Luckett and J. H. Rogers, are hereby appointed commissioners to visit Major-General Twiggs, commanding the Eighth Division, stationed at San Antonio, and confer with him, and in the name and by the authority of the people of Texas, in convention assembled, to demand, receive, and receipt for all military, medical, commissary, and ordnance stores, arms, munitions of war, and public moneys, &c., under his control, within the limits of the State of Texas, exercising all due discretion for the securing and safe-keeping of the same, to be held by you without loss or injury, subject to the orders of the committee of public safety, and in obedience to the provisions of such rules as the convention may prescribe.

Witness my hand and the order of the committee of safety. Done at the city of Austin, this 5th day of February, 1861.

JOHN C. ROBERTSON, Chairman of Committee of Public Safety.

Attest:

THOMAS S. LUBBOCK. JOHN A. GREEN.

[Inclosures.]

Resolved by the people of the State of Texas by delegates in convention assembled, That should the standing committee of public safety deem it essential to the public safety to appoint commissioners, officers, or persons, in reference to taking possession of any of the Federal property within the limits of this State, they shall have power to appoint such and assign to them their duties, and give them instructions under which they shall act; but this power shall only extend to such cases in which the committee may deem prompt action and secrecy absolutely necessary.

That a copy of this resolution, signed by the president of this convention, and the appointment and instructions signed by the Hon. J. C. Robertson, chairman of said committee, shall be full authority to the person or persons acting under the same, and a full justification for all acts done in pursuance thereof.

Done by the people of Texas, in convention assembled, by their delegates, at the city of Austin, this 2d February, A. D. 1861.

O. M. ROBERTS, President of the Convention.

Attest:

JOHN A. GREEN.

{p.26}

Resolved, That Samuel A. Maverick, Thomas J. Devine, Philip N. Luckett, and James H. Rogers be appointed commissioners to confer with General D. E. Twiggs with regard to the public arms, stores, munitions of war, &c., under his control, and belonging to the United States, with power to demand in the name of the people of the State of Texas, and that said commissioners be clothed with full power to carry into effect the powers herein delegated, and retain possession of said arms, munitions, stores, &c., subject to the order of the convention of the people of the State of Texas, and report their acts and doings in the premises to the committee of public safety.

I certify the foregoing to be a true copy of the resolution adopted by the committee of public safety on the 4th day of February, 1861.

Witness my hand this 4th day of February, A. D. 1861.

JOHN C. ROBERTSON, Chairman of Committee of Public Safety.

Attest:

THOMAS S. LUBBOCK. JOHN A. GREEN.

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AUSTIN, TEX., February 3, 1861.

[BEN. McCULLOCH :]

The committee do hereby appoint you, Ben. McCulloch, military officer, and order you to hold yourself in readiness to raise men and munitions of war whenever called on by the commissioners of San Antonio, and to be governed as directed by the secret instructions given said commissioners concerning said command; and you will station yourself at the residence of Henry E. McCulloch and await the communications of said commissioners or the committee of public safety.

J. C. ROBERTSON, Chairman Committee of Public Safety.

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COMMITTEE ROOM, Austin, February 6, 1861.

Messrs. SAMUEL A. MAVERICK, THOMAS J. DEVINE, PHILIP N. LUCKETT and JAMES H. ROGERS.

GENTLEMEN: The resolution of the committee of public safety, by which you were appointed, gives the outline of your authority and duty. You are sensible that the trust reposed is of the highest responsibility and involves the most delicate and important duties. In the discharge of that trust you will be governed by the following instructions:

First. You will repair immediately to San Antonio, the headquarters of General Twiggs, in command of this department. You will ascertain from him his sentiments in regard to the existing state of affairs and the position he intends to occupy in reference to the withdrawal of Texas from the Federal Union. If he informs you that he intends to remain in the service of the Federal Government and execute its orders against Texas no further friendly conference with him will be desirable, and you will be governed in your conduct as hereinafter instructed. But if, on the other hand, he should express a determination not to remain in the service of the Federal Government after the 4th of March next, then-

Second. You will learn from him the terms and conditions upon which he will render up to the people of Texas the arms and public {p.27} property under his control in Texas; or, if he should suggest to you a plan for the peaceable accomplishment of that object you are directed to adopt and observe such suggestion, if deemed by you practicable, and act in accordance with it. If, however, he should decline suggesting any plan of action you will then-

Third. Demand of him, in the name and by the authority of the sovereign people of the State of Texas, a surrender of all the arms of every description, including quartermaster’s, commissary, ordnance, and medical stores, and military stores of every description, and money and everything else under his control, belonging to the Federal Government.

Fourth. Should a display of force become necessary in order to make the demand, you will direct Col. Ben. McCulloch to call out and take the command of such force of the volunteer and minute men of the State as will be necessary for that purpose, and then repeat the demand; and then, if the demand should be complied with, you will take charge of everything turned over to you, taking a complete inventory and executing all necessary receipts. You will do everything in your power to avoid any collision with the Federal troops and to effect the peaceable accomplishment of your mission, and for this purpose he shall obey your instructions.

Fifth. If General Twiggs should indicate a desire not to turn over to you such military stores, arms, and other public property until after the 2d of March next, but a readiness to do so then, you will then enter into an arrangement to the effect that everything under his command shall remain in statu quo until that period; that no movement, change of position, or concentration of the troops under his command will be allowed; that none of the arms, ordnance, commissary, or military stores or other property shall be removed or disposed of. If he refuses to make such arrangements you will see that no such movement, change, concentration, or removal shall take place, and you are authorized to use every means to prevent the same.

Sixth. If after conferring with General Twiggs you should be of opinion that military force is necessary you will immediately proceed to assemble the same and communicate by express to this committee. Should the property be turned over to you, you will employ all the necessary clerks and, other persons to take charge of the same. You will raise a military force of volunteers or minute men to guard the same safely while it shall be controlled by you. You are instructed to take the most special care that nothing shall be wasted or destroyed, but that everything be faithfully guarded and held for the use of the State and to be accounted for. Whatever military force that shall be raised must be kept in strict subordination, and no violation of person or property of any person must, under any circumstances, be allowed.

If after your arrival at San Antonio circumstances shall occur which are not covered by the foregoing instructions you will immediately report to the committee for further orders, unless they be so urgent as not to admit of delay, in which event you must use your discretion, but immediately report your course of action. You will take all pains to ascertain the tone and temper of the officers and men of the Federal Army, and may give them the assurance of the influence of Texas in securing to them the same or higher grades in the service of the Southern Confederacy as those now held by them, if they are inclined to accept the same. Take every pains to conciliate them and attach them in sentiment to the cause of Texas and the South. You will avoid every appearance of making a proposal to General Twiggs or any other {p.28} officer under his command which would wound a soldier’s pride and honor. They should, however, be reminded that they have been stationed in Texas for the protection and not the subjugation of her people, and that patriotism is incompatible with warring against the liberties of their fellow-citizens.

You are specially charged, in the performance of the service assigned you, that you will do nothing that will conflict with the powers herein conferred. You will, from time to time, make full and complete reports to this committee.

J. C. ROBERTSON, Chairman Committee of Public Safety.

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SAN ANTONIO, February 8, 1861.

J. C. ROBERTSON, Esq., Chairman Committee of Public Safety:

The undersigned, in accordance with their instructions, called on General D. E. Twiggs, and by his request met him at 2 o’clock this afternoon, and in presence of Major Nichols we stated our mission and presented our credentials (which General Twiggs did not ask or evince the slightest desire to have read to him, or even to look at), and carried out our interview in accordance with the letter and spirit of our instructions as nearly as practicable.

General Twiggs expressed himself strongly in favor of Southern rights, and caused copies of his letters to the War Department to be read to the committee, in which he asserts that he will not be instrumental in bringing on civil war, and a great deal more in that line, which may mean something or nothing, according to circumstances, and he very significantly asserted that we had not seceded. He expressed a willingness to keep everything under his command as it now is until the 2d of March next, and would give us information if he should be superseded; and in the event of the State being in favor of secession would, on demand made by the convention, deliver all up, but expressed a fixed determination to march the troops under his command out with all their arms, transportation facilities, and extra clothing to be delivered to them, &c.

The undersigned, after considerable conversation on the subject of their mission, retired for consultation, and being desirous of avoiding, if possible, the necessity for collecting a force around the city for the purpose of compelling a delivery, Mr. Maverick was deputed to obtain from the general a statement in writing of what lie was willing to do, in the hope that it would, under our instructions, be admissible. He refused to make any statement or give any pledge in writing. Upon ascertaining this fact we determined to send an express without delay to Col. Ben. McCulloch to bring as large a force as he may deem necessary, and as soon as possible, to San Antonio.

The substance of General Twiggs’ conversation or verbal offer was this: That he will hold things as they are, and will, if in command on the 2d of March next, deliver to the commissioners all the public property that is not desirable or convenient for him to carry away on or after that time. He professed great admiration for the manhood, soldiership, and patriotism of General Scott, and is evidently inclined to imitate him in the present crisis in many respects. He is, no doubt, a good Southern man as far as hatred to black Republicanism can make a man such. There is, however, a higher element than hatred.

{p.29}

We do not know to what extent that element prevails with General Twiggs, but we are of opinion that General Twiggs will not permit it to interfere with what he believes to be due to himself. He spoke, during the interview, of his feeble health; of his having received an offer from Georgia for a command in that State, and of his having refused it on the ground of ill health. He referred to the great expenditure of the army, exclusive of the pay of the troops; said it is more than a million and a half, and inquired where Texas could obtain means to meet that outlay, which she would lose by seceding. These and other remarks on the question by him forced a somewhat unwilling conviction on the minds of the undersigned that he was decidedly averse to the secession of Texas. He mentioned the omission of Captain Ross to do full justice to Sergeant Spangler, and the omission of Governor Houston to give credit to Major Van Dorn for his success in the Comanche fight, and remarked that these were indications of the temper of Texas toward the officers and men of the army. The conclusion we have arrived at is this: that we must obtain possession of that which now belongs to Texas of right, by force, or such a display of force as will compel a compliance with our demands, and that without an hour’s unnecessary delay. In all these movements, celerity, secrecy, and strength should be our motto.

If there are any men to spare on or near the Colorado we think it would be well for them, in as large numbers and as speedily as possible, to move toward the city to support, if necessary, Colonel McCulloch’s movements. Whatever is to be done up North it is well should be done speedily. You had better inquire of Messrs. Hall and Hyde, of the Legislature, the condition of Forts Bliss and Quitman, as the men and munitions in those forts could be moved without delay to New Mexico, giving to the Federal Government at Washington a large body of troops to hold that country against the Southern movement, and thus build up a free State to injure and annoy us in the not very remote future. By referring to the inclosed order* you will perceive General Twiggs is preparing for a move.

We are decidedly of the opinion, for the reasons set forth with reference to New Mexico, that it will be unwise to permit a single company of U. S. troops to march from any portion of Texas into New Mexico. If the officers are determined to carry them to aid Lincoln’s government let them go by the way of the coast, or we can disband them, if we so decide. We repeat it, we must not let a single company from Fort Bliss to Fort Brown leave the State by the Kansas, New Mexico, or any other route save the coast.

The captain commanding the ordnance department at this point is not friendly to our cause. He is said to be in possession of about $40,000 for the construction of the U. S. arsenal. What do you suggest respecting his being compelled to deliver it up, if in his possession, and what course do you suggest in the premises? We would like to have any suggestions or instructions you may consider necessary. We would adhere to them if circumstances demanded it-if in our power, if not, we will do what the emergencies of the hour demand, doing what we believe to be our duty and leaving the consequences to God.

In haste, we remain yours, &c.,

THOMAS J. DEVINE. S. A. MAVERICK. P. N. LUCKETT.

* See circular of February 4, Series I, Vol I, p. 587.

{p.30}

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SAN ANTONIO, BEXAR COUNTY, February 8, 1861.

Col. BEN. MCCULLOCH.

SIR: The undersigned, by virtue of the powers vested in them by the committee of public safety, do hereby authorize and direct you, in the name and by the authority of the State of Texas, to call out and select such numbers of the volunteer force or “minute men” as you may deem necessary for securing and protecting the public property of San Antonio. Upon the assembling of the force you will proceed without delay to San Antonio and report to the undersigned when you arrive in the vicinity of the city.

THOS. J. DEVINE, SAM. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners of Committee of Public Safety.

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FEBRUARY 9, 1861.

Col. BEN. MCCULLOCH.

SIR: Having received information that the commissioners, Samuel A. Maverick and others, sent to San Antonio to confer with General Twiggs, have under their instructions called you into the field, the committee have resolved to confer upon you the military commission of colonel of cavalry, to date as of the 3d instant, in the district embracing a point on the Rio Grande half-way between Forts Duncan and McIntosh, and with the frontier to Fort Chadbourne, including San Antonio and all intermediate posts.

And in addition to the instructions given to the commissioners heretofore (with whom you are advised freely to confer on all subjects of interest as far as possible) you are instructed that should it be deemed advisable to retain any portion or all of the Federal troops in your district in the temporary service of the State, you can do so, and assure them that Texas will use her best endeavors with the Southern Confederacy to be formed to have them incorporated into the army of said Confederacy with the same rank now held by them. In case any or all of them should express a desire to depart from the country peaceably, you may permit them so to do upon such terms as will not dishonor them and as will insure the public safety, and in such manner as will insure safety to their persons and property.

The committee also desire that the commissioners will, under the powers heretofore given them, furnish such aid and assistance as may be deemed necessary In all other matters not contained in these or the previous instructions, you will observe your best judgment and discretion in any emergency which may present itself. Any information that you may desire to give to the committee will be expressed to John C. Robertson, Galveston, Tex.

JOHN O. ROBERTSON, Chairman Committee of Public Safety.

Attest.

R. T. BROWNRIGG, Secretary to Committee.

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SAN ANTONIO, February 10, 1861.

JOHN C. ROBERTSON, Chairman Committee of Public Safety.

DEAR SIR: We have nothing to communicate since our letter of the 8th, unless it be the receipt of a communication from Colonel McCulloch {p.31} informing the undersigned of his having received our communication and that he expected to be at or near Seguin on the 13th or 14th with whatever force he could raise.

After dispatching our communication to you we determined, if possible, to prevent the necessity of resorting to a display of force around this city, and with that object in view we again communicated with General Twiggs in writing, requesting from him a written statement of what he was willing to do. The answer to this was an order to Major Vinton, Major Maclin, and Captain Whiteley to confer with the undersigned to transact such business as relates to the disposition of public property. On the receipt of this communication, on the morning of the 9th, we replied that we would meet the military commission at 12 o’clock that day, at such place as they might designate, and, if that hour did not suit their convenience, then at such time and place as they might designate that afternoon. The answer expressed a desire to meet the committee at General Twiggs’, at 10 a.m. on the 11th. We will to-morrow present our request in writing, and the answer will enable the committee to judge with a reasonable certainty whether the whole proceeding is not intended for delay, until General Twiggs can call in several companies from the outposts and the additional re-enforcements of several soldiers en route with a provision train from the coast for Arizona. Upon one point General Twiggs is fixed and apparently unalterable-that is, that the troops in Texas under his command shall retain all their arms, with the means to carry them out of the State.

What do you think of that? Please give the views of the committee on this and every other subject connected with our mission as fully and speedily as possible. We again repeat that it is not desirable that a single company of U. S. troops shall move to New Mexico or Arizona. If the troops of the Northern Government concentrates in either of those Territories, we believe, from their peculiar position, that it will fix their status as “free soil” Territories, and leave us a nest of hornets to deal with in the future.

We will require means for the subsistence of the troops that may be called out by General McCulloch or from this city and vicinity. We desire some information on this point, as your committee must be aware that the readiness with which the necessary expenses are met in the commencement may have a salutary influence in many respects upon our cause in the future.

If there is any action had or information obtained respecting the Northern posts it might be desirable that we should be put in possession of such information, as it may influence our action materially.

Very respectfully,

THOS. J. DEVINE. S. A. MAVERICK. P. N. LUCKETT.

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AUSTIN, TEX., February 12, 1861.

THOMAS J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners.

GENTLEMEN: Your letter bearing date of the 10th instant to me has been received. In view of the committee’s departure this afternoon for Galveston they cannot be got together, even if it were necessary. The result of the action of the committee on the subjects contained in this communication I think is full, and hope will meet your views.

{p.32}

The committee do not desire to dishonor the Army by requiring anything of them which would seem to do so. If you have to resort to force (actual), and are successful, then we suppose of course they would be vanquished and submit to your terms; but if you treat with them as gentlemen, as equals, of course we would not desire anything dishonorable to be yielded by them. But this is mere speculation on my part. The instructions, we think, will meet with your views; if not, you have a large discretion.

As to whether they should be permitted to go out into Arizona and New Mexico, the committee have very wisely left that matter discretionary with you. It is the opinion, however, of some of the committee that it can make but little difference in which direction they leave the country. It is suggested that they might land below the mouth of the Rio Grande and travel up into Arizona and New Mexico; beside, if it is the policy of the United States of the North to concentrate a force in those Territories, we could not prevent it by requiring these to go by way of the coast. It is a matter of some importance to know how they could subsist in those Territories at this time. The productions of those Territories could not subsist them a week without ruin to the few who are there. Many of the committee do not think General Twiggs would be so recklessly regardless of his native South as to inaugurate a guerrilla warfare upon her border.

But, gentlemen, you are in the midst of the circumstances, and can best judge of what to do. Relying upon your wisdom and prudence, we leave it with you. We will start to-day for Galveston, where we hope to get some money, and if successful we will promptly express a part to you. In behalf of the committee I assure you of our sincere desire for your success in your patriotic enterprise, and of our personal regard for each of you.

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. ROBERTSON, Chairman Committee of Public Safety.

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SAN ANTONIO, February 18, 1861.

Hon. J. C. ROBERTSON, Chairman of Committee of Public Safety.

SIR: We have at last completed the principal part of the business confided to our management. In our communication of the 8th instant we informed you that we had called in the aid of the volunteer force under Col. Ben. McCulloch. He arrived on the Salado, five miles from this city, on the evening or night of the 16th instant, with about 500 men, and marched into town about 4 a.m. with about one-half of his force, when he was joined by about 150 K. G. C.’s, and about the same number of citizens who were not members of the order, and about the same number from the Medina, Atascosa, and the country west of this city. At 5 o’clock the men were in positions around the arsenal, the ordnance, the Alamo, and the quarters in the commissary buildings occupied by one company of the Federal troops, and at the same time the tops of the buildings commanding the arsenal and ordnance ground were occupied.

We, in accordance with our instructions, repeated the demand, and after considerable delay came to an arrangement with General Twiggs, the substance of which was that the U. S. troops in San Antonio, 160 in number, should surrender up the position held by them, and that all {p.33} public property under the command of the officer in San Antonio to be delivered over to the undersigned, the troops to retain their side arms, camp and garrison equipage, and the facilities for transportation to the coast, to be delivered on their arrival at the coast.

This morning we effected an arrangement with General Twiggs by which it is agreed that all forts in Texas shall forthwith be delivered up, the troops to march from Texas by way of the coast, the cavalry and infantry to retain their arms, the artillery companies being allowed to retain two batteries of light artillery of four guns each, the necessary means of transportation and subsistence to be allowed the troops on their march toward the coast, all public property to be delivered up. We might possibly have retained the guns at Fort Duncan by a display of force, which display of force would have cost the State eight times the value of the batteries of light artillery. Your instructions, however, counseled avoiding collision with the Federal troops if it could be avoided, General Twiggs having repeatedly asserted in the presence of the military commission and ourselves that he would die before he would permit his men to be disgraced by a surrender of their arms; that the men under his command had never been dishonored or disgraced, and they never should, if he could help it.

By this arrangement at least $1,300,000 of property will belong to the State, the greater portion of which would be otherwise destroyed or squandered. By this arrangement we are freed, without bloodshed or trouble, from the presence of the Federal troops. They cannot go to New Mexico or Kansas to fix freesoilism on the one, or to be the nucleus of a Northern army on the other, to menace our frontier in the future.

The labor performed by the undersigned in the business undertaken by them has been neither light nor pleasant. We have adhered to the letter and the spirit of our instructions, and exercised our discretion only when it became absolutely necessary. We had some anxious hours resting upon us from the time the volunteer force commenced closing around the city until after the surrender of the posts held by the U. S. troops. Our force must have been, at 8 a.m., not less than 1,100 men under arms; and a more respectable looking or orderly body of men than the volunteer force it would not be easy to find.

We have taken measures to secure the public property, and have authorized Maj. Sackfield Maclin, paymaster, U. S. Army, and who, as you will perceive by the army list, stands high upon the same, to act as adjutant and inspector general and chief of ordnance, combining the business of three departments in one. This economizes expense and gives the State for the present the services of a man competent to the duties assigned him, capable of preventing the confusion and consequent loss that would fall upon the State by the appointment of an incompetent person. Major Maclin is a true Southern man; he resigns his commission in the Federal Army, giving up an income from that Government of nearly $4,000 per annum. We address him as colonel, for the purpose of giving him an honorable stand in his expectations or claims upon the Southern Confederacy in some future military appointment. His appointment by the undersigned lasts until set aside by you or the convention’s order. Please let us know whether you approve of this action.

Captain Reynolds has been acting as assistant quartermaster at San Antonio. He will resign his commission as captain in the U. S. Army. We have, for the same reasons set forth in Major Maclin’s case, {p.34} appointed him chief quartermaster, and have combined with the former duties the labor of the commissary department, which has heretofore had a first and second assistant commissary. We have likewise consolidated with his duties the office of military storekeeper, narrowing down the expense as much as possible. A building rented by the United States Government as a commissary department, soldiers’ quarters, general staff, &c., we have determined to release the State from any liability for, as the commissary stores can be stored in the Alamo buildings; said buildings rent for $6,000 a year.

In furnishing the U. S. troops transportation facilities, the officers representing the State will be busily employed for some time. When we can obtain a breathing spell we will go into further details. We will select agents to give receipts and hold the public property left at the posts until otherwise directed.

We remain, respectfully, &c.,

THOMAS J. DEVINE, S. A. MAVERICK, P. N. LUCKETT, Commissioners on behalf of the Committee of Public Safety.

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HEADQUARTERS MIDDLE DIVISION, STATE FORCES, San Antonio, Tex., [February 18, 1861].

Hon. J. O. ROBERTSON, Chairman of Committee of Public Safety.

SIR: On the receipt of the order of the commissioners calling on me to raise men for the purpose of securing the property, arms, &c., of the United States at San Antonio, immediately I proceeded to take such steps to collect such a force as would be sufficient to accomplish the purpose. To Texans a moment’s notice is sufficient when their State demands their services.

On the night of the 15th instant, by 12 o’clock, a force of near 400 men from the adjacent counties had assembled on the Salado. At 3 a.m. 16th we took up the line of march for the city. At 4 o’clock, when near the suburbs, ninety men were ordered to dismount and enter the city on foot, when I posted them in such positions as commanded those occupied by the Federal troops. The main body came in on horseback. At daylight several volunteer companies of San Antonio turned out promptly and co-operated with us to aid the State. Orders were given to the troops under my command not to fire until fired upon.

In a very short time it was ascertained that no resistance would be offered. The Federal troops were requested to keep within their quarters until the commissioners should agree upon the terms by which the arms and other property of the Federal Government should be surrendered to the State. This was decided by the commissioners and General Twiggs before 12 m. Wherefore I instantly informed the forces under my command of the fact, and of there being no necessity for their remaining away from their plows and other peaceful avocations. They left immediately for their homes, conscious of having rendered service to their State and giving offense to no one save her enemies.

To make distinctions where all acted so nobly would be as unwise as unjust; but I cannot refrain from expressing my thanks to all for their gallant and prompt response to the call of their State and my admiration for their orderly conduct whilst we held the city.

{p.35}

Having performed the duty assigned me by the inclosed order,* I now report myself ready to perform such service as shall be assigned me by your committee or the commissioners appointed by you. The commissioners have very kindly relieved me from many duties common to officers commanding, it being my duty only to organize and command such forces as may be necessary to secure and guard the public property in my division in charge of persons appointed by the commissioners to receive the same from the Federal officers. I have this day appointed W. T. Mechling my assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain.

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Colonel, Commanding.

* See p. 30 for instructions of McCulloch.

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NEW ORLEANS, February 25, 1861.

His Excellency JEFF. DAVIS:

We have reliable information that the U. S. troops from Texas are to pass through this city. Shall they be allowed to land? A large number of the officers and men can probably be secured for your service. Please advise me on the subject. General Twiggs was ordered to turn over the command to Colonel Waite, a Northern man, but preferred surrendering to Texas.

BRAXTON BRAGG, Major-General, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Montgomery, February 25, 1861.

Maj. Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding, New Orleans.

SIR: Your dispatch of this date to the President has been received and in reply he instructs me to say that the question submitted for consideration is not altogether free from difficulty. The circumstances of the case are peculiar and exceptional, and must be disposed of in a spirit of liberal courtesy. It seems, therefore, to the President, if there was a formal capitulation by the troops of the United States or an informal understanding with the authorities of Texas upon which they acted, either in the surrender or abandonment of the forts, that they should have peaceful exit through the territories of the Government. This understanding should be carried out in good faith, upon their verbal assurance that their sole object is to reach the territory of the United States, and not to disturb the property or peace of any of the States of this Government through which they may pass, or to possess or occupy any of the forts, arsenals, or other property of this Government within these States. Should this assurance be refused, it will be your duty to arrest their progress, and keep them below Forts Jackson and Saint Philip until further ordered.

The President instructs me to add that he has entire confidence in your discretion and prudence, and feels satisfied that, whilst you scrupulously guard the honor and rights of this Government, you will do no act unnecessarily to precipitate a war. Should any of the officers or men desire to enlist in the service of this Government, it would be proper and right, and altogether acceptable, to receive them.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

{p.36}

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SAN ANTONIO, TEX., February 25, 1861.

Hon. JOHN H. REAGAN.

DEAR SIR: Inclosed you will find the order of General Twiggs.* I send it that you may see what sort of spirit prevails in the army here, from General Twiggs down, with one or two exceptions. They will do nothing to benefit the South. This order itself is an insult to the commissioners and the people of the State; besides, is calculated to make a wrong impression and mislead everybody in regard to the terms of the agreement between the commissioners and General Twiggs, which are: they are simply allowed to leave the State by way of the coast with their arms, two batteries of light artillery being taken as the arms belonging to that branch of the service. Many of the officers, who are Southern men, say they will not serve Mr. Lincoln, yet they will neither resign nor do anything else to assist the section that gave them birth. I hope the Southern Confederacy will aid them as little in future as they are helping her now. What good will their resignations do the South after they have kept their commands embodied and turn them over with arms in their hands to Lincoln, to be placed in some Southern garrison on our coast, or otherwise used to coerce the southern people? This force ought to be disorganized before it leaves this State. If the Southern Confederacy intends raising a regular army these men ought to be enlisted into her service at once. Let recruiting officers be sent forthwith to this place, Indianola, and Brownsville, or the mouth of the Rio Grande, with the necessary funds to pay the proper bounty, and you may depend upon it Mr. Lincoln will never get many of them to leave this State.

...

Yours, truly,

BEN. MCCULLOCH.

* No inclosure found. Probably refers to order No. 5, of February 18, at p. 5.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Baton Rouge, La., March 6, 1861.

Messrs. MAVERICK, LUCKETT, and DEVINE, Commissioners on behalf of the Committee of Public Safety of the State of Texas.

GENTLEMEN: I have, in compliance with the wishes of the authorities of your State, authorized Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg, Louisiana army, to extend every facility and courtesy consistent with the safety of our State to the U. S. troops in transit through Louisiana by way of the Mississippi River. I take pleasure in stating to you that Major General Twiggs, late commanding the Department of Texas, was recently welcomed to New Orleans with civic and military honors worthy of his bravery, his talents, and his long and very distinguished services.

I remain, gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THO. O. MOORE, Governor of the State of Louisiana.

{p.37}

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MONTGOMERY, March 16, 1861.

Col. EARL VAN DORN, Jackson, Miss.:

Appointed colonel. You were ordered yesterday to Forts Jackson and Saint Philip. Would prefer your going to Texas and securing the U. S. troops for our Army. Immediate action necessary. Answer.

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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AUSTIN, TEX., March 26, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President, &c.

SIR: On yesterday the convention adjourned. On Saturday last, 23d instant, the ordinance of ratification was passed-made a finality, with but one dissenting vote.

I would draw your particular attention to the state of the former U. S. Army within this State. An impression had grown up before my arrival that the rank and file of the Army was not desirable by the President of the Confederate States, and nothing has been done to obtain their services in the Army of the Confederate States. I am satisfied from authentic sources that a large majority of the Second Cavalry could be obtained if the proper officer was here. You are aware, and certainly much better informed than I am, of the effect of discipline and the esprit de corps that exists even among the privates of any regular army. In addition to that, I am sure that our State service can afford no inducements, not only on account of the want of permanency, but really the want of respect and antagonism they feel to militia, volunteers, and uneducated officers. In addition, they feel some mortification as to their capitulation and the terms by which they feel they are expelled by State force from our territory.

I feel satisfied if Colonel Van Dorn was here holding the command, even though the necessities or requirements of the service might demand his removal within a short period, he could obtain the best men in the U. S. service. I would earnestly urge his being sent here immediately. They are now collecting in large numbers, and recruiting depots established at convenient points, each recruiting officer being of the former U. S. Army, and when obtainable attached to the Second Cavalry. Besides obtaining the flower of the old Army and weakening the power of our enemies, we save an enormous expense and obtain the best body of troops for our service. I hope this will have your most favorable consideration. In addition, there is a vast amount of arms, ammunition, transportation, horses, mules, &c., that require immediate attention.

...

Yours, respectfully,

T. N. WAUL.

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INDIANOLA, TEX., March 26, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival at this place, and to inform you that the troops of the United States are yet in camp at Green Lake, {p.38} about twenty miles from the coast, awaiting transports to remove them. They are ignorant yet of their destination. I have seen but two of the officers, Maj. E. K. Smith and Lieut. Thornton A. Washington. The former has resigned, and is on his way to Montgomery to offer his services to the Southern Confederacy. Major Smith has always been considered by the Army as one of its leading spirits, and his career in Mexico and subsequently won for him from the Government during the administration of President Pierce, and when General Davis was Secretary of War, a high appointment in the Second Regiment of Cavalry. He is so well known to the President, however, that it would be superfluous to say anything to call his attention to his merits as an officer. If I have been appointed colonel of cavalry, as I have heard, it would be very gratifying to me to have him appointed lieutenant-colonel in my regiment.

Lieut. T. A. Washington has tendered his resignation, and has written to you by Major Smith, offering his services to the Southern Army. He was aide-de-camp to General Twiggs until the general left Texas, and was the adjutant of his regiment. He was also for a while the acting assistant adjutant-general at department headquarters. These positions, assigned him by his superior officers, will speak more in his behalf than anything I can say. He desires an appointment in the Quartermaster’s Department or Adjutant-General’s Department. He is well qualified to fill either station.

I think I shall have no difficulty in securing many of the troops and officers. I leave in a few minutes for the Green Lake camp. The Army, I am told by Major Smith, is strongly for the South, and he has no doubt but that the troops would all like to go with us if they had the opportunity.

Very respectfully, sir, I am, your obedient servant,

EARL VAN DORN, Colonel, C. S. Army.

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SALURIA, March 30, 1861.

J. H. REAGAN, Postmaster-General Confederate States.

DEAR SIR: I returned here late yesterday evening from Powderhorn. Colonel Van Dorn has not succeeded in engaging many of the officers or soldiers to join the army of the Confederate States.

There are some 500 soldiers assembled here, and two men-of-war and five sea-steamer transport vessels lying outside our bar to receive the troops here and as they arrive, and the Fashion is chartered by Captain King to remain here and lighter the men to the sea vessels. I very much fear the plan of Lincoln is to delay delivering up Fort Sumter until the whole Texas army can be concentrated for an attack on Pensacola, and by a brilliant stroke arouse Northern enthusiasm in favor of coercion.

...

Yours, in haste,

HUGH W. HAWES.

{p.39}

Surrender of the U. S. Troops to the Confederate Forces as Prisoners of War.

UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, April 17, 1861.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that a force of Texas State troops is now assembled in this city, and I have this evening learned that the officers, &c., here stationed will be arrested to-morrow and held as prisoners of war. Two transports have sailed with troops, and it is hoped and expected that the third, the Star of the West, will sail in a day or two with the whole force now in camp at Green Lake. There will then remain seven companies of the Eighth Infantry, numbering, say, 370, the headquarters of that regiment, and the headquarters of the department. The Eighth Infantry will not reach Indianola before the 10th of May, if permitted to proceed to the coast. This, of course, requires that a fourth transport should be sent out for the embarkation of these troops.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

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HDQRS. BATTLN. FIRST, THIRD, AND EIGHTH INFANTRY, Saluria, Tex., April 25, 1861.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I have this morning surrendered this battalion, consisting of two companies of the First infantry, with the adjutant and non-commissioned staff and band of the same regiment, three companies of the Third and two companies of the Eighth Infantry, including nine officers, to the forces of the Confederate States under the command of Col. Earl Van Dorn.

Two unsuccessful attempts have been made by me to escape with this command, the Star of the West (transport) having been captured before we were able to reach her anchorage, off Matagorda Bay, and on the night of the 24th of April three steamers, having some 800 men and some pieces of artillery on board, coming down the bay, and taking up such a position as to prevent our retreat in the two small schooners in which we were endeavoring to make our escape, and a fourth steamer, with some 400 men, one 24 and two 6 pounder pieces of artillery, having early in the morning of the 25th taken up a position to prevent our escape by running out of the bay, I was obliged to capitulate under the most favorable terms which I could obtain.

The shores of this bay are extremely low and partially inundated, and the channel seems to be nearly one mile from the land. The pilots have constantly refused us both information and material assistance.

It is extremely unfortunate that the steamer Mohawk had left the coast at this time, as its presence might have saved us from this humiliating disaster.

It affords me pleasure, great pleasure, to state the officers and men of my command have shown the most unwavering loyalty to the Government, the men, with two exceptions, having taken the oath necessary for their return to the United States.

{p.40}

I inclose* herewith a copy of the terms of the capitulation; also copy of the parole given by the officers and the oath administered to the men. On my arrival with the command in New York I shall have the honor to make a more full and complete report.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, Commanding.

* Omitted here. See subsequent report of June 3, with these inc1osares, at p. 49.

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CAMP NEAR SAN ANTONIO, TEX., May 12, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I take the earliest opportunity possible to inform you that the six companies of the Eighth Infantry under my command, while marching for the coast under the agreement made between General Twiggs (late of the U. S. Army) and the State of Texas, to the effect that the troops should leave the State, were met by a force under command of Col. Earl Van Dorn, of the Southern Confederacy, and made prisoners of war. This occurred on the 9th instant, at San Lucas Spring, fifteen miles west of San Antonio. The force under my command, comprising the garrisons of Forts Bliss, Quitman, and Davis, amounted to an aggregate, when leaving the latter post, of 320. This embraces ten officers, two hospital stewards, and twelve musicians. Colonel Bomford, Sixth Infantry, was also with the command. On the day of surrender my command numbered 270 bayonets, being thus reduced by sickness, desertions, and stragglers (some of whom have since joined) who remained at Castroville, from drunkenness, or other causes. The force opposed to me numbered, as (then variously estimated at from 1,500 to 1,700 men) since ascertained to be, was 1,370 aggregate, the total being 848 cavalry, 361 infantry, and 95 artillery, with 6 field pieces.

When the demand for a surrender was made I was told that the force opposed to me was overwhelming. I had halted in a good position for defense, and could have been overpowered only by a greatly superior force; and as none such was before me I declined to surrender without the presentation of such force. It was on the march, and soon came in sight, but I was not satisfied of its strength until an officer of my command was permitted to examine and report to me the character and probable number of the forces. Upon his report I deemed resistance utterly hopeless, and therefore surrendered. My command is now encamped near the head of the San Antonio River awaiting the orders of President Davis, to whom a messenger has been dispatched by Colonel Van Dorn. The officers on duty with the command were Captain Blake, Lieutenants Bliss, Lazelle, Peck, Frank, Van Horn, and W. G. Jones, Eighth Infantry; Lieutenant Freedley, Third Infantry; and Assistant Surgeon Peters, Medical Department. A more detailed report will be made as soon as practicable.

I am, sir, yours, respectfully,

I. V. D. REEVE, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.41}

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CAMP NEAR SAN ANTONIO, TEX., May 12, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army.

SIR: In connection with the report which I have this day forwarded, relating to the surrender of the battalion of the Eighth Infantry under my command to the forces of the Confederate States of America, near this place, I also present the following details of the latter part of the march and the circumstances which determined that surrender.

This report was not transmitted with the other, as it is extremely uncertain whether any reports of an official character are permitted to pass through the post-office here, or those elsewhere in the South.

On leaving Fort Bliss sufficient transportation could be procured to carry subsistence for only forty days, in which time it was expected the command would reach San Antonio, making some little allowance for detentions by the way.

At Forts Quitman and Davis stores were taken to last the commands from those posts to San Antonio, not being able to carry more with the transportation at hand. From Camp Hudson to Fort Clark persons were occasionally seen on the road who appeared to be watching our movements, but they said they belonged to rangers who had been on a scout.

At Fort Clark, where I arrived on the 2d of May, I learned that the mails had been detained for several days to prevent me from receiving information. It was reported by a stage passenger that the officers at San Antonio had been made prisoners of war. On all these subjects there were contradictory reports, and no information could be obtained which would warrant any hostile act on my part. Such supplies as were called for were readily furnished, and offers of services were proffered by the commanding officer. This did not look much like hostility, nor did I really suspect any. The garrison had been re-enforced (being about 200 men), the post fortified to some extent, guns loaded and matches lighted on our approach; yet there did not appear any hostile intent toward us, as the explanation for all this was, that they “had heard that I had orders to attack and take Fort Clark.”

From this point rumors daily reached me, but so indefinite and contradictory as to afford no sure ground for hostile action on my part; and by taking such I could not know but I should be the first to break the treaty under which we were marching.

On reaching Uvalde, on the 5th (near Fort Inge), I felt more apprehension of hostility, though rumors were still very contradictory. To attempt, from this point, to return to New Mexico for the purpose of saving the command would have been impracticable, for I had but five days’ rations, and our transportation was too much broken down to make the march without corn (which could not be had), even if everything but subsistence and ammunition had been abandoned. Behind us was the mounted force at Fort Clark, and a large mounted force said to be at San Antonio, reported to be from 700 to 2,000. At this time the only other method of escape left was to cross the Rio Grande, this being easy of accomplishment, but of very doubtful propriety, particularly as it was yet uncertain whether we should not only break the treaty with Texas, but also compromise the United States with Mexico by crossing troops into her soil.

On the 6th, while continuing our march, we heard that those companies at the coast had been disarmed, and that in all probability we would be also on our arrival there; that there would be a force of from 2,000 to 6,000 men against us. We then had no course open to us but to proceed, and, unless overpowered by numbers, to endeavor to fight {p.42} our way to the coast, with the hope that some way of escape would be opened to us. On the 7th we heard that there were not more than 700 men in San Antonio, and such a force I knew would not be able to overpower us; and still with strong hope that we might be able to advance successfully, I purchased (on the 8th) at Castroville a small additional supply of subsistence stores (all I could), enough for two days, which included the 12th instant, but could have been made to last several days, had I a reasonable prospect of seizing more in San Antonio. Before reaching Castroville I learned that there were troops encamped on the west side of the Leon, seven miles from San Antonio; that there were cavalry, infantry, and artillery, with four guns. I encamped on the 8th on the east side of the Medina, opposite to Castroville. Late that evening I heard that the enemy would march to surround us in our camp, and I had before heard that a section of artillery was on the way down from Fort Clark, following on our rear; and there was further report that it would pass us that night on the way to San Antonio. To avoid surprise and be in possession of plenty of water I marched that night at 12 o’clock to reach the Leoncito, six miles east of the Medina, and on my arrival there, finding no signs of the advance of the enemy, I marched on three miles farther to a point suggested and brought to my memory by Lieut. Z. R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry, called San Lucas Spring. There is quite a high hill a few hundred yards from the spring, having some houses, corrals, &c., which, together with the commanding position and a well of water in the yard, rendered this point a very strong one for a small command. This place is known as Allen’s Hill. It is eight miles from where the enemy was encamped, and there I made a halt to await his advance, and parked the wagon train for defense; all of which preparations were made a little after sunrise on the 9th.

About 9 o’clock two officers approached, bearing a white flag and a message from Colonel Van Dorn, demanding an unconditional surrender of the U. S. troops under my command, stating that he had an overwhelming force. I declined to surrender without the presentation of such a force or a report of an officer, whom I would select from my command, of its character and capacity of compelling a surrender. The advance of the enemy came in sight over a rise of ground about a mile distant; and as the whole force soon came in sight and continued in march down the long slope, Colonel Van Dorn’s messenger returned to me with directions to say that “if that display of force was not sufficient I could send an officer to examine it.” I replied that it was “not sufficient.” I directed Lieutenant Bliss to proceed, conducted by the same messenger, to make a careful examination of the enemy. He was taken to a point so distant that nothing satisfactory could be ascertained, and he informed his conductors that he would “make no report upon such an examination.” This being reported to Colonel Van Dorn, he permitted as close an examination as Lieutenant Bliss desired. The enemy had formed line on the low ground some half-mile in front of my position, perpendicular to and crossing the road, and neither force could be plainly seen by the other in consequence of the high bushes which intervened. Lieutenant Bliss rode the whole length of the enemy’s line within thirty yards, estimating the numbers and examining the character of his armament. He reported to me that the cavalry were armed with rifles and revolvers, the infantry with muskets (some rifles) and revolvers; that there were four pieces of artillery, with from ten to twelve men each; that he estimated the force at 1,200 at least, and there might be 1,500 (since ascertained to be 1,400). With this force before me, an {p.43} odds of about five to one, being short of provisions, having no hope of re-enforcements, no means of leaving the coast, even should any portion of the command succeed in reaching it, and with every probability of utter annihilation in making the attempt, without any prospect of good to be attained, I deemed that stubborn resistance and consequent bloodshed and sacrifice of life would be inexcusable and criminal, and I therefore surrendered.

Colonel Van Dorn immediately withdrew his force, and permitted us to march to San Antonio with our arms and at our leisure. We arrived there on the 10th, and on the 11th an officer was sent to our camp to receive our arms and other public property, all of which was surrendered.

I will state here that we have been treated, in the circumstances of our capture, with generosity and delicacy; and harrowed and wounded as our feelings are, we have not had to bear personal contumely and insult.

I am, sir, yours, respectfully,

I. V. D. REEVE, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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ORDERS, No -.}

HEADQUARTERS BATTALION EIGHTH INFANTRY, San Antonio, Tex., May 12, 1861.

The following officers of the U. S. Army, viz, Bvt. Lieut. Col. I. V. D. Reeve, Eighth Infantry; First Lieut. Z. R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry; First Lieut. H. M. Lazelle, Eighth Infantry; Second Lieut. L. Peck, Eighth Infantry; Second Lieut. J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry; Second Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry; Bvt. Second Lieut. W. G. Jones, Eighth Infantry; First Lieut. H. W. Freedley, Third Infantry; Asst. Surg. D. W. C. Peters, being made prisoners of war by the forces of the C. S. Army, will proceed to Washington, D. C., and report to the War Department as soon as permitted so to do by the authorities of the said C. S. Army.

I. V. D. REEVE, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding Battalion.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., May 25, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army.

SIR: It is my unpleasant duty to report, for the information of the general-in-chief, that on the 23d of April last the following officers, then on duty at San Antonio, the headquarters of the Department of Texas, were seized by an armed force, acting under what they term the Confederate States of America, and made prisoners of war, viz:

Col. C. A. Waite, First Infantry, commanding department.

Maj. W. A. Nichols, assistant adjutant-general.

Military Storekeeper R. M. Potter, Ordnance Department.

Surg. E. H. Abadie, Medical Department.

Asst. Surg. J. R. Smith, Medical Department.

Asst. Surg. E. P. Langworthy, Medical Department.

Paymaster D. McClure.

Capt. K. Garrard. Second Cavalry.

{p.44}

Bvt. Lieut. Col. D. T. Chandler, Third Infantry.

Lieut. Col. W. Hoffman, Eighth Infantry.

Bvt. Maj. J. T. Sprague, captain, Eighth Infantry.

Lieut. E. L. Hartz, Eighth Infantry.

Lieut. E. W. H. Read, Eighth Infantry.

Maj. D. H. Vinton, Quartermaster’s Department, was subsequently arrested, and is now on parole.

On being arrested the officers were told that they must remain in confinement under a guard, or give their parole not to take up arms or serve in the field against the Confederate States, during the existence of the present hostilities, unless exchanged.

After mature reflection and a careful examination of the peculiar circumstances under which they were placed the latter alternative was accepted.

The main reasons which induced the officers to come to this conclusion were: that in their then condition they could perform no duty, nor be of the least service to the Government; by rejoining the Army they could be assigned to many important duties, the performance of which would not be incompatible with their parole, and thus still render some service to their country.

In justice to the officers, I must here state that great exertions were made and the most flattering inducements were held out by agents of the Confederate States for them to resign and enter that service. These officers having resisted these temptations, to which so many others yielded, is strong proof of their devotion to their country, and merits the favorable consideration of the Government.

I have reliable information (not official) that seven companies, under Major Sibley, Third Infantry-viz, two companies of the First, three companies of the Third, and two companies of the Eighth Infantry-were captured on the 23d ultimo oft Indianola, and were immediately paroled and permitted to sail for New York. There are six companies of the Eighth Infantry, under Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Reeve, which it is believed have also been captured. The last information (official) received from them was dated the 16th of April. At that time they were near Fort Lancaster. The impossibility of sending an express through the country for several weeks previous to my leaving San Antonio prevented my having more definite information in relation to this command.

Letter marked A will indicate the course adopted toward the captured troops, and documents marked B and C will explain the circumstances under which we were made prisoners.

In conclusion, permit me to express the hope and anxious desire of the officers on parole that they may be exchanged as early as practicable, and may be permitted to take an active part in the military operations.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel First Infantry.

[Inclosure A.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY, San Antonio, Tex., April 28, 1861.

Col. C. A. WAITE, U. S. Army, Present.

COLONEL: I understand that Lieut. E. L. Hartz, Eighth Infantry, visited Captain Lee’s company on yesterday, and exhorted them to be true to their allegiance to the United States, &c. When I granted {p.45} leave to visit the company I did not expect such a course would be pursued. I am compelled, therefore, to forbid any visiting, only in company with an officer of the C. S. Army.

When the men are to be visited Capt. James Duff will accompany the officer, or some other officer will be detailed by him.

Your obedient servant,

S. MACLIN, Major, C. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure B.]

Memorandum relating to the arrest of Colonel Waite, U. S. Army, and the officers of the Army on duty at San Antonio, Tex.

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., April 23, 1861.

Captain WILCOX (with his sword, commanding Texas troops). Good morning, colonel. (At Colonel Waite’s quarters, Colonel Waite and Major Sprague only present.)

Colonel WAITE. Good morning, sir.

Captain WILCOX. I have come to request you to go over to Major Maclin’s office.

Colonel WAITE. For what purpose, sir?

Captain WILCOX. As a prisoner of war.

Colonel WAITE. What authority have you?

Captain WILCOX. I have authority from Major Maclin.

Colonel WAITE. Who is Major Maclin?

Captain WILCOX. An officer of the Confederate States.

Colonel WAITE. I do not, sir, recognize any such authority. Have you the authority? I should like to see it.

Captain Wilcox then took from his pocket an order from Major Maclin, which Colonel Waite read, directing him to proceed with his company and arrest the officers of the United States Government in San Antonio.

Colonel WAITE. I protest against any such act, and will not obey the order, except by force. Have I committed any offense?

To which Captain Wilcox replied, “None that I know of.” “It is, then,” said Colonel Waite,” a most unwarranted act of usurpation, and in violation of the modes and customs of civilized warfare, and a gross outrage upon my individual rights. I protest against it in the name of my country. Your authority I do not recognize, nor will I obey any order from you. Nothing but the presence of a force greater than I can overcome will cause me to relinquish my personal freedom. There is nothing in history to equal this usurpation.” Thereupon Captain Wilcox said, “I have the force,” and started for the public storehouse, and immediately returned with thirty-six footmen, Texas troops, armed with rifles and saber bayonets. The command was halted in front of Colonel Waite’s quarters, when Captain Wilcox entered the house. Colonel Waite then walked to the door, and upon looking out remarked, “Is that your guard, sir?” “Yes, sir,” replied Captain Wilcox. “These are more men,” remarked Colonel Waite, “than I can resist, and I again protest, in the name of my country, against this gross and unwarranted act of usurpation and the violation of personal rights. Where do you wish me to go, sir?” “To the ordnance office, sir,” said Captain Wilcox.

Colonel Waite then took his hat and passed to the front of the guard, when arms were shouldered, and the crowd proceeded through the public {p.46} street. As Colonel Waite was passing into the custody of the guard, Major Sprague said to Captain Wilcox, “Do you consider me as one?” “Yes,” he replied; “come along.” “Then,” said Major Sprague, “I concur fully in every word uttered by Colonel Waite in regard to this outrage.”

Major Sprague then joined Colonel Waite, and proceeded and a crowd of boys. Arriving at the building where the public offices are, the command halted, and Captain Wilcox ordered the other officers, viz, Maj. W. A. Nichols, assistant adjutant-general of department; Maj. Daniel McClure, Pay Department; Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, Third Infantry; Capt. K. Garrard, Second Cavalry; Dr. E. H. Abadie, Medical Department; Dr. Joseph R. Smith, Medical Department; Dr. E. P. Langworthy, Medical Department; Capt. A. T. Lee, Eighth Infantry; Lieut. E. L. Hartz, Eighth Infantry; Lieut. E. W. H. Read, Eighth Infantry; and Capt. B. M. Potter, military storekeeper, who had been previously arrested, and were within the building in charge of a sentinel, to proceed. The officers in a body, under the guard, proceeded to the office of Major Maclin. After a few moments’ silence Major Maclin said:

“Colonel Waite, it becomes my duty to arrest you and the other officers as prisoners of war.”

“By what authority, sir?”

“That is my business, sir, not yours,” responded Major Maclin.

“But,” said Colonel Waite, “I should like to know by what power I am deprived of my personal rights.”

“I have the power from the President of the Confederate States,” answered Major Maclin.

“Such authority I do not know, nor shall I obey it,” said Colonel Waite. “Have I or my officers committed any offense? Did we not come here as friends, and have we not been such to all the interests of Texas? More than that, is there not an agreement with the Texas commissioners, guaranteeing to the men and officers-my entire command-to go out of Texas unmolested? That, sir, has been carried out faithfully on our part, in every respect. By what right am I to be restricted of my liberty? and by what authority am I and my officers made prisoners of war? I protest against it.”

“There is no use of protesting,” said Major Maclin. “I do not wish to hear any protest; it is unnecessary. I have my orders.”

“But I will protest,” replied Colonel Waite. “In the name of my Government, I protest. I denounce it as an act of unwarranted usurpation, and against the custom of war, and in violation of my personal rights. I suppose you intend to regard the rights and customs of civilization. I know no war. We have been acting as friends. We are not here in a hostile attitude. We came into the country as friends, and are going out as such.”

“Yes,” responded Major Maclin; “I have my duty to perform, and shall do it.”

“I repeat,” said Colonel Waite, “it is gross, unheard-of, unwarranted, and treacherous. Nothing but the presence of a force requires me to listen to such measures, much more obey them. Had I the means it would be quite different. I would resist until death.”

“I am aware of that,” answered Major Maclin. “I have as much confidence in the courage of your officers as you have.”

“What do you propose?” inquired Colonel Waite. “I am obliged to consider myself a prisoner, and should like to know the future.”

{p.47}

“I have here, sir,” replied Major Maclin, “paroles (handing a manuscript to Colonel Waite), which the officers are at liberty to avail themselves of.”

One of these was then read by Colonel Waite.

“Such a paper I shall not sign,” said Colonel Waite, indignantly; “it is highly objectionable, and I shall remain a prisoner.”

“Very well,” answered Major Maclin; “these paroles will not be presented to you again, without you request it.”

“What rank do you hold, sir?” inquired Colonel Waite.

“I am a major.”

“In the Provisional or Regular Army, sir ?” inquired Colonel Waite.

“In the Regular Army, sir.”

A general conversation ensued among all parties, in which there was much angry excitement. Major Maclin improved the first opportunity to speak, and remarked that he should send the officers to Victoria, 100 miles distant, to Colonel Van Dorn’s headquarters, and desired to know how soon Colonel Waite could be ready, and suggested to-morrow, even intimated to-day, whereupon Colonel Waite and the officers present said it was impossible to arrange their family affairs in so short a time.

“How long a time, then,” asked he, “do you desire? One, two, or three days?”

“I presume we can have transportation,” suggested Colonel Waite. “There will be transportation for you, sir,” responded Major Maclin, with emphasis and anger.

Again a general conversation took place; still much excitement evinced among all parties. The inquiry was made of Major Maclin if he had any discretion in the matter. He replied that he had none. The character of paroles and the rights of prisoners then became a general subject of conversation. Each officer present said he desired at least twenty-four hours to consider the subject, as it was of great importance. Colonel Waite asked for one of the manuscript paroles, when Major Maclin, in a very offensive manner, declined, saying he had use for them. This again caused much evident excited and indignant feeling.

“It is my desire,” said Colonel Waite, “to put some officer in charge of our soldiers to be left here as prisoners, should I accept a parole, to attend to their personal rights, police, and comfort.”

“You need have no concern about that, sir,” responded Major Maclin; “we will save you that trouble; we will attend to that. No officer will be permitted to have anything to do with them. You will not be allowed to give any orders here.”

Colonel Waite, in answer: “It is your wish and object to corrupt them, and to force them into your service; but they wont stay with you; they will desert.”

“Your language, sir,” said Major Maclin, “is offensive. I cannot permit it.”

Colonel Waite replied: “The facts, sir, are doubtless offensive. My language is not intended to be offensive. I will talk and state the facts. I also claim the right to send an officer to my Government with sealed dispatches on parole.”

“That sir,” replied Major Maclin “will not be allowed.”

But,” said Colonel Waite, “can I not make my official report? To send an officer to headquarters after important events is the custom of all armies and troops among civilized people.”

“Perhaps it is, sir,” replied-Major Maclin.

{p.48}

After a long conversation, and the excitement somewhat abated, Major Maclin was asked if he would grant to each officer twenty-four hours to consider upon the subject, when they would report to him in person their determination. To this he agreed, and permitted each officer to take one of the manuscript paroles for consideration. The guard at the door was then dismissed, and the officers retired.

WEDNESDAY, April 24, 1861.

The officers assembled at 12 m. to-day at the office of the commanding officer, Major Maclin, as agreed upon yesterday. No further modification could be had other than the terms offered yesterday, excepting a provision for exchange as prisoners of war, and the privilege to Colonel Waite to report the facts and past transactions to his Government. They now were offered the acceptance of the paroles, or to be considered close prisoners of war. There was no alternative but to be subjected to the rabble; to crowds of undisciplined troops, regardless of authority or control; to the vindictive and active prejudices of men in temporary authority, swayed by spleen and disappointment, as well as infidelity to the General Government in former commissions, who had already stipulated terms, or take the paroles offered and ask safe conduct out of the State. The latter was determined upon as the only method which could secure safe egress or escape, and place us within the authority of the United States Government. Each officer took his parole under the protest made by Colonel Waite the day previous.

[Inclosure C.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., April 24, 1861.

On the morning of the 23d of April, 1861, about 12 m., Captain Wilcox, commanding a company called the Alamo Rifles, entered the office of Colonel Waite, U. S. Army, and inquired for Colonel Waite. He was informed that he was at his quarters. Captain Wilcox then said to the officers present, viz, Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, Captain Garrard, and Assistant Surgeon Smith, “Gentlemen, I am directed to arrest you, and take you over to Major Maclin’s quarters.” Colonel Chandler inquired, “By what authority, sir?” Captain Wilcox replied, “By authority of the Confederate States,” and offered to show his order directing him to make the arrest. Colonel Chandler then said, “How do you arrest us.; as prisoners of war?” Captain Wilcox replied, “Yes, sir; as prisoners of war.” Colonel Chandler then replied, “I do not recognize your authority, sir, and refuse to obey your orders. I decline going to Major Maclin’s office unless you have an armed force with you.” Captain Wilcox answered, “I have a force, sir,” and pointed out of the window to a detachment of about thirty-six armed infantry. Colonel Chandler then said, “I surrender myself to you as a prisoner of war, reserving to myself the right of protesting against these proceedings.” The other officers present, when called on by Captain Wilcox, replied, “Sir, we surrender on the same terms.” Captain Wilcox then said, “Gentlemen, will you go over to Colonel Waite’s quarters with me?” Colonel Chandler replied, “We are your prisoners, and will go if you order us.” Captain Wilcox then said, “You remain here.” He then left the room, and the officers remained in it, under charge of a guard, until Captain Wilcox returned after arresting Colonel Waite when they were marched, under charge of the guard, to Major Maclin’s office, in company with other officers who had been taken prisoners.

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HDQRS. BATTLN. FIRST, THIRD, AND EIGHTH INFANTRY, Camp near Fort Hamilton, N. Y., June 3, 1861.

Bvt. Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General of the Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: Having already made a brief report of the capture of this command, I have now the honor to submit the following additional particulars connected with the embarkation of the troops and the capitulation in Matagorda Bay on the 25th of April:

Of the seven companies comprised in this command, the three companies of the Third Infantry arrived at Indianola on the 13th of April, at which date I relieved Lieutenant-Colonel Backus in the command, and encamped in rear of the town to await the arrival of the troops designated as a part of the complement number for embarkation on the steamer Star of the West, then lying off the coast near the mouth of Matagorda Bay. On the 17th these troops, consisting of the adjutant and non-commissioned staff and band, and two companies of the First Infantry and two companies of the Eighth Infantry, arrived at my camp, when I immediately marched with the whole command to the wharf at Indianola, where the baggage, camp, and garrison equipage, and stores were stowed on two small steamers, which had been engaged as lighters to convey the troops to the Star of the West. The troops slept on the wharf on the night of the l7th, and embarking early in the morning of the 18th the steamers got under way and proceeded down the harbor. On arriving at the designated point it was found that the Star of the West had disappeared from her anchorage, and I was reluctantly compelled to return to the camp previously occupied near Indianola. During the 19th and 20th I made unsuccessful efforts to obtain some other means of transportation, and on the 21st I succeeded in chartering two small schooners-the Horace, of 168, and the Urbana, of 138 tons burden. The latter not having discharged her cargo we were obliged to unload it, the parties working during the day and most of the night of the 22d, and on the 23d we again proceeded down the bay, towed by the small steamer Fashion. The weather was extremely unfavorable, the wind blowing from the northeast across the bar, and on the 24th the master of one of the schooners reported that it would, under the circumstances, be absolutely impossible to manage his vessel at sea, there being at this time more than two hundred persons on board, including some thirty-five women and children, together with the subsistence stores and property. I was, therefore, compelled to seek for an additional transport, and Captain Bowman, of the Third, and Lieutenant Greene, of the First Infantry, with a detail of thirty-four men, taken from all the companies, were dispatched on the Fashion to endeavor to obtain another vessel, which was understood to be lying at the port of Lavaca. During the afternoon of the 24th we obtained with the small boats an additional supply of brackish water from the marshy lands at Decklas Point, and by night, nothing having been heard of the detachment, some suspicion of the seizure of this party and a movement to cut us off was entertained on the schooners, but we could not get out across the bar. The easterly winds which prevailed, and the refusal of the pilots along the coast to come to our aid, had completed our disaster. The night was cloudy and dark, but about 11 o’clock three steamers were visible within a short distance of our anchorage to the windward. Lieutenant Hopkins, of the Third, was sent off in a small boat to obtain some information in regard to these steamers. He could get no answer from them, and returned to the schooners. At daylight on the morning {p.50} of the 25th it was observed that these steamers had on board some 800 or 1,000 troops, effectually protected with tiers of cotton bales on both decks. It is supposed these steamers had several pieces of artillery.

Colonel Van Dorn sent a messenger, requesting an interview, which, after consultation with the officers, was granted, and at this time a large steamer from New Orleans came over the bar and took up a position below us. She had on board two 24-pounders and two field pieces, and probably 500 troops. There being no further hope of our escape I was obliged to accede to the requirements of Colonel Van Dorn, and surrender my command as prisoners of war.

On the 28th the brig Mystic arrived off the port of Saluria, bringing Lieutenant Greene and the detachment sent up on the 24th. They had been captured at Indianola. The command was then divided-the battalion of the First Infantry being assigned to the schooner Horace, that of the Eighth to the schooner Urbana, and that of the Third Infantry to the brig Mystic. The two first named were towed over the bar on the 30th and proceeded to sea. The brig was unable to pass the bar until the 3d of May, owing to the low water. The two schooners arrived in the harbor of New York on the 31st of May, and the brig on the 1st of June, after a rough passage of a month from the coast of Texas.

It is not necessary to speak of the accumulated hardships to which the troops have been necessarily subjected, crowded as they were upon these inconvenient, open transports; and I again take occasion to remark upon the high-toned, unwavering spirit of the officers, and the fidelity and good conduct of the enlisted men of this command.

I inclose herewith a copy of the articles of capitulation; also, copy of a letter* from Maj. Larkin Smith relative to the embarkation of the troops, the official report* of Lieut. J. B. Greene, First Infantry, a field return** of the command on the 25th of April, a copy of the parole of the officers, and a copy of the oath taken by the enlisted men.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, Commanding Troops.

* Omitted. See Series I, Vol. I, pp. 564-506.

** Not found.

[Inclosure No. 1]

SALURIA, TEX., April 25, 1861.

Articles of agreement this day entered into between Maj. C. C. Sibley, of the U. S. Army, on the one part, and Col. Earl Van Dorn, of the C. S. Army, on the other part, viz:

It is stipulated and agreed to that the United States troops, officers and men, shall become prisoners of war, with the privilege of giving their paroles of honor, if officers, and their oaths, if soldiers, not to bear arms or exercise any of the functions of their office, under their commissions or enlistments, against the Confederate States of America, unless an exchange of prisoners shall be made or until released by the authority of the President of the Confederate States; the arms and equipments of the men and all the public property in the possession of the company commanders to be given up to an agent appointed for the purpose, on board the transport which shall be employed to convey those who may desire it to the United States, private property to be unmolested.

{p.51}

It is further stipulated and agreed to that all the officers and men who shall give their paroles and oaths as above stated shall be allowed to pass unmolested through the Confederate States of America, by the way of Galveston and up the Mississippi River, to any point they may see fit to go within the limits of the United States of America, or by any other route they may see fit to take.

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, Commanding Troops. EARL VAN DORN, Colonel, C. S. Army, Commanding Troops.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

Copy of parole given by the officers.

SALURIA, TEX., April 25, 1861.

To THE AUTHORITIES OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA:

I give my word of honor as an officer and a gentleman that I will not bear arms nor exercise any of the functions of my office under my commission from the President of the United States against the Confederate States of America during the existence of the war between the said Confederate and United States unless I shall be exchanged for another prisoner or prisoners of war, or unless I shall be released by the President of the Confederate States. In consideration of the above parole it is understood that I am free to go and come whenever I may see fit, except that I shall not attempt to enter or depart from any fort, camp or garrison of the Confederate States without the sanction of its commanding officer.

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

Copy of oath taken by the enlisted men.

SALURIA, TEX., April 26, 1861.

To THE AUTHORITIES OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA:

We do solemnly swear that we will not bear arms against the Confederate States of America, nor in any way give aid and comfort to the United States against the Confederate States, during the existence of the war between the said United States and Confederate States, unless we shall be duly exchanged for other prisoners of war, or until we shall be released by the President of the Confederate States. In consideration of this oath, it is understood that we are free to go wherever we may see fit.

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KANKAKEE CITY, ILL., June 18, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival at this place yesterday, the 17th instant, having come from San Antonio, Tex., with as much dispatch as the means of travel and communication would permit, leaving that place on the 4th.

{p.52}

I inclose herewith a copy of my report made under date of May 12,* fearing that that report did not reach your office in consequence of the disturbed state of the country and the uncertainty of the mails. I also inclose a detailed report of the latter portion of the march and surrender, to which reference was made in my former report. This latter report could have been long ago made had there been any reasonable prospect of its reaching you. This is the first point where I have been able to stop from which letters could be forwarded with safety.

I hereby report further how I happen to be here. After surrender, the troops were paroled-the officers to the limits of the Confederate States of America, and the men placed under oath not to leave the county of Bexar, Texas. Up to the 4th of June Colonel Van Dorn was expecting orders to grant unlimited paroles to the officers, and told me that he had no doubt such would be granted on return of his messenger from Montgomery. The 1st instant I received the sad, crushing intelligence of the death of my oldest daughter, and Colonel Van Dorn at once offered me the privilege of coming home. I availed myself of his generosity, both with the view to make arrangements for the care of my remaining children and to communicate with the War Department, in the hope of being of some service to the prisoners of war in Texas by representing their true state and condition. Not knowing whether my reporting in person would be either desirable or proper, I send the following brief statement:

Up to the time I left San Antonio the troops were in quarters and under the care and control of their own officers. They were allowed the usual subsistence and all the clothing necessary; had no restrictions as to limits, except attendance on retreat roll-call; and could be permitted to go anywhere within the county upon a written pass signed by their own officers. With the exception of some five or six, they remained faithful to their Government and refused all offers and inducements to join the Confederate service. The day before I left Colonel Van Dorn informed me that they would be moved into camp some five miles from town and placed under charge of Confederate officers, who would attend to their wants, thus separating them from the care of their own officers. In all this they have been as well if not much better treated than is the usual fate of prisoners of war. Their peril consists in the fact that they are retained as hostages against the rigorous treatment of any prisoners who may fall into the power of the United States. Colonel Van Dorn does not regard the parole which is given to the officers as revocable by his Government, and their peril is not, therefore, the same as that of the men, in his view of the case; therefore it is not easy to see, in the same view of the case, any good reasons for restrictions as to limits being made in the parole. The officers are furnished with quarters and board at the expense of the Confederacy, at least while they remain in San Antonio.

I shall be in Dansville, in New York, in a few days, where communications will reach me.

Hoping that I may be justified in the course I have pursued, as represented in my reports,

I remain, sir, yours, very respectfully,

I. V. D. REEVE, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army.

* See p. 41.

{p.53}

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ALBANY, N. Y., June 23, 1861.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

GENERAL: I inclose herewith a copy of the parole given to the officer commanding the Confederate troops in San Antonio, Tex., also a copy of the safe-guard to enable me to leave Texas and pass through the rebellious States. The printed paper inclosed details the incidents and humiliations to which the U. S. officers were subjected. As unfortunate as such a humiliation was, it is my belief that when the facts are known and considered the United States Government will appreciate the loyalty of its officers. My object in sending the inclosed is to have on file in your office as complete a record of the transaction as is possible. The renewal of my oath is also inclosed. It will give me pleasure to perform any service consistent with my honor and duty to my country.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. T. SPRAGUE, Brevet Major and Captain, Eighth Infantry.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HEADQUARTERS CONFEDERATED ARMY IN TEXAS, San Antonio, Tex., April 23, 1861.

I hereby do declare upon my honor and pledge myself as a gentleman and a soldier that I will not take up arms or serve in the field against the Government of the Confederated States in America under my present or any other commission that I may hold during the existence of the present war between the United States and the Confederated States of America, and that I will not correspond with the authorities of the United States, either military or civil, giving information against the interest of the Confederated States of America, unless regularly exchanged.

J. T. SPRAGUE, Brevet Major and Captain, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY IN TEXAS, San Antonio, Tex., April 26, 1861.

To all guards, patrols, citizens, and to all concerned, within the limits of the Confederated States:

The bearer, Bvt. Maj. John T. Sprague, U. S. Army, a prisoner of war on his parole of honor, is hereby permitted to pass through each and any of the Confederated States without let or hindrance or molestation of any kind whatever.

S. MACLIN, Major, C. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

Extract from New York Courier and Enquirer, May 29, 1861.

The remnant of the U. S. troops which the traitor Twiggs abandoned to the tender mercies of the “Southern chivalry” in Texas will arrive here to-day from Havana, and we indulge the hope that somebody will feel it their duty to receive them in a manner worthy of the {p.54} heroism they have evinced in resisting every conceivable inducement to imitate the conduct of their leader in his treason to the Stars and Stripes. Lieutenant Slemmer arrived at this port on Saturday, and remained until Monday evening; but no more notice was taken of him, his brother officers and soldiers, than if they had done nothing at Pickens to uphold the American flag! If Major Anderson deserved credit and commendation, honors and promotion, for moving his command into Fort Sumter--and no press has lauded that act more than the Courier and Enquirer-then was the conduct of Lieutenant Slemmer in transferring his command to Fort Pickens still more to be commended and still more creditable to the service and the country. Anderson, being ordered to hold and defend a work which he knew was not defensible, disappointed the purposes of the traitor Floyd and occupied a stronger work, where he knew he would be safe. It was a wise and meritorious act, and merited the universal approval which it received. Lieutenant Slemmer was called upon to surrender his command to a force irresistible in numbers, and saw one of the senior officers of the Navy cower before the rebel forces, and, with his brother officers ingloriously pull down the Stars and Stripes and surrender the navy-yard at Pensacola without a blow. He was admonished by his senior and by his example that such also was his duty; but he scouted at yielding, resolved upon resistance, and in defiance of the advice and example of Commodore Armstrong, who should have been driven from the Navy with disgrace, threw himself into Fort Pickens and bid defiance to the rebel force. It was a noble act, and, like Anderson’s at Sumter, worthy of high praise; and even more creditable, because he is a much younger officer than Anderson, was threatened by a much superior force, and was obliged to resist the contaminating influence of the surrender of the navy-yard, its garrison, and all its munitions of war by a senior officer of the navy, without a struggle and with abundant means of defense. By his gallantry he and his handful of brave men saved Fort Pickens to the country, and gave notice that they were prepared to be starved or to be buried beneath the ruins of the fort, but that never would they surrender it to the rebels or permit their infamous colors to wave over its walls! They redeemed their pledge, have been relieved, and came among us on Saturday last. On Monday evening Slemmer and his brother officers left here in pursuit of their families; and although the press announced their arrival, who called to give them a welcome and say Godspeed to the noble young-officers and gallant men who had so fearlessly and under such peculiar circumstances sustained the honor of their flag-of our Stars and Stripes-of the banner of the Union, to sustain which a quarter of a million of men are now in arms!

But let this pass; such is popular favor, and such the thoughtlessness of those whose duty it is to foster a sound public sentiment. Slemmer has gone, unnoticed and unhonored; and now, there will arrive to-day 700 non-commissioned officers and privates, accompanied, we presume, by some of their company officers, who should be received by our volunteers with every mark of honor.

When the traitor Twiggs abandoned his command and passed over some five millions of public property into the hands of the rebels, he escaped seizure from his officers by having scattered his command into small garrisons and surrounding himself with 1,500 rebel troops. Then, to make the surrender less offensive to the troops and less dangerous to the rebels, he provided for his 3,000 U. S. soldiers retiring peaceably and with their arms from the soil of Texas. A portion {p.55} of them did so retire; another portion were captured by Texan troops in the harbor of Indianola when embarking, according to the code and practice of “Southern chivalry;” and the remainder, those who are expected to arrive to-day, were, according to the same code and practice, and in vindication of their claim to infamy by the rebel authorities, disarmed, proclaimed prisoners of war, and only permitted to leave Texas on parole. And what adds to the infamy of the wretches who have inaugurated the term “Southern chivalry” and vindicated its significance, they suffered these poor fellows to be exposed to starvation on their route homeward. They, however, succeeded in reaching Havana in safety, where the Spanish authorities, who do not recognize the code of” Southern chivalry” and its practices, supplied them with the necessary food before our consul could interfere in their behalf.

We give below* the particulars of the manner in which Colonel Waite and his brother officers were treated by the “Southern chivalry” of the Confederate Republic, because they were true to their flag; and one of these very men, with tears in his eyes, related to us the noble conduct of the men. When they learned that they were to be disarmed they swore a big oath that their guns should never be used against the Stars and Stripes, and commenced deliberately breaking off the butts of their muskets by smashing them against the earth; but for the interference of their officers not a musket would have escaped. But the “chivalry” threatened vengeance at what they called a breach of the capitulation; and there was too much reason to apprehend that they only desired an excuse to put to death every soul, because both officers and men had indignantly spurned their offers and refused to be influenced by the conduct of their traitor general, David E. Twiggs, of the rebel State of Georgia. And therefore the officers, perceiving the danger to which the men were exposing themselves and the general massacre which was but too probable, rushed in among them and explained that their personal safety from assassination depended upon their quietly yielding up their arms uninjured. The men complied, but not one solitary soldier was seduced from his duty by all the threats of the robber band which composed that portion of the “Southern chivalry.”

Such are the men about to arrive among us after having barely escaped with their lives from their surrender by the traitor Twiggs to the “Southern chivalry;” and we call upon those in authority over our volunteers-upon General Dix and certain committees-to see that our volunteers be permitted to receive these brave men with becoming honors. Government will no doubt, at the proper time, define the position of both officers and men who were thus forced to give their parole of honor not to fight against the rebels until formally exchanged. We all feel that such a parole has no moral force, and, as a case of conscience, is not binding. It was extorted, and in violation of a compact. But, nevertheless, officers and men pledged their honors to respect it; and the Government must and will respect that pledge. To send them into battle in disregard of it would be to send them forward with halters around their necks in the event of being taken prisoners; and consequently we hope at an early day to see an order vindicating the officers and men from all censure and recognizing their status, while exposing the baseness of “Southern chivalry.” In a very few days we shall be in possession of more than sufficient of the enemy to exchange {p.56} for the much abused officers and men surrendered by the traitor Twiggs. From among our first prisoners let there be sent into the rebel camp the precise number of men and officers of corresponding rank to those now on parole, giving the rebel authorities notice that we do so in order to redeem the honor of our people, while we condemn as worthy only of “Southern chivalry” the acts of infamy which made them quasi prisoners of war.

* For memorandum here referred to relating to arrest of Colonel Waite and his officers, see p. 45.

CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, April 11, 1861.

Col. EARL VAN DORN, C. S. Army, Montgomery, Ala.

SIR: The Secretary of War directs that you repair to Texas with the least practicable delay, and there assume command. You are charged with the important duty of making the necessary arrangements to intercept and prevent the movement of the U. S. troops from the State of Texas, and for this purpose you are authorized to call into service such amount of volunteer force from Texas as may be necessary in your judgment to accomplish that object. The whole of the U. S. force, both officers and men, must be regarded as prisoners of war. Such of the men as may be disposed to join the C. S. Army you are authorized to take into service; those not so inclined must be held as prisoners of war, at such place as may be judged to be most safe. The commissioned officers may be released on parole, and in special cases, of which you must judge, the men may be released on oath not to serve against the Confederate States.

The above instructions are given under the circumstances that hostility exists between the United States and Confederate States.

By direction of the Secretary of War:

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, April 13, 1861.

Col. EARL VAN DORN, C. S. Infantry, Austin, Tex.

SIR: The following communication has been submitted to the Department of War by Hon. J. H. Reagan, Postmaster-General:

INDIANOLA, April 9, 1861.

Mr. J. H. REAGAN.

DEAR SIR: In stirring times like these I deem it proper to advise you of the state of things here. The Mohawk, the Empire City, and the Crusader-I believe those to be the names of war vessels and sea transports lying at Saluria this morning. The Fashion, chartered by the United States Government, brought in about 12 o’clock to-day stores from the Empire City. There are nine companies concentrated here and at Green Lake, about twenty miles distant, for embarkation, mostly here. There is a strong wind blowing, which will prevent, till it ceases, their embarkation, and has already delayed it four days.

The Arizona is at Brazos with 300 troops, which were embarked three days since for this place to join the troops here, but she is yet detained outside the bar by heavy weather.

There are yet seven companies hastening to the coast from the upper posts for embarkation here.

Our last advices are warlike, and it may be important for President Davis to be informed of these facts, and I accordingly write this by steamer just leaving, it being now 1 p.m. The wind is high, and likely to render embarkation impossible for several days.

Yours, very truly,

H. W. HAWES.

{p.57}

You are hereby instructed to give the orders heretofore received by you a liberal construction, and to arrest and seize all troops and stores of the United States, in transitu or otherwise, wherever found in the State of Texas, and to use for that purpose all the means of this Government which you can make available in said State.

This communication will be borne by Lieutenant Major, who is specially detailed to bear dispatches to Texas.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS, San Antonio, Tex., April 17, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, C. S. A.

SIR: The news by mail this morning indicates clearly that war exists between our Government and that of the United States. The commissioners of Texas agreed with General Twiggs that the U. S. troops then in Texas might pass out of the State with their arms. At that time war did not exist; things have changed. There are seven companies of troops still in Texas, and some of them may be now on their way from El Paso to this point. Is it proper and right now to permit them to pass through this portion of the territory of the Confederate States with their arms, embodied as U. S. troops, when their Government is at war with ours? In a few days more I will have six companies of troops here ready for the field, anxious to render service to their country, and with your permission-yes, without I receive orders to the contrary from your Department-with the lights now before me, think I shall require them to surrender their arms and disperse. It will be several days before they will be able to reach this place, and it would gratify me much to receive the information by telegraph, through New Orleans, that I have the consent of the Government to pursue the course I have indicated.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. E. MCCULLOCH, Colonel, Commanding.

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SAN ANTONIO, TEX., April 23, 1861.

Maj. S. MACLIN, Commanding Confederate Troops, San Antonio, Tex.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that agreeably to special orders from your headquarters I intercepted, with my company of citizen volunteers, this morning, at 6 o’clock, Capt. A. T. Lee’s company of the Eighth U. S. Infantry, under the command of Lieut. E. W. H. Read, of that regiment, and in the name of the Confederate States of America demanded the unconditional surrender of the company as prisoners of war. Mr. Read asked to be allowed to consult with his commanding officer (Colonel Waite) before making answer to my demand. To this, knowing that the colonel had no troops with which to re-enforce the lieutenant’s command, I agreed, and ordered Lieutenant French, of my company, to accompany him to Colonel Waite’s quarters.

On his (Lieutenant Read’s) return he complied with my demand to surrender, at the same time protesting against my action as being in {p.58} violation of the treaty stipulations entered into by the authorities of the State of Texas and General Twiggs. The enlisted men of the company are now under my charge. Lieutenant Read will report in person at your office this morning at 10 o’clock.

...

I am, major, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES DUFF, Captain, Commanding Company Citizen Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY, San Antonio, Tex., April 24, 1861.

The within writing does not take from Col. W. Hoffman the privilege of reporting the facts of his arrest as a prisoner of war and that of his command to the War Department of the United States, and its restrictions are so far suspended as to enable him to grant a discharge to Principal Musician Theodore Knoll, Eighth Regiment of Infantry.

S. MACLIN, Major of Infantry, C. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY IN TEXAS, San Antonio, April 24, 1861.

I do hereby declare upon my honor and pledge myself as a gentleman and a soldier that I will not take up arms or serve in the field against the Government of the Confederate States of America under my present or any other commission that I may hold during the existence of the present war between the Union States and the Government of the Confederate States of America; that I will not correspond with the authorities of the United States, either military or civil, giving information against the interest of the Confederate States of America, until regularly exchanged.

W. HOFFMAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth Infantry.

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MONTGOMERY, April 26, 1861.

Col. HENRY E. MCCULLOCH, San Antonio, Tex.:

You have the consent of the Department to pursue the course indicated in your letter of the 17th. Hold them as prisoners of war.

L. P. WALKER.

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HEADQUARTERS TROOPS IN TEXAS, San Antonio, Tex., May 10, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Montgomery, Ala.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I met the last column of the U. S. troops in Texas yesterday at noon on the El Paso road, about thirteen miles from this city, and that Colonel Reeve, the commanding officer, being satisfied of my greatly superior force, surrendered {p.59} unconditionally. There were 10 officers and 337 men, including 30 men who were captured some time since in San Antonio by Capt. James Duff which I have heretofore neglected to report.

My command consisted of Colonel McCulloch’s cavalry, viz, six companies, Captains Pitts, Tobin, Ashby, Boggess, Fry, and Nelson; a squadron of Colonel Ford’s State troops, under Lieutenant-Colonel Baylor’s command, viz, Captains Walker and Pyron; a battery of light artillery, Captain Edgar; a section of artillery, Captain Teel; two small detachments of horse, under Lieutenants Paul and Dwyer; and an independent detachment of cavalry, Captain Goode. All these troops I placed under the command of Col. H. E. McCulloch. In addition to these there was a battalion of infantry, raised for the occasion in San Antonio, under command of Lieut. Col. James Duff, Captains Maverick, Wilcox, Kampmann, Navarro, and Prescott, Maj. John M. Carolan. In all, about 1,300 men. I have been actuated in this instance by the same motive which induced me to bring an overwhelming force against the U. S. troops at Indianola-viz, a desire to arrest and disarm them without bloodshed.

All the arms and other public property are now being turned over to officers appointed to receive them, and the officers and men are in camp at the San Pedro Springs, near this city.

Having in consideration the proclamation of the President of the United States declaring certain persons “pirates” under the laws of the United States for seizures of vessels or goods by persons acting by authority of the Confederate States, I have determined to hold these prisoners of war until I receive further instructions from you. If the officers prefer it I shall allow them to proceed to Montgomery on parole, to report to you for your decision.

It would not do justice to the troops under my command if I failed to report to you the admirable manner in which they conducted themselves throughout the expedition; the cheerful obedience to the orders of the officers elected over them; the discipline that was maintained in their camp, where judges, lawyers, mechanics, and laborers could be seen walking post as sentinels on the same rounds, all willing to do duty in a good cause, and at the close there was the delicacy of brave men, of soldiers, which checked everything like exultation over an unfortunate enemy whom a stern necessity had caused us to disarm. It was gratifying to me, as it is a pleasure to me to report to you, that the whole expedition passed off without one unpleasant incident.

The gentlemen who were at headquarters with me, to whom I am indebted for services cheerfully and promptly rendered, for which I owe them my thanks, were Col. P. N. Luckett, quartermaster-general of Texas, Maj. G. J. Howard, Mr. J. T. Ward, General James Willie, Dr. H. P. Howard, Mr. R. A. Howard, Mr. D. E. Tessier, Judges Fred. Tate and T. J. Devine, Capts. D. D. Shea and W. T. Mechling, and J. F. Minter, and Lieut. J. P. Major, C. S. Army.

Very respectfully, sir, I am your obedient servant,

EARL VAN DORN, Colonel, Commanding.

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[For Van Dorn’s General Orders, Nos. 4 and 5, of May 3 and May 13, respectively, congratulating his troops on their valuable services in securing the surrender, see Series I, Vol. I, pp. 632, 634.]

{p.60}

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 25, 1861.

Col. EARL VAN DORN, Commanding Department of Texas, San Antonio, Tex.

SIR: Your letter of the 10th instant, reporting the capture of 10 officers and 337 men, consisting of the command of Brevet Colonel Reeve, U. S. Army, has been received and submitted to the Secretary of War. In answer I am instructed to say that the Department is constrained under existing state of things to order that both officers and men of this command be retained in Texas as prisoners of war until further orders or until duly exchanged. All future communications for this office will be directed to Richmond, Va.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS TROOPS IN TEXAS, San Antonio, June 3, 1861.

Brigadier-General COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Montgomery, Ala.

GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to report my operations as commander of the troops in Texas for the last part of April and the month of May; also to inclose you copies* of all orders issued by me, and of all letters of instructions given to officers under my command.

I respectfully refer you to my reports ... in regard to the seizure of the Star of the West, the capture of the U. S. troops at Saluria, under Major Sibley, and of those under Colonel Reeve, near this city, the latter now held as prisoners of war, and subject to your orders.

...

Colonel Reeve’s command (prisoners of war) are now quartered in this city, but I shall move them into camp in a few days. They are quite an expense to us. Will you please give me some general rules in regard to the allowances, &c., of prisoners of war.

I do not know whether or not it was the intention of the War Department that I should be continued in command in Texas. I have executed my orders in regard to the capture of the U. S. troops, and, at the same time that I do not wish to be considered as shrinking from any duty that may be imposed upon me in times like these, I must say that I would prefer being where I might have active service suitable to my age and inclinations. My duties here now are entirely in the office, where an older man would be infinitely more efficient than myself.

Very respectfully, general, I am your obedient servant,

EARL VAN DORN, Colonel, Commanding.

* Inclosures omitted here.

{p.61}

Disposition and Negotiations for the Release and Exchange of the Union Prisoners.

UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, June 5, 1861.

SUPERINTENDENT MARYLAND RECRUITING SERVICE, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.

SIR: Special Orders, No. 150, dated at War Department, Adjutant-General’s Office, Washington, June 4, 1861, a copy of which has been sent to you, directs Privates A. P. Andrews and Richard Cassidy, Second Cavalry, to report to you for duty. These men were made prisoners in Texas, and have given their parole not to serve against the rebel States. For this reason it is decided not to employ them upon any military duty, but as they are represented to be good clerks it has been thought that you could use them advantageously in your office. I am directed to say to you that they are prohibited from performing military duty.

Very respectfully,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS BATTALION THIRD INFANTRY, Camp Near Fort Hamilton, N. Y., August 10, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.

SIR: In compliance with the desire of the general-in-chief as communicated in your letter of the 1st instant, I have the honor to transmit you herewith copies* of the parole given by the officers and the oath subscribed by the men under my command when arrested by the Texas forces on the 25th of last April. The following-named officers were on duty-with me at the time, to wit:

Capt. R. S. Granger, of Company K, First Infantry; First Lieut. J. B. Greene (since dead), Company K, First Infantry; Capt. G. W. Wallace, of Company G, First Infantry; First Lieut. E. D. Phillips, of Company G, First Infantry; Second Lieut. E. R. Hopkins, of Company A, Third Infantry; Second Lieut. R. G. Lay, of Company I, Third Infantry; no officer present of Company F, Third Infantry; Capt. C. D. Jordan, of Company D, Eighth Infantry; no officer present of Company A, Eighth Infantry; Asst. Surg. R. D. Lynde, Medical Department; Asst. Surg. C. C. Byrne, Medical Department.

Capt. A. W. Bowman, of Company A, Third Infantry, and First Lieut. J. N. G. Whistler, of Company I, Third Infantry, had been detached from the command a short time before the surrender. The former on duty and the latter on leave. They were both arrested at Indianola. Captain Bowman states that his parole was verbal not to bear arms against the Confederate States. Lieutenant Whistler signed the same parole the officers did who were with me.

The captain and one or both of the subalterns of Company F, Third Infantry, are not on parole, and I would recommend that the enlisted men of the company be transferred to Companies A and I, Third {p.62} Infantry. The non-commissioned officers may be transferred to those companies to vacancies now existing. Company F may then be reorganized with recruits and made effective. I will state that if the transfers be made as recommended the number of men in companies A and I will still be less than authorized by law.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry, Commanding Battalion.

* Omitted here. See p. 51.

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NEW YORK, August 13, 1861.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army.

SIR: I hereby have the honor of reporting to you my arrival in this city. Inclosed you will please find a true copy of a parole signed by me while I was a prisoner of war. Having been relieved and deprived of all duty with the U. S. soldiers now held as prisoners of war in Texas, I went to Richmond, Va., for the purpose of being exchanged, or, more properly, of obtaining my release, on the ground of its being contrary to the usages of modern warfare to thus retain surgeons taken while in the active discharge of their duties. My written remonstrances availed nothing more than the extension of the parole held by me.

In Texas I was little or no use to the United States Government and felt anxious that I might return to duty, therefore I went to Richmond, Va. Without the means of self-support and deprived of my liberty I have chosen the only course open to me of showing my loyalty to my country, and I hope my actions may be approved by the War Department. If any exchanges are to be made I desire to be placed on the list, and thus be reinstated.

Not knowing in what light these paroles are to be treated I respectfully await the orders of the Secretary of War. The wording of this parole is very stringent, but I am certain it is the most lenient that at the time could be obtained. My address is 114 John street, New York City.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DE WITT C. PETERS, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army.

P. S.-My reason for not reporting in person is that I am nearly worn out by fatigue and have but partly recovered from fever contracted in Texas.

Very respectfully,

DE WITT C. PETERS, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

RICHMOND, VA., August 1, 1861.

I, the undersigned officer of the U. S. Army, now held as a prisoner of war by the Confederate States of America, do pledge my word of honor as a gentlemen and an officer that I will not bear arms against the Confederate States, nor exercise any of the functions of my office under my commission from the President of the United States to the prejudice of the Confederate States until I am released or exchanged {p.63} by the authority of the Secretary of War of the said Confederate States. I further declare I will not disclose or make known any information that I may have acquired to the injury of the Confederate States or the cause in which they are engaged. In consideration of the above parole I am to be free to go at large whenever I may see fit subject to recall within limits to be prescribed or revocation of parole, and report in person to the Secretary of War of the Confederate States of America.

DE WITT C. PETERS, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army.

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NEW YORK CITY, September 12, 1861.

Capt. GEORGE D. RUGGLES, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I left Dansville on the evening of the 9th instant to accompany my son to New Haven, Conn., where I have placed him at school, and on my return here on my way home I received a few minutes ago your communication of the 6th instant,* ordering me to report for duty at Scarsdale, West Chester County, New York. I inclose herewith a copy of my parole, supposing that the Adjutant-General may have forgotten its terms. It most positively forbids me from doing the duties to which I am ordered, and I do not see how it is possible to enter upon them or any other duties which will either directly or indirectly operate to the prejudice of the Confederate States or the rebel cause without a violation of my honor. I most earnestly hope that no such duties will be insisted upon. It would be bad indeed, under all the trying circumstances of my position, to add to them the necessity of breaking my parole or being driven from the service.

Your letter was delayed in reaching me, hawing been directed to Bath instead of Dansville. I shall leave here in the morning for the latter place, where I shall hope to hear from you as soon as practicable. I trust the inclosed will have the most liberal construction, and that the order within referred to will not be insisted on.

I am, sir, yours, very respectfully,

I. V. D. REEVE, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army.

* Omitted

[Inclosure.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., May 31, 1861.

I pledge my word of honor as an officer and a gentleman that I will not bear arms against the Confederate States of America, nor exercise any of the functions of my office under my commission from the President of the United States against the said Confederate States during the existence of the war now pending between the two countries unless I am exchanged for other prisoners of war, or unless I am relieved from this parole, or released by the authority of the President of the Confederate States. In consideration of which parole it is understood that I am to be free to go and come whenever I may see fit.

I. V. D. REEVE, Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army, and Captain, Eighth Infantry.

{p.64}

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FORT HAMILTON, N. Y., September 22, 1861.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the enlisted men (on parole) of companies of the First, Third and Eighth Infantry, in camp near Fort Hamilton, under my command, were yesterday transferred and put en route for West Point and Columbus, N. Y., in compliance with orders from the Adjutant-General’s Office and the commanding officer of Fort Hamilton. The officers of the command, under orders from the Adjutant-General’s Office, proceeded in compliance therewith to their several destinations.

The officers on parole who had received no orders were directed to report to the Adjutant-General and Headquarters of the Army for orders, stating their addresses. There did not appear to be any necessity of their remaining longer at Fort Hamilton, there being no duty for them to perform, and orders will reach them with about the same facility at their several locations as at Fort Hamilton. My address will be Hartford, Conn., where I will be pleased to receive orders for any duty I can perform not incompatible with the parole given by me.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. C. SIBLEY, Major Third Infantry.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, October 2, 1861.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, War Department.

SIR: I acknowledge the receipt of letter of Col. I. V. D. Reeve referred by you to this Department. You will give the required instructions to have your orders executed, and if Lieutenant-Colonel Reeve does not comply with them he must either resign or have his name stricken from the rolls.

I have the honor to be, respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., October 18, 1861.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on receipt of a copy of the letter of the Secretary of War to the Adjutant-General, dated October 2, 1861, giving a decision in reference to the order assigning me to duty at Scarsdale, N. Y., and the receipt at the same time of the letter of Captain Ruggles, assistant adjutant-general, reiterating said order, I proceeded to report accordingly, and on my arrival in New York City I learned that the troops had been removed from Scarsdale by order of the governor of the State. I therefore proceeded to report in person at the War Department. I still deemed the duty above referred to as incompatible with my parole, but not wishing to give so strict a construction to its terms as to render myself liable to a charge of wishing to avoid such duties as I might consistently perform, I referred the matter to the President, who approves my construction of the {p.65} parole in relation to the duties upon which I was ordered. I am willing and anxious to do such duties as are consistent with my parole, but these are very limited. I can serve on courts-martial where the cases and individuals to be tried are not directly connected with the war, and I can serve on boards the duties of which do not go directly to the prejudice of the so-called Confederate States.

I am, sir, yours, respectfully,

I. V. D. REEVE, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army.

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FORT COLUMBUS, NEW YORK HARBOR, October 20, 1861.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to report to you the arrival at this post on the 19th ultimo of Sergts. T. D. Parker, Franklin Cook, and R. E. Ellenwood, who have recently escaped from the rebel forces in Texas. These gallant men were surrendered with the command of Bvt. Lieut. Col. I. V. D. Reeve, and they belong to Companies I and E of the Eighth Infantry. They inform me that the enemy violated the obligations of the local parole given the prisoners by placing them under guard and so reducing their issues of clothing and rations as to render the men in a state of suffering. Under the circumstances they determined upon and made their escape through Western Texas and Mexico, thence on by steamer to Havana, and finally succeeded in reaching this city. The above sergeants were in a destitute condition when they reached this post. The privations and hardships they have undergone while making this long journey are too lengthy to give you in detail, but they speak volumes of their worth and soldier-like bearing. After obtaining the necessary papers for drawing their pay I ordered them to report to the headquarters of their regiment at Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor. The private information these men possess of the state of affairs in Texas and Mexico may be valuable to the Department, and therefore I recommend them to you for your consideration.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DE WITT C. PETERS, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army.

P. S.-These sergeants inform me that the U. S. consul at Tampico refused them any assistance, and also declined to loan money on a valuable watch which one of the men possessed, saying that theirs was a hopeless case and he had lost money enough. His name is Mr. Chase, and they represent him as being a wealthy man who is about returning to this city. They further say that the English consul and the captain of the English steamer treated them with great kindness, and by them some acknowledgment would be appreciated. They also state that the Mexican authorities and people sympathize with the United States Government.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DE WITT C. PETERS, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army.

{p.66}

[Indorsement.]

FORT COLUMBUS, October 20, 1861.

Respectfully referred to the Adjutant-General, with a strong recommendation of these sergeants to the consideration of the authorities at Washington for their zeal and patriotism in the cause of their country, in hopes some suitable reward will be bestowed upon them.

G. LOOMIS, Colonel Fifth Infantry, Commanding.

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HDQRS. OF THE ARMY, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, November 6, 1861.*

Capt. E. D. PHILLIPS, First U. S. Infantry.

SIR: The general-in-chief directs that you immediately report to this office whether there is anything in the parole you have given to prevent your serving as instructor in a camp which it is proposed to establish near this city for the instruction of volunteer officers.

I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. BAIRD, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Same to several other officers surrendered In Texas.

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WEST POINT, N. Y., November 9, 1861.

Capt. A. BAIRD, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th of November, instructing me to report whether there is anything in the parole which I have given which would prevent me from serving as instructor in a camp of volunteer officers. As I cannot doubt that the volunteer officers are destined peculiarly and exclusively for the present war I see not how I can consistently serve in the capacity indicated. At the same time I am anxious that the general-in-chief may be acquainted with my earnest desire to be exchanged and be permitted to participate in the most active service.

I inclose herewith a copy of my parole, and have the honor, to be, sir, with much respect, your obedient servant,

E. D. PHILLIPS, Captain, First Infantry.

[Inclosure.]

SALURIA, TEX., April 25, 1861.

To THE AUTHORITIES OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA:

I give my word of honor as an officer and a gentleman that I will not bear arms nor exercise any of the functions of my office under any commission from the President of the United States against the Confederate States of America during the existence of the war between the said Confederate States and the United States unless I shall be exchanged for other prisoner or prisoners of war, or until I shall be released by the President of the Confederate States. In consideration of the above parole it is understood that I am free to go and come whenever {p.67} I may see fit, except that I shall not attempt to enter or depart from any fort, camp or garrison of the Confederate States without the sanction of its commanding officer.

E. D. PHILLIPS, First Lieutenant, First Infantry.

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SANDUSKY CITY, OHIO, November 14, 1861.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th instant,* and beg leave to say in reply that I have heretofore officially declined to muster volunteers into service as being a duty in conflict with my parole; and the duty to which your inquiry relates in connection with volunteers being of a similar nature I am constrained to say that I could not consistently with my parole perform the service.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth Infantry.

* See Baird to Phillips, p. 66.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, November 19, 1861.

Maj. Gen. JOHN E. WOOL, Commanding Department of Virginia.

SIR: I inclose herewith a communication for Asst. Surg, De Witt C. Peters releasing him from his parole, he having been exchanged for Asst. Surg. Wyatt M. Brown by order of Major-General McClellan.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-General Wool is requested to forward this letter to Colonel Dimick, commanding Fort Warren, Mass., as some of the surgeons released on parole inform me that Colonel D. states he could not propose exchange of any surgeon, as Dr. De Witt C. Peters had never been released from his parole.

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General.

[Indorsement.]

This arrangement was approved by myself.

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, November 19, 1861.

Asst. Surg. DE WITT C. PETERS, U. S. Army.

SIR: I am authorized by the Government of the Confederate States to release you from the obligation you are under “not to serve or exercise the functions of your office to the detriment of the States now at {p.68} war with the United States.” Major-General McClellan having authorized the release of Asst. Surg. Wyatt M. Brown, of the C. S. Army, on your receiving a similar release this fully effects a mutual exchange.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. OF THE ARMY, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, December 26, 1861.

Col. J. DIMICK, U. S. Army; Commanding Fort Warren, Boston, Mass.

SIR: The general-in-chief directs that Col. J. A. J. Bradford, confined in Fort Warren as a prisoner taken in arms, be released on parole, to go via Fort Monroe to Norfolk, with the understanding that he will then be exchanged for Col. William Hoffman, U. S. Army, now under parole.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 3, 1862.

Hon. J. W. GRIMES, U. S. Senate, Washington, D. C.

DEAR SIR: In reply to the letter of Mr. Jones,* I have the honor to state that I will use my best efforts to have the non-paroled officers and enlisted men now prisoners in Texas released at an early day. So soon as the rebels reply by returning Union men for a number of their own recently sent South it is the intention of the Department to take steps tending toward the release and return of all Union prisoners. I have taken a copy of Mr. Jones’ letter, with the object of submitting it to the Secretary of War, so that, if possible, the officers and men referred to may be among the first returned.

I am, sir, &c.,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

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WASHINGTON CITY, D. C., January 4, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

GENERAL: I have the honor to submit for your consideration, and I trust for the approval of the Department, this earnest application that a transfer may be early made to the public enemy of such person now held as a military prisoner by the Government as shall secure my release from a similar condition; and that, if most expedient, authority may be granted me to tender to the enemy for such transfer the name and person of the party, at such time and place as shall be designated, or that I may be instructed in whatever other form of exchange shall meet the views of the Department.

Should the Department decline to entertain my request, I respectfully ask that I may be included in the earliest exchange of those prisoners {p.69} now held by the enemy in Texas, and I beg your indulgence in presenting my reasons for making this request. Every officer remaining loyal in the command of Colonel Reeve (including myself) surrendered in Texas, signed a parole of honor, by which they were given the limits of the so-called Confederate Confederacy. Every soldier who remained loyal of that command signed a parole giving them the limits of the county of Bexar, State of Texas. After the signing of such paroles the camp of the men constituting the command was removed eight miles from the city of San Antonio and away from the vicinity of their officers, who were, by this act and by virtue of the liberty of the parole which the men had signed, separated from their men, and by a special order issued in the premises (a copy of which is inclosed) the men were placed exclusively under the charge of Confederate officers, while their own officers were removed from them and were not allowed to provide for or control them in any manner.

Under these circumstances I believed it to be most proper to present myself to the Department that I might be exchanged and again made useful. But in order to gain permission to leave the Confederate States a much more restricted parole was exacted in Richmond. In this whole matter I have acted with the sole desire of doing my duty in the best manner, and it is a source of extreme mortification to me that the Department does not consider that this has been accomplished; for I have never designedly turned my face from either duty or danger, and in this case have erred on the side of an active desire to perform what I considered to be demanded.

With the highest respect, I remain, general, your obedient servant,

H. M. LAZELLE, Captain, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 25.}

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS IN TEXAS, San Antonio, June 8, 1861.

I. The U. S. soldiers now held as prisoners of war in this city will be, on Monday next, moved from their present quarters into camp on or near the Salado River, at such point as may be selected by First Lieut. Edward Ingraham, C. S. Army, who, with Lieutenant Bradley and the cavalry company under his command, is hereby detailed as their guard. Lieutenant Ingraham will superintend the removal of these prisoners and see them properly encamped, provided for, and strictly guarded. The officers are relieved from the further control of the men, and the company commanders will furnish these headquarters with copies of the muster-rolls of their companies.

By order of Col. Earl Van Dorn:

T. A. WASHINGTON, Captain, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army.

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HDQRS. OF THE ARMY, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 7, 1862.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Commanding Department of the Missouri, St. Louis, Mo.

SIR: It is the desire of the Government that five of our officers and some 240 rank and file of the Eighth Infantry, detained as prisoners in Texas, should be exchanged for any prisoners taken in arms by us {p.70} either in Missouri or elsewhere. The names of the officers are: Maj. and Bvt. Lieut. Col. J. V. Bomford, Sixth Infantry; First Lieut. W. G. Jones, Tenth Infantry; Capt. Z. R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry; First Lieut. J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry; and First Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry. You are authorized to take any steps which will not commit the Government of the United States toward bringing about the release of these officers and men.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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DAYTON, OHIO, January 7, 1862.

Major-General HALLECK, U. S. Army.

DEAR SIR: Without the honor of a personal acquaintance, I beg leave thus to address you upon a subject very near to my heart. I left, in and near San Antonio, Tex., some 300 prisoners of war, shamefully but unavoidably captured under Colonel Reeve, at “Adams’ Hill,” in May last. The absolute inevitableness of their surrender, and the unexampled constancy in loyalty of these men, and the worth of their unfortunate officers (well known, perhaps, to you), constitute, in my opinion, strong grounds for the interposition of our Government in their behalf. And inasmuch as your Department must be incumbered by the care of your prisoners of war, and may need the service of such competent and faithful officers, as well as of such well-disciplined and loyal soldiers, I beg leave to suggest an exchange of an equal number of yours for them through the correspondent department of Ben. McCulloch.

Trusting that you will not deem this request an impertinence, but actuated by my zeal in the cause of our country and by my earnest friendship for these unfortunate sufferers, I hope you will find their case worthy of your interest and susceptible to your relief.

I am, sir, very truly yours, &c.,

CHARLES ANDERSON.

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HDQRS. OF THE ARMY ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 10, 1862.

Maj. Gen. J. E. WOOL, U. S. ARMY, Comdg. Department of Southeast Virginia, Fort Monroe, Va.

SIR: The general in-chief desires that you propose an exchange between Col. J. A. J. Bradford, of North Carolina, and Lieut. Col. William Hoffman, Eighth Infantry, so that they may be mutually released from their paroles.

I am sir, &c.,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, &C., Fort Monroe, Va., January 10, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: ... I would propose for exchange the names of Maj. and Bvt. Lieut. Col. J. V. Bomford, Sixth Infantry; First Lieut. {p.71} W. G. Jones, Tenth Infantry; Capt. Z. R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry; First Lieut. J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry, and First Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry, now detained as prisoners at Texas, all of whom, if released on parole, I have no doubt would procure the exchange of a similar number of Southern officers of like rank now in charge of the Federal Government. I would propose in the same way the exchange of the men of the Eighth Infantry now in Texas.

If Lieut. James T. Lasselle, Lieutenant Allen, and Adjt. John W. Pool, now at Fort Warren, are of the same rank as First Lieut. W. G. Jones, Tenth Infantry; First Lieut. J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry, and First Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry I would propose an exchange with those officers, or any of them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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SAINT LOUIS, January 12, 1862.

CHARLES ANDERSON, Esq., Dayton, Ohio.

SIR: I have often asked for authority to exchange prisoners of war, but have not received any answer, except in two special cases. Without proper authority I cannot act in this matter.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. W. HALLECK, Major-General.

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No. 30 CLINTON PLACE, NEW YORK CITY, January 12, 1862.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

GENERAL: I had the honor of receiving only yesterday a copy of the instructions of the general-in-chief * in relation to an exchange of Colonel Bradford and myself, and I cannot refrain from expressing my grateful obligations for the consideration and the satisfaction I feel at the prospect it holds out to me of soon being permitted to take part in the active and arduous services which now engage the army. Whatever position I may be called on to fill will command my utmost abilities and a soldier’s devotion in sustaining the honor of our flag and the cause of the Union.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth Infantry.

* See Thomas to Dimick, December 26.

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SAINT LOUIS, January 12, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General of the Army, Washington.

GENERAL: Your letter of the 7th in relation to the exchange of certain prisoners in Texas is received, but I do not understand its meaning in this: that I am not to commit the Government. If by this it is {p.72} meant that I am to act in an unofficial capacity, I must respectfully decline doing so. I cannot negotiate the exchange of prisoners except in my official capacity as an authorized agent of the United States.

Neither General Polk nor General Price have charge of the prisoners in Texas, and must refer any proposition of mine to their Government. Am I authorized to open negotiations with either of these gentlemen for the exchange of prisoners of war? If permitted to do this I can effect the exchange of others, and possibly of those now in Texas.

...

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. W. HALLECK, Major-General.

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HDQRS. OF THE ARMY, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 16, 1862.

Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 10th instant* I have the honor to inform you that the exchange of Lieut. W. G. Jones and Assistant Surgeon Lynde, U. S. Army, will be agreeable to the War Department. With the papers returned in your letter, herewith inclosed, at your request, I respectfully forward a copy of a letter** to Colonel Dimick, of the 10th instant, in relation to the exchange of Lieutenant Dalton, late U. S. Navy, and Captain Tansill and Lieutenant Tattnall, late of the U. S. Marine Corps.

I have the honor, &c.,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

** Omitted.

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FORT WARREN, BOSTON HARBOR, January 16, 1862.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I inclose a list* of prisoners paroled from this post from 13th December to 16th January to be exchanged. I have also to report that I have sent a message to General Huger, through Commodore Barron, offering to parole the whole of the North Carolina prisoners, in exchange for the officers and men of the U. S. Infantry now held in Texas, and the excess of the North Carolina prisoners over the number of the infantry in Texas to be exchanged for any other prisoners of ours in confinement South. I think General Huger will accede to my proposition; if he does I shall consider myself authorized by your letter of the 9th to send the North Carolina prisoners off without further orders. I paroled Captain Tansill for Captain Bliss, of the Eighth Infantry, on the 10th. On the 14th I received yours of the 10th ordering his exchange for Captain Manson, Seventy-ninth New York. This morning I have paroled Julian Myers, late of the Navy, for Capt. Z. R. Bliss, of the Eighth Infantry.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. DIMICK, Colonel First Artillery, Commanding Post.

* Omitted.

{p.73}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, &C., Fort Monroe, Va., January 16, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: ... I would propose, if agreeable, an exchange between Col. J. A. J. Bradford, of North Carolina, and Lieut. Col. William Hoffman, Eighth U. S. Infantry, so that they may be mutually released from their paroles.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, &C., Fort Monroe, January 17, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I send herewith by flag of truce the following-named prisoners of war, who are permitted to return South on the conditions specified in each case:

...

Robert Tansill, on parole for forty-five days, unless within that time Capt. Zenas R. Bliss, U. S. Army, shall be unconditionally released and put at liberty at Fort Monroe, Va.

...

On the above conditions being complied with the parties interested will consider themselves released from their parole.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 18, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: By the flag of truce this day you will receive the following-named persons:

...

3. First Lieut. Thomas H. Allen, ordnance, who is on parole for forty-five days, unless within that time First Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth U. S. Infantry, be unconditionally released and put at liberty, at Fort Monroe.

...

8. W. M. Page (also omitted in my letter yesterday, but sent) is on parole for thirty days, unless within that time Asst. Surg, De Witt C. Peters, U. S. Army, shall be unconditionally released from his parole of honor; but should Surgeon Peters be already released then he is to effect the unconditional release of Assistant Surgeon Conolly, New York Volunteers.

On all the above conditions being complied with the parties interested will consider themselves released from their parole.

...

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

{p.74}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 19, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I send herewith by flag of truce the following persons:

T. S. Wilson, who is on parole for forty-five days, unless within that time First Lieut. W. G. Jones, Tenth U. S. Infantry, be unconditionally released and put at liberty, at Fort Monroe, Va.

...

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HDQRS. OF THE ARMY, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 20, 1862.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, U. S. Army, Comdg. Department of the Missouri, Saint Louis, Mo.

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 12th instant in relation to exchange of prisoners, I have respectfully to inform you that the intention is not to commit our Government by formally acknowledging the existence of a government in the so-called Confederate States. The mode you indicate of negotiating with generals on the other side is now successfully carried out by General Wool with General Huger, and you are authorized to effect the exchange of any of our prisoners in this manner. It is important, however, to have as accurate a record as possible of the prisoners released by us, and a telegram was sent you to request you would furnish a list of those in your custody, with their respective rank.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 20, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I am desired to propose to you that Capt. W. D. Farley, aide to General Bonham, and Lieut. F. de Caradine, held in Washington as prisoners taken in arms against the United States, shall be released and sent to Norfolk, on condition that Capt. J. H. Potter, Seventh U. S. Infantry, and Lieut. H. M. Lazelle, Eighth Infantry, shall be released from their parole.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, Norfolk, Va., January 20, 1862.

Col. J. DIMICK, Commanding at Fort Warren.

SIR: Some of the released prisoners from Fort Warren stated that you had not received notice of the release of Dr. De Witt C. Peters in exchange for Dr. Wyatt M. Brown. I have sent General Wool a {p.75} copy of my letter of November 19, fully releasing Doctor Peters from his parole, and requesting it might be forwarded to him. I now ask General Wool to forward the letter to you.

...

With the highest respect, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, &C., Port Monroe, January 22, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I herewith transmit a statement of exchanges that have been effected and of those that are now pending, as I understand them:

Exchanged: Asst. Surg, De Witt C. Peters, U. S. Army, released and forwarded to Fort Monroe, Va., November, 19, 1861, in exchange for Asst. Surg, Wyatt M. Brown, who was forwarded to Norfolk, Va., November 12, 1861.

...

The following exchanges are now pending:

Lieut. T. H. Allen, North Carolina Artillery, forwarded to Norfolk, January 18, 1862, to be exchanged for First Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry.

...

T. S. Wilson, forwarded to Norfolk, January 19, 1862, to be exchanged for First Lieut. W. G. Jones, Tenth U. S. Infantry.

The above officers, in the event of their failing to procure the exchanges specified, are to return to Fort Warren on the expiration of their respective paroles.

...

In obedience to instructions I have proposed the following Federal officers may be exchanged-Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford, Sixth Infantry; Capt. Z. R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry; First Lieut. J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry-with officers of the same rank now in our hands. I have also proposed the exchange of Col. J. A. J. Bradford, North Carolina Volunteers, for Lieut. Col. William Hoffman, Eighth Infantry, Capt. W. D. Farley, aide-de-camp, for Capt. J. H. Potter, Seventh U. S. Infantry, and Lieut. F. de Caradine for Lieut. H. M. Lazelle, Eighth U. S. Infantry.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 23, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I send herewith by flag of truce H. B. Claiborne and Dulaney A. Forrest, prisoners of war, who are permitted to go South on parole for forty-five days, unless within that time Maj. James V. Bomford, Sixth Infantry, U. S. Army, be unconditionally released and set at liberty, at Fort Monroe, in which event the first-named officers may consider themselves discharged from their parole.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

{p.76}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 24, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army.

GENERAL: In order to complete the list of exchanges, it may be proper to state that the following exchanges had been effected previous to those named in my communication of the 21st instant:

(1) For Col. J. A. J. Bradford, North Carolina Volunteers, Bvt. Col. D. T. Chandler, U. S. Army; (2) for Col. William F. Martin, North Carolina Volunteers, Col. C. A. Waite, First Infantry; (3) for Lieut. Col. G. W. Johnston, North Carolina Volunteers, Lieut. Col. Governor Morris, First Infantry; (4) for Lieut. Col. Charles H. Tyler, Lieut. Col. A. Albert; (5) for Major W. S. G. Andrews, North Carolina Volunteers, Maj. J. T. Sprague, Eighth [First] Infantry; (6) for Captain Clements, North Carolina Volunteers, Capt. W. L. Bowers, First Rhode Island Volunteers; (7) for Captain Cohoon, North Carolina Volunteers, Capt. Ralph Hunt, First Kentucky Regiment; (8) for Lieutenant Shannon, North Carolina Volunteers, First Lieut. S. R. Knight, First Rhode Island Volunteers; (9) for Lieutenant Lamb, North Carolina Volunteers, First Lieut. Walter B. Ives, Seventy-ninth New York Volunteers.

These nine officers, with Captain Ricketts, First Artillery, previously exchanged for Capt. J. A. de Lagnel, complete the whole list of 250 officers and men released by the Federal Government. It will be seen that an officer has already been exchanged for Col. J. A. J. Bradford, and therefore some other officer of like rank should be proposed in exchange for Col. William Hoffman.

...

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 24, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I send herewith by flag of truce the following persons: A. D. Wharton, a prisoner of war, who is on parole for forty-five days, unless within that time First Lieut. James J. Van Horn, Eighth U. S. Infantry, be unconditionally released and put at liberty, at Fort Monroe, Va.; H. A. Gilliam, North Carolina Volunteers, a prisoner of war, who is on parole for thirty days, unless within that time Maj. I. V. D. Reeve, U. S. Army, shall be unconditionally released from his parole of honor; but should Major Reeve be already released, then he is to effect the unconditional release of Maj. C. C. Sibley from his parole of honor.

...

On the above conditions being complied with the parties interested will consider themselves released from their parole.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

{p.77}

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FORT WARREN, BOSTON HARBOR, January 25, 1862.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, U. S. Army.

SIR: I have just received the following answer by letter from General Huger to the message I sent him relative to exchanging the North Carolina prisoners of war for the U. S. troops in Texas:

My Government is willing and anxious to exchange prisoners on fair terms, and as the authorities at Washington have permitted it in certain cases I beg your assistance in making it general, and thus aid the cause of humanity and civilization.

In another part of his letter he says:

With your assistance, colonel, I hope we can do much to relieve needless suffering to our fellow-countrymen.

Being therefore certain of a reciprocal exchange of the prisoners of war now here I shall immediately require transportation for them by sea to Fort Monroe, to be sent to Norfolk for exchange, viz, 4 captains, 2 first lieutenants, 8 second lieutenants, 4 third lieutenants, and about 370 rank and file.

The four colored men are very desirous of returning to their families in North Carolina. I shall therefore send them unless I receive further instructions relative to them. Three of them are certainly free and have families South. The third man is believed to be a slave, yet he is very anxious to go home; he has been to me often begging me to send him home on the first opportunity.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. DIMICK, Colonel First Artillery, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 27, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

GENERAL: Major-General Huger has been directed to offer Col. William Hoffman for Captain Barron, C. S. Navy.

...

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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FORT WARREN, BOSTON HARBOR, January 27, 1862.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington.

SIR: I return Captain Barron’s application for a parole, with the suggestion that he should be paroled to be exchanged for his equivalent in regular soldiers. Supposing the force in Texas to be exchanged to be 250 men, the command to be composed of six companies, their equivalent in privates would be 350. Commodore Barron’s equivalent in privates would be about 480, allowing 30 privates for a captain, and {p.78} so doubling up to a brigadier-general, which I understand to be the rank of Commodore Barron. The inclosed list of paroled officers will show that regular officers now in Texas as prisoners of war have been provided with exchanges which will hardly be refused, being principally officers lately belonging to the Navy.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. DIMICK, Colonel First Artillery, Commanding Post.

* Omitted.

[Inclosure.]

List of prisoners paroled for officers of the Regular Army by Colonel Dimick.*

FORT WARREN, January 26, 1862.

Thomas H. Allen, lieutenant, ordered paroled to be exchanged for B. T. Frank, first lieutenant, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army; Julian Myers, late U. S. Navy, paroled to be exchanged for Zenas R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army; T. S. Wilson, late lieutenant U. S. Marine Corps, paroled to be exchanged for W. G. Jones, Tenth Infantry, U. S. Army; A. D. Wharton, late U. S. Navy, ordered paroled to be exchanged for J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry U. S. Army; W. H. Ward, late U. S. Navy, paroled to be exchanged for F. E. Prime, captain, Engineers, U. S. Army; D. A. Forrest and H. B. Claiborne, late U. S. Navy, paroled to be exchanged for J. V. Bomford, major Sixth Infantry, U. S. Army; William Biggs, second lieutenant, North Carolina Volunteers, and H. C. Holt, Georgia Volunteers, paroled to be exchanged for William E. Merrill, lieutenant, Engineers, U. S. Army; H. A. Gilliam, major, North Carolina Volunteers, paroled to be exchanged for Major Reeve, U. S. Infantry, or Major Sibley in case Reeve is released.

J. DIMICK, Colonel First Artillery, Commanding Post.

* Authority letter Adjutant-General’s Office, January 9, 1862.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 27, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I agree to the exchange of Colonel Hoffman and Captain Barron. I will immediately apply for Captain Barron’s release on parole provided you will do the same in regard to Colonel Hoffman.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, Norfolk, Va., January 29, 1862.

Maj. Gen. JOHN B. WOOL, Commanding Department of Virginia.

SIR: I am authorized to offer Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford in exchange for Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram. ... The proposal to exchange Maj. H. A. Gilliam, North Carolina Volunteers, for Maj. I. V. D. Reeve, U. S. Army, or Maj. C. C. Sibley, U. S. Army, is declined, but an officer {p.79} of volunteers of equal rank will be given for him. ... I will offer for Mr. Dulaney A. Forrest, late U. S. Navy, and Mr. H. B. Claiborne, late midshipman, U. S. Navy, Maj. D. H. Vinton, U. S. Army.

I think it due to Major Vinton to state that I am informed upon what seems to be good authority that while under his parole given in Texas he has been and is now in the service of the United States at West Point, thus releasing other officers for active duty. I shall be glad to know that this is a mistake. ... Lieut. William G. Jones, U. S. Infantry, has been ordered here from Texas, and on his arrival will be offered for Lieutenant Sayre, C. S. Marines, now on parole.

By command of Major-General Huger:

BENJ. HUGER, JR., Captain and-Assistant Adjutant-General.

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DAYTON, OHIO, February 7, 1862.

Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

DEAR SIR: I was compelled by the necessities of my private affairs to leave Washington without the conference with yourself and General McClellan on Texas affairs which you both desired. As I wrote my information and views quite at length in the two papers I mentioned, and do not suppose that any mere additions or retractions would materially change that testimony, I do not suppose this omission to make any great loss to the public service. But I had another item of brief business which it was my purpose in our expected interview to nave laid before you. It was the case of the U. S. prisoners captured at Allen’s Hill, near San Antonio, Tex. I know their fate to be a hard and undeserved one and I so much think that any further neglect of them would be a cruelty and injustice wholly inexcusable, that, I have ventured to write the following letter to the Adjutant-General. Of course not the slightest implication of censure upon his department is intended or can be drawn from this letter. I inclose a copy for your perusal only because the time in copying it here is so much less valuable than yours in sending for the original.

I tried to get to see Governor Fish to explain their cause to him, but failed in my efforts. General Halleck writes me that he has asked permission to make such exchanges.

I am, very sincerely, your friend,

CHARLES ANDERSON.

[Inclosure.]

DAYTON, OHIO, February 7, 1862.

General LORENZO THOMAS, U. S. Army, Adjutant-General, &c.

DEAR SIR: A day or two before I left Washington I heard several remarks in military circles indicative of an opinion that the refusal of the officer prisoners (who were captured at Allen’s Hill, and are now at San Antonio) to accept their paroles was neither meritorious in them nor of utility to others. I do not allow myself to base any important action on merely vague rumors or opinions. But as I feel the deepest solicitude for these gentlemen on every ground, I am not willing to withhold from the proper authorities my positive knowledge to the contrary of those remarks.

{p.80}

At first the soldiers were quartered in the town and near the quarters of their officers. Whereupon complaints arose amongst the rebel officers and their partisans that our officers prevented by various influences the soldiers from deserting our flag and enlisting in the traitor cause. And I know that these charges were true. The result was that after much censure and even threats toward our officers the soldiers were removed into a camp on the Salado, some seven miles distant. For awhile their officers were permitted occasionally to visit them. I cannot now say whether they were allowed to see them apart from their guards; I think not. But I do know that they had communication from that camp with the officers, for I myself have borne messages from the men in the country to the officers which showed the utmost confidence between them, as the first news of the desertion of the four sergeants. At this camp, as in town, every kind of exertion was used to get these men to enlist, and with little effect; and the opinion and complaint were still general that the vicinage and influences of the U. S. officers alone prevented their general enlistment in the Confederate cause.

They were then removed from the Salado camp, wholly on this account, and sent some fifty miles away to Camp Verde. I have forgotten the date of this removal, although I rode several miles with them on their march, and had a chance to talk with one of the best of men, Sergeant Brady. I think, however, it was in September. And I again say that I know that these men were greatly braced in their extraordinary firmness of faith to our cause and hatred for that of disunion by the example, presence, and sharing of their fate by the officers who remain as near to them as they can. And I think that these influences are practically of great value, even at the distance of their present separation. And I furthermore believe that if these officers had come away to the States that nine-tenths of these soldiers (instead of one-tenth) would have deserted and joined the rebels.

So much for the usefulness of that action in this behalf; a word of testimony as to its merits. And here again I was an eye and ear witness. In very many conversations I had with these officers on this very subject (and they were so much my only society that I was often scolded by my Union friends and threatened by my disunion enemies for my imprudent intimacies with them) they invariably assigned these influences on their men as the chief cause of their staying in San Antonio. Sometimes (in my sympathy for their painful positions there) I argued in favor of their taking parole, admonishing them that “out of sight, out of mind,” &c. But they as often silenced me by the single argument that if they did “the men would join the rebels.” I say, therefore, that the conduct of these officers in refusing their paroles has been and is of great merit and usefulness.

I do not, on the other hand, desire now so much to censure those officers who came away as to say that they ought not to be exchanged. Since I have admitted that I myself occasionally advised my friends to do likewise I must admit that I think it would be hard for a mistake so natural to punish them so incommensurately. Still I do insist that my advice and their action was a mistake, and that the conduct of the other officers, instead of being “nothing,” as I heard said, has been very loyal, wise, and noble. On the subject of the general merit of all the Allen’s Hill prisoners and their treatment by their Government I cannot forbear to say a word. I am sure that no one who was present as a witness to that whole affair (however high his standards of loyalty, bravery, or self-sacrifice may be) can believe that there was any, the {p.81} slightest, cause of censure to any of the officers or men for that surrender. I wanted them to fight. And some of the subaltern officers were hot for fight. Nevertheless, fighting would have been mere blind rage and frenzied patriotism; nothing more. I knew so then and know it now.

The simple truth is that whoever may throw obstacles in the way of the recovery of these officers and men for useful service to a flag to which they have shown so much devotion does great injustice to the service and perpetrates cruel ingratitude and neglect to as brave and loyal a body of troops as are now or have been in the field.

Excuse me if I obtrude unsolicited or undesired information upon your office, but as I chanced to hear (from one who made them) that efforts had been made to underrate the services and sufferings of my colleagues in exile I will not allow mere delicacies of sentiment or custom to prevent my speaking out my mind and heart fully. This I do without the least knowledge of your action in the premises, and, of course, without the least purpose of complaint or censure.

I am, very sincerely, yours, &c.,

CHARLES ANDERSON.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., February 13, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk.

SIR: Col. John Pegram, who was released on his parole on condition of returning to Fort Monroe by the 15th of February, if he did not procure the release of Colonel Willcox* or Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford, informs me that Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford has been sent for and will be released in exchange for Colonel Pegram, when he arrives. You will please send Colonel Pegram authority to remain at Richmond until Colonel Bomford arrives.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major. General.

* Wilcox was held as a hostage for the Confederate privateersmen.

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SANDUSKY, OHIO, March 13, 1862.

Hon. B. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

SIR: I desire very respectfully to ask the attention of the Secretary of War to the following matter which is of deep personal interest to me. From the time of my return from Texas in April last in the unfortunate position of an officer on parole I did not cease to importune the Department for such service as my parole would permit me to perform till at length I obtained it, all the time entertaining the hope that some fortunate chance might bring about my exchange. In October I asked that I might be permitted to go to Fort Columbus and say to Colonel Bradford, a prisoner of war, that if he would obtain my release from parole he should be set at liberty, but my request was not granted.

Early in January I was-surprised and much gratified to learn that by order of the general-in-chief Colonel Bradford had been released from Fort Warren with the understanding that he was to go to Norfolk {p.82} and there effect an exchange for me. I at once wrote to the Adjutant-General expressing my gratitude for the consideration which had been shown me and my anxiety to join the army in the field. I was then in New York, and not doubting that I would receive orders in three or four days I took immediate measures to be prepared for a speedy summons to active service. Day after day I was disappointed, until I gave up all hope, attributing the failure to a want of integrity in Colonel Bradford. About two weeks since I received a note from Commodore Barron, a prisoner at Fort Warren, in which he informed me that he had learned through a friend in Richmond that he was to be exchanged for me, and I immediately urged in a letter to the Adjutant-General this exchange might be sanctioned. To-day I have had the extreme mortification to hear that it has not been through a want of integrity on the part of Colonel Bradford that I have not been exchanged, but because he was sometime since exchanged for Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, recently promoted to the rank of major and still more recently as announced in the newspapers placed on the retired list.

The slight put upon me as an officer by this proceeding is so palpable that I would show myself unworthy the position I hold in the army if I could hesitate a moment to express my profound humiliation at the wrong which has been done me. I need not enlarge upon it. You can well understand what I ought to feel under the circumstances, and my only object in troubling you is that you may be assured I fully appreciate the indignity.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth Infantry.

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DEPOT QUARTERMASTER’S OFFICE, Washington, D. C., March 19, 1862.

Hon. B. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to lay before you a copy of a letter (marked A) from the Hon. F. P. Blair, chairman of the Military Committee of the House of Representatives, calling upon me for a complete list of officers serving in Texas who were arrested and who left the country on parole, as well also as the circumstances attending their arrest. The arrests having been made at different times and at different localities, I cannot furnish all of the information required from personal knowledge.

Moreover, a complete history of the treason of General Twiggs in Texas being a matter of official record at the War Department, as will be seen from his published orders and the detailed report of Colonel Waite, U. S. Army, his successor in command of that department, I deem it a matter of etiquette to refer the Military Committee through you to that report rather than submit for their action the statement of an officer so much the junior of Colonel Waite in years and rank. The accompanying papers from B to F are transmitted as bearing on my individual case, and are respectfully submitted for consideration.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWARD L. HARTZ, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. Army.

{p.83}

[Inclosure A.]

COMMITTEE ON MILITARY AFFAIRS, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, February 13, 1862.

Captain HARTZ, Quartermaster’s Department.

CAPTAIN: You are respectfully desired by the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives to furnish at an early moment a complete list of the officers taken prisoners in Texas giving their parole, together with a statement of circumstances under which said parole was given.

Respectfully,

FRANK P. BLAIR, Chairman.

[Inclosure B.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., April 25, 1861.

Lieut. E. L. HARTZ, Eighth Infantry, San Antonio.

SIR: Having been forcibly seized on the 23d instant by an armed force of Texas troops, and having since given your parole, you will proceed to the headquarters of the Army and report yourself in person to the general-in-chief.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure C.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY IN TEXAS, San Antonio, April 26, 1861.

To ALL GUARDS, PATROLS, CITIZENS, AND ALL CONCERNED, WITHIN THE LIMITS OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES:

The bearer, First Lieut. E. L. Hartz, Eighth Infantry, a prisoner of war on his parole of honor, is hereby permitted to pass through each and any of the Confederate States without let or hindrance or molestation of any kind whatever.

S. MACLIN, Major Infantry, C. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure D.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., April 26, 1861.

Lieut. B. L. HARTZ, Adjutant Eighth Infantry, San Antonio, Ter.

SIR: Col. C. A. Waite directs that you remain at San Antonio, or wherever the U. S. soldiers, prisoners of war who are now here may be quartered, for the purpose of attending to their various wants. In compliance with an understanding had by Colonel Waite with Major Maclin this morning, you will report to the latter, who will provide you with written authority to visit the troops. When your services can be of no further use to the troops I am directed by the colonel to say that you will be at liberty to avail yourself of the order of the 25th instant to repair to the headquarters of the Army.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. A. NICHOLS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.84}

[Inclosure E.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY, San Antonio, Tex., April 28, 1861.

Colonel WAITE, U. S. Army, Present.

COLONEL: I understand that Lieut. E. L. Hartz, Eighth Infantry, visited Captain Lee’s company on yesterday and exhorted them to be true to their allegiance to the United States, &c. When I granted leave to visit the company I did not expect such a course would be pursued. I am compelled, therefore, to forbid any visiting, only in company with an officer of the C. S. Army. When the men are to be visited Capt. James Duff will accompany the officer, or some other officer will be detailed by him.

Your obedient servant,

S. MACLIN, Major Infantry, C. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure F.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. TROOPS IN TEXAS, San Antonio, Tex., May 2, 1861.

Lieut. B. L. HARTZ.

SIR: Having determined to retain the troops of the Eighth Infantry as prisoners of war, you are at liberty to avail yourself of the privilege granted you in your parole of honor, as you can be no longer of any use to them. Certificates will be given you of the seizure of the public property you had in your charge.

Very respectfully, sir, I am, your obedient servant,

EARL VAN DORN, Colonel, Commanding Confederate Forces.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, March 22, 1862.

Col. C. A. WAITE, First Infantry, Commanding, &c., Plattsburg, N. Y.

COLONEL: Ineffectual search having been made in this office for your letter dated Washington, May 25, 1861, respecting the officers seized by the rebel forces in Texas, terms of their parole, and inclosing papers showing the course pursued toward the captured and circumstances under which they were made prisoners, &c., I have to request you will please forward a copy (if in your power to do so) as early as practicable.

I am, &c.,

B. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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PLATTSBURG, N. Y., March 28, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

SIR: In compliance with your letter of the 22d instant I inclose herewith as correct a copy* as I can furnish of the communication I addressed to the Adjutant-General of the Army on the 25th of May last. The rough draft of that letter was prepared in great haste, on the {p.85} morning of the day it was understood a Cabinet council would assemble, which it was expected would take into consideration the course pursued by the State of Texas and the condition of the paroled officers. It was considered important to have the letter handed in and passed up to the Secretary of War before the council met. Colonel Nichols, assistant adjutant-general, made the fair copy, and fearing that if too long it would not be read some parts were omitted and other changes made which have escaped my recollection. I think, however, if this copy should be compared with the one sent to your office no very material discrepancies would be found.

The paper marked A must have been the original letter, and I do not recollect its contents nor from whom received. I did not retain a copy. I think the papers herewith, numbered 1 and 2, are duplicates of the documents referred to as marked B and C. I understood that some weeks after the date of my communication it was read in Cabinet council, and probably the letter and accompanying documents are now at the President’s or in the office of the Secretary of War.

I inclose a list of all the officers so far as I know who were made prisoners in Texas, which was not sent with my letter of the 25th of May; also a newspaper account* prepared by Major Sprague of the conversations, &c, which occurred at the time we were taken prisoners. The latter is not of much importance, but it shows the feelings of the Texans toward the officers of the Army and, to a certain extent, the condition of things at San Antonio at the time we were made prisoners. I feel the want of the records of the Department of Texas when called on to make any statements of transactions which occurred while I was in command. All records appertaining to the department previous to the 1st of January, 1861, were packed up and sent to Indianola soon after I entered on duty, and I understand they reached New York, and I presume are now in Washington. All subsequent to that date were detained by the Texan commissioners, which embrace the period I was in charge of the department.

I am, sir, with great respect, your very obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Colonel First Infantry.

* Refers to Memorandum at p. 45; also see Sprague to Thomas, and “Inclosure No. 3” at p. 53.

* Omitted here. See Waite to Adjutant-General, May 25, 1861, with inclosure, pp. 43-45.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

-Names of the officers of the U. S. Army who were made prisoners of war in Texas in April and May, 1861.-

Col. C. A. Waite, First Infantry, commanding department; Maj. W. A. Nichols, assistant adjutant-general; Maj. D. H. Vinton, quartermaster; Surg. B. H. Abadie; Asst. Surg. J. R. Smith; Asst. Surg. R. D. Lynde; Asst. Surg. C. C. Byrne-all on parole. Asst. Surg. D. W. C. Peters, retained a prisoner. Maj. D. McClure, paymaster; Capt. R. M. Potter, military storekeeper; Capt. K. Garrard, Second Cavalry; Lieut. Col. G. Morris, First Infantry; Capt. R. S. Granger, First Infantry; Capt. G. W. Wallace, First Infantry; Lieut. E. D. Phillips, First Infantry, adjutant-all on parole. Lieut. J. B. Greene, First Infantry, dead. Maj. C. C. Sibley, Third Infantry; Capt. and Bvt. Lieut. Col. D. T. Chandler, Third Infantry; Capt. A. W. Bowman, Third Infantry; Lieut. J. N. G. Whistler, Third Infantry; Lieut. J. W. Alley, Third Infantry; Lieut. H. W. Freedley, Third Infantry; Lieut. R. G. Lay, Third Infantry; Lieut. E. R. Hopkins, Third Infantry-all on parole. {p.86} Maj. and Bvt. Lieut. Col. J. V. Bomford, Sixth Infantry, retained prisoner, Lieut. Col. W. Hoffman, Eighth Infantry; Capt. and Bvt. Lieut. Col. I. V. D. Reeve, Eighth Infantry; Capt. and Bvt. Maj. J. T. Sprague, Eighth Infantry; Capt. A. T. Lee, Eighth Infantry; Capt. C. D. Jordan Eighth Infantry-all on parole. Lieut. Z. R. Bliss, Eighth Infantry, retained prisoner. Lieut. E. L. Hartz, Eighth Infantry, on parole. Lieut. H. M. Lazelle, Eighth Infantry, retained prisoner. Lieut. B. W. H. Read, Eighth Infantry, on parole. Lieut. L. Peck, Eighth Infantry; Lieut. J. J. Van Horn, Eighth Infantry; Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry-all retained prisoners.

It is not known whether Lieutenant-Colonel Backus, Third Infantry, Major Cunningham, paymaster, and one or two other officers were captured in New Orleans and required to give their parole, or were permitted to pass through that city unmolested.

[Indorsement.]

Not furnished with my letter to Adjutant-General of the 25th of May, 1861.

C. A. WAITE, Colonel First Infantry.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY IN TEXAS, San Antonio, April 24, 1861.

I do hereby declare upon my honor and pledge myself as a gentleman and a soldier that I will not take up arms or serve in the field against the Government of the Confederate States of America under my present or any other commission that I may hold during the existence of the present war between the United States and the Government of the Confederate States of America; that I will not correspond with the authorities of the United States, either civil or military, giving information against the interest of the Confederate States of America unless duly exchanged-it being understood that Colonel Waite is permitted, after leaving the territories of the Confederate States, to make to the authorities of the United States such reports and statements as may be required of him by such authorities or by his official position in relation to past transactions.

C. A. WAITE, Colonel First Infantry.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, April 1, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: The exchange of Captain Barron for Colonel Hoffman has been refused. Any other officer of proper rank will be accepted for Colonel Hoffman, Brigadier-General Burnside paroled a large number of prisoners taken at Roanoke Island, anticipating that they would be exchanged for prisoners of the United States now held in the South.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. WOOL, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-I send herewith a small package of letters,

{p.87}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, Norfolk, Va., April 2, 1862.

Maj. Gen. JOHN B. WOOL, Commanding Department of Virginia.

SIR: I send herewith by flag of truce Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford, U. S. Army, exchanged for Lieut. Col. John Pegram, C. S. Army. Both of these gentlemen are released from their paroles from this date.

Your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General, Commanding.

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FORT MONROE, April 6, 1892.

Captain Fox, Assistant Secretary:

...

A flag of truce this p.m. brought down following released prisoners of war from Richmond: Colonel Bomford, Lieutenant Van Horn, Captain Bliss, U. S. Army, taken in Texas last summer. ...

FULTON.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., April 7, 1862.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington City, D. C.

GENERAL: If provision has not already been made for my exchange I have the honor respectfully to request of the honorable Secretary of War that a proposition for my exchange may be presented, through General Wool or other source, with Capt. Thomas K. Jackson, chief commissary of General Buckner’s staff, surrendered at Fort Donelson, Tenn., and formerly of the U. S. Army, now confined, I think, at Fort Warren. If this request cannot at present be entertained I have the honor to ask that I may be put on duty with the Coast Survey, or in some capacity elsewhere not conflicting with my parole. My history as a prisoner is too well known to the Department to need recapitulation here, yet I trust that it will be considered that I have been a prisoner almost a year, nearly four months of which was passed in Texas. Will you be pleased, general, to inform me of the action of the Department upon this request.

With the highest respect, I am, general, your obedient servant,

H. M. LAZELLE, Captain, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, April 8, 1862.

Lieut. Col. I. V. D. REEVE, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: In reply to your communication of the 4th instant I find from the records of these headquarters that Major-General Huger refused to accept Maj. H. A. Gilliam, Seventh North Carolina Volunteers, in exchange for yourself, he being a volunteer officer. No exchanges have been effected since the 22d of February, General Huger having no {p.88} authority to make or accept propositions, consequently your name has not since been submitted; but as soon as the system of exchanges is renewed application will be made to procure your release from your parole.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, April 9, 1862.

Capt. H. M. LAZELLE, Eighth U. S. infantry, Hagerstown, Md.

SIR: In reply to your request of the 7th instant to be exchanged for Thomas K. Jackson, now confined at Fort Warren, I have respectfully to inform you that the Department has taken every step within its power to procure the release from confinement and parole of officers and men in the U. S. service. The rebels have, for some reason, not a similar disposition. The proposition to release Jackson cannot at this time be entertained.

I am, sir, &c.,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, BUREAU OF MILITARY JUSTICE, June 12, 1866.

Respectfully returned to the Adjutant-General with the following remarks:

From the within papers* it appears that in the spring of 1861 George Butchosky was a regular soldier in the service of the United States at Fort Bliss, Tex. Soon after the surrender of the traitor Twiggs this man attempted to leave the service and was forcibly detained by Colonel Reeve. A writ of habeas corpus was then sued out in his behalf before a Judge Crosby of one of the State courts, who decided that as Butchosky was a citizen of Texas he owed it paramount allegiance, and that the United States no longer existed as a Government; he therefore ordered his discharge. Colonel Reeve was powerless to resist this illegal action and the man was permitted to leave. He afterward entered the rebel service. He has now presented himself with a request that he be allowed to rejoin his regiment, wherein he held the grade of first duty sergeant, and serve out the term of his original enlistment. He is held a prisoner in the guard-house at Fort Bliss by the commandant, Major Brotherton, who desires instructions as to the course to be pursued.

It is recommended by this Bureau that Butchosky be forthwith brought to trial before a court-martial for desertion, as it is held that the manner of his discharge can in no way serve him as a defense. In taking advantage of such a mockery of the forms of law and leaving his regiment against the commands of his superior officer Butchosky was clearly guilty of aggravated desertion.

J. HOLT, Judge-Advocate-General.

* Inclosures not found.

{p.89}

CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

RICHMOND, VA., July 30, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, C. S. A.

HONORABLE SIR: In complying with the request of General Earl Van Dorn, C. S. Army, by reporting in person to you, I desire to solicit at your hands an extension of my present parole to the limits of the original United States.

In this application I beg to call your attention to the fact that I was made a prisoner of war by the simple accident of my position, having been as an officer of the regular army stationed in Texas at the time of the stipulations between its Government and General Twiggs; and that a similar parole to that which I now ask has been granted to other officers made prisoners in Texas under similar circumstances. For more than five years past, with the exception of the three months I have been held a prisoner, I have been on active duty in that country. My health has been injured from the effects of a wound received in an Indian engagement there, and my present position is rendered more embarrassing by my pecuniary means of support having become exhausted without the possibility of my supplying myself with more.

While I do not shrink from any of the consequences of my situation, yet I must in justice to myself say that a political relationship has been wrongly given me while simply engaged in the faithful discharge of duties to the whole country. I trust, sir, that you will think it proper to extend to me this request, in which event every condition of my parole shall be faithfully complied with however such parole is elsewhere regarded, and this whether dependent upon my official relations or otherwise.

With the highest respect, I am, sir, your obedient servant,

H. M. LAZELLE, Lieutenant, U. S. Army.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 52.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, Tex., August 7, 1861.

Hereafter the officers of the U. S. Army now held as prisoners of war in this city will be paid by the chief quartermaster at these headquarters the usual commutation allowance for quarters and fuel, and upon their pay accounts all allowance except pay proper and service rations.

By order of General Van Dorn:

T. A. WASHINGTON, Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.

GALVESTON, TEX., September 18, 1861.

...

IV. Colonel McCulloch will order the removal of the prisoners of war from Camp Verde and place them for safety in detachments at the different posts of his command.

{p.90}

V. Transportation will be furnished by the quartermaster’s department. The commissary department will issue subsistence in kind to the prisoners.

By command of Brig. Gen. P. O. Hébert, commanding Military Department of Texas:

SAML. BOYER DAVIS, Major and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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NEW ORLEANS, October 10, 1861.

SECRETARY OF WAR:

The prisoners of war are, some of them, destitute of clothing-many without blankets. I would not* have clothed them had I remained in command. There are two companies of artillery among the troops at Bay Saint Louis. Shall I issue forage to them?

D. B. TWIGGS, Major-General.

* The language of this telegraphic dispatch is ambiguous, but is printed here as received.

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RICHMOND, October 11, 1861.

General D. B. TWIGGS, New Orleans:

Issue forage to the artillery companies in Bay Saint Louis. The prisoners must be furnished with such clothing and covering as are strictly necessary.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, San Antonio, October 18, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

SIR: On yesterday I received your letter* authorizing the commanding officer of this department to extend the parole of Colonel Bomford and other officers therein named now in this department as prisoners of war. If this letter were directory I should most certainly extend the parole to those officers at once; but as it is not directory, and I think there are good reasons that they should not be permitted to go beyond the limits of the Confederate States, I have notified them that the parole will not be extended until I receive further instructions from the War Department.

It is a fact and a deplorable one that has not been kept from the Department at Richmond, that there is a great scarcity of arms and ammunition in this department; and in addition to what has been said let me assure you that the scarcity is even much greater than I had anticipated, and that the want or positive absence of them renders it almost impossible if not entirely so to bring a force into the field sufficient to protect or defend the coast of Texas against the expected invasion by the enemy. It is also a fact that there is some dissatisfaction among the population of this immediate section of the State, and probably along the Rio Grande, and there is no doubt in my mind that a very considerable portion of the population of Mexico on our border would participate in a war on Texas if we were invaded by anything like a {p.91} respectable force. And I have no earthly doubt that all these things are known to these officers as well and even better than they are to me or any other secessionist in the State; they know, too, that every officer in this department is making extraordinary exertions to raise men to defend it, and that the troops are coming into the service very slowly; and if the invasion is harried, it will be upon us before we can possibly be ready. These officers are known to be opposed to us; they associate constantly with that portion of our citizens that are the most disaffected; they are constant visitors at the house and family of Col. C. Anderson whom I refused to permit to go North and now hold as a prisoner of war. One of them, Lieutenant Frank, wrote a letter (a copy sent you with this) to Major Sprague, which was intercepted at New Orleans, which shows the feeling toward us and indicates plainly, I think, that he at least would enter the service against us.

I am satisfied that to permit these officers to go to the United States at this time would be jeopardizing the interests of this State more than the Secretary of War could have had any idea of at the time he consented to extend their paroles; and am unwilling under the circumstances to exercise the authority granted me to that effect without first placing the above information fully before him and await his further directions in the premises.

I occupy a peculiarly unpleasant position here, as General Hébert is in the department; but as he has not relieved me, while I am compelled to discharge the unpleasant and responsible duties of commander of the department I will do so according to my best judgment for the good of the country; and whenever my Government concludes that I am unfit for any position in which I am serving her the authorities have but to indicate the fact to me to get clear of any further annoyance by or trouble with me. I have no disposition to complain at or with any one, but you can readily perceive how very disagreeable my situation is now-an apparent usuper of the power legally belonging to another.

My regiment has been and is still anxious to be engaged in the most active portion of our service, and has been chafing to be with the fighting portion of our army, and I would have proudly received an order at any time to have led them upon such a field; but I have contented myself by saying to my commanding officer that we were ready for any service that our Government might require of us, preferring the most active and dangerous to any other.

I should be pleased to hear from the Department respecting the paroles of the prisoners at the earliest convenient period.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. B. MCCULLOCH, Colonel, Provisional Army, C. S., Comdg. Department of Texas.

[Indorsement.]

Approve his conduct and applaud his discretion in declining to extend paroles.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., August 6, 1861.

Maj. J. T. SPRAGUE, Albany, N. Y.

MY DEAR MAJOR: I have just learned that letters can be sent North by Adams Express, so I will write you a few lines though I doubt much whether it ever reaches you. I suppose you have seen Colonel Reeve {p.92} and heard from him all the particulars about the surrender. The officers have been granted paroles limiting them to the seceding States, but Colonel Bomford, Lieutenants Bliss, Van Horn, Jones and myself have thought it best to remain here; the balance have gone to Richmond. I wish you would write me and let me know what our chances are for an exchange, what is the effect of the parole on those officers who have left, &c. The men have been removed from our control and are in camp a few miles from town; but few have left, only four out of E Company. I was very sorry to hear of our defeat at Manassas. It is rumored that the rangers at Fort Bliss have whipped the troops at Fillmore, killing some and making the balance prisoners. I sincerely hope that is not the case; should it be true I shall feel as if we were allowing those who have recently left the Army to take all the laurels which formerly belonged to it. Business is very dull here, many merchants having closed their stores. The Stars and Stripes have many friends in this place yet. I wish you would write me and advise me as to the better course to pursue. I suppose you have been promoted ere this.

Yours, truly,

R. T. FRANK.

P. S.-The report of the surrender of Major Lynde at Fort Fillmore is confirmed, and from the accounts received here it was a most disgraceful affair. Baylor has gone to intercept the four companies from Buchanan, and I fear that they will be so circumstanced that they will be obliged to surrender also, but I pray to God, for the sake of the reputation of the Army, that they may not.

FRANK.

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SAN ANTONIO, TEX., November 11, 1861.

General HÉBERT, Commanding Department of Texas.

SIR: I have a commission to raise for the Confederate service an infantry company to rendezvous at or near Victoria and drill until spring unless the coast is invaded, and wish to raise a company for the above-mentioned service, but find it hard to get Texans to go into infantry companies. They say they will go mounted but no other way; that is a majority say so. I can get a good company among the Federal prisoners that are now at Camp Verde, provided they could get certificates from the mustering officer, or some other officer properly authorized, that the Confederate States would pay what is due them by the old Government. They would nearly all to a man join the Southern army, and there is about 350 of them. If they can get certificates from the Southern Government for their back pay you will oblige me much by letting me know, and to authorize the mustering officer, or some one, to give them their certificates after they shall have been mustered into the Confederate service.

Yours, &c.,

S. W. MCALLISTER.

[First indorsement.]

Will Major Maclin please give the general commanding such information as he may possess in regard to the writer and whether what he proposes is advisable.

P. O. HÉBERT, Brigadier-General.

{p.93}

[second indorsement.]

CHIEF QUARTERMASTER’S OFFICE, Galveston, Tex., November 16, 1861.

Respectfully returned to the general commanding for his consideration.

The prisoners now at Camp Verde have from $150 to $300 due each. The Adjutant and Inspector General of the Army was consulted upon the subject of paying the prisoners what was due them by the United States. He replied that no appropriation had been made for such purpose and that they could not be paid. But he was inclined to the belief that the Government would pay them after the war, provided they enlisted and served faithfully. No one therefore can give the pledge demanded by the prisoners. My opinion is that the large sums due the prisoners of war at Camp Verde ought not to be paid; that their services would not justify it. They have been solicited frequently to enter our service and have declined. They have manifested much bitterness against our cause.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

SACKFIELD MACLIN, Major, C. S. Army, Actg. Chief Quartermaster, Dept. of Texas.

–––

HDQRS. SECOND REGIMENT TEXAS MOUNTED RIFLES, Fort Brown, Tex., November 11, 1861.

Capt. D. C. STITH, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army, San Antonio, Tex.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report that having received information from my spies of the presence of some escaped prisoners of war near the mouth of the Rio Grande I dispatched Captain Nolan and Lieutenant Lively, with twenty-three men, to that point with orders to retake them. They discharged the duty with prudence and propriety. A copy of Captain Nolan’s report is inclosed. I shall send the prisoners to San Antonio with the train, which will return within a few days.

I have strong hopes of being able to recapture Colonel Anderson. A Lieutenant Williams, Second U. S. Cavalry, is reported to have been in Matamoras two days ago. I have spies on his track.

...

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

JOHN S. FORD, Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

FORT BROWN, TEX., November 9, 1861.

Col. JOHN S. FORD, Comdg. Rio Grande Military District, Fort Brown, Tex.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in accordance with your instructions I left this post on the 6th instant, accompanied by Lieutenant Lively, of Captain Buquor’s company, and twenty-three men of my command, and proceeded to the mouth of the Rio Grande. I arrested and brought to this post Charles Douglas and John Brown,* escaped prisoners of war, who were trying to make their way to the United States, and also John Murphy, who was likewise trying to get a passage North. The man Murphy is supposed to be the person who some time since committed a murder at or near Austin, and although I did {p.94} not know Murphy, yet as he appeared so anxious to leave the country I thought it my duty to arrest him. I am much indebted to Lieutenant Lively for his valuable assistance; without it I should probably not have succeeded in making the arrests. I turned the prisoners over to Lieutenant Williams, officer of the guard.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

MAT. NOLAN, Captain, Comdg. Company, Second Regt. Texas Mounted Rifles.

* See Bomford to Maclin, December 11, 1861, p. 96.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 15, 1861.

Maj. Gen. BENJ. HUGER, Norfolk, Va.

SIR: Your letter of the 13th instant to the Adjutant-General has been referred to me.

...

Third. Surg, Wyatt M. Brown, of the Seventh Regiment North Carolina Volunteers, arrived here on parole and reports that he is to be released from his parole “upon forwarding to Asst. Surg, De Witt C. Peters, U. S. Army, a similar release from the obligation he is under not to serve or execute the functions of his office to the detriment of the States now at war with the United States.” The words just quoted are from the written orders signed by “J. P. Garesche, assistant adjutant-general, by order of Major-General McClellan.”

You are authorized to forward in the name of your Government to General Wool a release of the parole of Asst. Surg, De Witt C. Peters, couched in the above-quoted language, with information that Surg. W. M. Brown will thenceforward be considered as released from his parole, and will resume his duties as surgeon of his regiment.

I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, Galveston, November 27, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a communication from Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford, U. S. Army, and others, prisoners of war at San Antonio. I have informed the writers that I have submitted their communication to the Secretary of War for his action.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. O. HÉBERT, Brigadier-General, Provisional Army.

[Inclosure.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., November 23, 1861.

Brig. Gen. PAUL O. HÉBERT, Commanding Department of Texas.

SIR: We, the undersigned, have the honor to state that a communication from the officers of the U. S. Army held as prisoners of war at this place concerning their parole was forwarded to you at Galveston, Tex., about the 7th instant. As no answer to this communication has yet been received, we respectfully call the attention of the general commanding {p.95} the Department of Texas to this subject, and at the same time mention in support of our request that those officers associated with us as prisoners of war and placed in the same category with ourselves have all been allowed an extended parole. We also respectfully refer to the favorable consideration given to our application by the War Department at Richmond, Va., as well as to the indorsement of that paper by General Van Dorn. In connection with the same subject we beg leave to allude to the case of those U. S. officers taken prisoners by Colonel Baylor at Fillmore, N. Mex., who were allowed the same parole.

J. V. BOMFORD, Major Sixth Regiment Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col. U. S. Army. Z. R. BLISS, First Lieutenant, Eighth U. S. Infantry. J. J. VAN HORN, Second Lieutenant, Eighth Regiment, U. S. Army. R. T. FRANK, Second Lieutenant, Eighth infantry, U. S. Army. WM. G. JONES, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army.

–––

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., December 13, 1861.

Maj. S. B. DAVIS, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army, Galveston, Tex.

SIR: On the 10th of the present month Lieut. D. Lively, C. S. Army, of Captain Buquor’s company of infantry, Third Regiment, turned over to me for safe-keeping three prisoners of war whom he had arrested in the country toward the lower Rio Grande-two of them are deserters from the [Federal] prisoners of war in charge of Col. H. B. McCulloch; the other, a murderer (citizen), who, contrary to the tenor of the President’s proclamation, was attempting when arrested to make his way into the United States. I removed the manacles from the wrists of the two deserters and substituted balls and chains attached to their legs. I refer you to inclosed copy of written orders (marked p issued by me on taking charge of them. I was aware that it was not essential that the orders should be written, yet, as some difficulty had arisen on this head at the time of the escape of another prisoner of war some time since, I thought it best to take every precaution.

Many applications have been made to me by strangers and others to be permitted to visit these prisoners, all of which requests I have promptly declined. I refer you to a letter from Bvt. Lieut. Col. J. V. Bomford, U. S. Army, one of the prisoners of war residing in this city, as bearing on this point (marked 2), and my reply (marked 3), all of which you will oblige me by submitting to the notice of General P. O. Hébert, C. S. Army.

...

As I leave this place for Brownsville on Tuesday next it will be necessary for these prisoners to be committed to the charge of some other officer, and I hope that the course I may adopt on leaving in absence of directions from your office may be approved by the general.

I am, sir, yours, very respectfully,

ROB. B. MACLIN, Captain, C. S. Artillery, Commanding San Antonio Barracks.

{p.96}

[Inclosure No. 1.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

SAN ANTONIO, December 9, 1861.

Immediately after guard mounting every officer of the day will issue the following orders to the sergeants or corporals of the guard in relation to the three prisoners of war now in charge of the guard:

First. To allow no man or woman, friend or foe, to converse with said prisoners of war, or write notes or letters to them on any subject, or furnish them with any written or printed documents, under any pretext whatever.

Second. To allow but one of said prisoners to leave the guard-house at a single time.

...

Fourth. In case escape is attempted the sentinel in charge of said prisoner or prisoners must shoot him or them so attempting to escape, without mercy.

...

Sixth. The sergeant or corporal of the guard to be warned that he is responsible for the safe-keeping of the prisoners to the officer of the day, and the sentinel to the sergeant or corporal of the guard, and also to be warned of the very severe punishment attending a want of strict vigilance on the part of an officer of the guard or sentinel.

ROB. B. MACLIN, Captain, C. S. Artillery, Commanding San Antonio Barracks.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., December 11, 1861.

Capt. H. B. MACLIN, C. S. Army, Commanding Officer, San Antonio.

SIR: Being apprised of the confinement of Sergeant Douglas and Corporal Brown, U. S. Army, now prisoners of war in this place, I have the honor to address you this communication in behalf of myself and other U. S. officers, prisoners of war, residing in San Antonio, for the purpose of obtaining permission to visit them and to ask for them that protection and consideration of their necessities which their helpless condition suggests. I am well aware that no appeal is necessary to insure their relief when your attention is once directed to the subject of their wants.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. V. BOMFORD, Major Sixth Regiment Infantry, Brevet Lieut. Col., U. S. Army.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

SAN ANTONIO, TEX., December 11, 1861.

Maj. J. V. BOMFORD, Sixth Regiment Infantry, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army.

SIR: Your communication of this date containing a request in behalf of yourself and other U. S. officers residing in this place to be permitted to visit the two deserters from the prisoners of war now in my custody and also asking for them that protection and consideration of their necessities which their helpless condition suggests has been received. My charge of said deserters being but temporary in the absence of higher authority I feel it my duty respectfully to decline your request {p.97} to be permitted to visit them. Every comfort compatible with their condition shall be given them, and most surely every protection extended to them. This having been the course of the Confederate States adopted toward its prisoners since the commencement of the present war, I could not if I wished act otherwise.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROB. B. MACLIN, Captain, C. S. Light Artillery, Comdg. San Antonio Barracks.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, Norfolk, Va., January 11, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

SIR: ... By direction of the Secretary of War I have already offered Lieut. William G. Jones, Tenth Infantry, to Flag-Officer Goldsborough for Lieutenant Sayre, of the Marine Corps, now on parole. General Wool also agrees to receive 147 wounded prisoners, via James River, at such time as may be agreed upon. I notify General Winder.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General, Commanding.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, Norfolk, Va., January 17, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

SIR: ... A late letter from General Wool states he had requested that Colonel Hoffman should be given for Colonel Bradford, of North Carolina, whereas we have offered Brevet Colonel Chandler, Third Infantry. What reply shall I give?

B. H[UGER].

[Indorsement.]

Inform General Huger that Colonel Hoffman is of higher rank than Colonel Bradford, who was merely a brevet or temporary colonel of twelve-months’ volunteers, not even equal in rank to Brevet Colonel Chandler who was given in exchange. We can only give a full colonel like Hoffman for an officer of equal grade.

Adjutant-G[eneral.]

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORFOLK, Norfolk, Va., January 22, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

SIR: I inclose herewith copy of a letter received from Maj. Gen. John B. Wool on the evening of January 20.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.98}

[Indorsement.]

JANUARY 23, 1862.

Respectfully submitted to Secretary of War.

Captain Farley, aide de-camp to Brigadier-General Bonham, is only a first lieutenant and as such cannot be exchanged with a captain.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., January 20, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I am directed to propose to you that Capt. W. D. Farley, aide to General Bonham, and Lieut. F. de Caradine, held in Washington as prisoners taken in arms against the United States, shall be released and sent to Norfolk, on condition that Capt. J. H. Potter, Seventh U. S. Infantry, and Lieut. H. M. Lazelle, Eighth Infantry, shall be released from their parole.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. WOOL, Major. General.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond January 23, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BENJ. HUGER, Norfolk.

SIR: I have your several letters of 11th, 18th, 20th, 22d, and 23d, on subject of exchange of prisoners.

First. By your letter of 11th instant you informed me that you had offered to Commodore Goldsborough Lieut. William G. Jones for Lieutenant Sayre, of Marine Corps. By your letter of 20th instant you state that you offered Lieutenant Dickinson for Tattnall before getting instructions to offer him for Sayre. By my two letters of 29th December you were requested to offer Dickinson for Sayre, Jones for Tattnall. I do not see who has been given to us for Jones, and yet you ask for another lieutenant to be given for Sayre. Please explain.

Second. Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram, for whom Colonel Willcox is demanded in exchange by General Wool, informs me that he notified General McClellan that no such exchange was to be hoped for, and received for reply from the adjutant-general the statement that Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford would be taken in exchange for him. I shall send Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford in exchange for Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram as soon as he can arrive from Texas.

I consent to the following exchanges proposed in General Wool’s letter of the 17th:

...

We will give First Lieut. B. T. Frank for First Lieut. Thomas H. Allen.

...

Fourth. On further examination I see that General Wool, in his letter of 19th, proposes to give T. S. Wilson for First Lieut. W. G. Jones. I decline the proposal, and adhere to the offer of Jones for Sayre, as you have given Dickinson for Tattnall.

...

{p.99}

Seventh. ... For Captain Barron I would give Colonel Hoffman, Eighth Regiment, U. S. Infantry.

...

Please tender this.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

P. S.-As a number of the officers above offered are at a distance it will take some weeks to get them all to Norfolk.

–––

RICHMOND, VA., January 23, 1862.

The Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR.

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that after I left Fort Warren for this city I received a letter from the Adjutant-General of the U. S. Army, stating that if I failed to obtain the release of Col. O. B. Willcox in exchange for my own release, Bvt. Lieut. Col. J. V. Bomford would be received in my place. This letter was kept at Fortress Monroe by Major-General Wool.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. PEGRAM, Lieutenant-Colonel, Provisional Army, C. S.

–––

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, January 23, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BENJ. HUGER, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.

SIR: The Secretary of War decides that Colonel Hoffman is of higher rank than Colonel Bradford, who was merely a brevet or temporary colonel of twelve-months’ volunteers, not even equal in rank to Brevet Colonel Chandler, who was given in exchange. A full colonel like Hoffman can only be given for an officer of equal grade.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. CHILTON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, January 24, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JOHN H. WINDER, Richmond.

SIR: The following-named prisoners of war have been given in exchange by my orders, and you are instructed to have them sent to Norfolk, to be forwarded by General Huger to Fortress Monroe:

First. Lieutenant-Colonel Bomford, Eighth U. S. Infantry, exchanged for Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram.

...

Ninth. First Lieut. B. T. Frank, U. S. Army, for First Lieut. Thomas H. Allen, North Carolina.

...

I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

{p.100}

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, January 26, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BENJAMIN HUGER, Norfolk, Va.

SIR: First. In response to yours of 23d instant, inclosing offer of General Wool for exchange of Messrs. Claiborne and Forrest for Maj. James V. Bomford, Sixth Infantry, I remark that Major Bomford has already been tendered for Pegram. I now offer for these two naval officers Maj. D. H. Vinton, of the U. S. Army. I learn from what seems good authority that Major Vinton, released on parole in Texas, has been and is now in service of the United States at West Point, thus relieving other officers for active service and violating his parole. I hope this statement is not true, but it will be not inopportune to report the matter to General Wool and making inquiry into the truth of a report so derogatory to the reputation of Major Vinton.*

...

I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

* See Huger to Wool, January 29, p. 78.

–––

NORFOLK, January 26, 1862.

Hon. W. N. H. SMITH.

MY DEAR SIR: I am released on parole for thirty days to secure the release of Major Reeve, of the Regular Army. If you feel any interest in my story, and think I can be of equal service here to his release, please see the Secretary of War and effect my exchange. My parole is for thirty days only. The chief object of my visit is to secure the release of our prisoners of war at Fort Warren. We have now 400 men and officers there from our State and Virginia. Colonel Dimick, the commandant, wishes the Texas regulars now in Texas (244) released. Upon the assurance from Colonel [General] Huger that they will be released he will immediately release all the men and officers. These Texans are the oldest prisoners and farthest removed from any aid, have fewest friends and sympathizers at home.

Do try and have this accomplished and as soon as possible. Our soldiers are dispirited at their long confinement, and want much to be at home. They will all go in for the war, and are as good as regulars. Call in the aid of Bridgers, Davis, Dortch and Bragg for our men, and have General Huger to give the proper reply. I will be in Richmond on Thursday or Saturday night. Meantime help us if possible. I go home to-morrow to see my wife and see after Burnside. I left Wise very well.

Very truly,

H. A. GILLIAM.

[Indorsement.]

Major Gilliam, the writer of this, is major of the Seventh [Seventeenth] North Carolina Volunteers, captured at Hatteras, and is well known to me, and I should be glad to have the release asked for.

W. N. H. SMITH.

{p.101}

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, January 28, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BENJ. HUGER, Norfolk, Va.

SIR: I have your letter of 27th instant in relation to exchanges proposed by Maj. Gen. John E. Wool in his letters to you of 24th and 25th instant. I will give Lieutenant Van Horn, of Eighth U. S. Infantry, in exchange for Midshipman Wharton. Lieutenant Van Horn has been ordered here from Texas, and will be sent to you on his arrival.

...

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, February 13, 1862.

Brig. Gen. J. H. WINDER, Richmond, Va.

SIR: Lieut. R. T. Frank, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army, is to be exchanged for Lieutenant Allen, and Lieut. W. G. Jones is to be exchanged for Lieutenant Tattnall. Send Lieutenants Frank and Jones to General Huger.

Your obedient servant,

ROBT. OULD, Assistant Secretary of War.

–––

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN MILITARY DISTRICT, San Antonio, Tex., February 13, 1862.

Maj. SAMUEL BOYER DAVIS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

SIR: The orders respecting the-exchange of the (officers) prisoners of war in Texas have been received and promptly delivered to those at and near this place.

General Orders, No. 6,* from the department commander, reached me by mail this morning and will be distributed immediately.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. E. MCCULLOCH, Colonel, Commanding Western Military District.

* Not found.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., February 16, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Norfolk, Va.

SIR: This letter will be handed you by Maj. H. A. Gilliam, sent here on parole for exchange with Major Reeve, U. S. Army, or Major Sibley, U. S. Army.

I have already informed you that I decline to exchange regulars for volunteers. I also decline to allow the enemy to choose their exchanges, picking out the officers on both sides.

{p.102}

Major Gilliam therefore returns to the enemy. If a parole is granted him until exchanged for an officer of equal grade such exchange will be accepted and we will send an officer of equal grade, and I beg that you give him a letter to that effect.

...

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

–––

RICHMOND, VA., March 28, 1862.

SECRETARY OF WAR, C. S. A., Richmond Va.

SIR: We have the honor to make the following communication concerning our confinement, for the purpose of effecting if possible an advantageous change of our condition as prisoners by exchange or parole:

We arrived in Richmond on parole March 10 and since which time we have suffered confinement, which has now been extended beyond the limits of what we consider to be a temporary duress depending on some immediate military necessity. We respectfully refer to our original paroles,* as well as letter order from Adjutant-General’s Office, dated Richmond, January 24, 1862, copies of which papers are herewith inclosed.

Very respectfully, your obedient servants,

J. V. BOMFORD, Major Sixth Regiment Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col., U. S. Army. Z. R. BLISS, Lieutenant, Eighth U. S. Infantry. J. J. VAN HORN, Lieutenant, Eighth Infantry, U. S. Army.

[Indorsement.]

Direct General Winder to inform such of the signers as are still here that they are detained because the United States have not reciprocated in the last release of prisoners, and have declined a general exchange, after agreeing to it through General Wool.

G. W. R[ANDOLPH].

* Omitted.

[Inclosure.]

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, January 24, 1862.

Brig. Gen. P. O. HÉBERT, Commanding Department of Texas, Houston, Tex.:

SIR: The Secretary of War directs that all U. S. officers taken prisoners during the war and now in Texas be sent to Richmond for exchange.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. CHILTON Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., March 31, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding Department, Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: On yesterday I wrote you* that there was no objection to the exchange proposed by General Wool between Colonel Hoffman, {p.103} U. S. Army, and Captain Barron, C. S. Navy; you are now authorized to state that his proposition is accepted.

Colonel Hoffman is now on parole within the United States, and as soon as Captain Barron arrives at Norfolk you will inform Colonel Hoffman that he is released from his parole.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* Not found.

–––

HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., April 3, 1862.

Maj. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding Department, Norfolk, Va.

GENERAL: I am directed by General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2d instant,* inclosing copy of one from General Wool saying that the exchange of Captain Barron, C. S. Navy, for Colonel Hoffman, U. S. Army, had been refused. The authority sent you to effect this exchange was based upon the letter from General Wool of the 27th ultimo, wherein he says:

I agree to the exchange of Colonel Hoffman for Captain Barron.

The general instructs me to say that he can name no other officer for whom Colonel Hoffman can be exchanged.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. TAYLOR, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

–––

HDQRS. DEPT. OF HENRICO, Richmond, April 3, 1862.

General B. HUGER, Norfolk.

GENERAL: I send by order of the Secretary of War the following officers to be exchanged, viz: Colonel Bomford for Colonel Pegram; Colonel Woodruff for Colonel Willie; Captain Bliss for Lieutenant Myers, of the Navy; Lieutenant Van Horn for Midshipman Wharton.

...

These prisoners are sent by my aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Winder.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. WINDER, Brigadier-General.

ADDENDA.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10.}

WAR DEPT., ADJT.-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 10, 1863.

1. The following officers and men have been declared duly exchanged as prisoners of war since the announcement in General Orders, No. 191, of November 19, 1862:

...

6. All captures of officers, enlisted men, and camp followers, in Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, and Louisiana, up to January 1, 1863.

...

By order of the Secretary of War:

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.104}

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 34.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF, NINETEENTH ARMY CORPS, Opelousas, April 25, 1863.

Sergeants Brady, Stapleton, McCormick, Reinhardt, Sheble, Neal, Harris, Darker, Brannan, and 269 men of the Eighth Infantry, Army of the United States, whose names are affixed,* having been exchanged by the rebel government whose prisoners they were, arrived at New Orleans on the 25th of February, 1863, and a portion of them, under command of Lieut. Copley Amory, Fourth Cavalry, reached this point on the 23d instant, to share with us the honors of this campaign. It has been deemed but an act of justice to these gallant men to relieve them from this service and to expedite their return to the North. They separate from the command this day. In honor of their departure the commanding general has ordered a national salute, and a similar honor will be paid them at their departure from New Orleans. Captain Bainbridge at Opelousas and Brigadier-General Sherman at New Orleans are charged with the execution of this order.

These troops were shamefully and unconditionally surrendered to the rebel authorities in Texas by their commanders on the 9th day of May, 1861. Separated from their officers, divided into squads, and removed to different posts on the frontiers of Texas, deprived of pay for more than two years, they were subjected to degrading labors, supplied with scanty food and clothing, and sometimes chained to the ground or made to suffer other severe military punishments. Recruiting officers visited them daily, offering them commissions and large bounties to desert their flag. Notwithstanding the false reports of the overthrow of their Government, which seduced so many men of higher pretensions and position, unsustained by counsel with each other, with few exceptions they repelled the bribes and avoided the treason. Those who chose a different course did it to escape their prison.

No government ever had more loyal supporters. Officers of the Army and Navy, to whom they had a right to turn for counsel and example, who had been educated by the Government, who never received a month’s pay that was not drawn from its coffers, nor bore an honor that it did not confer, at the first suggestion of treason betrayed the mother that nursed them, and deserted the flag that protected them. With every branch of the Government within their control and the continent under their feet they yielded to the indecency and folly of the rebellion, and without a shadow of cause sought to blacken the name of America and Americans by fastening upon them the greatest crime of human history-that of destroying the best government ever framed, and annihilating the hopes of the human race in republican liberty. Thank God! the officers could not corrupt the men they commanded. Not a soldier nor a sailor voluntarily abandoned his post. The poisonous subtleties of secession never touched the hearts of the people, nor led them to substitute the guilty ammunition of popular, vulgar, low-bred provincialism for the hallowed hopes of national patriotism.

Soldiers, let the gallant men that part from us to-day receive the honors they deserve. Let them hear the peal of cannon and the cheers of the line. Let them receive, wherever they go, the homage of the Army and Navy together. The Army and Navy forever!

By command of Major-General Banks:

RICHARD B. IRWIN, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* List omitted.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6