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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 50, P. II, Ch. LXII–Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

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CHAPTER LXII.
OPERATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST.
JANUARY 1, 1861-JUNE 30, 1865.
PART II.
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CORRESPONDENCE.*

* For Correspondence, etc., January 1, 1861, to June 30, 1862, see Part I.

OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DIST. CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, July 2, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT:

SIR: I am just in receipt of information from the Smith River Valley that the troops sent thither have crossed the river and are about settling camp almost in the midst of the Indians, or at least about half way between the two largest tribes, or say half mile from one tribe and a mile from the others. I hope you will order the troops on the south side of the river to be stationed at or near a place called Fort Dick, where U. S. land and good water can be found in abundance. This will be two-thirds of the distance from Crescent City to the reservation, and serve as protection both to the whites and Indians, who will thereby be kept entirely separate.

I have the honor to be, &c.,

GEO. M. HANSON, Superintendent Indian Affairs, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 3, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Special Orders No. 108, and communication dated June 24, 1862, from department headquarters.* It was ascertained that in the hands of the two paymasters in the district there was sufficient funds to pay the command of Major Rumrill, now en route for Fort Colville, and, in anticipation of the sanction of the commanding general, by my direction these troops were paid before their departure from this post. Major Rinearson, with Company C (Captain Kelly), First Oregon Cavalry, left here last night for Camp Baker, near Jacksonville. This morning Company D (Captain Seidenstriker) left for Fort Hoskins to relieve the company of Second California Infantry now on duty at that post. This last movement completes the disposition of the forces in this district, as indicated in the instructions of the commanding general of the department for the withdrawal of the Second California Infantry, and the distribution {p.4} of troops for the accomplishment of the purposes of the military establishment two months since committed to my charge. Full and free communication and intercourse has been had with all the commanding officers of posts and officers of Indian Department west of the Cascade Mountains, and reports exhibit an excellent condition of the troops and careful attention to the public interests, as well as the very peaceable and effective control of the Indian tribes in the district. Especial and careful attention has been given to the section of country east of the mountains and its military requirements. The attraction of recently discovered and reported rich gold fields has induced a large emigration among tribes of Indians formidable in numbers, and heretofore of limited intercourse with the whites. The character of this emigration, the absence of civil authority and power and entire freedom from restraint in a remote country, makes it peculiarly the office of our troops to propitiate and preserve peace. For this purpose, and impressed with the conviction that our policy was to prevent outbreak and aggression on either side rather than subdue hostilities when once provoked, I have endeavored to obtain from reliable and authentic sources all the information possible bearing upon this subject. The necessity for the protection of the emigration from the Atlantic States along the Fort Hall road, referred to in your communication, has already been fully recognized, and the commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla has been some time in active preparation for the movement of two companies toward Fort Hall and the establishment of a camp with one company near the Nez Percé Indian Agency. From Fort Colville, soon to be garrisoned by two companies of the First Washington Territory Infantry, reports represent quiet and friendly relations with the Indian tribes and an admirable condition of the post. At Fort Dalles the same excellent condition prevails. Informal requests have been made for a detachment of troops at the Warm Springs Reservation, but as yet no positive and well-founded necessity is shown. Arrangements have, however, been made promptly to provide for such contingency. In the allotment and movements of the troops and direction of affairs in this district an earnest, and it is hoped properly directed, effort has been made to insure the fulfillment of the wishes and instructions of the commanding general; and in being relieved from its command I have no stronger desire than to have the approval of the officer under whose orders I have had the honor to serve.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Comdg. District.

* See Part I. 21 1157.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 3, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER AT FORT WALLA WALLA, WASH. TER.:

SIR: In pursuance of directions from the commanding general of the department to employ a portion of your regiment for the protection of the overland emigration, you will immediately make the necessary preparations for the march of two companies thereof toward Fort Hall. It is expected that this force will be in the field not less than two months, and your arrangements for transportation and subsistence will be made accordingly.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Comdg. District.

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CARSON CITY, NEV. TER., July 4, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to respectfully report that I returned with detachment of twenty men to this place from Aurora on yesterday. The Indians are quiet in that vicinity. In obedience to orders from headquarters Department of the Pacific, dated June 18, 1862, and received June 26, 1862, Lieutenant Clark on the 30th ultimo removed my command to Fort Churchill and reported to the commanding officer at that post for duty. He could not move earlier for want of transportation. I will proceed to Fort Churchill with my detachment to-morrow morning. About the 15th ultimo I forwarded to headquarters a communication addressed to me by citizens of Susanville, which related to Indian outrages on Smoke Creek.* I have learned the real facts in regard to the affair, which are as follows: A wagon freighted with provisions en route for Humboldt broke down on Smoke Creek, and the party left in charge of the wagon, instead of camping beside it, selected a camp-ground about 300 yards below on the creek. The Indians discovered the wagon during the night, and finding no person with it helped themselves to what they wanted. A very natural result.

I remain, with munch respect, your obedient servant,

GEO. F. PRICE, Captain, Comdg. Company ill, Second California Volunteer Cavalry.

* See Jane 13, Part I, p. 1137.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, July 5, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to subunit, for information of the War Department, the report* of Maj. R. C. Drum, my assistant adjutant-general, of his inspection of the troops in the Southern District of California.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See May 30, Part I, p. 1110.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 115.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 5, 1862.

1. Under instructions from the War Department to protect the Overland Mail Route within this department, the Third Infantry California Volunteers and the headquarters, with five companies of the Second Cavalry California Volunteers, are designated for that purpose.

2. Col. P. Edward Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, the senior officer of the column, will move, with his headquarters and seven companies of his regiment, now encamped near Stockton, as soon as practicable, crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains and advancing on the Territory of Utah.

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3. Col. Columbus Sims, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, will move from his camp near this city at an early day, with his headquarters and two companies of his regiment, by water to Sacramento, and thence by laud along the mail route.

4. After crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Colonel Sims will report to Colonel Connor, by whose orders he will be governed in his further movements.

5. Colonel Connor will establish a post at Ruby Valley, with the headquarters of the Second Cavalry and Companies H and K of the same regiment, and then advance to the vicinity of Salt Lake with his seven companies of infantry, Price’s company of the Second Cavalry, and his field battery, and select a suitable position for a post.

6. The different staff departments will furnish the necessary transportation and supplies to insure a prompt movement.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 26.}

HEADQUARTERS, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 5, 1862.

I. The companies of the First Cavalry California Volunteer now on duty at this post will march this afternoon for Tubac, with the exception of such members of Company A whose horses cannot, in the opinion of the commanding officer, march without being shod. A post will be established at Tubac according to the directions given by the general commanding.

...

By order of Lieutenant-Colonel West:

LAFAYETTE HAMMOND, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, First Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Adjutant.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 5, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that upon the representations of the superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon, preferring its necessity and convinced from other sources of its propriety and requirement, I have directed the commanding officer at Fort Dalles to send at once to the Indian reservation at Warm Springs a detachment of twenty men with one subaltern. Fears are expressed by the subordinate agent at the reservation of a foray from the Snake Indians, and he represents his inability to control the Indians under his care without the assistance of an armed force. It is presumed that this small force will afford a sufficient guard for the property of the Indians and Indian department there, and restore the influence of the agent in his duties.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Comdg. District.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 116.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 7, 1862.

...

2. Lieut. Col. Harvey Lee, Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, will repair to Benicia Barracks and assume command of the post.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 7, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival at this post, and that I have this day assumed command of the District of Oregon, pursuant to Special Orders, No. 108, from the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 6.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 7, 1862.

In obedience to Special Orders, No. 108, of the 23d of June, 1862, from the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the District of Oregon. First Lieut. William B. Hughes, Ninth Infantry, will continue to discharge the duties of acting assistant adjutant-general.

ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 33.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 7, 1862.

Upon his return from the leave of absence granted him in Special Orders, No. 32, of this date, Col. Justus Steinberger, First Regiment Washington Territory Volunteers, will proceed to Fort Walla Walla and assume command of said post.

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 7,1862.

Maj. J. S. RINEARSON, First Regt. Cavalry, Oregon Vols., Camp Clackamas, Oreg.:

SIR: Brigadier-General Alvord, commanding the district, directs that on reaching Jacksonville you will report your arrival to Brigadier-General Wright. Your command will not be in this district, Umpqua {p.8} and Rogue River Valley being included in the old Department of California. It is suggested that you ask Major Drum in your communication to what paymaster you shall forward the payrolls of your command. The paymasters in San Francisco, as also at this post, are, it is regretted, not supplied with money. They have been notified of funds and daily expect them.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[JULY 8, 1862.– For Carleton to West, in regard to movement to the Rio Grande, &c., see Part 1, p. 98.]

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 28.}

HEADQUARTERS, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 8, 1862.

I. By direction of the general commanding the Column from California, Capt. Thomas L. Roberts, with his company (E), First Infantry California Volunteers; a detachment of ten men from Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers; Capt. John C. Cremony’s company (B), Second Cavalry California Volunteers, and the mountain howitzer battery, commanded by Lieutenant Thompson, First Infantry California Volunteers, will without delay move out toward the Rio Grande upon the Overland Mail Route. Special instructions will be given from these headquarters to Captain Roberts, commanding this detachment.

II. A corporal and nine privates of Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, under command of Lieut. A. B. MacGowan, First Infantry California Volunteers, will report to Captain Roberts for duty. Sergeant Brooks, of Company H, and Privates Buck (second), Adney, Lloyd, and Barbour, of Company I, First Infantry California Volunteers, will report for duty to Lieutenant Thompson, commanding the howitzer battery.

...

By order of Lieutenant-Colonel West:

LAFAYETTE HAMMOND, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, First Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Adjutant.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 34.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash, Ter., July 8, 1862.

Maj. C. S. Drew, First Regiment Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, will repair to Camp Clackamas, near Oregon City, and relieve Maj. J. S. Rinearson, of the same regiment, in command of the expedition to Jacksonville. The latter officer on being relieved will repair to Fort Walla Walla and report for duty at that post. Major Drew will move the command at once to Jacksonville, pursuant to former instructions.

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 35.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 8, 1862.

I. Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, First Regiment Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, will proceed with three companies of his regiment upon the emigrant road as far as Salmon River Falls, for the protection of the expected emigration. The expedition will leave Fort Walla Walla on the 25th of July, or as soon thereafter as is practicable.

II. Maj. J. S. Rinearson, First Regiment Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, with one company of his regiment, will proceed on the 1st proximo to the Lapwai, near Lewiston, Wash. Ter., and encamp his command. He will receive special instructions from these headquarters.

III. Lieutenant-Colonel Maury will designate the companies of his regiment which will compose these expeditions.

IV. Both expeditions will remain in the field and not return to Fort Walla Walla until the 1st of November.

V. The assistant quartermaster and commissary at Fort Walla Walla will make immediate arrangements for the transportation and subsistence of said commands, hiring transportation if necessary.

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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OFFICE NEZ PERCÉS INDIAN AGENCY, Lapwai, Wash. Ter., July 8, 1862.

General B. ALVORD, Commanding Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

GENERAL: It is required, in order to maintain the laws of the United States on this Indian reservation, to protect the Nez Percé Indians from iniquitous outrages on their persons and property by vicious white men, to expel from the country and commit for punishment white men who are infamously and openly trafficking in intoxicating liquors with Indians, and to preserve the Nez Percés from seeking personal vengeance against their accumulating aggravations, that mounted U. S. troops to the number of at least one company be immediately sent here, and that such be permanently stationed for these purposes while this country is reserved by law and treaty for the sole use and occupation of the Nez Percé tribe of Indians. I have made repeated requisitions on your predecessors in command at Font Vancouver, as well as on the several commanders of the adjoining post at Fort Walla Walla, and their failure to supply such troops has suffered the Indians to be affected by the most demoralizing results, and the continuance of want of troops here will soon be painfully manifested in the utter degradation and debasement of a tribe of Indians who above all others on this coast are especially entitled to the protection of the Government by their long unwavering loyalty, their past uniform kindness and services to the whites, and their intrinsic superiority over their brethren of the same unfortunate race.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. HUTCHINS, Indian Agent, Washington Territory.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash Ter., July 8, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER AT FORT WALLA WALLA, WASH. TER.:

SIR: The general commanding the district directs me to say to you that it is probable that two companies of infantry and four of cavalry will winter at Fort Walla Walla next winter, and in view of which he directs that you, instruct your quartermaster and commissary to make arrangements accordingly for the supply of fuel, forage, and subsistence for that force. If you think it advisable for any portion of the fuel and forage to be supplied by contract, the acting assistant quartermaster at your post should at once invite proposals.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash Ter., July 8, 1862.

W. H. RECTOR, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Salem, Oreg.:

SIR: Will you please give me any information contained in your office as to what Snake Indians were the murderers of the emigrants near Fort Boisé in the autumn of 1860. I desire to instruct the commanding officer of the expedition which will soon leave Fort Walla Walla by the emigrant road for the protection of the emigrants to embrace any opportunity which may occur to apprehend those murderers if their identity can be established. Are you or your neighbors able to inform me where information on the subject can be obtained? If you know of any of that emigrant party who would be a suitable person to be employed in that capacity, I would endeavor to secure his services to accompany said expedition-or, preferably, any one having the most reliable information on the subject. I shall cause inquiries to be made at or near Fort Walla Walla, but apprehend difficulty in obtaining such information as I want.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 9, 1862.

Capt. THOMAS L. ROBERTS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Tucson:

The general commanding the Column from California directs that of the force placed under your command by Special Orders, No. 28, from these headquarters, you will leave Lieutenant MacGowan and ten men of Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, and three first-rate cavalry soldiers at the crossing of the San Pedro to guard some forage which the quartermaster will send to that point. You will see that these men are provided with rations to the 14th of August, and the quantity of ammunition stipulated in your orders. With the remainder of your command you will move on to the San Simon Station, east of the Apache Pass. At that point you will make an intrenched camp, if possible, near the mail station, and there await further orders. You are sent to guard certain supplies for the First Cavalry California Volunteers, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, who are expected shortly to return {p.11} from the Rio Grande, and to protect forage and other supplies for the main column until it shall advance. You also go to observe the road and to form a support for Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre in case he falls back. Unless immediately menaced by the enemy, you must send out scouts fifty or more miles toward the Rio Grande to keep you informed of his movements. You are to keep the general commanding informed of those movements. Be ready to fight at all times, night or day, and if attacked you are not to surrender on any terms. Your march to your destination will perhaps be attended by some difficulties in regard to water. The late rains may have obviated these and rendered the precautions now suggested unnecessary. From the San Pedro east, at Dragoon Springs and Ewell Station, it will be well that your train and command should not arrive together. You should push on with the infantry and train and two or three cavalrymen for express, and when you are ready to resume your march, or if no objection exists to the cavalry and battery and cattle coming up, send back your express for them. Reunite your force whenever the supply of water will permit, and at every camp where there is water exert yourself to improve the supply and leave it in the best possible condition for the advance of the column behind you. If necessary, you must employ your men at night in this duty. Your next and scarcely less formidable enemy will be the Indians. You have only to imagine the strait to which your command will be-reduced if your cattle or animals, or both, are run off by them to make you unusually vigilant to prevent it. A collision with the Indians cannot possibly result to our advantage, and you will avoid it, and caution all your men to do so until they become the aggressors. You must not enter any passes or cañons with your command, train, and cattle, either for water or on the march, until you have secured yourself against attack. This you, must accomplish by an advance reconnoitering party, and by flankers thrown out on each side of such passes, who either can signal to you that they are unoccupied by Indians or drive them from their position. No Indian enemy is likely by force to cripple your command. If he does it by stratagem you will be held to the most strict accountability. Of the forage intrusted to you, one full ration can be issued to the cavalry at the cienega, thirty miles from here. Thence to your destination your train and artillery mules can be fed full rations. For the train’s return, supply it with half rations of grain to this post. All other consumption of grain is strictly prohibited, and you will preserve the residue at your station, as above instructed. As soon as practicable, keeping one wagon for post purposes, you will dispatch your train on its return to this post under a suitable cavalry escort to accompany it as far as the San Pedro; thence the teamsters will be its only protection and the escort will rejoin you. You must exact vigilance from your teamsters while in your company, and enjoin it strictly when they shall be separated from you. Inclosed herewith is an itinerary* drafted from the overland mail table, which may be of service to you. Certain definite instructions are herein communicated to you. They are not to be deviated from, but they do not embrace much that is left to your intelligence and the exercise of such soldierly qualities as shall contribute to and insure the success of the duties intrusted to you to fulfill. You will doubtless discern the delicacy of your mission and its importance to the column of which your command forms a part, and you must remember the consequences to others of failure.

J. R. WEST, Lieutenant-Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF HUMBOLDT, Fort Humboldt, July 9, 1862.

Col. F. J. LIPPITT, Second Infty. Cal. Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Military District:

SIR: Pursuant to your letter of instructions, of date 28th ultimo I proceeded to Camp Lincoln, on the Smith River Reservation, and now have the honor of reporting the following information, the result of my investigations:

The trail leaving the town of Union at the head of Humboldt Bay leads off in a northerly direction through a low, swampy country about four miles to Mad River; thence crossing Mad River by a good ford it rises into a higher country and passes at times through the dense woods, and then through fern prairies for about eight miles, where, after an abrupt descent, it reaches the ocean beach where the trail is excellent for about two miles, when it crosses a stream called Little River, and then it leads up and down through deep ravines and over promontories for about six miles and until it reaches the town of Trinidad. Whole distance from Union to Trinidad eighteen miles. Trail generally good and easily found. The farms and settlements between the two places are generally deserted. From Trinidad the trail winds along the lulls, which butt abruptly against the Pacific in steep rocks, crossing several deep ravines, generally thickly timbered, for about six miles, when it descends to the ocean beach to the southern extremity of a lake called Big Lagoon; thence it passes between the ocean and lagoon about four miles to the beach; thence along the beach for about seven miles to the mouth of the Redwood River, over which we were ferried in canoes by the aid of the Indians, swimming the animals, and thence it passes along the beach about thirteen miles, passing Lower Gold Bluff to Upper or Northern Gold Bluff. The whole of the beach trail is deep, generally gravelly, and very fatiguing to the animals. Whole distance from Trinidad to Upper Gold Bluff thirty miles. From Upper Gold Bluff the trail runs along a deep, gravelly beach for about three miles; thence up and down steep, high mountains for about ten miles to the mouth of the Klamath River, which we crossed in canoes by the aid of the Indians, swimming the animals. The crossing is very dangerous for animals, being some 700 or 800 yards wide, very rapid, with treacherous quicksands on its shores and islands. From thence the trail winds up mountains so high and steep that it is almost impossible for animals with nothing on them to climb them for about seven miles, when it leads into Redwoods where for about nine miles it is so miry, steep, and high that progress becomes exceedingly slow and almost impossible; thence it descends abruptly two very high mountains to a fine hard beach trail for about seven miles to Crescent City. Whole distance from Upper Gold Bluff to Crescent City thirty-six miles. From Crescent City to the Smith River Reservation it is about fifteen miles. From the reservation to Camp Lincoln it is about two miles. Both the reservation and Camp Lincoln are on the northern side of Smith River. There are three roads from Crescent City to the camp and reservation. The road called Fort Dick road is the best. Wagons are able to travel upon it at all seasons of the year. Smith River is a large, rapid stream, fordable now in many places, but in the winter time exceedingly difficult to cross by any means, and there have been times in the past winter when it was impassable by ferry or any other mode in possession of the settlers.

The cost of transportation from Crescent City to Camp Lincoln will be about $60 per ton. It is the almost universal and earnest desire of {p.13} the people of Crescent City and vicinity that the military post be located on the south side of Smith River, between Crescent City and the reservation, and in view of that popular desire I took considerable trouble to ascertain the most eligible site for a military post. I succeeded in finding a spot about eight miles from Crescent City on the road to the reservation, and about four miles from the reservation, called Fort Dick Landing, or Russell’s Prairie, containing 160 acres, pretty well fenced, good house, store-house and outbuildings, good water, and plenty of timber for wood and building purposes; title U. S. patent; can be purchased for $1,OOO; never overflows. Cost of transportation from Crescent City, $2.50 per ton. Most of the land is fine grazing.

As to the points of inquiry contained in your letter of instructions, I would respectfully report:

First. There is a trail, good and passable in the summer time, from Elk Camp to Redwood Camp, distance twelve miles. From Redwood Camp to Upper Gold Bluff by beach trail, sixteen miles. This trail crosses Redwood River and is impassable in the winter time during high water on the Redwood. There is another trail from Elk Camp, which crosses a branch of the Redwood but does not touch the main stream, that leads to the beach at a point called Muscle Point, distance about fourteen miles, making the distance from Elk Camp by the trail to Upper Gold Bluff twenty miles. This trail, by a little bridging and labor, can be made passable at all times of the year.

Second. Fort Ter-Waw is utterly ineligible as a depot for supplies. It will cost from 3 to 5 cents per pound to transport supplies from Crescent City to Fort Ter-Waw, and then they would have to be transported right back again to Crescent City in order to reach the troops stationed at the Smith River Reservation, at a cost of from 5 to 6 cents per pound; whereas supplies could be taken direct from Crescent City to the troops if stationed on the northern side of Smith River at about 3 cents per pound; and if stationed on the southern side of Smith River at about $2.50 per ton.

Third. As to the most eligible site for the new post ordered to be established near Smith River, I have hereinbefore submitted my opinion. As to keeping the Indians on the reservation; as to guarding them from outrages from the whites; as to affording protection to Crescent City and the neighboring settlements, and as to economy in supplying said posts, I deem the point called Fort Dick Landing, or Russell’s Prairie, the best that can be selected for a military post in that vicinity.

I herewith respectfully submit with this report a sketch or map* of the trails and points touched upon in this report. I would also respectfully call your attention to the fact that the people universally, so far as I have been able to ascertain their sentiments, are bitterly opposed to removing the Indians from this part of the country to the Smith River Reservation.

I deem it not improper to state, in conclusion, that to Second Lieut. W. L. Ustick’s ready co-operation and business capacity I am in a great measure indebted for the promptness with which I have been able to complete the ditty assigned to me.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. SWASEY, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

* Not found.

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[JULY 9, 1862.– For Canby to Carleton, relating to operations, &c., see Vol. IX, p. 682.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, July 10, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: My latest dates from the Department of Oregon are to July 1, when all was quiet, and my latest dates from General Carleton are of June 18, which I inclosed yesterday to you, with certain other papers. The expedition has thus far been a perfect success. Our army, with all its supplies, has advanced and passed many deserts without loss of men or property. Arizona is recovered and now held under martial law, awaiting for the re-establishment of the civil powers, and the Column from California is advancing eastward to co-operate with the forces in New Mexico. In preparing the expedition under General Carleton, as well as the one under Colonel Connor, for the protection of the mail route, we have been compelled to make large purchases, principally of mules and means of transportation; but I can assure the department that in all cases the greatest economy consistent with the good of the service has been practiced. The great difficulty is to guard the public interest over such a vast extent of country, with many small posts, some a thousand or more miles distant. However, the losses which the Government will sustain in this department, I am happy to say, will be small, and but a small portion of that can be set down to the unfaithfulness of officers or agents.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 10, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Capt. S. S. Marsh, Second Infantry, commanding escort for the military road to Fort Benton, reports that he will reach Fort Walla Walla on the 15th instant. Lieutenant Hughes states that the day he left that post (the 1st of July) he saw the expressman just in from the Bitter Root Valley, who said that Lieutenant Mullan left Hell Gate on the 23d of May, for Fort Benton, with the intention of returning from that point, working this way in the completion of the road. There appear to have been no Indian troubles in the Bitter Root Valley.

Much delay must occur at Fort Walla Walla in paying off his employés, and in resting and recruiting his command. If Captain Marsh, under your instructions of the 4th of June, attempts to return to Lieutenant Mullan, he can not reach the Bitter Root Valley until the middle of September, when he must soon return to escape the snows of November.

Under these circumstances, I respectfully recommend that your instructions of the 4th of June be countermanded, and that said command be ordered to join their respective companies.

I shall probably assume the responsibility, very reluctantly, of detaining the command to await your reply, especially as the additional {p.15} transportation he brings will be very valuable at the present moment at Fort Walla Walla.

Your dispatches from Lieutenant Mullan no doubt give you all the facts. No letters from him for these headquarters arrived by this express.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter, July 10, 1862.

Capt. S. S. MARSH, Second Infty., Comdg. Escort to Military Road Expedition, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

CAPTAIN: Is there any Indian trouble, or prospect of any, in Bitter Root Valley? If Lieutenant Mullan can prosecute his work the remainder of the season in safety, it would be very hard to send your command (under the instructions of 4th of June) back to Bitter Root after so long an absence. You would scarce have a breathing spell after reaching Bitter Root Valley in September, for you would soon have to return to escape the snows of November. If I was a department commander I would be able to countermand the orders of 4th of June from headquarters Department of the Pacific. Write me freely (directing to the acting assistant adjutant-general at these headquarters), giving your views as to the necessities of Lieutenant Mullan. Would he be embarrassed if I should countermand the order? As he is supplied with a copy of that order, he may make arrangements founded on your return.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 11, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: On the 7th instant Brig. Geo. Benjamin Alvord assumed command of the District of Oregon. The condition of affairs in the district is highly satisfactory. Inclosed herewith is a copy of a communication, dated on the 3d instant, from Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry, the predecessor of General Alvord.* The activity and zeal displayed by Colonel Steinberger and the admirable arrangements he has made to maintain the peace and quiet of the district, and to afford protection for the approaching emigration, in accordance with the instructions I had given him, deserve my warmest praise, and I take great pleasure in commending him to the consideration of the Secretary of War.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p 3.

{p.16}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 11, 1862.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, U. S. Volunteers, Comdg. District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

GENERAL: The department commander desires you to relieve Lieutenant Hughes, Ninth Infantry, from duty at your headquarters and direct him to proceed to Fort Walla Walla and assume the duties of acting assistant quartermaster and commissary at that post. Lieutenant Hughes will be instructed to send in estimates for repairing or constructing quarters for six companies, four of cavalry and two of infantry; the buildings to be ready for occupation this fall. Forage for the public animals will also be procured. In making these expenditures, the general requires the strictest economy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT INDIAN AFFAIRS, Salem, Oreg., July 11, 1862.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District of Oregon:

SIR: Your favor of the 8th instant, soliciting information from the files of this office concerning the outrages committed by the Snake Indians upon the emigrants near Salmon Falls in the fall of 1860, was received yesterday. In reply I have to say that the records of this office do not furnish the information which you desire, or which would materially assist you in your expedition. There is, however, residing in this city Mr. Joseph Myers, one of the survivors of that terrible tragedy. I have had a personal interview with Mr. Myers, and he feels confident of his ability to identify some of the Indians engaged in the massacre wherever he should see them. One in particular he describes as being of medium size, rather slim, blind in one eye, with long hair, generally pulled down over the blind eye, with considerable beard, especially on the upper lip; another one of rather low stature and very fleshy. The Indian first described came to their camp on Rock Creek, beyond Salmon Falls, and followed the train until the attack was made, and remained during the entire fight. Mr. Myers and family were present during the entire attack, traveling in the night and fighting in the daytime. He is well prepared to give you full information on many points, and I am confident would be of great service to the expedition. He expresses a willingness to accompany the military, provided arrangements can be made for the support of his family during his absence. He is in indigent circumstances (having lost his all on that occasion), with a wife and six children to support, five of whom were with him when the outrage was perpetrated. He refers me to two others, young men, Jacob and Samuel Rieth, who are now somewhere in the Salmon River mines. They were also of the party. In connection with this subject I desire to say that an appropriation has been made for negotiating some treaty of friendship with the Snake Indians, and measures are now on foot to secure the Indians’ consent to a meeting with an agent of the Government for this purpose. It is my earnest desire as soon as instructions are received from the Department to proceed at once to this work, and if possible prevent any similar occurrence. Should the instructions be received during the time this expedition will remain out I desire to {p.17} avail myself of their protection. I will start within a week to visit the agencies east of the mountains, and will be pleased to call upon you and have a further interview concerning the matter.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. RECTOR, Superintendent Indian Affairs, Oregon.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 11, 1862.

Col. JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Washington Territory Volunteers, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Your communication of the 3d instant regarding the condition of affairs in the District of Oregon has been received and submitted to the general commanding the department. The activity and zeal displayed by you while in command of the district are highly commendable, and the general has much satisfaction in assuring you that the disposition of your forces for the protection of the inhabitants and preserving the peace has received his entire approval.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 12, 1862.

His Excellency Señor Don IGNACIO PESQUEIRA, Governor of the State of Sonora, Republic of Mexico, Hermosillo, Sonora:

MY MUCH ESTEEMED SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 30th of June, 1862, in relation to a claim against the United States made by Mr. Fecundo Gonzales, of the State of Sonora, in Mexico, for a launch and boat which are alleged to have been indispensable to his business as the owner of a ferry on the Colorado River, below Fort Yuma, Cal. The essential facts in the case I believe to have been as follows: This Mr. Gonzales owned a ferry some twenty-six miles below Fort Yuma, on the desert, by which the enemies of the United States known as secessionists were enabled to cross the Colorado River below the Sonora line on their way from California to Texas, there to join other rebels in their unholy attempt to destroy my Government. The officer in command of the Southern District of California felt obliged for a time to interrupt this ferry, that these rebels might be stopped from passing through Sonora on their way from California to Texas. If it should be claimed that this was an unfriendly act to Mexico, it might be urged that to permit the enemies of the United States to pass over the soil of Sonora on their way to attack a friendly power was unkind to that power. But while I feel assured that the stopping of Mr. Gonzales’ ferry will not be viewed in this light, I am glad to say to Your Excellency that I do not believe you were aware that one of the highways of Sonora was used by enemies of my Government. As I myself was the military officer who gave the order to stop all ferries across the Colorado River, I have it in my power to say that the stopping of that belonging to Mr. Gonzales was not {p.18} done as an unfriendly act to Mexico, nor with a single thought derogatory of her dignity or just rights. And while I disavow on the part of the United States any unkindness or disrespect toward Mexico by this act, I cheerfully acknowledge the just claim of Mr. Gonzales to be made whole in all matters wherein he has suffered by the necessary steps taken by myself under that highest of all laws-the natural right of self-preservation. The claim of Mr. Gonzales is without doubt correct and just as a claim, and but for the exorbitant charges which he made for his boats, &c., and as damages for the temporary suspension of his business, he doubtless would have been reimbursed long since. He was given to understand this, and he was even offered to have replaced at his ferry better and more costly boats than those he had lost. This was last December. And he was also assured that a claim for a reasonable amount of damages would have favorable consideration. But he seemed to think that as his claim lay against my Government he could make extravagant charges-indeed, such charges as would not for a moment be entertained by any court of justice when called upon to decide upon the merits of a similar claim as between two individuals. I beg Your Excellency to believe that there is no disposition to do Mr. Gonzales a wrong, and that any just claim which he may have will receive due attention. I have written to you frankly my understanding of the case, and beg now to subscribe myself

Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 12, 1862.

His Excellency Don IGNACIO PESQUEIRA, Governor of the State of Sonora, Mexico, Hermosillo, Sonora:

MY ESTEEMED FRIEND: Your letter asking my assistance in causing the arrest of two Mexicans who had robbed and maltreated one of your couriers, and them escaped from Sonora and took refuge on our side of the line, has been received. Those two men are said to have been in this town some ten days since, but it is rumored they are now near the Cerro Colorado Mine, and I have sent to arrest them. Should the party now absent on this duty be successful I will send the robbers to you at Hermosillo. I shall be happy to unite with you in establishing a passport system, but as people can reach your State by the way of Fort Yuma as well as by roads from this part of Arizona, I beg to receive suggestions from Your Excellency as to the most effectual way of giving due force to whatever plan we may adopt. For, if the rule when once established be not enforced at all points, it will give us much trouble and embarrassment. I have heard that there are murmurs here against some decree said to have been issued by Your Excellency, which lays an export duty on such articles of provisions as your citizens desire to bring across the lines for sale to the troops under my command. I am not familiar with the laws of the Republic of Mexico, but those of the United States would not authorize the executive department of government in any one State to make such a decree. I presume that if such a decree has been issued by Your Excellency it has been by the command and with the authority of the Central Government of Mexico. In this event, of course no one would have a right to complain, for Mexico as a sovereign power restricts her {p.19} products by such rules as she may deem necessary, provided no treaty stipulations with a friendly Government are thereby set aside. I write you this respectfully to ask if it was the intention of the decree to subject the supplies which might come to the lines for the use of my troops to these export duties? In all matters where I can be of service to Your Excellency, personally or officially, or where I can oblige the good people of Sonora, I beg Your Excellency freely to command me.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Your Excellency’s very obedient and humble servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

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HDQRS. THIRD CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Stockton, July 12, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that my command started from Camp Halleck this morning at 9 o’clock en route for Salt Lake City. I will march to-day to Camp No. 1, seven miles north of Stockton, where we will remain until Monday morning. Any communication from department headquarters can be forwarded to this city until Thursday next, and subsequently to Placerville. My train is heavily laden and I was compelled to take the ten teams which I intended to leave for the other companies of my regiment with me, but will send them back in four or five days, but I fear I will not be able to get along without five of them at least, and respectfully ask that I may be permitted to take them if I find I cannot get along without. The forty-five teams of my command are now loaded with 3,000 [pounds] each, and the other ten are also loaded with the same weight. To be sure the wagons will be getting lighter every day, but when starting from Fort Churchill and Ruby Valley we will have the same weight, and at a time when the mules will be considerably reduced in strength and flesh. The men are carrying their knapsacks. I have detailed Second Lieutenant Gilman, of Company K, to remain in charge of wagons, mules, and property left for the other companies.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EWD. CONNOR, Colonel Third California Volunteer infantry.

[First indorsement.]

Respectfully referred to Lieutenant-Colonel Babbitt for his information.

By order:

R. O. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Second indorsement.]

DEPUTY QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL’S OFFICE, San Francisco, Cal., July 14, 1862.

I have made repeated examinations of the subject of Colonel Connor’s transportation, wishing to furnish a liberal allowance, and I am compelled to think forty-five wagons and three ambulances such an allowance, and it ought to be ample for all authorized baggage and supplies. {p.20} I cannot, therefore, recommend that any additional wagons be allowed. The whole ten will give a much less proportionate allowance for the three remaining companies than is furnished for the seven.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. B. BABBITT, Deputy Quartermaster-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. F. MAURY, First Oregon Cavalry, Commanding Expedition upon the Emigrant Road, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: As directed in Special Orders, No. 35, from these headquarters, you are assigned to the command of the expedition upon the emigrant road. Its principal object is the protection of all travelers, and especially of the expected emigration. In general, as you pass through the Indian country it will be proper to make known that your purpose is not to wage war upon any tribe, but to protect the whites. You are also expected, so far as lies in your power, to enforce the Indian intercourse act of the 30th of January, 1834 (see paragraph 517 of Army Regulations), forbidding the introduction and sale of intoxicating liquors among the Indian tribes. If incidentally you should be able to get possession of the Snake Indians engaged in the murder of the emigrants near Fort Boisé in the autumn of 1860, and shall be able in a satisfactory manner to identify the murderers, the general commanding desires you to deal with them in a summary manner. You are directed to proceed as far as Salmon Falls, on Snake River, and not to return to Fort Walla Walla before the 1st of November. You will remain encamped at some eligible point near Salmon Falls as long as possible, for that is the principal haunt of the Snake Indians for the purpose of fishing in the summer time. He does not desire you to interfere with their fishing or other peaceful avocations, and your interpreter may, as you approach that region, have some opportunity of sending them word to that effect. In most of the tribes in this country, the murderers or offenders are known and acknowledged by the whole tribe without attempt at concealment. It may be different with the Snakes. The general commanding is satisfied that with all the tribes the surest preventive of future murders is the arrest and punishment of those guilty of past offenses. As you advance you may find it advisable to establish one or two depots of supplies, where you should leave enough for the return of the command from those points. The general commanding desires me to enjoin upon you the importance of the preservation of order, and especially that whenever your command comes in contact with camps of peaceable Indians, the Indians should be vigilantly protected from injury and violence from all whites, whether soldiers or citizens. The general desires to receive reports of your progress from time to time, sent through the express of Wells, Fargo & Co., at Walla Walla. Opportunities may offer of sending letters by reliable travelers, but you are authorized to send an express yourself whenever you may deem it of sufficient importance.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.21}

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HEADQUARTERS FORCES OF ARIZONA, El Paso, July 12, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond:

GENERAL: Having recently abandoned the Territory of Arizona, and being on the point of starting with my whole command for San Antonio, I deem it advisable to give you a brief statement of the various causes that have compelled me to this step. Of the strength of the force with which I was expected to hold the Territory-about 400 men-you will be able to form a just estimate from the within field report.* After General Sibley had withdrawn from the country the greater portion of his command, the Mexican population, justly thinking our tenure very frail and uncertain, showed great unwillingness to sell property of any sort for Confederate paper, which would of course be valueless to them should I be compelled to retire, which was at any time probable; and as I was without specie with which to make purchases, I was obliged to seize upon such supplies as were required for the subsistence of the troops and such means of transportation as would enable me to move my command whenever the necessity might arise for so doing. This occasioned so much ill-feeling on the part of the Mexicans that in many instances armed resistance was offered to foraging parties acting under my orders, and in the various skirmishes which took place one captain and several men of my regiment were killed by them. Besides this, the troops with me were so disgusted with the campaign and so anxious to return to Texas that in one or two instances they were on the point of open mutiny, and threatened to take the matter in their own hands unless they were speedily marched back to San Antonio.

In the meantime the forces from California, about 1,500 strong, were steadily approaching, and on the 6th of July their advance was at Fort Thorn, on the Rio Grande. Troops from Fort Craig had been seen the day previous moving toward the same point. Knowing this, and that the enemy, after leaving competent garrisons behind, would be able to bring 3,000 troops against me, independent of a recent re-enforcement which they received-of 500 men-from Pike’s Peak, and 250 more with six rifle cannon, who escorted the paymaster from Kansas, the necessity of moving my force became imperative. I was then at Fort Fillmore, with but little ammunition, and, notwithstanding the efforts I had made, with very inadequate means of transportation. I, however, abandoned the Territory on the 8th of July and marched for Fort Bliss, at which point I now am. As soon as this move had been determined on the sale was ordered of all public property at Fort Bliss which was too bulky for or not worth transportation. This sale was held for specie and breadstuffs. The specie was turned over to the general hospital which I am compelled to leave at Franklin. There was besides a considerable quantity of stores that could not be sold and which were too weighty for transportation, such as horse and mule shoes, cannon, ammunition, tents, &c. To conclude, I am now about to start for San Antonio with very limited means of transportation, and insufficient supply of breadstuff and beef, depending on the contingency of meeting provisions forwarded from San Antonio, and with troops in many instances almost naked. The general hospital at Franklin, under the charge of Doctor Southworth, has been provided with $830 in specie {p.22} and credit to a larger amount with parties in Mexico. This I submit to you as a true representation of the condition of affairs in this country.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. STEELE, Colonel, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 13, 1862.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I herewith inclose two letters to the Governor of Sonora, written by myself on the 12th instant.* They explain the business which called them forth. There seems to be a disposition on the part of the authorities of Sonora, as well as on the part of the people of that State, to be on amicable terms with us.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

* See Carleton to Pesqueira, pp. 17, 18.

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ORDERS, No. 17.}

HEADQUARTERS, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 13, 1862.

Preparations for active field service must be made the ensuing week by every company in this command. Clothing must be repaired as far as possible, arms, accouterments, and ammunition examined as to their condition, and all the camp and garrison equipage of each company must be put in complete order for the march. All unsettled company papers with the different departments should be completed as far as possible, and, finally, every officer and soldier of the command must be so prepared for the march as to leave nothing to be done upon the reception of the order from the general commanding but to execute it.

By order of Lieutenant-Colonel West:

LAFAYETTE HAMMOND, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, First Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Adjutant.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Barrett, Ariz. Ter., July 13, 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California, Tucson, Ariz. Ter.:

LIEUTENANT: I have to report that I shall march for Tucson, with Company A, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Capt. Joseph Smith, to-morrow morning. On Tuesday night (15th instant) I shall be on the desert between the Blue Water Station and Point of the Mountain, and will meet the water-tank, if sent at the Picacho Pass, at 11 or 12 o’clock. Mr. Veck arrived at this post this morning. He thinks it advisable to send his train across the desert in two divisions, in consequence of the difficulty of getting water for so many animals at Blue Water Station. He will therefore start one-half his train to-morrow afternoon, and the balance (those the animals of which are in the poorest condition, that they may have one day longer rest) on Tuesday. One-half his train will therefore be on the desert on Wednesday night, and the other half on Thursday night. In consequence of the dilapidated condition in {p.23} which he reports his train, I defer to his judgment in this matter. If then it should meet the approbation of the general commanding, the tank can meet me on Tuesday night from fifteen to twenty miles this side the Point of the Mountain can return to that station with me and meet Veck at the same place on Wednesday and Thursday nights, and not have very heavy drives to make. Lieutenant Mitchell, with detachment of Second Cavalry, arrived at this post yesterday, and will accompany me. I respectfully request that instructions may be sent me by the driver of the tank, in case the commanding general thinks proper to alter this arrangement. No express from Fort Yuma since July 1.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 14, 1862.

Maj. J. S. RINEARSON, First Regiment Oregon Cavalry, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: The general commanding the district instructs me to notify you that the acting commissary of subsistence at this post has been directed to prepare and send to Lewiston, by the Oregon Steam Navigation Company’s transportation, 6,930 complete rations for your command while encamped at the Lapwai. This will obviate the necessity of supplies being sent from Fort Walla Walla. They will reach Lewiston by the 1st proximo, if not before that time, and it will only be necessary for you to have them hauled from there to the point where you establish your camp, and for which purpose and for camp use a wagon and team, or so much transportation as will be actually required, will be retained by you from that furnished for your command from Walla Walla.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, Camp Independence, HDQRS. OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, Owen’s River Valley, July 15, 1862.

The undersigned having learned with regret that some person or persons in this valley have so far forgotten themselves and their self-respect as American citizens and enlightened men as to attempt to take advantage of their present power over the Indians of this valley by catching hold of the Indian women while they were engaged in gathering seeds for their subsistence, with a determination to satisfy their vicious lusts by having carnal connection with such women even by force; therefore it becomes my unpleasant but imperative duty to publish the following order:

I. Hereafter any main, men, or set of men, whether soldiers or citizens, found guilty of molesting or in any manner interfering with the Indian women of this valley shall be arrested and punished according to law.

By order:

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

{p.24}

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Proposed advance of the Column from California from Tucson, Ariz Ter., en route to the Rio Grande, in three detachments.

Companies.Commander.Aggregate.Number of wagons.Number of animals.Material transported.
FIRST DETACHMENT.
(Field officers: Col. J. R West, First Infantry California volunteers, commanding; Surg. James M. McNulty, First Infantry California volunteers Maj. Theo. A. Coult, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers.)
C, 1st Infantry California VolunteersMcMullen7721230 days rations and company property.
E, 1st Infantry California VolunteersRoberts78212Do.
B, 1st Infantry California VolunteersDresher74212Do.
G, 5th Infantry California VolunteersHinds85212Do.
K, 1st Infantry California VolunteersPettis78212Do.
BatteryThompson2111530 days’ rations, property, and ammunition.
Field and staff9224Record stores, &c., and ammunition.
Hospital department212Ambulance and wagon with medical stores.
Ammunition1640,080 musket (10,000 of this in field and staff wagon).
Train424Tents, tools. &c., and forage (4,500 pounds).
Forage16
wagon-masters22
Total42921149
SECOND DETACHMENT.
(Surg. J. H. Prentiss First Cavalry California Volunteers.)
A, 1st Infantry California VolunteersWillis8821230 days’ rations and company property.
A, Third Artillery BatteryShinn.71813930 days’ rations, company property ammunition, and 4,000 pounds forage.
B, 5th Infantry California VolunteersSmith8421230 days rations and company property.
Train212Tents, tools, 17,000 rounds
musket ammunition, and 1,250 pounds forage.
Total24514175
THIRD DETACHMENT.
(Lieut. Col. E. A. Rigg, First Infantry California Volunteers, commanding; Surg D. Wooster, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers.)
I, 1st Infantry California VolunteersCalloway7621230 days rations and company property.
F, 1st Infantry California VolunteersParvin61212Do.
D, 1st Infantry California VolunteersMartin59212Do.
H, 1st Infantry California VolunteersCox84212Do.
Hospital department16Medical stores, tents, tools, &c.
Field and staff219
Ammunition1628,000 rounds ammunition (musket).
Train213Ambulance and forage wagon with 2,500 pounds.
Total2821362

 

{p.25}
Recapitulation:
Companies12
Commissioned and enlisted951
Wagons48
Animals406
Material transported:Pounds.
Company property of 12 companies14,400
Ammunition, 85,000 rounds musket8,500
Ammunition, howitzer and battery14,000
Rations, 30 days. 850 men, 28,500 pounds each57,000
Tents, tools, &c., one load to each detachment7,300
Field, staff and hospital department, first detachment8,000
Field, staff and hospital department, third detachment2,000
Forage, 3 days12,250
48 wagons, including 2 ambulances and 1 forge123,450

Respectfully submitted for the information of the general commanding.

JOSEPH R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers.

Tucson, July 16, 1862.

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[JULY 17, 1862.– For General Orders, No. 10, Column from California, relating to movement to the Rio Grande, see Part I, p. 90.]

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 38.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 17, 1862.

I. Pursuant to instructions from the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific dated the 12th ultimo, Capt. J. C. Schmidt, with Company B, Second California Volunteer Infantry, will proceed to Fort Humboldt, Cal.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant. General.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, July 17, 1862.

Capt. H. FLYNN, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Fort Lyon:

CAPTAIN: Yesterday Lieutenant Staples’ scouting party of four Indians and one squaw, sent from this post, encountered a band of forty or fifty well armed Indians about three miles from Reed’s in the direction of the Iaqua Ranch. The squaw they carried off. The four bucks escaped, though fired upon, and long before this Lieutenant Staples is no doubt after them with his small detachment at Eel River House. The colonel commanding desires you immediately on the receipt of this to take or send as many men as you can spare directly to Iaqua Ranch, and from thence by the shortest route straight through to Reed’s, where you will probably get further information as to the course they have taken, which is supposed to be toward Hydesville. You are at liberty to take any other route if the information you may obtain should make it advisable.

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second infantry California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

{p.26}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 18, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have nothing later from Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton than was communicated in my letters of the 9th and 10th instant. Inclosed herewith is a copy of a communication, under date of June 2, addressed to General Carleton by His Excellency Ignacio Pesqueira, Governor of the State of Sonora, in the Republic of Mexico.* Col. P. Edward Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, marched on the 12th instant from his camp near Stockton with seven companies of his regiment, for the protection of the Overland Mail Route. The cavalry force designated for the same service will move on the 21st instant and report to Colonel Connor after crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See Part I, p. 1117.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 123.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 18, 1862.

...

2. The headquarters and Companies L and K, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, will proceed by water to Sacramento on the 21st, and thence by the Henness Pass route to Fort Churchill.

3. Capt. Richard L. Ogden, assistant quartermaster, will repair to Sacramento and superintend the organization of the wagon train intended for this command.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SAN SIMON, ARIZ. TER., July 18, 1862.

Lieut. Col. J. R. WEST, Tucson, Ariz. Ter.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you in the late fight with the Indians at Apache Pass both of my stock-trails to my howitzers were broken or rendered almost useless on account of the great elevation required. One I think would not have broken were it not for a flaw in the iron strap around the axle-tree. Having fixed on a plan which I think will render the pieces fit for any service required of them, I send with Captain Roberts’ permission one of my gunners with a trail and axle-tree. The gunner understands my plans fully, and with your sanction will carry them out. The plan is to raise the gun from the axles, so as to give more wood and strength to the stocks, and then strengthen them with iron plates. If you favor my plan I should like to have made a new trail and axle for the piece which remains here. I am in want of a few bolts, of which Monihon (the gunner) has a list. I also want some ammunition, having fired in the two days forty rounds, leaving me but sixty-five rounds. I would ask if it is possible for me to get pistols and sabers for my men, as it is useless to go in action {p.27} with both howitzers and rifles. For instance, the Indians were cross-firing us from both hills, the balls flying fast, the men would use their rifles as much as possible, rendering the fire from the howitzers very slow.

I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. A. THOMPSON, First Lieutenant, First infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Howitzer Detachment.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 18, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: You will direct Captain Akey, Second Cavalry, to proceed with his company, via Long Valley, to Red Bluffs, on the Sacramento River, taking his camp and garrison equipage and other company property. As this command is intended to operate without the limits of your district, it will be dropped from the returns thereof. The general desires this movement to be made with the least practicable delay. Should it be necessary, Captain Akey is authorized to procure the services of a competent guide to conduct his command over the shortest practicable route to the point above indicated, where further instructions, as well as supplies, will reach him. The captain will be instructed to telegraph to these headquarters his arrival at Red Bluffs.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 18, 1862.

Capt. DAVID B. AKEY, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Red Bluffs, Cal.:

SIR: Immediately on your arrival at Red Bluffs the department commander desires you to forward information to that effect to Captain Mellen, Second Cavalry, at Fort Crook. The latter has been instructed to co-operate with your force in, if possible, discovering and chastising the band of Indians which recently committed murders in Tehama County, in this State. A copy of the letter to Captain Mellen is herewith inclosed.* When ready, you will move with your company in the direction of Lassen’s Peak, unless you have received reliable information at Red Bluffs of the Indians having retreated in some other direction. It is not improbable that the party committing the murders may belong to the Hot Creek band of Indians. Of this, however, you may be able to procure much more satisfactory information than has been furnished the general commanding. The several departments have been instructed to forward your supplies to Red Bluffs.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See next, post.

{p.28}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco Cal., July 18, 1862.

Capt. H. B. MELLEN, Second Cavalry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Crook, Cal.

SIR: The department commander has directed Capt. David B. Akey’s company of cavalry to proceed to Red Bluffs, on the Sacramento River, for the purpose of operating against a band of Indians which has recently made incursions into the northeastern part of Tehama County, in this State. It is not known to what tribe these Indians belong, except that they are not of the tribe residing at Big Meadows, in the northwestern part of Plumas County. The latter are represented as very friendly, and in the expedition hereinafter directed the general desires you to afford them the necessary protection, not only from hostile bands of Indians, but unauthorized organizations of white men. Captain Akey will be instructed to inform you of his arrival at Red Bluffs, on the receipt of which the general desires you to proceed in the direction of the recent disturbances and act as far as possible in concert with Captain Akey against the parties who committed the outrages in Tehama County. In the interval you will inform yourself regarding the country through which you will have to pass, and gain any other information that may be useful in executing the duties assigned you. You will heave at Fort Crook one commissioned officer and five men to guard the post.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 18, 1862.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: In consequence of its having arrived so near Walla Walla, and being too late for its return, the escort to Lieut. John Mullan’s wagon-road expedition will be sent to Fort Vancouver, whence the men will be sent to their respective companies. Should it be necessary to give any further protection to Lieutenant Mullan’s party, the general desires you to send a company of Oregon cavalry out for this purpose. The general authorizes you to relieve Colonels Steinberger and Cady from the examining board by substituting any officers that are or may be on duty at Fort Vancouver.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Olympia, Wash. Ter., July 18, 1862.

General B. ALVORD, Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

DEAR SIR: I am very glad to hear of your brigadier’s commission, and I heartily congratulate you upon your reception of that just and well-merited tribute of proper respect and reward, at length rendered for your past lifetime of faithful and devoted services you have so {p.29} patiently and so constantly given in support of law and order and in support of the Constitution and Government of our beloved country. And now, sir, after the presentation of my sincere personal respects, and of my cordial congratulations upon your military promotion to the honorable position of a general in the U. S. service, I wish to express the satisfactory confidence I feel in your appointment to be commanding officer of this military District of Oregon State and of Washington Territory, for, with your military experience and sound practical judgment, which length of service and rigid observance alone can give, I feel an abiding hope and confidence that with your watchful military vigilance, the lives and property, with the peace and quiet of all our permanently settled and of our mining population, as well as the vast multitude of overland emigrants now coming to this country, will all be carefully preserved and protected. With these feelings allow me to request your careful and earnest consideration to the universally believed reports that vast numbers of emigrants would leave Kansas City, Fort Leavenworth, Saint Joseph, Omaha City, and many other points and places along the Missouri River on or about the 1st day of May last on their overland travel route to various places in California, Oregon, and Washington Territory. And their main traveling road will be along the North Fork of the Platte River and across the dividing ridge of the Rocky Mountains at the South Pass, and by way of Fort Hall down the Snake River road to the valley of the Columbia River, and from all parts of the main Columbia River, the new coming emigrants will scatter through the State of Oregon and through Washington Territory seeking for permanent location and settlement as farmers; while others will leave the Snake River road at various points to hunt for the Salmon River gold mines and other mining districts in Washington Territory; while other large bodies of emigrants are expected to leave Saint Louis in steam-boats and run up the waters of the Missouri River and its tributaries as far as Fort Benton, and from thence travel westward across the Rocky Mountains and scatter through the widely spread mining country between the Rocky and the Cascade Mountains, in this Territory, while some of the new comers by the Fort Benton route will aim directly for Walla Walla and the Columbia River country. Those first starting trains of emigrants who left the Missouri River about the 1st day of May may be expected to arrive at the South Pass, or perhaps may have reached Fort Hall, by this date, and large numbers will leave the Missouri River at various dates after the 1st day of May, and, of course, will reach Fort Hall and Fort Benton at different times throughout the summer and fall months of this year. With these views I respectfully and earnestly request your careful and compassionate attention and consideration to the immediate and pressing necessity of your affording and providing sufficient military protection to all the vast mass of defenseless men, women, and children now on their overland travel routes to this Territory and to Oregon, and thereby save them all from the savage and butchering attacks of the merciless and brutal Snake Indians and other murdering, thieving, and unfriendly tribes. Allow me to beg you to consider the safety of all the lives of the overland emigrants, together with all their teams and property, entirely in your own safe-keeping, and I most earnestly commend them all to your compassionate and fatherly care and protection.

With very sincere respect, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory.

{p.30}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash, Ter., July 18, 1862.

Maj. J. S. RINEARSON, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Comdg. Expedition to Nez Percé Reservation, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: Having repaired with your command to Lewiston, as directed in Special Orders, No. 35, from these headquarters, you will select some eligible point for a permanent encampment, but returning to Fort Walla Walla by the 1st of November. The position chosen by Capt. A. J. Smith, First Dragoons, in the spring of 1861, may be a good one, but there is in this office no definite information on the subject. You may find it desirable to choose a point nearer to Lewiston, in order more effectually to carry out the following instructions: The general commanding desires that you use every exertion to preserve order and quiet between the whites and the Indians; to protect the whites from hostile Indians in that region, and especially to prevent the sale of ardent spirits or wine to the Indians. A copy of the act of Congress of the 13th of February, 1862, on that subject, is herewith inclosed.* Besides the other penalties therein named, you will notice that it is competent for you to take and destroy any ardent spirits or wine found in the possession of those who sell liquor to Indians. The sale of liquor to whites, and the introduction of it for their use, cannot under the circumstances be interfered with, but its sale to Indians is in flagrant violation of the laws. A measure is now before Congress, which has passed the Senate, which, if it passes both Houses, will, enable the superintendent of Indian affairs to negotiate for the purchase of a portion of the land from the Nez Percé Indians. A town site at or near Lewiston seems essential for the supply of the large mining population which has for several months been gathering in the Salmon River and other mining regions. It will thus be idle to attempt the removal of the whites from the Indian reservation. But it is incumbent upon the Government to protect the Indians of both sexes from all violence and outrage on the part of the whites, and the general commanding desires that you exert the utmost of your power for their protection, and to assist the Indian agent on that reservation in the discharge of that duty. Say to their chiefs that the Nez Percé Indians have long been the faithful friends and allies of our people and our Government. They have been perseveringly so and every temptation arising during the last fourteen years from the revolt on several occasions of neighboring tribes. The faith of several branches of the Government stands pledged for their protection. Therefore General Alvord, who nine years ago was a witness of their fidelity and their praiseworthy desire for advances in education and civilization, is much concerned to find the tribe thus dispossessed of their lands; also subjected to so much maltreatment from the whites. He enjoins upon you that every effort should be made vigilantly to protect all peaceable Indians from injury and violence from all whites, whether soldiers or citizens. The preservation of order and discipline among your own men will be very important, and an essential preliminary to the preservation of order among others. It will be advisable for you to give notice to all dealers in ardent spirits and wine that the law empowers you to take and destroy any liquor found in the possession of those who sell it to Indians.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Omitted.

{p.31}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 19, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: In October last, when the orders for the withdrawal of the regular troops from this department reached these headquarters, General Sumner sent orders for the detachment of the Ninth Infantry, on escort duty with Lieut. John Mullan, Second Artillery, to break up and join their companies without delay. The order found Lieutenant Mullan, with his wagon-road expedition, in the Bitter Root Valley, and the mountains covered with deep snow and impassable. Under these circumstances the escort was compelled to remain beyond the mountains during the winter. Not knowing precisely the wishes of the Government, I wrote to Lieutenant Mullan to retain the escort until he received further orders. It now appears that my letter to the lieutenant failed to reach him, and being bound by the first orders of General Sumner, Lieutenant Mullan directed the escort to fall back to Walla Walla preparatory to joining their companies. On the 4th of June I received your telegraphic dispatch of the 2d, saying, “The escort of Lieutenant Mullan cannot be withdrawn now;” orders were immediately sent accordingly, but owing to the great distance and difficulty of communicating, only met the escort as it was approaching Fort Walla Walla. By the last steamer from Oregon I received a communication from Brigadier-General Alvord, a copy of which is herewith inclosed.* I received no letters from Lieutenant Mullan. It being too late in the season for the escort to rejoin Lieutenant Mullan, I have approved the action of General Alvord in the matter, and further directed him, if he deems it necessary, to send a company of cavalry along the Fort Benton road to communicate with Lieutenant Mullan and afford him the necessary protection. Under these circumstances, I hope the Department will approve of my action on this subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, October 2, 1862.

The action of General Wright is approved.

By order of Major-General Halleck:

J. C. KELTON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See July 10, p. 14.

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EL DORADO, July 19, 1862-10.30 a.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

Will encamp one mile west of Placerville to-night. Will remain there until Monday.

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Regiment Infantry.

{p.32}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 19, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Herewith I have the honor to inclose to you, for the information of the general commanding the department, a copy of the detailed instructions given to Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, First Oregon Volunteer Cavalry.* By my Special Orders, No. 35, of the 8th instant, issued the day after I assumed command, you have perceived that I directed that three companies of that regiment under that officer shall proceed upon the emigrant road for the protection of the expected emigration. The command is to leave Fort Walla Walla on the 25th instant and not return to that post until the 1st of November. It proceeds as far as Salmon Falls, on Snake River, which all accounts agree in considering as the principal haunt of the Snake Indians. You will notice that I make it the principal duty of the expedition to protect the emigration. I caution the commander not to give out to the Indians any intention of waging war, but desire him incidentally, if opportunity occurs, to endeavor to get possession of the Snake Indians who were guilty of murdering the emigrants massacred in September, 1860, near Fort Boisé. I also herewith inclose a copy of the detailed instructions** given to Maj. J. S. Rinearson, First Oregon Cavalry, who, with one company of that regiment, is directed by the same Special Orders, No. 35, of the 8th instant, to repair to the Nez Percé Reservation, near Lewiston, and remain encamped, not returning to Fort Walla Walla until the 1st of November. The chief difficulty there apprehended is from the violence and outrages of the whites upon the Nez Percé Indians and in the sale of liquor to them. My instructions enjoin vigilance in these matters, the preservation of discipline and good order among his own men, and the enforcement, so far as practicable, of the act of 13th of February last amending the Indian intercourse act. It seems absolutely necessary for the supply of the large mining population rushing to that region that a town should be located at or near Lewiston. But it is to be hoped that Congress will soon provide for the extinguishment of the Indian title. A bill for that purpose has already passed the Senate. The Lower Nez Percé Indians have signal claims upon us for protection. Their unwavering fidelity to our flag and our people and every temptation deserves remembrance and gratitude, and it is lamentable that it will be so difficult to give them bare protection and the simplest justice, and that all their cherished hopes of improvement and civilization should be thus impeded and perhaps blasted. It will certainly give me pleasure to do all I can for their protection. It is to be feared that the provocations of lawless whites will lead to inevitable collisions. The Upper Nez Percés, whose fidelity never was so certain, may be kept in check by the presence of so many thousands of miners. I have ordered a guard, consisting of a subaltern and twenty men, to encamp at the Umatilla Indian Agency, but I shall order them to return to Fort Walla Walla before the opening of winter. I expect to leave here on the 21st instant for Fort Walla Walla to give any aid which my personal presence may afford in the starting of the expedition, but shall return to this post in a few days.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* See Hughes to Maury, July 12, p 20.

** See Hughes to Rinearson, July 18, p. 30.

{p.33}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 19, 1862.

Lieut. Col. GEORGE S. EVANS, Second Cav. California Vols., Comdg. Owen’s Lake Expedition: (Through Capt. E. A. Rowe, Adobe Meadows, Cal.)

SIR: In reply to your letter* of the 9th instant, reporting the operations of the Owen’s Lake Expedition, the general commanding the department instructs me to say that if you are fully satisfied that the Indians recently engaged in hostilities in that quarter are repentant and really desire to live in peaceful relations with the whites, you are authorized to make a treaty with them securing protection to the settlers. The Indians must restore all property they have stolen from the whites; hostages to the number of four or five, consisting of sub-chiefs or influential members of the tribe, with their families, to be sent to Fort Churchill, must be given as a guarantee of their good faith.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Part I, p. 148.

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FORT BAKER, CAL., July 20, 1862.

First Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

Sir: I have the honor to report that Stephen Fleming (citizen) this afternoon brought into camp and turned over to the military eleven Indians taken by a party of citizens near Kettenshaw. There is one buck, six squaws, and four children. The detachment sent out under Sergeant Jones on the 15th instant has not yet returned. They were under orders to strike over to Eel River; from thence to Kettenshaw by the way of Fort Seward; from thence back to the post. I expect that they will succeed in bringing Las-sic’s band in with them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Baker.

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[JULY 21, 1862.-For General Orders, No. 11, Column from California, constituting the District of Western Arizona, &c., see Part I, p. 92.]

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ORDERS, No. 140.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, July 21, 1862.

I. The expedition ordered out by Special Orders, No. 35, headquarters District of Oregon, dated July 8,1862, for the protection of the expected emigration, will be composed of Companies A, B, and D, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers. These companies will hold themselves in readiness to march on the 25th instant, or as soon thereafter as practicable, remaining in the field until November 1 proximo.

...

By order of Lieutenant-Colonel Maury:

HENRY MCCANN, First Lieutenant, Fourth California Volunteers, Post Adjutant.

{p.34}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 22, 1862.

Capt. WILLIAM MCCLEAVE, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Tucson, Ariz. Ter.:

CAPTAIN: A train of five wagons will be sent to-morrow to arrive at Tubac to move Companies A and E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, to El Reventon. On arriving there Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will garrison that place until further orders. Lieut. C. P. Nichols has already received instructions in regard to this. In compliance with General Orders, No. 10, from headquarters Column from California, dated 17th instant, you will, after having posted Company E at El Reventon, move with your company and company property to this place, so as to arrive here on or before the 29th instant, using for your transportation the five wagons sent out and leaving one wagon for a post team at El Reventon. Bring from Tubac subsistence for your company up to the 31st instant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Bragg, July 22, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Commanding District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by express of your communications of the 16th instant. I am exceedingly obliged to the commanding colonel for the information given in regard to being relieved from this post. I very much desire a change of post. My men have been stationed here nearly nine months and have not received a dollar’s pay nor seen one day’s service except garrison duty. The colonel will very readily conclude that it requires considerable exertion on the part of the officers to keep the command in proper discipline under such disagreeable circumstances, yet the conduct of the men has been excellent. They have given good attention to cleanliness, drill, and discipline, far better than could have been expected while subjected to such monotonous duties. But four desertions have occurred, and they were bad and almost worthless men. My command is very proficient in company, skirmish, and bayonet drill. They execute the skirmish by bugle calls very correctly, and in the care and cleanliness of arms and accouterments I do not think they are excelled by any company in the service. I have put everything in condition as far as possible to turn over the command and property without delay. Invoices and receipts of property have been made, and only require dates and signatures to complete the business. I sincerely hope the company to relieve us will come at an early day. The descriptive list required in your circular of the 15th instant will be forwarded at an early day. In regard to the reservation, &c., I respectfully submit the fallowing:

First. The Mendocino Indian Reservation comprises four distinct farms or stations:

First. Headquarters (so called), one-half mile south from this post; number of Indians200
Second, Cullabool farm, two miles south of post; number of Indians150
Third. Bald Hill Station, two miles northeast of post; number of Indians100
Fourth. Whipple’s, or Ten-Mile River Station, ten miles of post; number of Indians550
Total Indians upon the reservation1,000
{p.35}

A very large proportion of the above are peaceable and well disposed. They are under the immediate control and direction of agents and employés of the reservation and require very little, if any, military protection. One company is amply sufficient for that purpose.

Second. Settlements, &c.: The principal settlement near this post is at the Noyo Mills, one mile distant. It employs from sixty to seventy hands at all times, and consequently is amply sufficient for its own protection. Mendocino City, ten miles south, is the next nearest settlement and needs no protection other than its own citizens can afford. One company is all-sufficient for any exigency which can possibly arise between the whites and Indians of this section.

Third. Distances, roads, &c.: I have no method of ascertaining the exact distances called for. The following approximation is probably as nearly correct as can be obtained without actual measurement, viz:

Miles.
From Fort Bragg to Shelter Cove60
From Shelter Cove to Keoska Creek10
From Keoska Creek to Upper Mattole30
From Fort Bragg to Upper Mattole100

From Fort Bragg to Whipple’s, trail good, especially at low tide, when, by following the ocean beach, some six miles of sand hills can be avoided. Two rivers, both easily forded at low tide, intersect this part of the route.

DISTANCES, ETC.

Miles.
From Whipple’s to Beall’s Ranch (good upland trail)8
From Beau’s Ranch to Usal (narrow mountainous trail, very rough, but passable for pack trains)18
From Usal to Bear Harbor (very rough and mountainous, but passable at all seasons)22
From Bear Harbor to Shelter Cove8
Good trail (at low tide by the beach two miles); by the upland trail (rough and mountainous) additional distance4
From Shelter Cove to Upper Mattole (good upland trail)30

The whole distance can be made in from five to six days by pack trains (quicker in summer than winter), and by an express rider in from three and a half to four days. Good grass and fresh water are abundant at convenient distances along the entire route.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. MOORE, Captain, Third California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

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ORDERS, No. 142.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, July 22, 1862.

I. In compliance with Special Orders, No. 35, headquarters District of Oregon, Company F, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, under command of Maj. J. S. Rinearson, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, will hold itself in readiness to proceed on the 1st proximo to the Lapwai, near Lewiston, and establish a camp thereat. The acting commissary of subsistence will supply the command with rations for the month of August (thirty-one days), and the acting assistant quartermaster will furnish the necessary transportation. The command will remain in the field until November 1, 1862.

...

By order of Lieutenant-Colonel Maury:

HENRY MCCANN, First Lieutenant, Fourth California Volunteers, Post Adjutant.

{p.36}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., July 23, 1862.

Lieut. Col. E. A. RIGG, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Battalion en route to the Rio Grande:

COLONEL: According to instructions from the general commanding the Column from California, I send by two wagons, to go with your command, to-day 3,000 pounds of flour and 1,500 pounds of panocha for the people of Pinos Altos. I have also ordered 1,500 pounds of pemmican, according to General Carleton’s instructions, to be turned over by Lieutenant Phelan, acting commissary of subsistence of Colonel West’s command, to go with the flour and panocha. It will be necessary to send forward an escort to Pinos Altos with the provisions. Will you see that Lieutenant Phelan turns over the pemmican and that the provisions arrive safely at their destination. The following are General Carleton’s orders in the case:

TUCSON, July 22, 1861.

Major FERGUSSON, First Car. Cal. Pole., Comdg. Dist. of Western Arizona, Tucson, Ariz Ter.:

MAJOR: Send to Pinos Altos, for the relief of the people herein described as famishing at that point for want of food, the following subsistence stores: 3,000 pounds of Sonora flour, 1,500 pounds of pemmican, and 1,500 pounds panocha (Mexican sugar).

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

In case the people have left Pinos Altos, the subsistence will go on with the command. William Marks is the name of the person who applied for relief for the people at Pinos Altos.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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OGILBY’S, Twenty-one Miles East of Placerville, July 23, 1862-8.30 p.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

Am encamped here to-night and progressing finely.

P. EWD. CONNOR.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 42.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 23, 1862.

I. Pursuant to instructions from the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific, dated the 11th of July, First Lieut. W. B. Hughes, Ninth Infantry, is relieved from duty as acting assistant adjutant-general at these headquarters, and will repair to Fort Walla Walla, where he will perform the duties of acting assistant quartermaster and commissary at that post.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

WM. B. HUGHES, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.37}

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FORT BAKER, CAL., July 24, 1862.

First Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort H Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report the return of the scout sent out from this post on the 15th instant. The detachment under the command of Sergeant Jones, Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, marched to Fort Seward, Eel River, by the way of Larrabee Valley. From Fort Seward took an easterly direction about ten miles, and there surprised and captured 2 squaws and 1 child, July 19. The squaws were liberated and directed to find their friends and bring them into camp, where they would be well treated. The camp was then moved about three miles to the northward. The command remained at this point two days, the Indians coming in and delivering themselves up to the number of 112 (36 bucks, 50 squaws, 26 children). There could have been more Indians obtained could the command have waited longer, but the provisions giving out they were compelled to return to the fort, arriving here at 10 o’clock a.m. I am crippled in my movements for want of mules.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 24, 1862.

General L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: This communication I shall forward to you through the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific, and its object is to urge the importance of reviving the Department of Oregon, as established in General Orders, No. 10, from the Adjutant-General’s Office, dated 13th of September, 1858. I would respectfully represent that every reason which could then be urged for the measure still exists, with the additional consideration that during the existence of the civil war there must necessarily be constant apprehension that at any moment we may be plunged into a foreign war. In that case this region is the most exposed and vulnerable, as it is the most remote of all our Territories. Fortunately the large emigration now pouring into it across the plains and from California is adding to its population good material for armies in case of trouble. But the occupation of new gold fields in the easterly portion of Washington Territory will only increase the chances of Indian difficulties. I only repeat an argument often urged by those in command in their dispatches to the War Department from this quarter, that the length of time required for communication between this point and San Francisco is too great for the proper regulation there of military affairs in this quarter. I understand that during the last year of the existence of the two distinct Departments of Oregon and California authority existed for the senior commander to concentrate troops upon any emergency. I can see no obstacle to the existence of such a regulation, leaving otherwise the two departments in their full independence, and ready to perform the most efficient service. This provision was only a substitute for a still better arrangement, such as existed in 1850, when there was a major-general commanding the Pacific Division, embracing the two departments then called Department No. 10 (California), and No. 11 (Oregon). The general orders of {p.38} 13th of September, 1858, establishing the boundaries of the old Department of Oregon, very properly left the valleys of Rogue River and Umpqua in the Department of California, those valleys being supplied from San Francisco, and more intimately connected with it by mail and commerce.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 9.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 24, 1862.

I. First Lieut. W. B. Hughes, Ninth Infantry, having, pursuant to instructions from the headquarters Department of the Pacific, been ordered to Fort Walla Walla to perform the duties of acting assistant quartermaster and commissary at that post, First Lieut. Frederick Mears, Ninth Infantry, is directed to perform the duties of acting assistant adjutant-general at these headquarters.

II. All communications for this office will hereafter be addressed to the acting assistant adjutant-general, headquarters District of Oregon.

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers Commanding District.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 44.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 24, 1862.

Maj. J. F. Curtis, Second Infantry California Volunteers, with Companies B, C, and D, of that regiment, will, pursuant to instructions from the headquarters Department of the Pacific, dated the 12th ultimo, proceed to Fort Humboldt, Cal. The assistant quartermaster of this post will furnish the necessary transportation in the first steamship which can go into the harbor of Humboldt. If carried by through stress of weather they will be landed at Alcatraz Island.

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 25, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: My latest advices from General Carleton’s command are dated on the 6th instant. He was still at Tucson, Ariz., preparing to move east on Mesilla and the Rio Grande. The great drought in that country had caused an uncommon scarcity of water, but as the rainy season was commencing when the general wrote, he hoped to get off by the middle of July. The weather in Arizona is very hot, and the passage of our wagons over the hot sands of the deserts has caused them to shrink and require constant repairing. Thus far the movement of the Column from California has been successful in every particular. We have lost no men or public property. Our troops are in fine health and {p.39} spirits and well supplied. The rebels have been driven out of the country, and the general assures me that Arizona is as well ordered and quiet as any part of California, Brigadier-General Carleton’s column, as well as the troops at Fort Yuma, have been principally supplied via the Gulf of California, and thence up the Colorado River to Yuma, but with Carleton’s column of 1,500 men in Arizona and eastward, his supplies can be sent from this city to Tucson for one-half what it now costs us, provided we can send them through the Mexican State of Sonora. I have conferred with Mr. Robinson and other influential and leading men who have been long residents at Guaymas, and I am assured that there will be no difficulty in this matter, and that our army supplies could be landed either at Guaymas or at Lobos, a preferable point, about midway between Guaymas and the mouth of the Colorado, from which there is a good wagon road direct to Tucson, with an abundance of wood, water, and grass at convenient distances. The distance from Lobos to Tucson is much less than from Yuma to Tucson. Under these circumstances it is clearly the interest of the Government to send the supplies that way; but inasmuch as it might be improper for me to do so without being advised that an arrangement to that effect had been made between our Government and that of the Mexican Republic, I deem it proper to submit the subject to the consideration of the War Department. Should the Department decide that I can send the supplies through Sonora I shall be glad to be advised by telegraph, as additional stores must be sent forward within a few weeks.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier. General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, July 25, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Colonel Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, with his regiment, has passed the Sierra and is probably now in the vicinity of Carson City, Nev. Ter. Colonel Sims, with headquarters and two companies Second Cavalry California Volunteers, left this city on the 21st instant, and are now advancing on the Overland Mail Route and will join Colonel Connor beyond the mountains. This force, with the addition of one company of cavalry from Fort Churchill, will move forward and establish a post at Ruby Valley and another in the vicinity of Salt Lake, the latter to be the headquarters of Colonel Connor. Supplies for a year are being thrown forward for all the troops on the mail route, including Fort Churchill. In the District of Oregon all is quiet. The headquarters of the First Infantry Washington Territory Volunteers, Colonel Steinberger commanding, have been established at Fort Walla Walla. The Oregon cavalry company at Walla Walla were ordered to move on the 15th of July, on the emigrant road, to meet the approaching emigration and afford them protection through the Indian country. In the District of Humboldt Indian difficulties still continue. The troops have been zealous and indefatigable in their exertions, and more than 400 Indians have been captured and brought into Fort Humboldt and await the action of the superintendent of {p.40} Indian affairs for their removal to some reservation. The Indian difficulties on Owen’s Lake and River and Mono Lake, on the eastern border of this State, have nearly terminated, and it is expected that a permanent peace may be soon established.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 45.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 25, 1862.

...

III. Maj. J. F. Curtis, with Companies B, C, and D, of Second California Volunteer Infantry, will proceed to Alcatraz Island, en route to Fort Humboldt, Cal. The assistant quartermaster at this post will furnish the necessary transportation.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 46.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 26, 1862.

I. Col. J. Steinberger, First Washington Territory Volunteer Infantry, with Companies A and E, First Washington Territory Volunteer Infantry, will repair by water to Fort Walla Walla, pursuant to instructions of the 21st instant from headquarters Department of the Pacific. The command will leave this post on the 30th instant.

II. Companies A and C, of the Fourth California Volunteer Infantry, will proceed by water to Benicia, Cal., leaving Fort Walla Walla after the adjournment of the general court-martial convened at that post per Special Orders No 126, of the 21st instant, from department headquarters.

...

V. A subaltern and twenty men of Oregon cavalry will be ordered to the Umatilla Indian Agency and relieve the detachment of Fourth California Volunteer Infantry now there, who will return to Fort Walla Walla.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 12.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Apache Pass, Overland Mail Station, July 27, 1862.

I. A post will be established in this pass, which will be known as Fort Bowie.

II. This post will be garrisoned by Company G, Fifth Infantry, increased to 100 men by a detachment from Company A, Fifth Infantry {p.41} California Volunteers. Maj. T. A. Coult, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, until further orders, is assigned to the command of Fort Bowie. Surg. David Wooster, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, is also assigned to duty at that post.

III. Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, as he passes Fort Bowie on his way to the Rio Grande, will furnish for the infantry portion of the garrison 120 rounds of ammunition per man. Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg, First Infantry California Volunteers, will see that the command is furnished with twenty days’ rations of subsistence and a sufficient number of tents, including one hospital tent. Should Colonel Rigg not have an adequate number, they will be furnished from the supply train under command of Capt. William McCleave, First Cavalry California Volunteers, which will leave Tucson, Ariz. Ter., on the 2d proximo. From this train the commander of Fort Bowie will draw 10,000 rounds of musket ammunition and sixty days’ rations of subsistence. Passing detachments will keep the command at Fort Bowie supplied with fresh beef until the arrival of the beef contractor, who will make arrangements to leave at that post sixty days’ rations of fresh beef on the hoof, with two first-rate men to herd them.

IV. The commanding officer at Fort Bowie will establish that post at the best point in the Apache Pass for the protection of travelers and passing trains. If this point, from the nature of the ground, cannot be found near the spring, a small redoubt on the most commanding position will be at once erected near that spring, and be occupied night and day by a picket guard strong enough to hold it.

V. The commander at Fort Bowie will cause the Apache Indians to be attacked whenever and wherever he may find them near his post, unless they bear flags of truce. For this purpose he is at liberty to send out from time to time detachments from his post of such strength and to such points as the good of the service may require. He will, whenever necessary, cause all trains and expressmen to be escorted through the pass and well out into the open country on either hand. To effect all this a great deal is necessarily left to his judgment, caution, vigilance, and energy.

VI. A detachment of cavalry will be added to the garrison of the post, and will come from the east with the first return train.

By command of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 28, 1862.

Hon. J. G. DOWNEY, Los Angeles, Cal.:

DEAR SIR: Mr. M. Morrison has presented to me the petition signed by Your Excellency and many other citizens and residents of the county of Los Angeles, asking for the establishment of a military post on the Colorado River at or near Fort Mojave. I need not assure Your Excellency that I feel a deep interest in the prosperity of the hardy pioneers who have done so much to develop the resources of the country, and that it will always afford me pleasure to afford them all the protection in my power. But at this moment I have no troops disposable for the establishment of permanent posts. The various columns I now have in the field, and the Indian wars actually being waged, have left me with {p.42} few troops to meet any sudden emergency, and prudential considerations demand that what force I have remaining should not be removed far from the coast.

With great respect, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Rio de Sauz, Ariz. Ter., July 28, 1862.

The following information of the watering places hence to the Miembres River is left at the station of the Rio de Sauz for the information of commanders of detachments of this column, viz: To the Cienega de Sauz, say, twelve miles, grass, water, and shrubs for fuel; here rest one day. From the cienega to Leitzendorfer’s Wells, good road; distance, say, twenty-five miles; wood, grass, water only enough for fifty men, unless it has rained. From Leitzendorfer’s Wells to Soldier’s Farewell is a good road; distance, say, twenty-one miles; grass, shrubs for fuel, probably plenty of water in a tank. There is said to be a hole with a little bad water in it some 600 yards south of station at Soldier’s Farewell. At Burro Mountain, three or four miles from Soldier’s Farewell (northeast), is said to be water plenty. Indians bad here. If it has rained there will be a plenty of water in holes, but calculation must be made so as to go through on this information, save that little dependence can be placed on finding much water at Leitzendorfer’s Wells. To Cow Springs from Soldier’s Farewell is sixteen miles; here is water and grass plenty, but no wood. To Miembres River, say, eighteen miles; here is grass, water, wood in abundance; here rest. Total, ninety-two miles.

By order of General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieutenant and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 28, 1862.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

GENERAL: The disposition of the force in the District of Oregon for the protection of the overland emigration and remote settlements, as also your instructions to the several commanders, receive the approval of the general commanding the department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 28, 1862.

Hon. WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:

GOVERNOR: I have received your letter of the 18th instant and must thank you very sincerely for the kind expressions it contains and the {p.43} congratulations you offer upon my recent promotion. I assure you that my long residence in this country leads me to take a deep interest in the welfare and prosperity of the Territory and in the defense of its frontier. I look with special concern to the incoming emigration, and the moment I arrived I turned my attention to taking steps for its protection. I inclose herewith for your information a copy of my orders issued on the 8th instant, the day after I assumed command.* I have heard this morning that Lieutenant-Colonel Maury’s command of three companies of Oregon cavalry probably started to-day from Fort Walla Walla upon the emigrant road. Salmon Falls, half way between Fort Boisé and Fort Hall, is the great haunt of the Snake Indians at this season for the purpose of fishing, and Colonel Maury’s command will remain encamped in that vicinity as long as possible, not leaving there until it is necessary in order to return to Fort Walla Walla by the 1st of November. Mr. Crawford, of Oregon, with a guard of seventy-five men enrolled for the journey by order of the War Department, left Omaha early in June and writes Major Francis that he intends “bringing up the rear of the emigration.” I have given no order to Colonel Maury about “bringing up the rear of the emigration,” for that phrase with us is rather unsavory and unsatisfactory, as in the fall of 1860 a commander who supposed he brought up the rear of the emigration had the sorrow and mortification to hear of a massacre in his rear. By staying out and not returning until the 1st of November the command will do its best before the winter sets in. Colonel Maury is ordered if opportunity occurs to arrest and punish those Snake Indians who committed the murders of 1860. The command of Major Rinearson, which has gone to the vicinity of Lewiston, will have an important and delicate duty to perform in the preservation of peace by protecting the Nez Percé Indians from outrages by the whites. Those Indians are of superior character; have always been warmly our friends, but they are now rudely dispossessed of their lands on the reservation secured to them by a sacred treaty; their women treated with outrage by the miners; liquor is sold to them by lawless whites, and great danger apprehended of collision. I learn that Senator Nesmith has pushed through the Senate a measure appropriating $50,000 to enable the Indian Department to take steps to extinguish the Indian title. I hope and trust Colonel Wallace will get it through the House. From this statement you will see that I have taken such measures as lay in my power to preserve the peace. The multitude of whites pervading that region may possibly hold the Indians in check. Please be good enough to show this letter to Mr. Hale, the superintendent of Indian affairs, who will doubtless be interested to know what has been done.

With best wishes, I remain, with high respect, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* See Special Orders, No. 35, p. 9.

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ORDERS, No. 149.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, July 28, 1862.

The undersigned hereby assumes command of this post.

C. W. C. ROWELL, Captain, Fourth Infantry California Volunteers.

{p.44}

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY OREGON VOLUNTEERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., July 28, 1862.

Lieut. W. B. HUGHES, Ninth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to report to the general commanding the district that my command, consisting of Companies A, B, and D, numbering 243 rank and file, have left this morning upon the emigrant road expedition.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Lieutenant-Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding Expedition, Emigrant Road.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, July 29, 1862.

Capt. H. FLYNN, Second Infantry California Vols., Commanding Fort Lyon:

CAPTAIN: You will re-enforce Captain Douglas and co-operate with him in such manner as he may request, reserving a sufficient camp-guard.

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infantry California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, July 29, 1862.

Capt. W. M. JOHNS, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. at Liscombe’s Hill:

CAPTAIN: You will immediately call in all detachments except that at Elk Camp, and hereafter keep your command concentrated. You will re-enforce Captain Douglas, and co-operate with him in such manner as he may request, so far as your limited means may allow, reserving a sufficient camp guard. Similar instructions have been sent to Lieutenant Anderson, at Elk Camp.

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infantry California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, July 29, 1862.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Fort Anderson:

CAPTAIN: Captain Johns, at Liscombe’s Hill; Lieutenant Anderson, at Elk Camp, and Captain Flynn, at Fort Lyon, are instructed to re-enforce and co-operate with you to such an extent and in such manner as you shall desire. The colonel commanding the district had already {p.45} withdrawn the three men from Elk Camp stationed at Whitney’s, on the express ground that so small a detachment would afford no protection, but would rather invite attack, and regrets that you should have been induced to replace them. You are instructed to refuse all such applications hereafter, and to keep your command as much concentrated as possible. If in an urgent case you should post a detachment for temporary protection, the number should be amply sufficient for the purpose, or they should be ordered to erect a stockade or other defense, and keep strictly within it until relieved.

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infantry California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., July 30, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a letter* addressed to these headquarters by Brigadier-General Carleton, commanding the Column from California, dated 13th of July; also copies of two communications,** dated 12th of July, from General Carleton to His Excellency Don Ignacio Pesqueira, Governor of the State of Sonora. These documents are forwarded specially to show the good understanding existing between the authorities and people of the two Republics.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier. General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p. 22.

** See pp. 17, 18.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 50.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., July 31, 1862.

I. Capt. S. S. Marsh, Second Infantry, and the detachments of the several companies of the Ninth Infantry, acting as escort to the military road expedition, will, on their arrival at Fort Walla Walla, repair by water to Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 132.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 1, 1862.

...

4. Companies B, C, and D, Second Infantry California Volunteers, under the command of Maj. James F. Curtis, will proceed, on the steamer leaving this port on the 5th instant, to the District of Humboldt. One of the above-named companies, to be designated by Major Curtis, will garrison Fort Bragg, relieving Captain Moore’s company. The other {p.46} two companies will debark at Fort Humboldt, Capt. R. W. Kirkham, assistant quartermaster, will make the necessary arrangements for transportation.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT CHURCHILL, August 1, 1862-12.20 p.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

I have just arrived here.

P. E. CONNOR.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 1, 1862.

Col. F. J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Humboldt:

SIR: The department commander desires you to have Captain Johns’ and if possible Captain Ketcham’s companies at the landing in readiness to proceed on the return steamer to this city. The senior officer will be instructed to report at these headquarters immediately on his arrival.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 1, 1862.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: Your letter instructing me to send Captain Akey’s cavalry company to Red Bluffs was received on the 28th ultimo. It has required four days to get in all the detachments and express riders. As no transportation train can be obtained till next Monday, the 4th instant, they cannot be here that day. A competent guide has been secured, who reports a shorter route than by Long Valley. The distance is about 200 miles. Of the company horses eighteen are dead, forty-four unserviceable (twenty of these only from sore backs), and thirty-four serviceable.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

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[AUGUST 2, 1862.-For Carleton to Canby, reporting operations, &c., see Part I, p. 92.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 2, 1862.

Lieut. Col. GEORGE S. EVANS, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg. Expedition to Owen’s Lake, Camp at Lone Pine, Cal.:

SIR: The department commander has recently had an interview with Mr. Wentworth, superintendent of Indian affairs, when the latter stated {p.47} that he would enter into some arrangement with Governor Nye, of Nevada Territory, relative to the control and management of the Piutes and Owen’s River Indians, preventing their passing to and fro over the dividing line of California and Nevada Territory. The superintendent will probably extend his trip to your camp, when the general desires you to render him any assistance and give any information in your possession. Should the present disturbances be quieted, the general thinks a small post of one company at some post on Pine Creek, or in the neighborhood of Owen’s Lake, where there is sufficient of timber and grass and water, would be ample protection to the inhabitants, and at the same time prevent outrages on the unoffending Indians. With the means at your disposal it is believed that huts to shelter the men and horses can be thrown up in a very short time. You will, therefore, give the necessary instructions to have provisions and forage for the company you may designate to garrison this point laid in previous to the rainy season.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Ojo de la Vaca, Ariz. Ter., August 3, 1862.

Maj. DAVID FERGUSSON, First Cavalry California Vols., Comdg. at Tucson, Ariz. Ter.:

MAJOR: I approve of the release of John Bart on his parole of honor, he having given bonds of $5,000, to be forthcoming when called for. Your circular in relation to reports of persons in charge of vedette stations is approved. The detachment from Captain McCleave’s company sent to the San Pedro to re-enforce Lieutenant Guirado will be sent to join that company as soon as the cattle have been driven from that point by the contractor toward the Rio Grande. The contract between Capt. N. S. Davis, acting assistant quartermaster, and King S. Woolsey, for hay and mesquite beans, seems to be fair and just, and is approved. Your letter to Lieut. R. S. Barrett, of July 26, is received. The sentence, “Salvation of the troops in this Territory,” seems to be uncommonly forcible. Your Special Orders, No. 2, July 26, are approved. Send by the first opportunity 1,500 pounds of pemmican, which Captain Willis left at the San Pedro on the 26th of July, to Fort Bowie, Apache Pass, Chiricahua Mountains. I inclose a copy of General Orders, No. 12, establishing that post.* Its garrison will not vary much from 120 aggregate. You will cause it to be supplied with subsistence stores and such other necessary articles as may be required by the commanding officer of that post which you can spare from the depot at Tucson, or procure from Fort Yuma or San Francisco. Fort Bowie is included within the District of Eastern Arizona, and will doubtless be occupied by troops for many years, as it is one of the most important points for a military post in this Territory. Of course, during the present troubles no expenses can be incurred in building this post, except in the payment of the few extra-duty men whom the commanding officer of Fort Bowie may be obliged to employ. Major Coult will for the present protect himself by a field-work, but the troops there will be obliged to live under canvas for some time to come. I inclose for your information a letter** from Lieutenant Barrett, dated July 21, 1862. Send a good {p.48} share of the dried apples named therein to Fort Bowie; also 100 of the bedsacks. I have to-day written to Colonel Bowie and requested him to order Captain Thayer’s company, of the Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, to report to you at Tucson. During the time which elapses until its arrival at your headquarters I desire that Captain Davis, acting assistant quartermaster, get ready as many of the unserviceable wagons as possible, after having sent Allen’s supply train to Fort Yuma, and working in these wagons the 200 poor and weak mules which I spoke of sending to San Pedro, Cal. I wish the captain to come on with this train to Mesilla, bringing with him as much subsistence stores as the mules can well haul. You will order Greene’s company to escort this train through. From what I learn of the means of transportation in New Mexico these mules and harness will be greatly needed there. Send to Lieutenant Hammond, regimental quartermaster First Infantry California Volunteers, the proportion of all clothing now at Tucson, or which may arrive there before Captain Davis leaves, with this train for Mesilla, which the troops in advance should have, when you consider their numbers with reference to the numbers of those who remain behind. It was supposed that to an experienced soldier like yourself paragraph 5 of General Orders, No. 10, was sufficiently clear; that you would send on such of the articles named as you might have on hand and such of the articles not named as are in customary use and which in your judgment would be necessary, provided you had them in store. I inclose herewith a tri-monthly statement of subsistence stores at Fort Yuma and at the mouth of the Colorado River and to arrive at the mouth of the river. It is dated July 20, 1862. Please send forward at the earliest practicable moment a good supply of bacon, hams, coffee, sugar (brown), sugar (crushed), lime juice, sperm candles, whisky, tea, molasses, dried apples, desiccated vegetables, compressed potatoes, and pickles, at least the proportion due the troops in advance, having reference to their strength. If, hereafter, Lieutenant Barrett should make these reports to you, send me authenticated copies of them. I regret that your duties are so onerous. I will relieve you from them as soon as possible.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

NOTE.-I herewith inclose, approved, your contract with Mr. Ammi M. White, dated July 24, 1862.

* See July 27, p. 40.

** Not found.

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HDQRS. THIRD INFANTRY CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS, Camp 16, Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter., August 3, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report my arrival at this post with my command. The men are in excellent health and spirits and have stood the trip remarkably well. The animals are all in good order, as I made it my particular duty to attend to their being well taken care of, and embraced every opportunity that was afforded to obtain good forage. The roads were, with little exception, in good order, and I am myself much pleased with the result so far. I find since entering this Territory that there are many sympathizers with the Southern rebels along our entire route; but while they are loud-mouthed brawlers before our arrival, are very careful in the expressions of such sentiments during {p.49} our stay at any point. Still, they are known and can be identified as open and avowed secessionists. I have not as yet taken any steps to check them by arrest and punishment, but await further instructions from headquarters. I desire and shall remain here only sufficient time to overhaul and repair the wagons and harness and allow the animals to recruit, when, unless I receive orders to the contrary, shall take my departure for Salt Lake City or its vicinity. From the information I have received there is an immense immigration on the route this season, and I fear I will find grass rather scarce, consequently I contemplate dividing my command at this point, to reunite at Ruby Valley. Colonel Sims has not yet arrived, nor have I heard from him. I find that matters at this post are being conducted with care and economy, for which Major McDermit deserves favorable mention.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 4, 1862.

Bvt. Maj. GEORGE P. ANDREWS, Third Artillery, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Point, Cal.:

SIR: The department commander desires you to make such changes or modifications in the instructions contained in a letter from these headquarters relative to the protection of the Government work and property at Fort Point as you may deem necessary for the public interest.*

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Some purely personal matter here omitted.

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HEADQUARTERS, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., August 4, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

The following extract from the proclamation dated the 8th day of June, 1862, placing this Territory under martial law, is republished for the information and guidance of all concerned, viz:

I. No man who has arrived at the lawful age shall be permitted to reside within this Territory who does not without delay subscribe to the oath of allegiance to the United States.

II. No words or acts calculated to impair that veneration which all good patriots should feel for our country and Government will be tolerated within this Territory, or go unpunished if sufficient proof can be had of them.

III. No man who does not pursue some lawful calling or have some legitimate means of support shall be permitted to remain in the Territory.

The foregoing rules will be rigidly enforced, and it is hereby made the duty of every officer and soldier in this command, and of every good citizen, to report any violation of the said rules to the provost-marshal, who will immediately arrest all offenders. The following class of persons are declared to be vagrants, and shall be arrested and punished as violators of the third rule above quoted, viz:

First. All persons who have no visible and honest means of support or live without occupation.

{p.50}

Second. All persons who are confirmed drunkards, who abandon, neglect, or refuse to assist in the maintenance of their families.

Third. All persons in the habit of loitering or sleeping in grogshops, beershops, outhouses, market sheds, stables, granaries, or unoccupied houses, or without any place of habitation, or who cannot give a good account of themselves.

Fourth. All persons who are able to work who go about begging. All citizens or strangers arriving in this town shall immediately report themselves to the provost-marshal.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 4, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

MAJOR: On the 20th of July Captain Ketcham, Third Infantry California Volunteers, at Fort Baker, reported eleven Indian prisoners brought in and turned over to him by citizens. On the 24th of July he reported the capture, by a detachment of his company, of two squaws and a child. The squaws were liberated and sent to induce the Indians to come in. The result was the appearance and surrender of 112 Indians. On the 31st of July he reports the arrival and surrender of the famous Las-sic, with thirty-two other Indians. Las-sic’s band has been long known as the largest and most active of the bands of roving and depredating Indians. Its numbers have been variously estimated from 100 to 300. On the 1st instant Lieutenant Staples (of Captain Ketcham’s company), who has been stationed with a detachment near Eel River, returned from a scout, bringing with him to this post twenty-one Indians that he had captured. A few days since the Indian prisoners at this post were removed by my orders to the narrow neck of land terminating the peninsula that shuts in the bay. They had commenced dying in unusual numbers, and the mortality was rapidly increasing. This caused a general alarm among them and desire to escape. Some had actually attempted to do so. Their corral being but a few yards from the edge of the great forest, they could have all escaped with ease, and of the bucks few, if any, could have been caught again. Independent of this, the sudden mortality among them would soon have become known to the Indians in the mountains, who would have attributed it to our treachery, and no more of them could be expected to come in. The official report of Brigade Surgeon Egbert traced the mortality to two causes-the close confinement and total inaction, to which they were not accustomed, and the sudden and complete change of diet. Both these evils have been remedied by their change of location. They have plenty of ground to roam over in the daytime, being kept together only at night, and on the shore they find plenty of clams, crabs, and fish, their usual diet. Every precaution has been taken to prevent their escape. A picket guard is constantly posted there with a chain of sentinels, to whom the most stringent orders have been given to prevent any molestation of them by the whites. The place is about two miles from this post, and in full view of it. Day and night signals have been established, on which thirty men could be rowed over there in ten minutes in the boat belonging to the post. The hospital steward goes over to them every day, and the surgeon twice every week, and as much oftener as occasion may require. {p.61} Since their removal the unusual mortality has been entirely checked. The land belongs to the United States Government, being on the lighthouse reservation. It is covered along the shore with great quantities of driftwood, furnishing abundance for building shelters and for firewood. Excellent water abounds everywhere within three feet of the surface. I have authorized the purchase of another boat, which is obviously necessary to be kept on the other side of the bay for the use of the guard. It is supposed the cost will be about $60. This expense will be very soon more than balanced by the saving of rations, the issue of which to the Indians will now be comparatively small. Thousands of Indians could be kept on the new site in perfect security and content. The peninsula is so narrow that one company would suffice to guard them; whatever might be their number. I respectfully request to be instructed to what extent it is my duty to execute any direction or suggestions coming from Mr. Hanson, the superintendent of Indian affairs, who is expected here daily, especially as to whether I am to send away the Indian prisoners to such place as he may direct without waiting for instructions from the department commander. The present number of Indians confined here is 412. The number at Fort Baker is 157. Total, 569. I have just dispatched Lieutenant Ustick, Third Infantry California Volunteers, to take the detachment of his company (Captain Ketcham’s), now at Cooper’s Mills, to Fort Baker, in order to bring down the Indians at that post. I herewith inclose the plan of the new guard-house, inadvertently omitted, to be inclosed with my dispatch of the 2d instant.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Steilacoom,. Wash. Ter., August 4, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: Herewith I inclose a letter received by me last evening from the Governor of Washington Territory, together with a copy of my reply thereto. From information received Saturday evening, I should judge that the excitement at Port Townsend, growing out of the affair of the alleged removal of the papers, books, &c., of the U. S. custom-house at that place to the revenue cutter Shubrick, and the threatening attitude assumed by the commander of that craft toward the citizens of the Port, is intense. I am told that the cutter Joe Lane, of which Lieutenant Merryman (hitherto the acting custom-house officer at Port Townsend) is an officer, is daily expected back to Port Townsend, from which port she was temporarily absent on the arrival of the Shubrick, having on board Victor Smith, the collector, returning from Washington, and a collision is apprehended by many between the two cutters, as the officers of the Joe Lane, as well as the citizens of Port Townsend, are said to be much opposed to Mr. Smith on account of sundry misdemeanors alleged against him. The citizens uphold Lieutenant Merryman in the course which he took in refusing to deliver up the papers of the custom-house until Mr. Smith should show him his authority as the regular appointed collector, which, it is stated, Mr. Smith refused to do, and caused an armed guard from the cutter to take forcible possession of them, the town at the same time being threatened by the guns of the cutter. The Governor of the Territory has been appealed to, and I expect him at {p.52} my post daily, accompanied by a judge of the circuit court from Portland. Agreeable to my promise, I shall accompany the Governor to Port Townsend, and should he deem it necessary to call on me for troops I will furnish a detachment from this post for the purpose of preserving law and order until such time as I can receive instructions from the general commanding the Department of the Pacific. Be pleased to call the general’s attention as soon as possible to this matter and furnish me with definite directions.

Very respectfully, I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

G. W. PATTEN, Major Ninth Infantry, Commanding.

P. S.-Please direct to Fort Steilacoom. A report will be forwarded by me on arriving at Port Townsend.

Respectfully,

G. W. P.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Olympia, Wash. Ter., Saturday Evening, August 2, 1862.

Maj. G. W. PATTEN, U. S. Army, Steilacoom, Wash. Ter.:

DEAR SIR: Having heard this afternoon of the unfortunate condition of affairs at Port Townsend, where the commanding officer of the U. S. vessel, the Shubrick, is reported to have ordered the round shot to be taken out of all the cannons on board that vessel and then had them all reloaded with shells, and pointed the cannon at, and threatened to fire upon, that town, thereby threatening the destruction of every house in the whole town, with all the property therein, and also placing in imminent peril the lives of all the population of unarmed, unoffending, and loyal citizens, with all their women and children, this appears to me a great outrage, and also in violation of all known law and usage of a civilized country, and especially of our own country. The records, books, papers, &c., belonging to the U. S. custom-house at Port Townsend were forcibly conveyed on board the Shubrick, and thereby the United States Government is at this time without any properly or legally located custom-house for the entries and clearances of vessels trading to the various ports of Puget Sound. Such are the reports brought here to-day. I therefore intend going to Port Townsend by the first favorable conveyance for the purpose of ascertaining the facts in the case, and to understand by my own observation the truth of this whole affair, and more especially for the purpose of preventing, as far as lies in my power, any further breach of the peace, and to endeavor to re-establish peaceable observance of law and order, and to endeavor to prevent any more threatenings of our towns being fired upon with cannon shot and shells; for to threaten to shell a town in our country is virtually and positively to threaten the entire destruction of its inhabitants and all their houses and other property. And now, sir, I beg leave to respectfully request you will go with me to Port Townsend, for I shall indeed be glad to enjoy the favor of your company, and I shall also feel thankful for the favor and benefit of your experience and advice upon the complicated and delicate questions of law and conventional usage, or professional etiquette, always to be rightfully observed between officers representing co-ordinate branches of the same Government. In other words, I want to be right and want to do right, and shall feel obliged by the favor of your advice in the whole affair.

I remain, dear sir, yours, very respectfully,

WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory.

{p.53}

[Inclosure No. 2.]

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter., August 3, 1862.

Hon. W. PICKERING, Governor Washington Territory, Executive Office, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:

GOVERNOR: Your communication of the 2d instant was received this evening. Agreeable to your request, I will do myself the honor to accompany you on your official visit to Port Townsend, and so far as it is in my power will co-operate with you in your laudable “endeavors to re-establish peaceable observances of law and order” in that disturbed community.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your most obedient servant,

G. W. PATTEN, Major Ninth Infantry, Commanding Fort Steilacoom.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, August 5, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for the consideration of the War Department, a communication addressed to you by Brigadier-General Alvord, commanding the District of Oregon.* I fully concur with the general’s recommendation for the re-establishment of the Department of Oregon, as the commander would then be clothed with more enlarged powers to enable him to meet any extraordinary emergencies which might arise in that remote quarter. Whatever decision may be made by the War Department, I deem it of the greatest importance, having in view the great distance from the seat of Government and the present condition of our domestic and foreign affairs, that the senior officer on this coast should retain command of all the forces serving within the limits of the Department of the Pacific as now constituted.

With great respect, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See July 24, p. 37.

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FORT CHURCHILL, August 5, 1862-11 a.m.

Major DRUM:

Shall I assume command of this district?

P. E. CONNOR.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., August 5, 1862.

Colonel CONNOR, Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter.:

Assume command of the district.

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.54}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 5, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have to report that the command of Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, with Companies A, B, and D, of the First Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, marched from Fort Walla Walla on the 28th ultimo for the emigrant road, agreeably to instructions from these headquarters of the 8th ultimo, as before communicated to your office. It does not return to Fort Walla Walla until the 1st of November, Col. J. Steinberger, First Washington Territory Volunteer Infantry, with Companies A and E of that regiment, left this post for Walla Walla on the 1st instant and will reach that post doubtless to-morrow. Second Lieut. Grove Watson, Second California Volunteer Infantry, with the detachment of Company B of that regiment, from Fort Umpqua, leaves to-day on the Sierra Nevada for Alcatraz Island, en route to Fort Humboldt, Cal. The military board, which has been examining the case of Lieutenant Watson, expects to adjourn sine die this afternoon.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Fort Yuma, August 6, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

MAJOR: General Carleton upon leaving this district published an order on the 15th of May relinquishing the command to me and making this the headquarters of the district for the present, the object of which was, as I understood at the time, that I might be at the most convenient point to join him with the balance of my regiment if he should require re-enforcements. As the general commanding the Column from California has moved on toward the Rio Grande with his force, I presume it is not intended that any more troops shall go forward from this district at present. If I am correct in my deductions I desire to know of the general commanding the department if it be necessary that I should continue the headquarters of the district at this remote post; for, if not, it is my intention to change the headquarters of the district during the coming month and to relieve the troops now here by ordering up some companies of the Fourth Infantry California Volunteers now at Camp Latham. If it be deemed of any importance or consequence that I should remain here, I will do so most cheerfully; but, if not, I am satisfied that I can well subserve the interests of the Government by having the headquarters of the district at or near Los Angeles.

G. W. BOWIE, Colonel Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Cooke’s Wells, Ariz. Ter., August 6, 1862.

Lieut. Col. EDWARD E. EYRE, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Las Cruces, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: The general commanding the column directs that you have the ferry-boat at Las Cruces cordelled up to the San Diego crossing {p.55} of the Rio Grande, where the Column from California will commence crossing that river on the 9th instant. This cordelling can be done by a long rope pulled by men walking along the shore. General Atkinson took his whole command in 1821 from Saint Louis to the mouth of the Yellowstone by cordelling keel boats up the Missouri, a distance of 1,600 miles. You can do this with one boat in two days, commencing to-morrow morning. The general says he is sure you can.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieutenant and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Miembres River, Ariz. Ter., August 6, 1862.

The general commanding, with the staff and Roberts’ company of infantry and Cremony’s and Pishon’s companies of cavalry, will start for the Rio Grande to-day. Colonel West’s detachment will start for the Rio Grande on the 8th instant; Captain Willis’ on the 9th instant; Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg’s on the 10th instant. Each detachment in its organization and material will remain intact as heretofore.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Fort Churchill, August 6, 1862.

The undersigned, pursuant to orders from department headquarters, hereby assumes command of the Military District of Utah, comprising the Territories of Utah and Nevada. In assuming command of the district I especially enjoin on all disbursing officers the necessity of being particularly attentive, careful, and economical in the disbursement of the public funds, and that they in no instance purchase from persons who have at any time, by word or act, manifested disloyalty to the Federal Government. Being credibly informed that there are in this district persons who, while claiming and receiving protection to life and property, are endeavoring to destroy and defame the principles and institutions of a Government under whose benign influence they have been so long protected, it is therefore most rigidly enjoined upon all commanders of posts, camps, and detachments to cause to be promptly arrested and closely confined until they have taken the oath of allegiance to the United States, all persons who from this date shall be guilty of uttering treasonable sentiments against the Government, and upon a repetition of the offense to be again arrested and confined until the fact shall be communicated to these headquarters. Traitors shall not utter treasonable sentiments in this district with impunity, but must seek a more genial soil, or receive the punishment they so richly merit.

By order of P. Edward Connor, colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding District of Utah:

JAS. W. STILLMAN, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[AUGUST 8, 1862.– For Carleton to Canby, reporting arrival of command on the Rio Grande, &c., see Part I, p. 106.]

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{p.56}

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Camp on the Rio Grande, Ariz. Ter., August 8, 1862.

Col. MARSHALL S. HOWE, Third U. S. Cavalry, Fort Craig, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your notes of the 25th and 30th ultimo.* They reached me day before yesterday. I should have written to you by an express which I sent direct to Fort Craig with dispatches for General Canby, but I supposed from a previous note from you received at Tucson that you had already passed on to the country below the Jornada del Muerto. It is not possible for me now to judge how many troops are necessary in the southern portion of New Mexico and in the northwestern corner of Texas. Unless some movement from this direction into Texas is in contemplation I should suppose, from what I hear, that the troops from California are strong enough to hold the country. The Colorado troops can move up the river the moment you receive this note, even if they have not already gone. As I have authority to draw supplies from Fort Craig, I beg of you the favor to have sent to me a list of the subsistence and quartermaster’s stores and of the clothing, camp and garrison equipage now on hand at that depot. We are greatly in want of horse and mule shoes, and horseshoe nails. The great dearth of water on all routes to the Rio Grande from Cooke’s Wells compelled me to seek the river at this point-a distance of thirty-five miles without water, a good day’s march for the California infantry, just off the desert. It is fifty-five miles from Cooke’s Wells to Mesilla, opposite Las Cruces, a march without water, which I feared to encounter with tired troops and jaded animals. I am indebted to you for the information about the trail from Cooke’s Wells to Las Cruces, but I was afraid to try it from the absence of information about water. I shall be happy to see you. Pray, who are the Army officers serving in this country? We know no more of the condition of affairs here than we would had we just dropped from the moon.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier. General.

* Not found.

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ORDERS, No. 157.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, August 8, 1862.

Pursuant to Special Orders, No. 46, headquarters District of Oregon, the undersigned hereby assumes command of this post and its dependencies.

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry.

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CAMP LAPWAI, WASH. TER., August 8, 1862.

[Lieut. FREDERICK MEARS, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Oregon:]

Having been unable to proceed with my command on the 1st proximo, owing to lack of necessary transportation, I proceeded on the 2d of August for Lapwai, near Lewiston, as directed by Special Orders, {p.57} No. 35, headquarters District of Oregon, and arrived here on the 6th instant, having been five days on the road.

J. S. RINEARSON, Major, Commanding Detachment.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson Ariz. Ter., August 9, 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, First Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California:

SIR: The mail from San Francisco, &c., arrived last Wednesday morning, the 6th instant, and I have been anxiously waiting for an express from the commanding general to learn the arrangements made to have the mails carried toward the Rio Grande. I have not heard from Lieutenant Guirado for ten days, though I wrote to him on the 3d instant for a report of what his instructions were about remaining at the crossing of the San Pedro. Nothing is known to me about how long he was to remain there. It will require a large escort to insure the safety of any one going or coming the route to the Rio Grande. Now, of course I am no judge of the condition of affairs, and had not until to-day any force to spare to send an express on, for it was not until yesterday morning that Captain Greene’s company (G), First Infantry California Volunteers, arrived from Fort Yuma. (Aggregate strength of company present, sixty-eight.) The number of privates for duty in Captain Ford’s company (E), Fifth Infantry California Volunteers) is only twenty-six. I have heard from Mr. Solomon Warner, of this place, that a vessel loaded with Government stores was lost at the mouth of the Colorado River recently. I have no official notice of it, but Warner had a letter from Mr. Sylvester Mowry stating as a fact that the vessel was lost. If it be so, it must have been one of two vessels expected by Lieutenant Barrett to arrive about the 20th ultimo. 1 beg that I may be informed what arrangements are made in regard to vedettes hence to the Rio Grande. None of the trains have arrived from Fort Yuma as yet. The Apaches are getting very bold here. They have been tracked near the mill, and some private animals are missing. I had one trail followed to the Cañada del Oro. In counting his mules Captain Davis discovers several missing, but how or when they left or were taken is not explained. They are guarded so as to be secure at night, but it is almost impossible to keep some from straying in the thickets in the daytime when grazing.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 110.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 9, 1862.

I. Lieut. Col. J. N. Olney, Second Infantry California Volunteers, is especially charged with the protection of that portion of the military district lying north and east of Redwood Creek and as far south as the head of that creek, and with the conduct of military operations therein. For that purpose, in addition to the garrison at Fort Gaston, Companies F and G, Second Infantry California Volunteers, now stationed at Fort Anderson and Camp Lincoln, respectively, are placed under his orders.

{p.58}

II. Maj. J. F. Curtis, Second Infantry California Volunteers, is especially charged with the protection of that portion of the district lying south of Redwood Creek and north and east of Van Dusen Fork, and with the conduct of military operations therein. For this purpose, in addition to the garrison at Fort Baker, Companies A and B, Second Infantry California Volunteers, stationed at Fort Lyon and at Arcata, respectively, are placed under his orders.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjt. Second Infty. California Volunteers Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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CIRCULAR, No. 10.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, San Diego Crossing of the Rio Grande, N. Mex., August 10, 1862.

There is no good grazing on the west bank of the river near the San Diego Crossing of the Rio Grande. The detachments will do well to encamp a half mile or more before they come to the crossing. By taking the empty wagons 300 yards up the west bank of the river they can from that point be hauled across with ropes by hand by passing in a straight line diagonally down to a point of egress, which will be seen on the opposite bank. There are three loads of forage on the east bank of the river. West, Willis, and Rigg are each to have but one. The best grazing on the east bank of the river is one mile below the crossing.

By order of General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 10, 1862.

Maj. H. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

MAJOR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt from you of a communication addressed to the department commander by certain citizens of this county, containing serious charges touching my conduct and competency as commander of this district. First. It is said that I have “lost the respect and confidence of the citizens.” If this be the fact, I am unaware of it, and am utterly unconscious of having done or said anything to cause it. Second. The futility and childishness of my actions are the subject of ridicule and contempt. Let some of these futile and childish actions be specified. It can then be seen whether there is ground for this charge or not. Third. I have “failed to chastise any of the Indians who have committed so many murders.” Official reports show 37 Indians as known to be killed and 5 wounded by the troops under my command. It is a notorious fact that the Indians in this region always carry off their killed and wounded, so far as practicable, as a sort of religious duty. It is presumable, therefore, that the total number killed is much larger than this. Some of those killed are known to have been concerned in former outrages, and for aught my accusers can possible know, all the Indians who had committed murders up to the date of their complaint may have been among those chastised. {p.59} Again, there is no way of finding these murdering bands but by constant and active scouting in every direction, and if this has been faithfully done none of us are to blame for finding so few Indians. As a proof of the amount of scouting done, I have now on file some fifty official reports of hard and exhausting scouts, most of them of fifteen days, signed by the officers who conducted them. Fourth. I am totally ignorant of Indian warfare; have never taken any part in actual service here, and am totally ignorant of its necessities. It is true that I arrived here ignorant to a great extent of Indian warfare, at least of that difficult and laborious kind of wolf hunting which goes by that name in this district. I therefore set myself to work to acquire all the information I could from every quarter relative to the face of the country, the habits of the Indians, their numbers, and their usual haunts. At the same time I invited the most intelligent of the old settlers that I met to give me their ideas as to the best mode of accomplishing the object for which I was sent, and whatever of the few suggestions I have received and thought to be valuable I have adopted. As to the details of the best modes of scouting, I left them to the officers themselves who were to conduct the scouts, giving to each company as guide the services of the best old hunter or mountaineer they could find. Having none of the practical skill in trailing Indians of a Leather Stocking, I have not thought it my duty, as commander of the district, to accompany the detachments in their scouts, especially as by so doing I should be obliged to let the district business at headquarters, which requires unremitted attention, take care of itself. Yet, as some of the signers of the complaint personally know, on the only occasion during my presence in the district that offered itself for a combined movement of several detachments in the hope of hemming the Indians in, I did take the field in person in company with the troops. Fifth. My orders to my subordinate officers have been improper and injurious. Let the orders complained of “improper and injurious” be pointed out. Until they are, I have no opportunity of justifying or explaining them. Sixth. The citizens have no cause of complaint against any of my officers, except certain ones who are my particular pets and confidants. I am entirely unconscious of having any pets or confidants among my officers, and cannot even guess who are the ones supposed to be so. I shall be very glad if General Wright or some officer deputed by him would examine into these charges in the most thorough manner, and if they should be found to be true, my resignation will be immediately at the disposal of the department commander.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

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[AUGUST 10, 1862.-For Canby to Adjutant-General of the Army, referring to Carleton’s operations, see Vol. IX, p. 689.]

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., August 11, 1862.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, Washington, D. C.:

Brigadier[-General] Carleton’s advance occupied Fort Thorn, on the Rio Grande, on the 4th of July without opposition. Rebels have fled from Arizona and Mesilla. Carleton’s and Canby’s forces co-operating and moving on Fillmore and Bliss.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.60}

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 30.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 11, 1862.

The general commanding the department has the pleasure of announcing that our flag waves in triumph over the whole of Arizona. On the 21st of June, Brigadier-General Carleton, commanding the Column from California, detached from Tucson a strong reconnoitering force under command of Lieut. Col. E. E. Eyre, First Cavalry California Volunteers. The command, after a hard march, reached the Rio Grande on the 4th of July, and raised our national colors over Fort Thorn, all the rebels having fled on the approach of our troops.

To Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre and the officers and men of the First Cavalry, composing the reconnoitering force, the highest praise is awarded; they had the honor of raising the Stars and Stripes over the last stronghold of the rebels on this side of the Rio Grande.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[AUGUST 11, 1862.-For Canby to Carleton (two communications), relating to operations in Arizona and New Mexico, &c, see Part I, pp. 107, 108.]

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 13.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Las Cruces, N. Mex., August 11, 1862.

I. Company E, First Infantry, Companies B and D, First Cavalry, and Company B, Second Cavalry, will for the present take post at Fort Fillmore. These troops will be subsisted to include the 20th instant.

II. Acting Assistant Surgeon Kittridge will be the medical officer of this command.

By order of General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Fort Churchill, August 11, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report the arrival of Colonel Sims’ command at this post to-day with Captain Smith under guard, and the men and the majority of the officers in a state of insubordination. The command lost thirty men by desertion on the route, and I am informed by Major McGarry and other officers that if the companies designated for that purpose are left at Ruby Valley with Colonel Sims in command there will not be thirty of them left in sixty days. On the route the officers threatened to leave the colonel and march their companies to this post without him. Last night the command encamped in the vicinity of Virginia City, and the colonel dispatched an officer to me for a force to suppress a contemplated mutiny among the men. He also feared a demonstration by the citizens of Virginia City to release Captain Smith from confinement. I conjectured that his fears were groundless and did not send a force, but telegraphed to him to make a forced {p.61} march to this post to-day, which he did. Matters are all right now, and will remain so while they are under my immediate command. A majority of the officers and the men beg that I will not leave them at Ruby Valley with their colonel, but to take them with me to Salt Lake. I certainly fear that so leaving them will not be beneficial to the interests of the Government, nor to the discipline of the command. Under the circumstances I would respectfully recommend that I be permitted to take the command to Salt Lake, and defer garrisoning Ruby Valley until spring, by which time I will guarantee they will be a credit to the service. From information gleaned since my arrival in this Territory I understand that Ruby Valley is a bleak, inhospitable place-no forage, nor timber to build with, and, as far as the Indians are concerned, entirely unnecessary to keep troops there. Cavalry can be subsisted for one-fourth less at Salt Lake than at Ruby. I take pleasure in announcing the good health and high state of discipline of my own regiment. On Wednesday next I review and inspect the troops at this post, and on Thursday I again take up the line of march. I have been necessarily delayed in repairing my wagons and putting them in a thoroughly serviceable condition. I understand from Major McDermit, that the presence of Captain Rowe’s company at Adobe Meadows is unnecessary, and that the expense of foraging and subsisting the company there is very high. From the manner in which affairs were managed while he commanded this post last winter, I am of the opinion that a little wholesome discipline would be greatly beneficial to him as well as the Government. I am much pleased with the care and economy practiced by Major McDermit at this post, and shall leave him in command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

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FORT BRAGG, CAL., August 11, 1862.

First Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Adjutant Second California Vol. Infantry, Fort Humboldt:

SIR: I have the honor to report that agreeably to the inclosed Special Orders, No. 1, dated headquarters Battalion Second California Volunteer Infantry, Steamship Panama, August 5, 1862, I arrived at Fort Bragg, Cal., with Company D, Second California Volunteer Infantry, on the 7th, and relieved Capt. Jer. B. Moore, Third California Volunteer Infantry, at that post this day.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. E. HULL, Captain, Second California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 11, 1862.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: Inclosed I have the honor to transmit copy of a letter this day given to Mr. Z. Van Orman for Lieutenant-Colonel Maury, in command of the emigrant road expedition. A friend and relative of Mr. Van Orman has just arrived from the East, and has seen the children referred to. He attempted to buy them, but was unsuccessful, the Indians refusing to give them up except at very great price. Mr. Van Orman has arranged to take out with him the person alluded to, hoping to overtake {p.62} Colonel Maury’s command and secure his aid in the recovery of the children. Convinced that a public service will be secured in asking Colonel Maury’s assistance to further this purpose, and trusting it will meet the approval of the commanding general,

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding Post.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 11, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. F. MAURY, First Oregon Cavalry, en route to Salmon Falls:

SIR: The bearer of this, Zachias Van Orman is the brother of Alexis Van Orman, who with his wife and oldest son was massacred in 1860 by the Upper Bannocks, a portion of the Snake Indians, near old Fort Boisé. He goes out to-morrow to overtake your command with another person familiar with the country in which the murder took place. Four children of Alexis Van Orman were at the time of the massacre taken prisoners by these Indians, and are still in their hands. They have been seen by the person alluded to and are known both to him and the uncle who carries this to you. The sole object that takes out Mr. Van Orman is to recover the children prisoners, and learning of your expedition he has applied to me to enlist your co-operation in his views. Believing that your instructions will permit you to give him assistance in this purpose, I have earnestly to recommend this gentleman to your consideration and your aid in the recovery of the prisoners. Mr. Van Orman in his relationship with these children has much interest in the recovery of them, and will be able to give you valuable information that may lead to this end.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry.

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[AUGUST 12, 1862.-For Canby to Carleton, relating to operations, &c., see Part I, p. 109.]

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 14.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Las Cruces, K. Mex., August 13, 1862.

I. Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, is hereby appointed the military commander of the towns of La Mesilla, La Mesa, and El Picacho, and of such other places on the western bank of the Rio Grande as lie between the Chihuahua line and Fort Thorn.

II. For the present the following troops will constitute the garrison of the town of La Mesilla, viz: Companies B, C, D, F, H, I, and K, of the First Infantry California Volunteers.

...

V. Lieut. Col. Edwin A. Rigg, First Infantry California Volunteers, will report to Col. Joseph R. West for duty at La Mesilla.

...

IX. Capt. Edward B. Willis, First Infantry California Volunteers, with Company A, First Infantry California Volunteers; Company B, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, and Shinn’s Light Company A, Third Artillery, U. S. Army, will for the present take post at Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.

{p.63}

X. Lieut. Col. Edward B. Eyre, First Cavalry California Volunteers, is hereby assigned to the command of Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.

By command of General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., August 13, 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Mesilla, Ariz. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the commanding general’s communication dated the 3d instant, and of Special Orders, No. 26, and of General Orders, No. 12. I have to report the safe arrival of the expressmen Swilling, Brown, and Smith, together with Sergeant Viven and party. All the commanding general’s orders and instructions will be attended to as well as possible. Major Coult makes requisition for the two mountain howitzers and ammunition, stating that the commanding general approves the requisition. I will send them, together with as many other articles he called for as are on hand, when Sergeant Viven and party return in four or five days. Very few of the articles of quartermaster’s stores Major Coult sends for are on hand, and none en route from the west that I know of. Everything that could be spared was forwarded on the train escorted by Captain McCleave’s command. Capt. N. S. Davis, acting assistant quartermaster, will send by this mail a report to the commanding general of all his means of transportation, how disposed of, and all connected with it. It will be seen that only about ninety mules, partially unserviceable, are to spare, instead of 200, as was supposed there would be. I am under the impression that they will all be required here, considering the fact that we may have to haul our flour from Fort Yuma or Pima Villages, and to keep up the trains that occasionally get broken down from hard work, &c. It is reported that the road to Fort Yuma is almost impassable, in some places being so much worn down and so full of holes and ruts. I have found it necessary to bring Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, from Reventon to Tucson for the reason that when I furnish the escorts and expressmen necessary there will not be enough cavalry at the post. For example, I have to send nine men with Swilling and Brown to-morrow morning, as they fear to go beyond Apache Pass without them. I have to send ten men to Fort Yuma to guard the prisoners, and five men are now gone as escort to a wagon with forage and provisions to the San Pedro Crossing. Then the Apaches have been stealing animals from private citizens here, and I want to guard our public animals by mounted men and be able to send a respectable force after the Indians. I think we can find a rancheria about ten miles from here to the eastward. I sent a sergeant and nine men of Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, to Lally’s mine to guard the road from and to Sonora in that direction. The worst of the Mexicans come from that direction. Tucson has many worthless vagabonds of Mexicans in it now, and I must have a mounted force when the feast of Saint Augustine comes off, the end of this month, when several thousand strangers come here. I do not know how we are to procure forage, labor, &c., without funds. None is likely to come from San Francisco, according to my advices, for many a day. Distrust is beginning to manifest itself here in regard to payment for supplies and labor. Many of the teamsters are applying {p.64} for discharge. We will keep things going as long as possible, but there will not be a cent in either department at the end of this month. This is a subject for serious consideration. I have to report that no stationery is on hand here; none en route that I am aware of. I sent for some to-night to Fort Yuma. Captain Davis does not know what Captain Moore estimated for, and we are working in the dark about supplies from the west. I have estimates made as if none were made by any one before. I have not heard anything lately about Sergeant Naper’s train with clothing. I fear they do not intend to send those wagons beyond Fort Yuma; if so, we cannot get along with fifty wagons to draw subsistence. I wrote the acting assistant quartermaster to send them on from Fort Yuma. Does the general require any hay put on the road toward the Rio Grande for trains? I regret that Woolsey, who undertook to furnish hay and mesquite beans en route to Fort Yuma, is unable to fulfill his contract. I have inclosed a copy of his letter to Captain Davis on this subject in another communication. Neither Lieutenant Barrett nor Lieutenant Frink, his successor, has written me on the subject, though I impressed upon Lieutenant Barrett the necessity for the forage in strong language, “uncommonly forcible,” I admit; but it was hurriedly done and well meant. I beg to call the general’s attention to the delay and expense caused at Fort Yuma by not having the stores for our troops landed on this side of the River Colorado. The ferriage is a frightful expense that could, I think, be saved, as the steamers can always land stores on this side. Fifteen days were lost by Repelye’s train the last trip. There is something undone there that could be done, I think, to save time and expense.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT Fort Humboldt, August 13, 1862.

Capt. J. C. SCHMIDT, Second Infantry California Vols., Commanding at Camp Curtis:

CAPTAIN: You will proceed immediately with your entire command, and with what rations you have on hand, to Trinidad, where you will remain for the protection of the place until further orders, leaving at your present camp barely sufficient for a camp guard. Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster Swasey will furnish the necessary transportation.

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. SWASEY, 1st Lieut. and Regimental Quartermaster 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 140.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 14, 1862.

...

5. Companies A, B, and D, Third Infantry, will, on their arrival in this city from the District of Humboldt, proceed to Stockton, Cal., where they will go into camp preparatory to taking up the line of {p.65} march for Salt Lake. Companies A and C, Fourth Infantry, will, on their arrival from Oregon, proceed to and take post at Benicia Barracks. The assistant quartermaster will provide the necessary transportation.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 15.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Las Cruces, N. Mex., August 14, 1862.

I. Commanders of towns will at once establish sanitary regulations and require them to be observed by the inhabitants and by the troops, so far as the policing of the streets and the keeping of their dwellings, quarters, stores, corrals, &c., in a state of cleanliness may be necessary for their health and comfort. Frequent inspections will be made by commanding officers, or by a medical officer under his direction, to see that in all respects these regulations are followed.

II. A market place shall be established in each town, where meats, fruits, and vegetables may be sold.

III. It is expected that all of the inhabitants living along the Rio Grande southward from the Jornada del Muerto to Fort Bliss, in Texas, will at the earliest practicable moment repair their dwellings and clean up their streets. The people may now rest assured that the era of anarchy and misrule-when there was no protection to life or property; when the wealthy were plundered; when the poor were robbed and oppressed; when all were insulted and maltreated, and when there was no respect for age or sex-has passed away; that now, under the sacred banner of our country, all may claim and shall receive their just rights. Therefore, let the burden of anxiety be lifted from their hearts, and once more let them pursue their avocations with cheerfulness, and with a full confidence that the protection which now shelters them from injustice and harm will always be stronger in proportion as they shall be powerless to protect themselves. The general commanding this district, having heretofore resided five years in this country, feels that he knows somewhat the character and wants of the people, and he appeals to every man in confidence that he will have his support to come forward always to preserve the peace of his neighborhood and the tranquillity of the country; to forget all old feuds; to cultivate good fellowship one with the other; to make honesty, industry, and sobriety cardinal points always to be kept in view. And doing this, there will be little necessity for the operation of laws, or the application of force, to make this country prosperous and the people happy.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 14, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: Your letter of the 4th instant relative to military operations in the District of Humboldt, and reporting the purchase of a boat to {p.66} facilitate the movement of troops at Fort Humboldt, has been submitted to the department commander. The purchase of the boat for the purpose indicated is approved. The superintendent of Indian affairs can remove the Indians to such points as he may select, the removal to be at the expense of the Indian Department, both for subsistence and transportation en route and after their arrival at their destination.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 14, 1862.

Col. F. J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry, Commanding District of Humboldt:

SIR: Your letter of the 10th instant, in reply to a communication addressed to the department commander by certain citizens of Humboldt District, charging you with incompetency and mismanagement as commander of the Military District of Humboldt, has been submitted to the general commanding the department. Agreeably to your request a competent officer will, as soon as convenient, be sent to inspect the District of Humboldt. In the meantime the general sees no grounds for changing the opinions heretofore expressed by him relative to your zeal, efficiency, and competency as commander of the district.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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ORDERS, No. 166.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, August 14, 1862.

I. In obedience to Special Orders, No. 46, headquarters District of Oregon, Companies A and C, Fourth California Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, will be relieved from duty at this post at 3 o’clock to-morrow morning.

...

By order of Colonel Steinberger:

WILLIAM MYLES, First Lieutenant, Washington Territory Infantry, Post Adjutant.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 141.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, Sun Francisco, Cal., August 15, 1862.

I. The Second Infantry detachment at Alcatraz will proceed on the 20th instant, under the command of Second Lieut. Grove Watson, to Fort Humboldt. The assistant quartermaster will provide the necessary transportation.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[AUGUST 15, 1862.-For Carleton to Canby, relating to affairs in New Mexico and on the Rio Grande, see Part I, p. 110.]

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{p.67}

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 30.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, New Mexico, August 15, 1862.

The general commanding the District of Arizona, with the staff attached to these headquarters, will leave to-morrow for Fort Bliss, Tex., with Company B, First Cavalry California Volunteers and Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers. During his absence Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, will have command and supervision over the troops stationed at La Mesilla, Las Cruces, and Fort Fillmore.

By command of General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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SAN FRANCISCO, August 15, 1862.

Col. P. E. CONNOR, Fort Churchill: (Care Major McDermit.)

Two companies of infantry under Pollock will be stationed at Ruby Valley. Sims and his command, also Rowe’s company, will go to Salt Lake with you. Give orders necessary for the movement.

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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ORDERS, No. 6.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Fort Churchill, August 15, 1862.

1. Captain Rowe’s company, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, is relieved from duty at Adobe Meadows, and will immediately report to Colonel Sims at this post.

...

3. Colonel Sims with his headquarters and Captain McCleave’s company of his regiment will remain at this post until the arrival of Captain Rowe’s company, and will then proceed with the two companies named to Salt Lake City and report to the colonel commanding.

4. Major McGarry, with Captain Smith’s company, Second Cavalry, will take up the line of march to-morrow and join the advance column without delay.

...

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

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HDQRS. NORTHERN DIVISION, HUMBOLDT MIL. DIST., Fort Gaston, August 15, 1862.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District, Fort Humboldt:

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report, for the information of the colonel commanding, that after persistent efforts I succeeded in assembling at this post the principal chiefs and head men of the Hoopa tribe of Indians, and I inclose herewith a copy of the treaty or agreement made with them yesterday after a protracted session involving flinch talk. After careful investigation, I am satisfied that the Hoopas {p.68} are earnest in their desire to remain at peace, and that if any of the tribe act with the Redwoods in their forays it is without the knowledge or consent of the tribe generally, and that consequently the Hoopas as a tribe ought not to be held responsible. All they desire is to remain in peaceable possession of the ranches where they are living at present very comfortably, and there can be no possible inducement for them to join the hostile bands in their depredations. It was considered a suspicious circumstance that a large number of these Hoopas were for some weeks absent from their ranches. I was told by one of the chiefs soon after my arrival that the Indians were down the Klamath engaged in fishing, so as to secure their winter’s provisions. This has been confirmed by the fact that for a week or ten days past they have every day been passing up the Trinity into the valley in canoes loaded with salmon, &c., until now they are all at home again. It was very difficult to get their consent to furnish guides for our scouting parties, as they say the Redwoods have told them that if the Hoopas assisted the soldiers they would come into Hoopa Valley and kill the settlers, so that it might be laid to the Hoopa Indians. But at last they yielded the point, relying upon my promise to protect them against any unjust accusations. They profess to have great confidence in what I say, and I believe one principal cause for their favorable impression is to be found in the stringent orders I have issued against crossing the river by the men of the command, thus putting a stop to interference with their domestic institutions. It is my opinion that they will adhere strictly to the agreement. I impressed them with a feeling of the importance of the proceedings by having the officers present in full dress and using certain ceremonies upon the occasion. Having received information that some armed Redwood Indians had been seen upon a trail near Willow Creek a few days since, I dispatched Lieutenant Campbell with a scouting party, on the night of the 13th instant, with orders to keep close during daylight, and I have some hopes he may come upon them, as a good guide was with the party.

The express that I sent to Fort Humboldt arrived to-day, and to my disappointment brought me no written communication from the colonel commanding. The sergeant said that the colonel expected Company H to arrive at Fort Humboldt the last of this week. Company K did not reach here until about 3 p.m. to-day (Friday), therefore Company H is still at this post, and my quartermaster informs me he cannot arrange for the transportation of the company until the first of the week, as his mules are all on the way to Arcata for potatoes, &c., and that he cannot make an arrangement with McConaha’s pack train (just arrived), except at a very exorbitant rate. Therefore, as I do not feel warranted in authorizing any excessive expenditure, and also as Lieutenant Campbell and a detachment of Company H are absent on a scout and may not return before Sunday, I have decided to wait for our own train. Lieutenant Schindler has visited the English trader at the mouth of Willow Creek. He went in citizen’s dress and thoroughly investigated the matter of sales to Indians. He became perfectly convinced that there was no foundation for the charge against the man and that he has had no lead for sale in his store or shanty, for it is a very small, poor affair, and not such a place as would be kept by a person who was engaged in the profitable business of selling ammunition to Indians. After Lieutenant S[chindler] made himself known as an officer the man showed his books, by which it appeared he had bought but two canisters of powder in three years; and Mr. S[chindler] noticed {p.69} some old empty tea chests with the lead linings remaining in them, which is strong circumstantial evidence in the man’s favor. Doctor Flock is much troubled at being left without a hospital steward. There is not a man in the command fit for the position. Since writing the above McConaha’s train has been engaged to take Company H’s property, and I suppose it will take about two days to get everything in order for transportation. Every night our patrols are on the move through the valley, and the settlers are now quite over their alarm.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Northern Division, Humboldt Military District.

[Inclosure.]

HDQRS. NORTHERN DIVISION, HUMBOLDT MIL. DIST., Fort Gaston, Cal., August 14, 1862.

This day the following chiefs and head men of the Hoopa tribe of Indians assembled at Fort Gaston, viz:

Maw-wee-ma, of Matilta Ranch; Maw-wee-ma, of Tagleeminta Ranch; Captain John, of Matilta Ranch, and fourteen head men of the following ranches, viz, first, Testangatang; second, Hoslinda; third, Sonaltar; fourth, Miscrat; fifth, Onsota, and made the following declarations and agreements in the name and as representatives of the Hoopa tribe of Indians to and with the commandant of the Northern Division, Humboldt Military District. The Hoopa tribe desire to remain at peace with the whites, and wish not to be moved from their present localities. The chiefs desire if any of the Hoopa Indians should be found acting with the Redwood Indians or other hostile Indians that they shall be severely punished or killed when caught. The chiefs agree to use their utmost exertions to detect and deliver up to the U. S. authorities any Hoopa Indians whom they may at any time know to be engaged in hostilities against the whites. The chiefs further agree to furnish guides to act against hostile Indians whenever required by U. S. military officers of this post. The commanding officer promises to keep peace with the Hoopa Indians, and to protect them in their possessions, provided they faithfully carry out the stipulations of this agreement.

MAW-WEE-MA (his x mark), Of Matilta Ranch, MAW-WEE-MA (his x mark), Of Tagleeminta Ranch, CAPTAIN JOHN (his x mark), Of Matilta Ranch, Representing Hoopa Tribe of Indians. JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieutenant-Colonel Second infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Northern Division, Humboldt Military District.

Witnesses:

E. R. THELLER Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers. JOHN MONHOLLAND, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry California Volunteers. C. P. FAIRFIELD, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

{p.70}

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 15, 1862.

Capt. J. C. SCHMIDT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Camp Curtis:

CAPTAIN: A band of hostile Indians is reported at the head of the Big Lagoon on the coast trail, twelve miles above Trinidad. You will proceed without a moment’s delay with twenty-five men of your command, and accompanied by Lieutenant Campbell, to Trinidad, where you will arrive to-night, or, if this should be impossible, as early as possible to-morrow. You will thence proceed with as little delay as practicable up the coast trail as far as the head of the Big Lagoon, leaving five men at Trinidad for the protection of that place, if you deem it advisable. About opposite the lower end of the Big Lagoon you will detach a part of your command by the trail to the right leading to Redwood Camp, from which point they will take the trail to the coast, coming out near the head of the Big Lagoon, and meeting the other detachment at that point. If five or six armed citizens can be found at Trinidad who will volunteer for the purpose, Lieutenant Campbell will take command of them and proceed with them immediately in a row-boat to Lower Gold Bluff, about five hours’ sail above Trinidad. After being joined by the settlers there, Lieutenant Campbell will proceed down the coast trail to the head of the Big Lagoon, where he will rejoin the detachment of his company. The object of this movement is to kill or capture the band seen at the head of the Big Lagoon two days since. If in order to accomplish this object it should become necessary to vary from these instructions, the officers in command have authority to do so. You will take with you fifteen days’ rations for twenty-five men. Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster Swasey will furnish the necessary transportation and one or more suitable guides, if they should be necessary. The inclosed rough plan of the route will be explained to you by Rev. Mr. Leiby.*

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. SWASEY, 1st Lieut. and Regimental Quartermaster, 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

* Plan not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter., August 15, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I have the honor herewith to make the following report in regard to the recent disturbances at Port Townsend for the information of the brigadier-general commanding the Department of the Pacific: Mr. Victor Smith, collector of customs, arrived at Port Townsend in the early part of the month, in the U. S. revenue cutter Shubrick, for the purpose of taking possession of the custom-house at that port. Lieutenant Merryman, of the cutter Joe Lane, the acting collector during the recent absence of Mr. Smith at Washington, declined turning over the property, papers, &c., unless Mr. Smith showed him his authority for so demanding, Lieutenant Merryman believing that Mr. Smith had not been qualified according to law. Mr. Smith did not furnish his authority, and soon afterward, on returning to the Shubrick, an armed {p.71} guard came from that vessel, demanding that the custom-house should be given up or it would be entered by force. Fifteen minutes were allowed for Lieutenant Merryman to make his decision. It was stated at the time that the guns of the cutter had been shotted, and if any resistance was made it was understood that the custom-house would be shelled by the guns of the Shubrick. Under these circumstances Lieutenant Merryman, in order to prevent bloodshed, turned over the papers, &c., under protest, to Lieutenant Wilson, commander of the cutter, who receipted for the same, and they were removed on board the Shubrick. To fire upon the custom-house, in the position in which the Shubrick then lay, was equivalent to firing into the town, as the principal street of the village was directly in rear of the custom-house. Much excitement was caused in Port Townsend by the threatening attitude assumed by the cutter, the citizens declaring that they had taken no part whatever in the matter, and whatever was the difficulty occurring between the officers of the service, it was difficult to see the propriety of punishing innocent persons therefor. An express was immediately sent to the Governor of the Territory, reporting the circumstances and asking for redress, the citizens of Port Townsend avowing their willingness, if they had committed any wrong, to be punished for it, but an unwillingness, if they were not to blame, to submit to what they considered an outrage on their rights as loyal American citizens.

Governor Pickering, soon after he was made aware of the serious condition of affairs at Port Townsend, repaired to that place, accompanied by his private secretary (Mr. Evans), the U. S. marshal from Olympia, and also Mr. McGill, U. S. commissioner and late Acting Governor of the Territory. On arriving at Fort Steilacoom, on his way to Port Townsend, at the urgent solicitation of the Governor, the commanding officer at Fort Steilacoom joined the Governor’s party and accompanied them to the Port. We left Fort Steilacoom on the steamer Eliza Anderson on the morning of the 11th instant and arrived at Port Townsend the same evening. Learning that Lieutenant Merryman had left for Victoria, Governor Pickering, together with his private secretary, in order to have a conference with Lieutenant Merryman, proceeded on in the Eliza Anderson, leaving the remainder of the party at Port Townsend to await the arrival of the Shubrick, which was hourly expected with the mails from Olympia. Meanwhile an investigation in regard to the alleged outrage was had before the U. S. commissioner, and on the affidavits of several citizens that the guns of the Shubrick had been shotted and directed against the habitations of Port Townsend with aim intent to kill, a warrant was issued by the commissioner for the arrest of the collector, Victor Smith (known to be on board the Shubrick), and also the commander of the cutter, Lieutenant Wilson. This warrant was placed in the hands of the U. S. marshal, who was directed, on the arrival of the cutter, to board the Shubrick, arrest the individuals above mentioned, and bring them before the commissioner, who was awaiting their arrival on shore. Soon after dark the signal lights of the Shubrick denoted the approach of that cutter. She, however, did not enter the port, but the U. S. mail was sent on shore in one of her boats, the cutter awaiting its return at a distance of a mile or more from the usual landing. Perceiving that it was not the intention to bring the cutter to the wharf, the marshal summoned a posse to accompany him in a boat for the purpose of boarding her. Before the mails had been exchanged the marshal returned to Port Townsend, reporting to the commissioner that he had boarded the cutter and {p.72} served the writ on Lieutenant Wilson, its commander, who peremptorily refused to obey the warrant, neither would he allow him to go below (in the ward room) to see Mr. Smith, who, it was well understood, was there, as was also the U. S. consul for Victoria, Mr. Francis. The marshal was then directed by the commissioner to board the Shubrick once more and remain there unless forcibly ejected.

For this purpose he again left Port Townsend in one of the boats belonging to the revenue cutter Joe Lane, which lay at anchor in the harbor, but soon returned, reporting the impracticability of carrying his intention into operation, as the wheels of the Shubrick were kept in constant motion, thereby preventing the boat from going alongside. Soon afterward the Shubrick steamed down the sound for Victoria, and two days later, early in the morning, returned to the harbor of Port Townsend, taking in tow the cutter Joe Lane, which was left at Cherburg, the new port of entry. After accomplishing this mission the Shubrick left immediately, with the collector, Mr. Smith, on board, it is said, for San Francisco, thus leaving the sound at present without naval protection, the Joe Lane having, on the return of the collector from Washington, been put out of commission, all of her officers, with the exception of Lieutenant Selden, placed on leave, and all or most of her crew discharged. Little more can be added in the matter of narration, except that Governor Pickering returned to Port Townsend on Thursday evening, the 14th instant, and, on learning that the Shubrick had left the sound, retraced his way with his party toward Olympia on the Steamer Eliza Anderson, in which boat I accompanied His Excellency as far as Steilacoom. During the absence of the Shubrick the Eliza Anderson has authority to carry the mails on the sound. It would be proper to remark, that during the time of the attempted arrest of Mr. Smith and Lieutenant Wilson the number of individuals gathered on the wharf at Port Townsend was not greater than would be expected on the arrival of a U. S. mail steamer at a small and quiet town. No demonstration whatever was made by the people. Indeed, of the group gathered on the pier there were but few individuals cognizant of the matter of the attempted arrest, and they scrupulously avoided communicating the information to others whom it did not concern. It is to be regretted that the gentlemen against whom the warrant was directed did not suffer themselves to acquiesce in a temporary arrest, both for their own sakes and on account of the feeling subsequently produced by the belief that the parties implicated had placed themselves in an attitude defiant to the officers intrusted with the execution of the laws. Had the accused party come on shore with the U. S. marshal, it was a sufficient ground of belief that no indignity would have been offered to them, if for no other reason, the knowledge of the presence and character (undoubtedly) possessed by the gentlemen on board the Shubrick, of the several U. S. officers who at the time were at the port, among whom were the commissioner, Mr. McGill, late Acting Governor of the Territory; Major Patten, U. S. Army, commanding Fort Steilacoom; Captain Chaddock and Lieutenant White, late of the revenue cutter Joe Lane, and also Lieutenant Selden, of the Joe Lane, which was anchored at the time a short distance from the wharf. This is to be still more regretted as the parties implicated are now considered as fugitives from justice, and it is to be apprehended, should they return in the Shubrick, that an attempt will be made to arrest them by an armed posse, for which purpose it is broadly intimated that a requisition will be made on the officer commanding at Fort Steilacoom for troops to enforce (if compelled so to do) {p.73} the requirements of the law. I earnestly request that you will call the prompt attention of the general commanding the Department of the Pacific to this subject, as the matter has assumed a character so serious as to threaten the peace and quietude of all the inhabitants of Puget Sound, and of some of them perhaps even to affect their allegiance to the United States Government.

Respectfully, I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

G. W. PATTEN, Major Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Commanding.

P. S.-This report will not leave Fort Steilacoom until Tuesday, the 19th, as no mail will leave for Olympia until that day.

G. W. P.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 31.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Hart’s Mills, Tex., August 17, 1862.

I. Capt. Edward B. Willis, with Company A, First Infantry California Volunteers, with 100 rounds of ammunition per man and thirty days’ rations of subsistence, together with twenty-five beeves on the hoof to be furnished by the agent of Mr. Joseph R. Beard, beef contractor for the Column from California, will proceed without delay to Hart’s Mills, in Texas, and there take post until further orders.

II. Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, will see that this company is provided with the necessary transportation.

By command of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Bowie, Apache Pass, Ariz. Ter., August 17, 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Mesilla, Ariz. Ter.:

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report, concerning the state of affairs at this post, that nothing of importance has transpired since my dispatch of the 9th instant. Indians have been nowhere visible, and parties which I have sent out in all directions have failed to find any recent signs of their being in the neighborhood. Still, I do not think we are on that account less liable to an attack, and my vigilance is as active as it has ever been. On Thursday, the 14th instant, I completed the defensive works about my camp. They are four in number, and may be described as follows: Alcatraz (I give the names applied to them by the men who built them, and to whom, as they worked well and faithfully, I allowed that privilege) is on the left flank of the camp, 150 feet in length, and commands every point within musket-range, in the cañon toward the road and camping ground of trains. Fort Point, on a slight elevation, covers the rear of the camp and the wagon road up the hill. It is ninety-five feet in length. Bule Battery overlooks the country and the approaches to the hill on the southeast, or right dank, of the camp. It is ninety-seven feet long, and effectually covers and protects the cattle corral and picket rope of the cavalry detachment. Spring Garden (guarding) overlooks the spring and commands the ravine in which it is situated and every point within musket-range around the spring. This wall is seventy feet long. The total length {p.74} of wall around the post is 412 feet, the height 4 to 4 1/2 feet, and thickness from 2 1/2 to 3 feet at bottom, tapering to 18 inches to 2 feet at top, and built of stones weighing from 25 to 500 pounds. The works are not of any regular form, my only object being to build defenses which could be speedily completed, and at the same time possess the requisites of sheltering their defenders, commanding every approach to the hill, and protecting each other by flank fires along their faces. I now consider the camp pretty safe from any attack of Indians, unless they should come in overwhelming force and desperately storm the hill. This, however, is contrary to their usual mode of warfare, and I think we can hold them at long range. This feeling of safety, however, does not prevent proper precaution and vigilance from being exercised. In addition to the wall defenses I have also built the walls of a guardhouse on one end of the front wall, and will have it roofed in in a few days. It is fourteen feet square, and loop-holed on two sides. The express from Tucson arrived at 11 p.m. yesterday, and will resume the route at 1 o’clock this afternoon. They brought with them three mules which had strayed from here on the 9th back to the crossing of the San Pedro. I respectfully request that the commanding general will give such orders at Tucson as will insure the filling of any requisition which I may make for stationery, clothing, and other indispensables, some of which I mentioned in my dispatch of the 9th instant. The men are rapidly getting ragged again, and, as the nights are pretty sharp here sometimes, they need good clothing. I make this request, thinking that a requisition from me might interfere with orders already issued.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Fort Bowie.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., August 17, 1862.

Lieut. C. P. NICHOLS, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Present:

SIR: You will proceed with your detachment to-morrow morning with the train that leaves for Fort Yuma. It is reported that Apache Indians drove the expressman back last week from Oneida Station to Blue Water. Investigate this matter, and also into the truth of the report that they killed two Pima horses between those two stations. You will, if you encounter any of these savages, chastise them if possible, following them, if necessary, so far as you can. Ascertain on the way whether the contractors are laying in hay and mesquite beans between here and the Pima Villages, and report the quantities. Captain Davis, acting assistant quartermaster, will give you a memorandum of what ought to be supplied of these articles by the end of this month. Ascertain also if there are any Mexicans or others trading with Indians, either Pimas or Maricopas, and especially if any person has introduced, sold, or given liquor or wine to the Indians. Anyone so offending arrest and bring here. No one, except the Government and Mr. White and partner, are allowed to trade with the Pimas and Maricopas on any pretense. Ascertain if any person has made a settlement or is residing among said Indians; if so, order them away, and if they refuse arrest them. Report whether Sergeant Hutchinson is able to obtain any more wheat from Indians; whether Mr. White or partner, Mr. Lennan, are grinding flour for the Government; and allow Sergeant Hutchinson and Private Logan to come back with you, provided Mr. White has returned and receipted {p.75} to the sergeant for the wheat in his possession. Ascertain the quantity of wheat as nearly as you can that can be purchased from Pima and Maricopa Indians, and whether any goods are at Pima belonging to Government for bartering with Indians for grain. You will return as soon as you have performed the above service, say in eight or nine days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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CAMP INDEPENDENCE, OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, August 18, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that in accordance with instructions from headquarters Department of the Pacific, bearing date July 19, I have (after being fully satisfied that the Indians in this valley desire to live in peace with the whites) succeeded in forming a treaty of peace, subject to the approval of the general commanding said department. Original please find inclosed. I would also state, in connection therewith, the chiefs have so far complied with the provisions of said treaty that they have brought into camp two rifles (one claimed by an Indian, said to have been given to him in recompense by a white man for having shown said man the situation of a mine), two double-barreled shotguns, one Sharps rifle (supposed to be the one taken from the soldier who was killed in the fight that took place in April last), and one Colt revolver (large size). They also placed under my charge as hostages, subject to the terms of said treaty, five Indians considered important personages, among whom are two of their great chiefs, to wit, Captain George and Te-ni-ma-ha. Captain George and two of his lieutenants have their families with them. Te-ni-ma-ha and his lieutenant expect their families to join them this evening or to-morrow. In conclusion, I would most respectfully state all is peaceable in this valley and the troops are enjoying most excellent health.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN M. O’NEILL, Maj., 2d Cav. California Vols., Comdg. Owen’s River Expedition.

P. S.-Since writing the above the two families have arrived, which makes the number of hostages complete.

J. M. O.

[Indorsement.]

Treaty approved and returned. Original to be returned to this office.

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REDWOOD CAMP, August 18, 1862.

Capt. W. W. STUART, Second infantry California Volunteers:

CAPTAIN: You will post without delay a detachment of your company of fifteen men at this place and another detachment of fifteen men at Trinidad. The detachments will remain at these points till further orders. If you have not as many as thirty men in this neighborhood you will immediately order down from Camp Lincoln men enough to make the number. On the arrival of the detachments at these two points they will each furnish an escort of five men, when required, to {p.76} all Government trains, and so far as possible to all private trains, the Trinidad detachment furnishing escorts from Trinidad to Redwood Camp and back. The Redwood Camp detachment from Redwood Camp to Elk Camp and back. Ten men will always be left at Trinidad unless some urgent necessity prevents, and the same number at Redwood Camp, for the protection of the posts. The detachment at Redwood Camp will throw up a stockade immediately on arriving. On your requisition rations for the supply of both these detachments will be sent to Trinidad by the acting commissary of subsistence at Fort Humboldt. You will forward your requisition to him for 900 full rations as soon as possible. All expenses incurred for necessary transportation, ferriage, and guides will be paid by Regimental Quartermaster Swasey on your official certificate, agreeably to Army Regulations. As long as the two detachments consist of less than fifteen men each, a less number than ten, but never less than five men, may remain for the defense of the posts.

Very respectfully,

F. J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., August 19, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to call the attention of the commanding general to the important subject of transportation of military supplies for troops in this Territory. I have been convinced that the route of transit by the way of the Colorado and Fort Yuma is a very expensive one, and I know that it is a tedious, dangerous, and disagreeable one. When I was in Sonora in June I made diligent inquiries in regard to the expediency of having supplies shipped from San Francisco to Guaymas, to Port Lobos, or to Libertad. I made a report to General Carleton of an offer made to me by Don Onofre Navarro to transport from Guaymas to Tucson for 5 cents per pound. A copy of this report I inclose herewith. It is marked A. I satisfied myself of the fact of the roads being good all the way, and that Navarro would be able to fulfill his offer at a good profit. The road hence to Santa Aña, about 150 miles toward Guaymas, is one of the best natural roads I ever saw, having abundance of wood, excellent grass, and water at convenient distances. From Santa Aña to Guaymas I am assured and believe the road is excellent, but grass and water are not so abundant. However, Mexican freighters haul 4,000 pound loads with eight-mule teams. Since that offer was made by Navarro, Don Juan Yñigo proposed to me to carry freight from Guaymas here for 4 cents per pound, the United States paying the import duties, which is only 1 per cent. on goods in transit. Yñigo is abundantly able to carry out his offer, I firmly believe. He came with a train of wagons from Hermosillo to this place in nine days last month, and the distance from Hermosillo to Guaymas does not exceed ninety-five miles, so that stores can be brought here from that port in good order in twelve days at 4 cents per pound. There are two other points, however, claiming attention, viz, Port Lobos and La Libertad, to the south of Lobos, on the Gulf of California. Both those places have their advocates, and much has been said for and against each. It is hard to get at the truth, for there {p.77} are so many conflicting interests at work to prevent either of these ports being brought into notice. It is adverse to the interests of influential parties in Guaymas, and others, though few, are deeply interested, viz, the Colorado River advocates. Looking only to the public interest, however, there is no doubt in the world but what it would repay the Government to set the question at rest by making a reconnaissance of the road to Lobos and Libertad, and to investigate also the value of those places as harbors. To do this most thoroughly is a work of only three to four weeks, at most. A party can start from this point, taking a wagon to test the road and a skiff ready to be put together on arrival at the ports to take soundings. After having heard and read much in favor of and against Libertad and Lobos, I have been able by dint of many questions to make a schedule of distances from Tucson to Libertad. I am strongly inclined to believe the schedule comes very near the truth, but I had to do a good deal of sifting to embody what I am almost ready to accept as truth. I respectfully inclose the schedule, marked B. In connection with this subject I transmit also a report (marked C), made by Capt. N. S. Davis, chief of transportation, by my direction (copy marked D), of the cost of transporting stores from Fort Yuma by Government teams to Tucson. It will be observed that Captain Davis reports the cost at 10.04 cents per pound. In my remarks on his report I have endeavored to prove that it is below the cost, and if the whole items of loss, damage, and wear and tear on this most execrable of roads were added 12 1/2 cents per pound would not cover the cost. I learn from the late agent of the Overland Mail Company at this place and from Mr. S. Warner, an old merchant, that the prices paid by citizens for freight was 10 and 12 1/2 cents per pound. That was when the roads were but little traveled, when grain could be had here for one-third of what it now costs, when it cost little or nothing at the Pima Villages, and, last but not the least, when there was grazing for animals at almost every day’s camping place, where now there is not a blade of grass. Take it for granted that it costs only 10 cents per pound for freight from Fort Yuma here, there is to be added the cost of transportation from San Francisco to Fort Yuma, viz, as I understand, $20 per ton, at least, to the mouth of the river by sail vessels, and $50 per ton by steam from the mouth of the river to a place on its bank near Fort Yuma, i.e., $70 per ton to be added, or 3 1/2 cents per pound, making the cost per pound for freight on all stores at the very least 13 1/2 cents per pound; but 15 cents will not cover it in reality. Considering, then, that enormous price, the slow, tedious, dangerous, roundabout way they are brought, is it not worth while to seek for a more economical, more speedy, and a safer route? A glance at the map will show the unnecessary hundreds of miles that our stores are transported, even granting that Lobos and Libertad are out of the question. By way of Guaymas we can have stores put here from San Francisco in twenty-two days, and that without the use of steam, for 6 cents per pound, including duties and all other expense at Guaymas, and use none of our teams; but I am almost persuaded that stores can be brought from San Francisco via Libertad for 2 cents per pound less, for there are responsible parties on the Altar River in Sonora ready to freight from Libertad for 3 cents per pound, and in course of time they will do it for less. I will here give the latitudes and longitudes of the four points in question, so that the directness of route of transit may appear apparent at a glance, to wit: Guaymas, in latitude 27° 50' 30” north (Cape Haro), longitude 110° 51' 40” west; Libertad, in latitude 29° 53' 47.48” north, longitude 112° 32' 45” west; Port Lobos, in latitude north, longitude west, not known exactly, but it differs very little {p.78} from Libertad; Fort Yuma, in latitude 32° 43' 32.3” north, longitude 114° 32' 51.61” west; Tucson, in latitude 32° 12' 54.5” north, longitude 110° 52' 55” west. Should the route, however, continue via Fort Yuma, there is an item of expense at that post which I respectfully urge claims serious consideration, and that is the ferriage. The stores for this Territory, as well as those for Fort Yuma, are landed on the California instead of the Arizona side of the river, a course, in my humble opinion, that is not at all necessary, for it is well known the Government has reserved land on this side of the Colorado where steamers could always land freight, thus saving the ferriage our trains have to pay to cross to the side of the fort. I understand the ferriage per wagon each way is $4. If the stores must be landed on the Yuma side the ferriage for one train would pay for a ferry-boat to belong to the Government. But there is another item in regard to this ferriage-for example, a train arrives at Fort Yuma from this place. They require repairs for wagons and shoeing for mules. When the water is high they have to return to this side, go down the river to another ferry, cross there and have repairs, &c., made at workshops, recross, ascend the river, and again cross to Fort Yuma, thus making five crossings in one trip. This is not always the case, but it occasionally happens. On my way here in May I had to have animals crossed and recrossed actually seven times. Take this business of transporting freight by way of the Colorado and Fort Yuma, and it is my opinion, given from a sense of duty, that if any merchant or private citizen conducted his business in such a manlier he would be looked upon as a fit subject for a commission of lunacy, not fit to manage his own affairs. Indeed, when the subject is thoroughly examined, I hope one of these days that it will be seen that Fort Yuma is not necessary as a military post at all, especially if this Territory is to be garrisoned. There cannot, I think, be any necessity for it on account of Indians, or if there be, a very small garrison would suffice. If I have in anything that I have herein said gone beyond what my position would strictly warrant my only apology is a sincere, strong, earnest desire to economize the public funds and means, especially necessary now that our country calls so loudly upon every patriot to do his utmost in its defense. If I cannot fight for it in the field I may try to stop a leak in a treasury around which so many hungry vampires hover. In all the allusions to cost of freight, the gross weight and not the net is considered. In estimating the cost of the ration here I find that I overlooked the fact that it is the net and not the gross weight that should be had in view; therefore, the ration costs in reality very nearly what Captain Davis estimates, viz, 50 cents. For as the gross weight of the ration (3.0471 pounds) exceeds the net weight (2.3912 pounds), so will the freight on the net weight exceed that on the gross (i.e., 10.21 cents), which adds 2.80 cents to the estimate I made of its cost, raising it to 49.30 cents.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers. Commanding.

[Inclosure A.]

OFFICE OF CHIEF COMMISSARY, COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz Ter June 26 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters Column from California:

SIR: I have the honor to report, for the information of the commanding general, that the following proposal was made to me in Magdalena, {p.79} Sonora, by Don Onofre Navarro, a responsible party in that place, viz: He agrees and proposes to unship, store, and pay the duty at Guaymas on all Government stores for this Territory, charging only the actual expenses, the duties on American public property being only 1 per cent. ad valorem for goods in transit, and to freight all such stores and supplies from Guaymas to Tucson for 5 cents per pound, payments to be made in cash on delivery. He further proposes to purchase, without commission, in any part of Sonora such stores and supplies as may be required, provided he be employed to transport the said supplies. His price for transporting from Guaymas to Tucson to be 5 cents, from Hermosillo 4 cents, and from Magdalena 2 cents per pound, gross weight, payments to be made in cash on delivery, and he to transport all goods with the utmost dispatch possible.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, &c.

[Inclosure B.]

Schedule of distances from Tucson, Ariz. Ter., to Libertad, on the Gulf of California. Distances measured by odometer.

Tucson to--Mexican leagues.Miles.Remarks.
Arivaca by the Sopori Rancho.23 80 8062 0 0Excellent road, hard and dry. Wood, water, and grass.
Corodepe-along arroyo2 38 376 27 05Passes through a valley extending to Guaymas valley runs east and west. Is not crossed by any mountains; wood, water, and grass.
Agua Zarca1 48 783 91 30Wood, water, and grass.
Zazabe2 68 017 06 59Wood, running water, and grass.
Cumaro3 62 449 53 35Wood and grass; water in rainy season.
Caballo1 84 494 90 39Road through open prairie, water home, wood, and grass.
La Tinaja2 68 497 06 25Wood, water, and grass.
Paredones3 74 299 84 85High bluff to the right of Arivaca Creek, water by digging one foot deep; wood and grass.
Jesus Maria5 50 1214 47 84Wood, permanent water, grass.
Altar2 81 507 40 45Population about 500. Abundance of all grains and products. It is not necessary to go to Altar with trains. From Paredones to Zepeda’s Rancho, about 14 1/2 miles, is the shortest way. There is wood, water, grass, all kinds of grain and produce.
Pitiquito5 13 013 49 37Wood, water, grass, grain, all kinds of produce, sugar-cane, &c. Pitiquito is at the junction of the Altar and Magdalena rivers.
Las Platas2 50 06 57 0Rain water from July till April; wood and fine grass.
La Mosca Laguna1 33 03 49 0Wood, rain water, and grass.
Bajio de Aguituni2 14 05 62 0Fine crops of all kinds raised without irrigation; wood water grass, &c.
Palo Verde Laguna1 44 03 78 0Wood, rain water in tanks, grass.
Laguna de Pates1 00 02 63 0Wood, rain water for eight months, grass.
Pozo de los Cristales3 31 08 70 0Water from the Picu, off the road.
Tinaja del Tule1 57 04 12 0Water, casual; grass, some fuel.
Libertad6 94 018 25 0Good pasturage, spring of cold fresh water, sufficient for shipping. Warehouses can be built along the shore. Harbor secure for ten months in the year. Vessels must bring lighters. Longitude west of Greenwich, 112° 32' 45.43”; latitude north, 29° 53' 47.48”.
Total79 87 2920949 0

This road from Tucson to Libertad is represented as nearly level, or perhaps more properly speaking, smooth or even all the way; and the longest stretch without water at any time is forty-five miles. Mexican eight-mule trains haul 4,000 pound loads, and that without being fed any {p.80} grain and without locking a wheel or using a brake. The road does not cut up with wagons. It is a hard, compact, gravelly clay soil.

Schedule of distances from Tucson to Libertad by a different route from the foregoing.

Tucson to-Miles.Remarks.
Arivaca62Wood, water, grass; excellent road.
Fraguita3Permanent running water; wood and grass.
Read of Ensue valley8Road good, except ascent to and descent from a mesa, easily made passable, eight-mule Mexican teams haul 4,000-pound loads; wood; water by digging five or six feet grass.
Agua Escondida15Fine road down Busne valley; grass all the way; water and wood abundant.
Busne Rancho12Wood, water, grass, grain, and produce of all kinds. There is a bad piece of road for two miles in a cañon.
Saric6Population 300; on the Altar River; cultivation all along the river; wood, water, grass, grain, &c.; fine ash timber.
Estancia Rancho13Wood, water, grain, grass. &c.
Tubutama6Population, 300; two flour mills; water, wood, grain, grass, &c.
El Atil (or Datil)9Population, 150 or 200: also a Papago rancheria; wood, water, grass, grain, and produce of all kinds; the grass is, however, two miles distant, in a level valley along the Altar River.
Oquitoa13Good, hard, gravelly road; grain, wood, water, grass; three flour mills.
Altar5Already described.
Pitiquito13Already described. Here the two roads join.
Libertad54Following the road already described.
Total229

From Arivaca to Pitiquito there is always abundance of grain. None need be carried by trains, and grain can be raised on about twelve deserted ranches between San Xavier and Arivaca, In Sonora along the Altar River it can be had at a maximum of 2 cents per pound at any time, and generally for half that price. Hay can be procured on both routes for 1 cent per pound at most. There are about 35,000 fanegas (150 pounds each) of wheat raised on the Altar River annually, and 8,000 fanegas each of corn and barley. Sugar-cane grows in perfection. The wheat is very superior. Wheat is harvested in June, corn in November, and barley in May. Responsible parties will freight from Libertad to Tucson for 3 cents per pound. It costs the Government 15 cents for every pound laid down in Tucson now by way of Fort Yuma, and that without taking into consideration the bad condition in which supplies are received and the extraordinary waste and leakage unavoidable. Besides, it takes nearly double the time it would by way of Libertad. A worse road than the greater part of that from Fort Yuma to Tucson does not exist for animals and means of transportation. A more disagreeable could not be imagined.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cav. California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Western Arizona.

[Inclosure C.]

TUCSON, ARIZ. TER., August 16, 1862.

Maj. D. FERGUSSON, Commanding:

In compliance with your instructions of the 15th instant, I submit the following report of the actual cost of transporting stores from Fort Yuma to Tucson, a distance of 285 miles, The train consists of 50 wagons and 315 animals; time required to make the trip, forty days.

Forage for 315 animals: Hay, 14 pounds for 40 days, 176,400 pounds; average cost, 1 1/2 cents per pound$2,646.00
Forage for 315 animals: Grain, 9 pounds for 40 days, 113,400 pounds; average cost, 3 1/2 cents per round3,969.00 {p.81}
Wages of 1 wagon-master, at $125 per month, for 40 days$166.66
Wages of 4 assistant wagon-masters, at $60 per month, for 40 days320.00
Wages of 2 blacksmiths, at $50 per month, for 40 days193.32
Wages of 8 herders, at $35 per month, for 40 days375.28
Wages of 50 teamsters, at $35 per mouth, for 40 days2,333.00
Subsistence for 65 men, at 50 cents per ration (110), for 40 days1,300.00
For shoeing mules, 800 shoes300.00
For shoeing mules, 40 pounds shoe nails, at 50 cents per pound20.00
Cost of repairing wagons and harness525.00
Ferry on the Rio Colorado, 50 wagons, $4 each crossing400.00
Total cost of train on trip12,546.26

Each wagon delivers at this post 2,500 pounds; 50 wagons, 125,000 pounds. Cost of transporting each pound of supplies from Fort Yuma to Tucson, 10.04 cents. You are aware that owing to the scarcity of water at some of the wells the train is divided into four parts, each under an assistant wagon-master.

NICHOLAS S. DAVIS, Captain, First Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Quartermaster and Chief of Transportation.

Examined.

Previous to ordering Captain Davis to make the foregoing report I made a careful estimate of the cost of transporting stores from Fort Yuma to this place, and the result was that in my mind it cost 10 1/2 cents per pound, not taking into consideration the great loss, damage, deterioration, and leakage of stores on this most miserable of routes. No wagon can stand more than two years on such a road in such a climate. Mules break down in half the time they would in ordinary service. This will add at least 5 per cent. per month on the value of means of transportation to the cost of freight alone, a very important item. Captain Davis’ estimate or rather report of the average cost of grain is the same as my estimate, but I think he reports the cost of hay too low. For example, he pays $15 per ton here, $55 per ton en route, and it costs $80 at Fort Yuma; and until now it cost $80 per ton en route, then the animals being forty days on the trip. They are, say, twenty-eight days on the road at $55, eight days here at $15, and four at Fort Yuma at $80. The hay costs on an average over 2 1/2 cents per pound. This raises the price to 10.41 cents per pound. Of the other items there can be no question, except perhaps in the item of subsistence. I make the price of the ration here 46 1/2 cents, the bare ration, without including antiscorbutics or extra issues, and without taking into account the fact that jerked beef has to be issued in considerable quantities to teamsters, vedettes, expressmen, &c., both here and at Fort Yuma. Jerked beef costs 35 cents per pound. I issue only one-half pound, but at Fort Yuma they issue three-fourths of a pound to the ration, and though the teamsters get, say, one-third of their subsistence at Fort Yuma, the average cost of the ration cannot be less than 40 cents. Deducting, then, the difference between 50 cents, as charged by Captain Davis, and 40 cents is equal to taking one-fifth of $1,300, equals $260 from the total cost of the train in its trip, which makes only a difference of twenty-hundredths of a cent, making, according to my estimate, the cost of the transportation of stores here 10.21 cents per pound, not including items before mentioned.

Respectfully submitted.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

{p.82}

[Inclosure D.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson Ariz Ter., August 15, 1862.

Capt. N. S. DAVIS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Chief of Transportation, Column from California, Present:

CAPTAIN: You will please make a detailed estimate of the cost of transportation of stores from Fort Yuma to this place. It is necessary that this estimate be made with a minuteness of detail that will carry its own proof with it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, August 19, 1862.

Col. P. E. CONNOR, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Utah: (Via Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter.)

Direct Colonel Sims to turn over his command to Major McGarry. Colonel Sims will await further orders at Fort Churchill, but will not relieve McDermit in command.

By order:

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 19, 1862.

Col. P. EDWARD CONNOR, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Utah: (Via Fort Churchill, New. Ter.)

SIR: Inclosed I have the honor to transmit, by direction of the general commanding the department, an article* taken from the Territorial Enterprise, published in Virginia City, Nev. Ter. The general desires you to make a full and minute investigation into the matter complained of and report the result to this office. You will also report specifically as to Colonel Sims’ behavior as an officer and gentleman since leaving this city with his command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Not found as an inclosure.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 19, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general commanding the department, that Col. J. Steinberger, commanding at Fort Walla Walla, on representations made by the Indian agent at the {p.83} Umatilla Reservation, and acting on verbal instructions from these headquarters, detailed Capt. George B. Currey, First Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, with a force of twenty men to proceed to the Grande Ronde Valley for the purpose of arresting certain refractory Cayuse Indians who are creating a disturbance among the settlers in that valley. They claim to own the land, but it is not on the Indian reservation and they should be compelled to leave. He also sent a letter to Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, commanding the battalion of cavalry for the protection of the emigrant road, asking his assistance to Mr. Z. Van Orman, the brother of Alexis Van Orman, who, with his wife and oldest son, was massacred in 1860 by a portion of the Snake Indians, in the recovery of the four remaining children taken prisoners at the time of the massacre. I desire to state that Colonel Steinberger’s prompt action meets my approval. Capt. S. S. Marsh, Second Infantry, with his detachment of the Ninth Infantry; Asst. Surg. George Hammond, U. S. Army, and Companies A and C, of the Fourth California Volunteer Infantry, arrived at this post last evening from Fort Walla Walla. Captain Marsh will proceed to San Francisco on the next steamer, expected to leave here about the 26th instant, in charge of the men of his detachment belonging to companies of the Ninth Infantry in California. Assistant Surgeon Hammond will accompany him, and also the two companies of Fourth California Volunteer Infantry, en route to Benicia, Cal.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier. General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 20, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C:

GENERAL: On the 28th of April last I assigned Bvt. Maj. Pinkney Lugenbeel, Ninth Infantry, to duty according to his brevet rank, subject to the approval of the War Department. I telegraphed to you on the same day asking the Department to approve of the assignment, but I have as yet received no answer. Major Lugenbeel is stationed at Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., at which point volunteer troops have been assembled under officers of the rank of major, but without any of the necessary knowledge or experience for commanding that important post. Under these circumstances I made the assignment of Major Lugenbeel, an officer of long service and of great administrative ability, and if not inconsistent with the rules of the Department I would again ask for approval.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 20, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

COLONEL: The general commanding the district made known to you verbally, when you were here, his wishes that you should aid the {p.84} Indian Department in requiring the Indians to reside on the Umatilla Reservation so as not to interfere with the white settlers, and he approves entirely (as before communicated) of your prompt action in reference to the Indians at the Grande Ronde. Of course, proper discretion will always be exercised in reference to the visits at the right season of the Indians to places outside of their reservation for the purpose of fishing, hunting, and digging roots-that privilege being especially reserved to them by treaty. Herewith, I inclose to you a copy of instructions issued to-day to the officer commanding the detachment at the Umatilla Agency, directing him to obey your instructions whenever you shall think proper to give him any orders. I also inclose a description of the boundaries of the Umatilla Reservation as given in the treaty concluded June 9, 1855, and ratified by the Senate on the 8th of March, 1859.*

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infty., U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 20, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Umatilla Reservation:

SIR: The general commanding the district desires me to say that whenever the commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla shall think it desirable to give you any instructions, you are hereby directed to obey them. Besides the protection of the agency the chief object of your being placed there is to assist the Indian Department in requiring the Indians to reside upon the reservation so as not to disturb any settlement by the whites outside of the reservation. Of course, proper discretion will always be exercised in reference to the visits at the right season of the Indians to places outside of their reservation for the purpose of fishing, hunting, and digging roots-that privilege being especially [reserved] to them by treaty.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infty., U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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ORDERS, No. 7.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp No. 21, Cold Springs, Nev. Ter., August 20, 1862.

I. In pursuance of instructions from department headquarters Col. Columbus Sims, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, is hereby directed to turn over his command to Major McGarry, of same regiment.

II. Colonel Sims will remain at Fort Churchill and await further orders, but will not relieve Major McDermit in command at that post.

By order of P. Edw. Connor, colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding district:

JAS. W. STILLMAN, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.85}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp No. 21, Cold Springs, August 21, 1862.

Maj. B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco:

MAJOR: I have the honor to inclose to you a copy of District Orders, No. 7.* I desire also to suggest that it would not be advisable, or even safe, to send Captain Moore’s battalion on this route with less than twenty wagons. I take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of your dispatch in relation to Doctors Williamson and Furley. You will please have all letters for myself and command directed to Fort Churchill until I arrive at Salt Lake, as I send a mail bag to Carson City every other day. I desire that you will communicate with me as to whether I shall leave Assistant Surgeon Kirkpatrick with Lieutenant-Colonel Pollock at Ruby Valley. I am also pleased to add that the command is in good health and spirits.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel, Commanding District.

[First indorsement.]

Respectfully referred to Lieutenant-Colonel Babbitt for his information and opinion.

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Second indorsement.]

SEPTEMBER 4, 1862.

I can furnish the command under Captain Moore with seventeen wagons, an ambulance, and a traveling forge. I think that number of wagons will prove sufficient, as they have no mounted force for which to transport forage over any part of the route.

Respectfully, &c.,

E. B. BABBITT, Deputy Quartermaster-General.

* See next, ante.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 21, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. District of Humboldt:

SIR: After the Indians have been moved to the reservation north of Smith’s River the general commanding the department desires you to place two companies of infantry between the reservation and Crescent City. This will prevent any molestation on the part of the whites and yet be a good position from which to act against these tribes should they commence hostilities. Major Curtis will be detailed to command the troops assigned to this duty. As there seems to be some excitement in that quarter regarding the establishment of the reservation and the conduct of certain white men, the general desires you to give the major special instructions on matters requiring his action.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.86}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., August 22, 1862.

His Excellency Governor I. PESQUEIRA, Ures, Sonora, Mexico:

SIR: I would most respectfully ask of you that an understanding should be had between Your Excellency and the authorities of this Territory in regard to a system of passports. There are undoubtedly in this Territory many citizens of Mexico who are fugitives from justice-men who are amenable to the laws of their country for various crimes. There are also many who have fled in order to avoid joining the army, and who are unable to gain a living in this Territory. These latter, though not properly coming under the head of criminals under international law, are not generally a good class of citizens, and it would prevent their coming here if a system of passports were established. It would tend to harmonize the intercourse between the people of Your Excellency’s State and those of this Territory if none were permitted to cross the lines without passports, for the good citizens of each country would find a passport a protection, while to the lawless it would be a terror. Therefore I respectfully request that Your Excellency may, if it so please you, order the prefects of the frontier districts to grant passports to such of your people as they may judge proper, and I and my successors in office will grant passports to Sonora to such persons only as have legitimate business to transact there or are returning to their homes and families. I take advantage of this occasion to renew to Your Excellency the expression of my distinguished consideration, with a strong desire to become personally acquainted with you.

FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SALEM, OREG., August 22, 1862.

Brigadier-General ALVORD, Commanding District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

GENERAL: Inclosed herewith please find a communication received at this office from J. W. Drew, esq., relative to the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua by U. S. troops. Upon the receipt of this letter I did not deem the subject matter of sufficient importance to call your attention to it. By recent advices, however, from the Coast reservation I learn that many of the Indians are leaving the reserve and wandering toward their former country down the coast. Sub-agent Brooks, who has reported to me in person, is of the opinion that it will be impossible without the aid of troops to restrain these Indians and keep them where they belong. In view of these facts I have respectfully to request that a detachment of troops be permanently stationed at Fort Umpqua. The Indians are at present prevented from leaving the reservation in greater numbers by the presence of a small detachment of troops temporarily stationed there.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. RECTOR, Superintendent Indian Affairs, Oregon.

{p.87}

[Inclosure.]

FORT UMPQUA, OREG., July 29, 1862.

Hon. W. H. RECTOR, Superintendent of Indian Affairs:

SIR: The commanding general of the Department of the Pacific has withdrawn from this military post the detachment of California volunteers who have recently occupied it, and I am informed that an order for the abandonment of the post has been issued. I presume that you consider the occupancy of Fort Umpqua quite as indispensable for the protection of the interests of the Indian Department as is Fort Hoskins or Fort Yamhill, and I call your attention to what I conceive to be a very unwise policy of the commanding general of the Department of the Pacific in the hope that you will exercise your influence with that officer, or with the district commander (General Alvord) to have this post reoccupied with U. S. troops. A full company may not be needed here, but a detachment of troops is most certainly required to be kept here for the present. Quarters, barracks, and supplies of subsistence are here in abundance; indeed, there are good, comfortable quarters for two full companies and subsistence sufficient to last two companies for six months. You are aware that the post is located within eight miles of the southern boundary of the Coast reservation.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOSEPH W. DREW.

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[AUGUST 22, 1862.-For General Orders, No. 16, Column from California, directing the U. S. colors to be hoisted over Forts Quitman and Davis, Tex., &c., see Part I, p. 111.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 23, 1862.

Col. GEORGE W. BOWIE, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Southern California, Fort Yuma, Cal.:

SIR: I am instructed by the general commanding the department to inform you, in reply to your letter of the 6th instant, desiring to know if any change will be made in the station of district headquarters, that for the present they will remain at Fort Yuma, that being the most important position in Southern California. The general designs relieving the garrison of Fort Yuma annually. These changes, however, will be ordered direct from these headquarters.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 116.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 23, 1862.

I. Companies A and D, Third Infantry California Volunteers, will embark for San Francisco on board the San Francisco steamer now {p.88} coming into this port. The senior officer of the detachment will report in person at department headquarters immediately on arriving at San Francisco.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

W. F. SWASEY, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster Second Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt August 23, 1862.

Lieut. Col. JAMES N. OLNEY, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Northern Division, Humboldt Military District:

COLONEL: The copy of the treaty or agreement made by you with the chiefs of the Hoopa Indians has been carefully examined by the colonel commanding the district, who approves of your entire action in the matter. A copy of the treaty will be forwarded to department headquarters, as also of such portion of your official letter of August 15 as relates to it. The stipulation on the part of the Hoopas to furnish guides to our scouting parties, if faithfully carried out, will no doubt prove to have been the most important step that has been taken toward the completion of the present Indian war. You are desired to require under that clause in the treaty two reliable Hoopa Indians to act as guides to Captain Douglas’ command and two to Captain Flynn’s command at Fort Lyon. These Indians will be sent to those respective commands in time to arrive before the 1st of September. You will instruct Captain Douglas to commence a scout on that day, accompanied by the Hoopa guides. A similar instruction will be sent from these headquarters to Captain Flynn. In regard to sending out scouting detachments from Fort Gaston, you will act as you deem best. If the guides furnished should be guilty of treachery to us, the chiefs who have signed the treaty and their families will be immediately arrested and confined till further orders from these headquarters.

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. SWASEY, 1st Lieut. and Regimental Quartermaster 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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[AUGUST 26, 1862.-For Special Orders, No. 153, Department of New Mexico, directing General Carleton to relieve General Canby in the command of the Department of New Mexico, see Part I, p. 114.]

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[AUGUST 26, 1862.-For P. O. Hébert to Holmes (Confederate), referring to Carleton’s operations, see Vol. IX, p. 732.]

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CAMP INDEPENDENCE, OWEN’S RIVER VALLEY, August 27, 1662.

Maj. B.C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco:

SIR: In accordance with instructions contained in your letter bearing date August 2, orders have been issued for the construction of {p.89} temporary quarters and stabling for one company of cavalry. The location selected is on the north side of Oak Creek and about 300 yards above our present camp, it being the point best suited for one company post, so reported by Captains McLaughlin, Jones, and Goodman, they having returned from a trip of fifty miles up the valley. Deeming that the necessities of the service require it, a detail has been made of sixty men from the command and placed on extra duty under the command of Capt. T. H. Goodman, acting assistant quartermaster for the Owen’s River Expedition, for the purpose of erecting said quarters and stabling.

Respectfully submitted for the approval of the general commanding Department of the Pacific.

JOHN M. O’NEILL, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 17.}

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Franklin, Tex., August 27, 1862.

I. The four companies of the Fifth U. S. Infantry now at Las Cruces, N. Mex, will be ordered by Col. Joseph B. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, to proceed without delay to Fort Craig, N. Mex. Ten of the teams and two of the water-tanks belonging to the Column from California will go with these companies and return without delay, the teams laden with subsistence stores, for which Colonel West will make the proper requisition..

II. Captain Roberts’ company (E), First Infantry California Volunteers, and Captain Pishon’s company (D), First Cavalry California Volunteers, will be ordered by Colonel West to proceed without delay to Franklin, Tex., where Captain Roberts’ company will take post, and whence Captain Pishon’s company will march to Fort Stockton, in Texas, as a guard to some prisoners of the Confederate army who are to be sent to Texas on parole. Each of these companies will be rationed from the depot at Mesilla to include the 30th proximo. Besides these rations Colonel West will send, escorted by Roberts’ company, 6,000 rations of subsistence stores from the Mesilla depot to Franklin, Tex.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 27, 1862.

Brig. Gen. J. W. RIPLEY, Chief of Ordnance, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I desire respectfully to call your attention to two requisitions forwarded to your office from Vancouver Depot, dated the 13th of October, 1860, pursuant to instructions from Col. (now Brig. Gen.) George Wright, then commanding the Department of Oregon. The receipt of said requisitions was acknowledged by Capt. W. Maynadier under date of the 28th of November, 1860. I have to request compliance with said requisitions. I also herewith inclose to you a requisition in addition to the above asking for thirty rifled cannon of the heaviest caliber, with all the necessary ammunition, &c. The fortification bill, approved 20th of February, 1862, provides for the commencement of {p.90} defenses at or near the month of the Columbia River. In a conversation with Lieut. Col. R. E. De Russy, of engineers, of San Francisco, on this subject, who has recently visited the mouth of the Columbia, he recommended that the above number of rifled cannon of heaviest caliber should be asked for. From Cape Disappointment, and indeed from all the three points selected by the engineers for fortifications, guns of the very longest ranges can be brought to bear upon vessels in their progress through the channels. For this reason, as well as on account of the present improvements in iron-clad vessels of war, he recommended that such guns should be furnished. Batteries would no doubt be erected under the direction of the engineers for the present use of these guns, which might possibly constitute finally a portion of the permanent fortifications. I request a shipment of the articles called for in those first requisitions, as well as the one now sent, as all would no doubt be wanted in this region in case of foreign war. It is the remotest and most vulnerable portion of all our Territories. It will require many months to get them out here around Cape Horn. The best season for a vessel to leave for such a voyage is the autumn; therefore I earnestly request that you will at once obtain the necessary authority and let at least a commencement be made in proper preparation for the defense of this valuable portion of the United States, whose population is now rapidly increasing. I have directed that a note should be appended to the requisition requesting that the vessel or vessels should be chartered to sail to Astoria, Oreg., and there await instructions as to the different places at which the articles should be delivered. The only change which I could suggest in the requisitions dated October 13, 1860, is that rifled cannon should be substituted. The requisition now sent contemplates ordnance of still heavier caliber if you can forward them, but the whole fifty called for will be but a small fraction of the final armament of permanent fortifications for the mouth of the Columbia. In any event, they might be needed for Puget Sound if the Government should contemplate any preparations for its defense. If it should not be in the power of the Ordnance Department now to supply the whole of these requisitions (as, for instance, all of the small-arms) I trust that you will at least forward such articles as it may be practicable or advisable to send. You might prefer to reduce the number of rounds of ammunition furnished for each piece. A full report to the Government as to the necessity and propriety of furnishing these articles was made by General Wright to the headquarters of the Army, dated the 20th of September, 1860. It can be found in the printed documents accompanying the President’s message. It certainly cannot be judicious, considering the period of time required for the forwarding them to this remote post, to postpone until the actual occurrence of hostilities the accumulation of some of the necessary munitions of war.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 27, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I conversed when in San Francisco with the general commanding the department on the importance of renewing his application of {p.91} October, 1860, asking for a supply of heavy ordnance for the defense of the mouth of the Columbia River, Lieut. G. H. Elliot, of engineers, was then absent in Oregon making an examination with a view to such defenses. Having written to him on the subject, I have been awaiting his reply before taking any action. Despairing of receiving it, I have concluded to wait no longer. Herewith I have the honor to inclose to you a letter* to Brigadier-General Ripley, Chief of Ordnance, inclosing a requisition for thirty rifled cannon of largest caliber, with the necessary ammunition and appurtenances. Military Store-keeper Eckerson has made out said requisitions in compliance with my instructions. I will respectfully request that the general commanding the department will forward these papers with his favorable indorsement on the letter and requisition. This was the number suggested by Lieut. Col. R. E. De Russy, of engineers, in my conversation with him when in San Francisco. You will notice that I have requested that the charter of the vessel or vessels shall provide that after reaching Astoria the places of delivery of the articles shall be designated. This will give time for the engineers, under the authority of the general commanding the department; to decide where they shall be landed, and to commence batteries accordingly. You will notice that my letter to General Ripley asks that the requisitions forwarded 13th of October, 1860, shall also be complied with. If all are sent it will be but a mere beginning in what is needed for this region. Your communication of the 16th instant has just been received, returning to me certain requisitions for ordnance and ordnance stores asked for from Benicia Arsenal. You are right in saying that the articles asked for “in the event of foreign aggressions would be totally inadequate to the defense of this coast,” and they were so regarded at these headquarters. But however small that requisition was, I must be allowed to say that the articles should be on hand at this depot. The requisitions were prepared pursuant to my request. The best statement of their necessity I have found in the dispatches made to the Government in 1860 by the general commanding. I may venture at some future date,-with his permission, to renew those requisitions.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* See next, ante.

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CAMP INDEPENDENCE, OWEN’S RIVER VALLEY, August 28, 1862.

Maj. B. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco:

SIR: Since writing you last, at which time I forwarded a treaty made at this camp, two chiefs belonging in the upper or northern part of this valley, named To-co-ba-ca and To-yah-nook, and ten of their warriors,, came into camp and delivered to me six rifles and one musket; an Indian from White Mountain delivered one rifle and one California horse. I have now in my possession 2 shotguns (double), 1 musket, 1 Sharps carbine, 9 rifles, 1 Coit pistol (large size), and 1 horse. What disposition shall I make of said property? During the conference I had with the Indians they endeavored to satisfy me that the late troubles were not sought or brought about by them, but by white men, who not only took forcible possession of their property and outraged their women, but that they actually murdered without any just cause {p.92} four of their people, among whom was the old chief of the Monaches, and then, and not until then, did they (the Indians) call their tribes together for the purpose of revenge. The two chiefs who came in last expressed their great satisfaction in regard to the treaty made by Captains George and Te-ni-ma-ha in behalf of the Indians, with the great chief of the whites, and say they will hold themselves responsible that no depredations will in future be committed by any Indians over whom they have any control.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN M. O’NEILL, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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ROUND VALLEY, August 28, 1862.

Hon. GEORGE M. HANSON:

DEAR SIR: Have been employed by the superintendent of this valley subject to your decision. However, my object in writing to you is merely to state that there will be little or nothing saved of all the crops here, as there seems to be a determination in the Inhabitants that there shall be nothing raised; fences are burned; slip gaps are found made. In short, you must make some other arrangement for keeping these natives. You must not think me officious; but, sir, in my opinion you must remove all the whites-use the whole valley-as you will find it impracticable and impossible to live together.

Respectfully,

J. M. ROBINSON.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter, August 28, 1862.

WILLIAM H. RECTOR, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Salem, Oreg.:

SIR: I have to acknowledge the reception of your letter of the 22d instant on the subject of the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua, and inclosing a letter of J. W. Drew, esq., on that subject. You will remember that I explained to you when here that Umpqua and Rogue River Valleys were not in the District of Oregon, and thus General Wright, at San Francisco, was the proper authority to whom your application should have been addressed. When I was at Fort Umpqua, on the 14th of April last, Mr. E. P. Drew, who was formerly Indian agent, said that the detachment of troops there was of no use; that there was no danger of the Indians returning via that route down the coast. Those who had returned had been treated so sternly by Mr. Ticknor, at Port Orford, that there was little likelihood of a repetition of the movement. I quoted his language often afterward as recommending the evacuation of Fort Umpqua. You say, “The Indians are at present prevented from leaving the reservations in greater numbers by the presence of a small detachment of troops temporarily stationed there.” This is very satisfactory, for the truth is the post was entirely evacuated two months since. The scout of Captain Currey to the Grande Ronde Valley resulted in a very satisfactory manner. In self-defense Captain Currey was compelled on the 14th instant to fire on the Indians, and the Dreamer and three others were killed. The effect will be very salutary on all our Indian affairs in that vicinity. I inclose herewith a copy of my instructions* of the 20th instant to Colonel Steinberger, commanding {p.93} officer at Fort Walla Walla, in reference to his aiding your department in keeping the Indians from settling outside the reservation. Similar instructions went to the officer commanding the detachment at the Umatilla Reservation.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

P. S.-A gentleman from Fort Umpqua, who left when the troops left there, said that Mr. E. P. Drew asserted that he would make a two-company post of that ere long.

* See p. 83.

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URES, August 29, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific:

DEAR SIR: I am sorry that your favor of 3d of May* has reached me after so much delay, depriving me of the pleasure of answering you with due punctuality on such subject that must interest you as chief of the forces of the United States on the Pacific. I feel it less, however, knowing that James H. Carleton, esq., will have informed you of my friendly and sincere sympathies for the American Union, as expressed in my official communication with that gentleman on the 2d of June,** and with whom I still maintain relations of friendship and interest to our respective countries; and, besides, I hope you will have had the opportunity of seeing the communications that, through Col. James Reily, I directed to Brig. Gen. H. H. Sibley respecting the arrangements he proposed to me to gain my confidence.*** By those you will notice that through my cautious management the chief of the Southern Confederacy could not calculate upon my sympathies to carry out his plans, and that it does not enter in the policy of the Mexican Government to vary its relations, which are becoming every day more friendly with the Government of the Union. Knowing that, you may rest assured that a step through this State by any force from the South under any pretext whatever will be considered as an invasion by force of arms.

With the highest respect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

I. PESQUEIRA.

* See Part I, p. 1047.

** Ibid, p. 1117.

*** Ibid, p. 1031, 1032.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., August 30, 1862.

Lieut. Col. GEORGE S. EVANS, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: On your return to Camp Independence the general commanding the department desires you to give the necessary instructions for carrying out the directions from these headquarters relative to the establishment of a post in the vicinity of Owen’s Lake. You will then return with two companies (Jones’ and McLaughlin’s) to Camp Latham.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.94}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 33.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Franklin, Tex., August 30, 1862.

The Military District of Arizona includes within its boundaries all the U. S. territory from Fort Thorn, N. Mex., down along the Rio Grande to Fort Quitman, in Texas. All citizens within this district are hereby notified that if they have in their possession any property belonging to the United States they are without delay to deliver the same to the commanding officer at Franklin, Tex., or the commanding officer at Mesilla., Ariz. Ter. If any of the said property shall hereafter be found in their possession, now that this order has given them due notice of what they are to do with it, they will be dealt with as a military commission, after due investigation of the matter, shall determine.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 124.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 30, 1862.

I. Captain Flynn, with Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, will proceed without delay to Fort Baker and relieve Captain O’Brien in command of that post. Immediately on being relieved Captain O’Brien will proceed with his company to Fort Humboldt for the purpose of embarking in the steamer for Crescent City.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

W. F. SWASEY, 1st Lieut. and Regimental Quartermaster 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 30, 1862.

Capt. JOHN C. SCHMIDT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Camp Curtis:

CAPTAIN: You are directed to furnish sufficient escorts from your command to all Government trains, and so far as practicable to all private trains, from Arcata to Fort Gaston. No more than ten men will be allowed to be absent at one time on this duty. Every escort will be placed under the command of a non-commissioned officer who will have strict orders to prevent any acts of marauding on the road by the soldiers, and to report on his return to your post any man who shall have been guilty of this offense, in order that he may receive proper punishment by a court-martial or otherwise. In regard to military operations your duty will be to protect Arcata and the neighboring settlements, and so far as shall be consistent with this to pursue, attack, and capture or destroy all bands of hostile Indians in the neighborhood of Mad River on either side of the river. You will not, however, proceed on any expeditions against the Indians or send any considerable detachments in pursuit of them without previous authority from these headquarters, except in urgent cases where a few hours’ delay might in your judgment defeat the object to be accomplished; but in all such cases {p.95} you will notify the colonel commanding the district of the departure of the troops as speedily as possible.

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. SWASEY, 1st Lieut. and Regimental Quartermaster 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 1, 1862.

Capt. GEORGE B. CURREY, First Oregon Cavalry Volunteers: (Through Brigadier-General Alvord, commanding District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.)

SIR: The general commanding the department has perused with munch interest your report of operations in Grande Ronde Valley,* and desires me to express his satisfaction at and approval of the handsome manner in which the duties assigned you were executed.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Part I, p. 164.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, September 1, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Colonel Connor, with seven companies of Third Infantry California Volunteers and three companies Second Cavalry, will reach Ruby Valley to-day en route for Salt Lake. The command is in good health, and under the admirable discipline established by Colonel Connor is perfectly reliable for any service required of it. From Brigadier-General Carleton I have no late official reports. He has a fine body of troops, probably now on the Rio Grande; I shall continue to throw forward supplies to meet all his wants. From the District of Oregon I have nothing special to report; all is quiet in the Indian country, and a strong cavalry force is on the road to protect the approaching overland emigration. In the District of Humboldt the Indian disturbances still continue; the troops under Colonel Lippitt, Second Infantry California Volunteers, are vigorously prosecuting hostilities: many Indians have been killed, and we have now some 800 at the different military stations who have either been captured or who have voluntarily surrendered. The superintendent of Indian affairs has made arrangements to have all these Indians placed on a reservation on Smith’s River, in the northwest section of the State of California. The steamer which leaves here on the 5th instant-will transport the Indians to Crescent City, near which point I have a battalion of the Second Infantry California Volunteers to take charge of them. I have brought down from Oregon the residue of the Second Infantry California Volunteers, and sent them to serve in the District of Humboldt. I have also brought down from Humboldt the three {p.96} companies of the Third Infantry California Volunteers (Connor’s regiment), preparatory to their movement in the direction of Salt Lake. The Washington Territory regiment, Colonel Steinberger, is doing well. Six full companies have been raised here-five of them are now in the District of Oregon, and the sixth will go up on the next steamer. I have never received any special instructions as to the disposition of the forces I designated for the, protection of the Overland Mail Route, but I have assumed it as a matter of course that the route between this and Salt Lake City came under my special supervision, and have acted accordingly.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 1, 1862.

Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I desire to commend to your attention the importance of having built for the Columbia River an iron-clad vessel of the character of the Monitor. If it is true that your Department is having one built in San Francisco, I trust that you will certainly have another constructed for this quarter. It should not draw more than twelve or fourteen feet of water. Not a dollar has ever been expended for fortifications, either permanent or temporary, on this river. They will be the work of time, and no doubt will not be neglected. In the meantime one or two monitors here would be an urgent necessity on the breaking out of foreign war. One on Puget Sound as well as one in this river would be desirable. There is near us at Esquimault Harbor, on Vancouver Island, a naval depot of the British Government, where several war vessels are always located. On account of the excellence of the harbor, admitting vessels of the largest draft, the climate very salubrious and inviting, being much assimilated to that of England, there is no doubt that the day will come when Esquimault Harbor will be the favorite post of the Pacific Squadron of the British Navy. These considerations cannot be overlooked in all the preparations we may make for a period of foreign war. This region is the most remote, the most exposed, and therefore in some respects the most vulnerable of our whole seaboard. I need not call your attention to the increasing importance of Oregon and Washington Territory, where the frequent discovery of new gold fields is leading to constant accessions to the population and to the commerce of the Columbia River. These discoveries will make the country more inviting to an enemy, and doubtless impose additional motives for the Government to provide adequate defenses. I do not know that you need any further action of Congress to secure the object mentioned in this’ communication. But if it is needed, I desire respectfully to urge upon your-Department the propriety of obtaining such action at the earliest opportunity.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

{p.97}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco. Cal., September 1, 1862.

Maj. GEORGE W. PATTEN, Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your report relative to disturbance at Port Townsend, Wash. Ter. The general apprehends no difficulty from the course pursued by the Federal officers. Should a difficulty arise the civil authorities must settle it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS THIRD REGIMENT, Ruby Valley, September 2, 1862. (Received 10 a.m. 4th.)

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

Arrived yesterday. Shall leave for Salt Lake in stage in three days. Command will not move until I return, if then. No supplies here or ahead. Major McGarry left Fort Churchill yesterday.

P. B. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, September 2, 1862.

Capt. H. FLYNN, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. at Fort Lyon:

CAPTAIN: As Mad River is too high to be forded for several months in winter, I desire to hold Fort Lyon for the purpose of securing a passage for the troops at all times over it for scouting between Mad River and Redwood Creek. In this view, and for the purpose of guarding the buildings and crops now at that point, which will be useful to our troops, you will leave there a detachment of ten men, including at least one reliable non-commissioned officer. They will be relieved every ten days from Fort Baker, the detachment always bringing with it ten days’ rations. This detachment will be under the immediate command of the commanding officer at Fort Baker, of which it will be considered as an outpost, for the safety of which the post commander at Fort Baker will be responsible. The non-commissioned officer in command will have strict orders to keep one sentinel suitably posted constantly on duty, by night and by day, to keep his men at all times concentrated within the limits of the post, and ready to repel an attack at a moment’s warning. You will immediately dismiss your present guide, his services at Fort Lyon being no longer needed. Mr. Bremer promises to charge no rent for the detachment. You will have a distinct understanding with him to that effect before leaving.

Very respectfully, captain, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

{p.98}

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OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT INDIAN AFFAIRS, Olympia, Wash. Ter., September 3, 1862.

General ALVORD, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I am in receipt of information from Charles Hutchins, esq., Indian agent, lately in charge of the Nez Percé Indians, that the officer in command of the troops now stationed on the reservation has declined repeatedly to furnish the agent with the aid required by him to protect the Indians under his charge, according to treaty stipulations and to preserve the faith of the Government. The present agent, J. W. Anderson, esq., has also written to me on the same subject, and informs me that he has had an interview with Major Rinearson on this subject, who informs him, as he had previously informed the former agent, that under the instructions which he had received from you he did not consider himself authorized to interfere with any parties who might be either trespassing upon the agricultural or grazing lands of the Indians or engaged in introducing intoxicating drinks at numerous points along the various streams, roads, and by-ways within the bounds of the reservation. I feel satisfied that your instructions in these respects must have been misunderstood, and I have respectfully to ask that you will without delay issue such orders and give such instructions as will secure the speedy removal of every trespasser upon the agricultural and grazing lands of these Indians, and the enforcement of the intercourse act outside of Lewiston and the mining towns, these having been excepted from the strict provisions of the treaty by consent of the Indians themselves. Inclosed is a copy of amendment* to the intercourse act, passed at the late session of Congress, to which your attention is respectfully asked. I have also inclosed a copy of notice which has been posted at various points on the reservation besides being published in nearly all the papers of the Territory. The importance of energetic and speedy action in the premises I doubt not will be apparent to you in view of the proposal to make a new treaty with these Indians. If the Government does not keep faith under the present treaty, but permits them to be robbed and murdered with impunity, what inducement is there for them to trust in the future? What evidence can we furnish of our intention to comply with our solemn engagements? I am so thoroughly convinced of the necessity and importance of immediate and energetic action that I have further to ask that you would consider the propriety of strengthening the command by the addition of another company. Without some positive and speedy action in the premises there is reason to fear the enactment of a similar tragedy to that which has just occurred in Minnesota. There are traitors to the Government in that region who are only waiting a fit opportunity to create insurrection and raise the rebel standard. If your views in regard to duty do not correspond with those which I have herein expressed, or a sufficient force to carry out the intentions of the treaty and the law cannot be furnished, I have to ask of you the speedy removal of the troops now there from the bounds of the reservation, feeling assured that their continuance as at present will have a most demoralizing effect. I have forwarded copies of the correspondence of Agents Hutchins and Anderson to the Department at Washington, that it may be seen upon whose shoulders these continued and outrageous violations rest.

I remain, sir, your obedient servant,

C. H. HALE, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Washington Territory.

* Not found as an inclosure.

{p.99}

[Indorsement.]

SEPTEMBER 7, 1862.

Mr. Hale called on me to-day and promises to write to-day to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, recalling all their complaints. He will say that he is perfectly satisfied with the instructions heretofore issued to Major Rinearson, commanding the troops at Camp Lapwai, near Lewiston, Wash. Ter.

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, Commanding District.

[Inclosure.]

NOTICE.

OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT INDIAN AFFAIRS, Olympia, Wash. Ter., June 25, 1862.

Information has been received at this office of the frequent and growing violation of the various provisions of the act of Congress regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes. The undersigned is unwilling to believe that such violations arise from willfulness on the part of the numerous traders now operating in sections of the Territory hitherto and yet occupied by Indians, and in some instances upon the very land reserved to the Indians by treaty stipulation. He rather believes that of the recent great influx of population very many are ignorant that such laws are in force. Notice is hereby given that selling, disposing, bartering, or giving liquor to Indians in this Territory, introducing or attempting to introduce the same into the Indian country, is a grave offense, punishable by fine and imprisonment by the laws of the United States; that within any Indian reservation the sale of any article of traffic or merchandise, without first having obtained a license from the Indian Department, is also an offense of a high order; and that all such liquors and goods are by the law subject to be seized and forfeited. Agents have been instructed to renewed vigilance in securing the faithful and vigorous execution of the laws above referred to within their respective agencies, and in bringing to punishment their violators. In the event of their inability to stay the sale, manufacture, or introduction of ardent spirits, malt or intoxicating liquors, or the unlicensed trade upon or within any reserve, they are enjoined to call upon the U. S. troops within their reach to assist them in carrying out said instructions.

CALVIN H. HALE, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Territory of Washington’

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SACRAMENTO, CAL., September 4, 1862. (Received 8 p.m. 8th.)

His Excellency ABRAHAM LINCOLN:

Our general election was held yesterday. The result is a triumphant and overwhelming victory in favor of the Union and the National Administration.

LELAND STANFORD.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., September 4, 1862.

General G. WRIGHT, U. S. Army:

SIR: Allow me to submit to your attention the inclosed documents.

Your most obedient servant,

A. AINSA.

{p.100}

[Inclosure No. 1.-Translation.]

WASHINGTON, May 16, 1862.

M. ROMERO, Chargé d’Affaires of the Mexican Republic at Washington:

Representing the interest of the Territory of Arizona, and being well acquainted with the affairs of Sonora and with the localities subject to the attacks of the Indians who devastate the country, I think it my duty for humanity’s sake to make a representation to you which, in my judgment, is of the greatest importance for the inhabitants of Arizona and those of Sonora who inhabit the shores of the Gulf of California and the Colorado River, and therefore I consider it worthy of the attention of both Mexico and the United States. First. It is the duty of the United States as a friendly nation to prevent the inroads of the savages within the limits of the United States into the territory of Mexico, and thus to put a stop to the ravages too often committed there. Second. That although such are the intentions of the Government of the United States, the position of Arizona and its actual state of affairs, as you may see by the map inclosed, entirely overrule the good intentions and frustrate the efforts of this Government, particularly in the western part of Arizona, which is mostly a desert as far as Fort Yuma, on the Colorado. Third. That in consequence of 300 miles of desert, a gap is left open for the inroads of the Indians, while the troops of the United States vainly occupy the eastern frontier. Fourth. As I said before, the country between Tucson and Fort Yuma is a deserted and uninhabited country, but this is not an inconvenience to the savages, who find in the very difficulties created by the desert an asylum from the attacks of the troops, who find it impossible to overcome the obstacles in their way. Fifth. That in virtue of the above reasons, it is indispensable to establish a fort in the neighborhood of Sori which is twenty-five or thirty miles within the boundaries of Mexico, with a force not above 100 men to stop the incursions of the Indians and to pursue them within said territory of Mexico. Sixth. That such military post as the above, for the reasons exposed, cannot be established within the limits of the United States on account of the want of the necessities of life for men and animals, of water, pasture, and vegetation. Seventh. That within the Mexican territory the resources are more easily found to establish such a post for the safety of the life and the interest of the inhabitants of this region. Eighth. That in exchange for the benefits of the proposed protection of the inhabitants of Sonora, the United States would ask of them the following: (1) The right of exportation and importation of all kinds of produce intended for the consumption of Arizona through the port of Lobos, in the State of Sonora, in the Gulf of California, free of duties. (2) To establish at the said place warehouses to deposit the productions and merchandise in transit to and fro. (3) The right to protect the said interests in transit and in the port from any danger whatever by a force not exceeding 100 men, who will be posted when not in service at the port of Lobos. (4) That the duty of this force be exclusively to protect the interest of the United States and its citizens in the port of Lobos and on the road to Arizona. (5) That the said force, as well in the post of Son as at the port of Lobos, shall not interfere in any political dispute whatever that may occur in the State of Sonora, and their only occupation shall be the punishment of the Indians, to which end they shall act in concert with the authorities of the country. I hope, sir, you may find the above expositions worthy of your attention, and that you will take into consideration the interest of Sonora and recommend to your {p.101} Government to concede our demands. The interest I take in this affair, I can assure you, is a pure desire to secure to the frontier States peace and prosperity and to exterminate the savages who annoy so much in particular the States of Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, and the Territory of Arizona.

I am, yours,

A.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

262 G STREET, WASHINGTON, D. C., May 20, 1862.

Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: I respectfully submit to your honorable consideration the inclosed document, presented by me to the Mexican legation, on an important subject to the people of Arizona, and therefore I beg of you to recommend the same to the legation of the United States in Mexico, if you think proper to do so.

I am, sir, your most humble and obedient servant,

A. AINSA.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, May 21, 1862.

A. AINSA, Esq., 262 G Street, Washington:

SIR: Your communication of yesterday, with its accompaniments, has received my attention. I have to inform you that it does not appear practicable or expedient, at this juncture, to accede to the request contained in your letter.

I return the map, which may be of use to you, and am, sir, your obedient servant,

WM. H. SEWARD.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 4, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: Superintendent Hanson, Indian Department, represents that outrages are being committed by the whites on the Indians in the vicinity of Round Valley. The general desires you to examine into this matter, and if true take the proper steps immediately to prevent further offenses of the nature complained of.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[SEPTEMBER 5, 1862.-For General Orders, No. 20, District of Arizona, relating to the assignment of officers, &c., see Part I, p. 115.]

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 21.}

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 5, 1862.

I. The undersigned hereby assumes command of this district. Lieut. W. A. Thompson, First Infantry California Volunteers, is announced {p.102} as acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. Jeremiah Phelan, First Infantry California Volunteers, as ordnance officer, and Surg. John H. Prentiss, First Cavalry California Volunteers, as medical purveyor of the district.

...

V. Due vigilance will be exercised to guard against surprise, and all troops must be kept prepared to meet the enemy promptly. Commanding officers must see that their commands are in readiness to take the field at a moment’s warning.

VI. The undersigned deems this a proper occasion to warmly commend the very excellent conduct of the troops stationed on the Rio Grande within this district. He feels and knows that by their patient discipline, exemplary private conduct, and the zeal manifested to perfect themselves as accomplished soldiers they are qualifying themselves for more important services and earning the right to be advanced nearer to the heart of the rebellion. And to still further improvement let the efforts of every officer and soldier in the district tend.

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC San Francisco, Cal., September 5, 1862.

Colonel CONNOR, or COMMANDING OFFICER, Ruby Valley:

Colonel Pollock will repair to Stockton immediately and assume command of troops there.

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. NORTHERN DIVISION, HUMBOLDT MIL. DIST., Fort Gaston, September 5, 1862.

Lieutenant SWASEY, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt:

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to state to the colonel commanding that recent information received from Hoopa Indians makes it probable that an armed band of the Redwoods is now in the vicinity of the Three Creeks, said to number twenty-five or thirty bucks, their squaws being with them. It is thought this is the remnant of the band recently attacked by the party from Arcata, and that they have brought their wounded with them. As it is probable they will remain for some days in that section of the country, and it is desirable to close as far as possible the avenues of escape, I have thought it the most prudent course to delay advancing directly upon the supposed locality until the detachments dispatched to intercept the retreat should have time to reach their proper positions. I inclose for the information of the colonel commanding a copy of the order issued. In pursuance of this order Lieutenant Noyes left this post this morning with the number of men of Company F requisite to organize the detachment which is to move to-morrow from Fort Anderson to the head of Redwood Creek. For {p.103} the reasons which I had recently the honor of stating to the colonel commanding, I have not employed Indian guides upon this scout, and besides, for a concerted movement of this kind, white guides can more easily comprehend and assist the operation. I have not included Captain Flynn’s command in this movement, because it would delay it too much to await his receipt of the order, but if the colonel commanding should think proper to direct him to scout independently up to and in the vicinity of the head of Pilot Creek, and which I understand is but one day’s march from Fort Baker, it might assist in the success of the expedition. As I shall myself accompany the detachment that moves directly against the Indians, I shall leave Captain Douglas in command of this post during my absence.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

HDQRS. DIST. OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 6, 1862.

It is hereby published, for the information and guidance of all whom it may concern, that the private sale by any person whatever in the military service of the United States of any public property whatsoever is prohibited by law and regulations. This prohibition extends to and includes provisions issued by the Government, the savings from which can be sold to the subsistence department only. Any citizen in this district who shall, in violation of the above prohibition, purchase or take in trade or barter from any person in the military service of the United States any article or articles of public property shall be fined $50, and in default of payment shall be confined for one month in charge of the guard, and any merchant or trader who shall so offend shall, in addition to the above penalty, be deprived of his license to trade and thereafter be denied the privilege of trading in this district. All fines collected under this order shall go to the fund for the benefit of the sick and wounded of the Column from California.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 7, 1862.

Maj. J. S. RINEARSON, Commanding Officer Camp Lapwai, near Lewiston, Idaho Ter.:

SIR: The object of this communication is again to enforce upon you the necessity of protecting the Indians from the aggressions of the whites. I am to-day informed by C. H. Hale, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs for Washington Territory, that the Nez Percé Indians have given their consent to the occupation of Lewiston and the other mining towns by the whites, but outside those towns it is especially desirable to enforce the provisions of the treaties and the United States laws intended for the protection of Indians in the Indian country. I desire you to afford to the Indian Department every assistance in your power for that purpose. In cases in which white men have squatted on the agricultural and grazing lands belonging to the reservation, contrary to the wishes of the Indians and the express prohibition of the {p.104} agent, they should be removed. I desire you not to hesitate to break up any grogshops established in places which are evidently an encroachment upon the Indians and intended for the sale of liquor to the Indians. When the letter was sent to you from these headquarters on the 30th ultimo, in answer to your letter of the 10th ultimo, I was not aware that the grogshops spoken of were in places regarded as an encroachment on the Indians. I am satisfied that the military authorities, upon the request of the Indian agent, will be justified in removing or destroying any fences, houses, or improvements which constitute aggressions upon the Indians. You may also be asked to assist the civil authorities or the Indian Department in the arrest of men who have committed crimes and offenses against the Indians. You will, of course, be expected to exercise a sound discretion in such cases, as I do not wish the military power used for any purpose of oppression. In any offense against the Indian intercourse act the military forces may in all practicable cases be employed to assist the Indian Department. See section 23 of the act of 30th of June, 1834. They can be removed by your orders to Walla Walla, where they can be committed for trial before the civil authority. If a U. S. commissioner resides on the reservation who has authority to commit, your action should be, so far as possible, in obedience to his mandate, or of the marshal or acting marshal of the Territory. As stated in my instructions of the 18th of July, I have a personal interest in the Nez Percé Indians, whose friendship for the whites has for years been so conspicuous, and I shall therefore be much gratified if you can give them efficient aid and protection. Pray omit no fair opportunity of showing your wishes and intentions toward them. In any event which may possibly occur rendering a re-enforcement desirable, you must apply to Col. J. Steinberger, commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla, for such aid, who has been instructed to furnish it. If he should himself at any time repair to your camp you will exhibit to him all your instructions and be governed by his orders. You may exhibit this letter, and also my instructions of 18th of July, to the Indian agent if you choose to do so.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

P. S.-Please send me from time to time reports in detail of your proceedings.

B. A.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 8, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: For the information of the General-in-Chief I have the honor to forward herewith a report of Maj. David Fergusson, First Cavalry California Volunteers, commanding the District of Western Arizona, on the subject of transportation of supplies from this city to the troops of General Carleton’s command in advance of Fort Yuma.* In a previous communication addressed to you I asked for authority to send the supplies through the State of Sonora. By doing so a very great saving can be made in the cost of transportation, and in anticipation of approval I am now making arrangements for shipping the {p.105} next supplies to one of the three ports in Sonora referred to, probably Libertad, from whence we shall have no difficulties to encounter in transporting the stores to Tucson safely and economically.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See August 19, p 76.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 8, 1862.

Maj. D. FERGUSSON, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding Western Arizona, Tucson:

SIR: The general commanding the department has perused with much interest your communication of August 19, with inclosures. The general will direct the next lot of supplies for Tucson shipped from this city to La Libertad, consigned to Don Juan Robinson, to be transported over the new route to Arizona. The information furnished by your letters and the suggestions made therein are very acceptable to the general.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 37.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, La Mesa, September 8, 1862.

I. The undersigned, by virtue of his office as commander of the U. S. troops occupying that portion of the Territory of New Mexico which lies south of Fort Thorn, hereby appoints the following civil officers for the Eighth precinct of the county of Doña Aña, comprising La Mesa and vicinity:

Eugenio Moreno, alcalde; Juan Zenobia Cadena, mayor domo de las aguas; José de la Luz Jiron, constable, who shall hold office at the pleasure of the undersigned, or at that of his successor in command, during good behavior and until the time when the civil authorities shall replace the military authorities within the county of Doña Aña. They shall be sworn by a competent officer to the faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices, and shall be subject to trial by a military commission and punishment for malfeasance in office.

II. The civil code of New Mexico shall govern these officers in the administration of justice. The alcalde shall have jurisdiction in civil cases involving no larger sum than $50, and he shall have power to levy and collect fines not exceeding the sum of $20 in any one case for misdemeanors; he shall also have the power to pass sentences of imprisonment for a term not exceeding forty days. The mayor domo de las aguas will be governed in the exercise of his authority by the existing laws of New Mexico in reference to acequias. Both officers shall keep account of the moneys received, subject to the inspection of the military authorities.

III. It shall be the duty of the alcalde to arrest and send to Mesilla for trial by the military authorities all persons charged with crimes that by the laws of New Mexico are punishable by sentences of greater extent than the amount and term named in the foregoing section.

{p.106}

IV. Delinquents who fail to pay the fines assessed by the alcalde and mayor domo de las aguas shall be confined at hard labor for such number of days as shall suffice, at the rate of 50 cents per day, to liquidate the amount of the fine imposed. All persons sentenced by the alcalde to more than fifteen days’ imprisonment shall be sent to Mesilla and be there confined during the term of their sentence.

V. Appeals from the judgments of the alcalde or mayor domo de las aguas may be taken through these headquarters to a military commission. These judgments may be annulled by said commission, but if confirmed the term of imprisonment or fine imposed upon the appellant shall be increased one-fourth in time or amount.

J. B. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

NOTE.-Eugenio Moreno, Juan Zenobia Cadena, and José de la Luz Jiron were duly sworn before me to the faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices at Mesilla this 10th day of September, 1862.

J. B. W.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington City, September 9, 1862.

Hon. S. P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury:

SIR: The Secretary of War directs me to inclose for your information copies of correspondence* with the office of the Adjutant-General in relation to the occupation of Fort Townsend in Washington Territory, by Collector Victor Smith, and to call your attention to the latter part of the letter of Lieut. J. H. Merryman, the present acting collector at the port.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

* See Wright to Thomas, May 15 and June 11, and Merryman to Wright, May 26, Part 1, pp. 1074, 1131, 1099.

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[SEPTEMBER 9, 1862.-For Carleton to Canby, relating to operations on the Rio Grande, &c., see Vol. IX, p. 695.]

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 9, 1862.

Capt. E. B. WILLIS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Hart’s Mill:

To provide against the probability of an attack upon your post you will take immediate steps to place the machinery of Hart’s Mill in a condition that will enable you in the shortest possible time to remove two sets of buhrstones, with the requisite running gear. Every effort must be made in case the enemy advances to remove these to the main body of the troops in the district. But you will not permit the property you remove, nor any that you leave behind, in case you evacuate your post, to fall into the hands of the enemy in a condition that will {p.107} be of service to him; that is, you will utterly destroy all facilities for making flour at Hart’s Mill when you are compelled to abandon it.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 38.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 9, 1862.

I. Captain Fritz’s company (B), First Cavalry California Volunteers, will march for Tucson on the 15th instant, camping at Fort Fillmore on the evening of that day. The rations now in the company’s hands will be taken along. Captain Fritz will be prepared with a provision return to complete thirty days’ rations, to be drawn as he passes this post. Each man will be provided with forty rounds ammunition, each, for pistol and carbine.

II. The commanding officer at Camp Johnson will send with Captain Fritz’s company a train of thirty-five wagons under charge of Wagon-master Veck. He will see that arrangements are made to draw the teamsters’ rations at this post so as to avoid detention.

J. B. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, STATE OF CALIFORNIA, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Sacramento, September 10, 1862.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief:

GENERAL: I have the honor on behalf of the State authorities and the loyal citizens of California to present (briefly) a statement of the condition of affairs here. It is represented and generally believed that there is a secret organization in this State, numbering from 20,000 to 30,000 men, leagued together for the overthrow of our Government, and whose purpose it is if an opportunity should favor the scheme to carry the State out of the Union. These men openly boast that their sympathies are with the traitors of the South, and they are continually defaming the Government from which they receive protection and whose benefits they enjoy. They take pride in preaching their traitorous sentiments among loyal men, which they have hitherto done with impunity, and do much to discourage enlistments. Loyal citizens have now no protection from the insults of these men, many of whom are wealthy and influential, and U. S. soldiers have been shot down in the streets of our towns for protesting against the free use of disloyal sentiments in their presence, and the probabilities are that the deserving will go unwhipped of justice. The actions of this league are positive, and there is no immunity to loyal men in our community from insult and wrong.

The power of our Government should be manifested at once here and the union feeling of the masses fostered. If this is not done and our armies should meet with any considerable reverses serious trouble will be inaugurated on this coast. The loyal citizens of this State are now organizing into military companies, and are making daily applications for arms and equipments. They are preparing to give their services to {p.108} the State or National Government, but the State cannot equip them. Will the General Government aid us in this emergency? Will the General Government aid us to maintain the Constitution and assert the power of our Government? Will they give us arms and equipments to put into the hands of loyal men whose services can be commanded for any and every emergency? There are arms at the Benicia Arsenal which would be of great service to the State at this time. Now, general, if, say 10,000 stand of muskets and accouterments or their equivalents in such other arms as might be required can be issued, I will guarantee that in three months we will have upon rolls of organized companies the name of a loyal citizen for every musket issued, who shall be preparing for service. Cannot this be done? This will be handed you by Brigadier-General Ellis, to whom you are very respectfully referred for a corroboration of the statements contained herein. I do most respectfully urge you, general, to give this subject early consideration and action. The arms will be duly receipted for and returned after the war if you should so determine.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. C. KIBBE, Adjutant-General State of California.

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ALCATRAZ ISLAND, CAL., September 10, 1862.

Lieut. Col. B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco:

COLONEL: In view of the existing difficulties at home and the threatening aspect of our foreign affairs, I deem it my duty, as the commander of this most important post, to call the attention of the commanding general to the condition of its defenses. At present the caponiere at the entrance of the fortification, defending the approach from the wharf is occupied by the guard and prisoners; the latter being so numerous they entirely fill the casemate on the right of the entrance, rendering it necessary that the guard should occupy the corresponding one on the left. For this reason the howitzers intended for the defense of this approach have never been mounted, nor can they be until some other arrangement is made for the care of the prisoners. I would therefore urge the immediate erection of a building suitable for this purpose. I have already called the attention of Lieutenant Elliot, the engineer in charge, to this difficulty, and he has promised to apply for the necessary authority to erect a building, but I would respectfully suggest that the delay involved in-procuring this authority should, if practicable, be avoided, as this point is for several reasons the most vulnerable of the island. The only subsistence store-house is a small wooden building, hastily constructed last summer by order of General Sumner, not large enough to contain a full supply for three months for the present garrison, the balance (of this supply) being stored outside of the wall of the fortification, and in the event of any threatened danger this last building must necessarily be immediately destroyed. I would therefore earnestly suggest the immediate construction of suitable store-houses capable of containing supplies for a garrison of 600 men for six months. Lieutenant Elliot has forwarded to Washington a proposition for supplying the post with water by means of pipes laid under water from the city of San Francisco. This plan may be successful, but I believe it open to serious objections, the most evident being the ease with which a besieging force might cut off the supply of water; moreover, the {p.109} delay necessary in obtaining authority from Washington should, in my opinion, be avoided if possible. I therefore request that authority be granted for boring an artesian well. In the event of hostilities from any quarter the works now recommended will be absolutely necessary for a successful defense of this post, and I now therefore respectfully request that the commanding general will take them into immediate consideration.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. A. WINDER, Captain, Third Artillery, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 10, 1862.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California:

I have the honor to report for the information of the general commanding that the Apache Indians are troublesome at points in the district remote from the stations of troops, and I am just apprised of the murder by them of two persons near San Elizario. I hope to a great extent to be able to check and punish these outrages with the forces under my command, but I cannot occupy the entire district, and the Indians pounce down upon a locality that is for the moment unprotected. Against such a misfortune the inhabitants apply to me for arms and ammunition. Powder is the most required, and I have issued some saved by guards, but the quantity is very limited. I beg respectfully to ask the commanding general’s attention to this matter, and in this connection I would state that I have been applied to by a person desirous of purchasing private arms in this Territory for permission to take such purchases across the line into Mexico. I have withheld my permission, not deeming it policy to allow arms to be sent from a country where they are obviously so much needed, until General Carleton’s pleasure in the premises can be known. I failed rightly to understand or remember the general’s instructions in regard to the arms that were advised en route for the Pima Indians. I have directed the commanding officer at Tucson to take charge of them until further orders, which are respectfully asked by,

Sir, your obedient servant,

J. B. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 10, 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, First Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California.

SIR: I have the honor to report the arrival at this post on the 7th instant of Captain Whitlock’s company (F), of the Fifth Infantry California Volunteers. I am anxiously awaiting further instructions from the commanding general in regard to sending Captain Davis forward. I have twice reported that no more than six wagons can be taken by Captain Davis toward the Rio Grande, there being no more animals on {p.110} account of the non-return of any of those which went to the Rio Grande. There must have been a great miscalculation or misunderstanding in regard to the unserviceable mules and wagons to cause the commanding general to believe there would be 200 mules disposable here to be taken forward by Captain Davis, as directed in the general’s letter of August 4, the last communication I received from him. I detain Captain Davis until further orders, as the reason the general appears to have for ordering him forward was that the 200 mules and the wagons would be useful in New Mexico. But as there are only six teams instead of thirty-three, as he supposed, the wagons would no more than carry subsistence for the company escorting them and forage for the animals for about sixty days. I am at a loss how to act, and fear censure whatever course I may pursue. I send to Major Coult on his requisition twenty-one men of Company E, First Cavalry, under Lieutenant Wardwell, to “force open the communication with the headquarters of the column.” He fears, as do I, that as no express has been received for a month, and no train returned, the Indians may have cut off the express, and may be in force on some point between Fort Bowie, in Apache Pass, and Mesilla. I have to report that no reports of subsistence or quartermaster’s stores on hand at or en route to or from Fort Yuma are sent to me or Captain Davis or any one else. I cannot act intelligently, nor otherwise than in a groping unmilitary way if such things are permitted. One would suppose that a feud existed between different commands in the same service, instead of the proper harmony and hearty co-operation there ought to exist. It is disheartening and disgusting, and irremediable by me considering my rank. Almost all the political prisoners sent to Fort Yuma return with certificates from Colonel Bowie that they are released by order of General Wright, on condition of taking the oath of allegiance. Many of them have receipts for horses taken up on the papers of various officers; they also claim arms said to have been taken from them here. No arms, no property of any kind was transferred to me. I can find none except some of Mowry’s property. I beg to ask the general’s orders about the horses for which said parties have receipts. White & Lennan sent me a sample of flour. It is ground in a very superior manner, but it is moldy, and tastes as if it had been buried in the ground. I fear no one but Lieutenant Coleman can settle with Pima Indians. Their tickets were given in such a way that he alone can unravel the business. I would request that he be returned to pay them off with the goods when they arrive. White is accused of purchasing the tickets of the Indians at a great discount. I am investigating this and have forbidden him to do so.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 10, 1862.

Capt. THOMAS L. ROBERTS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Franklin, Tex.:

I have just received your communication relative to the Indian outrages committed in the vicinity of San Elizario. I regret that it is out of my power to afford the aid solicited, and you will be good enough to {p.111} say to the justice-of the peace of that town that we came here prepared instantly to rid the country of the rebels, and to afford Union citizens protection against them, but not quite so readily prepared to suppress the outrages of the Apaches. The latter will, however, be undertaken in due time, and it is my hope to be enabled to inflict summary chastisement upon them. In the meantime I do not think it advisable to send cavalry in pursuit of the particular party of Indians referred to, nor have I the ability to furnish the inhabitants the arms and ammunition asked for. I shall write at once to the general commanding the department to have both arms and ammunition sent to me especially for the protection of the people against the Indians. I do not believe in the efficiency of these predatory expeditions of citizens against the Indians after the latter have committed their depredations. They swoop down upon localities where they well know that due caution is not observed, and before the citizens can be rallied to pursue them they are beyond their reach. The people must be more cautious, and in a short time troops will be sent to their relief.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 10, 1862.

Lieut. Col. GEORGE S. EVANS, Second Cav. California Vols., New Post, near Owen’s Lake, Cal.:

SIR: In reply to Major O’Neill’s letter* reporting the number and kind of arms surrendered by the Indians agreeably to the terms of the treaty, the general commanding the department directs that firearms of every description received from the Indians shall be turned in to the new San Pedro depot, the quartermaster thereof giving the usual storage receipts.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See O’Neill to Drum, August 15, p. 75.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 10, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: From representations made by respectable parties it is feared that evil-disposed whites, sympathizers with secession, are stirring up the several Indian tribes in your district to make hostile incursions on the settlements. You will, the general commanding directs, endeavor to discover the parties who thus attempt to disturb the peace of the State and arrest and hold them in confinement until the receipt of further orders.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.112}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 10, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: The act of Congress of February 20, 1862, the fortification appropriation bill, says, “For defenses in Oregon and Washington Territory at or near the mouth of the Columbia River, $100,000, if in the judgment of the President the same or any part thereof should be advisable.” I had not seen the above until a few days before I wrote you on the 27th ultimo. I do not know what action has been taken in reference to the same. The dispatch of Brigadier-General Wright of 20th of September, 1860, as well as mine of the 27th ultimo, contemplates the erection of batteries at the mouth of the Columbia. I hope that the above appropriation may be applied to commence them and further estimates be made to continue-them. Whether they should form a portion of the permanent fortifications to be erected, the engineers could decide. You no doubt noticed that in the requisitions for heavy ordnance, &c., forwarded on the 27th ultimo, it was expressly stipulated that the vessel or vessels should be chartered to await at Astoria instructions as to where the articles should be landed. I suppose that one-half should be landed at Baker’s Bay, near Cape Disappointment, and the other half at the site for a fortification selected above Point Adams. The object of this communication is respectfully to commend this matter to the attention of the general commanding, and to recommend that the time intervening before the arrival of the ordnance should be employed by the engineers in preparing said batteries. They cannot reach here before next summer under the supposition of the most favorable action of the Ordnance Department.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., September 11, 1862. (Received 11 a.m. 12th.)

SECRETARY OF WAR:

If 1,000 men for the war are placed in Panama from this State will you provide them passage thence?

WM. M. LENTER. M. JESSUP. EUGENE SULLIVAN. WM. D. CHAPLIN.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 11, 1862.

Col. GEORGE W. BOWIE, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Fort Yuma, Cal.:

SIR: The general commanding the department directs that as soon after the receipt of this order as practicable three companies of your regiment, with your headquarters, will take up the line of march for New San Pedro, and go into camp at or near old Camp Drum. You will withdraw from Fort Barrett one company of your regiment, which, with the one left by you, will constitute the garrison of Fort Yuma, {p.113} under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbins. You will bring with your command one of the two ambulances at Fort Yuma. The general suggests as a better plan to send your command over by companies, and if you have not transportation for all, the first company will be sent as far as Camp Wright, and the transportation can return to Fort Yuma for the balance. District headquarters will after your arrival be established at the camp near New San Pedro.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 11, 1862.

Col. GEORGE W. BOWIE, Fifth infantry California Volunteers, Fort Yuma, Cal.:

Brigadier-General Carleton, when leaving this district a few days since to assume command of the Department of New Mexico, desired me to request you to do him the favor to give your attention to the following matters: Should Lieutenant Bennett, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, superintendent of vedettes, be in your district or vicinity, be good enough to order him to report at these headquarters by first opportunity. I understood the general to say that this would leave the vedettes between Fort Yuma and Los Angeles without a superintendent, and that it was his desire that the regularity of their services should be maintained. The general also requests that you will do him the favor to release and send to California a political prisoner named J. S. Bratton on his taking the oath of allegiance.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

J. B. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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FORT CRITTENDEN, September 11, 1862-9 p.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

I leave for Ruby to-night. Will arrive there Saturday night. Will write from there.

P. E. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers.

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ORDERS, No. 38.}

HEADQUARTERS CAMP LINCOLN, S[ISKIYOU] M[OUNTAIN] VALLEY, CAL., Humboldt Military District, Cal., September 11, 1862.

I. The undersigned assumes command of this post.

II. Camp Lincoln will be removed to a point six miles north of Crescent City, and to the southward of Smith’s River. The command will be prepared to march to-morrow at 1 p.m.

III. The acting assistant quartermaster will furnish the necessary transportation to execute the above order.

JAMES F. CURTIS, Major Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

{p.114}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 130.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, September 11, 1862.

I. Captain Schmidt with Company B, Second Infantry California Volunteers, will proceed to Fort Humboldt on the 16th instant, and relieve Captain Gibbs and his company at that post, of which he will assume command.

II. Immediately on the arrival of Company B, Second Infantry California Volunteers, at Fort Humboldt, Captain Gibbs with Company B, Second Infantry California Volunteers, will proceed to Camp Curtis, near Arcata, where he will take post until further orders.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, September 11, 1862.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: Reliable information having been furnished me that a small party of Indians contemplated an attack upon the Government train between Snake River and Fort Colville, I have the honor to report that I have this day dispatched Captain Taylor, First Washington Territory Infantry, with an escort of ten mounted men, commanded by Lieutenant Apperson, First Oregon Cavalry, to examine into and report the facts. The depot at Palouse Crossing was moved from the right to the left bank of Snake River by the agent in charge for safety, in his fears that he would be disturbed by disaffected Indians, and that the public property was in jeopardy. It appears that on the Fort Colville road there has been some manifestation of hostile movements toward the Government employés, and that danger exists to the property in their charge. I have deemed it proper to send at once, and before any violence occurs, a small party on the road to examine into the matter. Captain Taylor is at present unemployed, and [I am] indisposed to give him command of his company until I hear the result of his resignation. He has been selected for this duty. Be is instructed carefully to examine into the disposition, temper, and character of the different tribes of Indians, or of individual Indians, bordering the route, inquire into the truth of the late reports, and lay the result of his inquiry before Major Rumrill, commanding Fort Colville, which post he is directed to reach. He is to be here on his return not later than the 26th instant, when all the facts will be reported to you. It is made the duty of the small force under Lieutenant Apperson, accompanying Captain Taylor, to act purely as an escort to the latter officer unless any attack is made upon the train. It is expected that the command at Fort Colville will be enabled to protect its supply train, and the principal object now is to get authentic information for the commanding officer of that post, while contributing to the safety of the supply train on its present upward trip. The undersigned is impressed with the belief that the surest mode to prevent Indian difficulties in this district of country is to employ the available force of his command in crushing out at once the early evidences of {p.115} disaffection and hostility. Intelligence of danger is rapidly communicated at this time, and promptness and celerity of movement on the part of our troops, with speedy and sure punishment, will I trust prevent any concert of action among the Indians involving general or formidable disturbance.

Trusting that the general commanding the district will approve the disposition of the troops above named, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, September 12, 1862. (Received 9.30 p.m. 13th.)

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

The undersigned respectfully recommend that another regiment of infantry be raised in California.

LELAND STANFORD, Governor.

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G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General.

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VALLEJO, September 12, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, U. S. Army, Commanding Department of the Pacific:

SIR: The undersigned, residents of Vallejo, Solano County, and loyal citizens of the United States, respectfully beg leave to represent that in our midst there are several persons who are traitors to their country and rejoice at Federal reverses and rebel successes, who want only a favorable opportunity to be in arms against our common country. In consideration of the above circumstances, we would respectfully request that upon proof of utterance of disloyal sentiments you will authorize the arrest and imprisonment of such persons.

C. B. DENIO, E. HENRY M. BAILEY, W. C. ROOT, JNO, L. DUNN [AND 32 OTHERS.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. C. C. SIBLEY, 9th Infty., U. & Army, Comdg. Presidio of San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Capt. Henry M. Black’s company will be in readiness to embark from Fort Point wharf to-morrow at 11 a.m. to proceed to and take post at Alcatraz Island, the command of which Captain Black will assume.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.116}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. HARVEY LEE, Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Benicia Barracks, Benicia, Cal.:

SIR: You will please read and hand the inclosed letter as directed. The department commander desires you to let the people understand generally that the order of the President suspending the writ of habeas corpus and directing the arrest of all persons guilty of disloyal practices will be rigidly enforced. Those of them who are leading secessionists will be confined at Alcatraz; those who may happen to be drunken brawlers, or if no account, will be confined in your guardhouse unless they take the oath of allegiance. Practices injurious to the Government or offensive to the loyal sentiment of the people will under no circumstances be permitted.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure.]

General WRIGHT U. S. Army, Comdg. Dept. of the Pacific, Headquarters at San Francisco:

SIR: We, the undersigned, loyal citizens of the United States of America, knowing that in the town of Benicia and vicinity there are persons, who, residing among loyal citizens, at every opportunity, on the reverses met by the Union forces, express their feelings in favor of the rebels, vindicating loudly their cause against the General Government, it is therefore asked of you, as the commanding officer of the Pacific Department, that you empower, or have stationed in our midst, a guard whose duty it would be to arrest those whom either they hear or is made known to them of uttering treasonable sentiments against our Government. This freedom of speech should not be tolerated. These secret workers in disloyalty should be stopped. Either remove them from the loyal sod or place them within the confines of Fort Alcatraz, beneath the emblem of our beloved country-thus the air will not be polluted by the expression of their treasonable designs. We leave the above to you. By enforcing the same you will meet with the approval of a large body of loyal citizens in our midst, and in duty bound we will ever pray.

JOHN M. NEVILLE, Sheriff of Solano County; C. J. FLATT, J. W. SANBORN, JOHN BRENNAN, J. M. JONES, P. M., HENRY MORTIMER RICH, J. T. HOUGHTON, [AND MANY OTHER CITIZENS OF SOLANO COUNTY.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 12, 1862.

Col. FERRIS FORMAN, Fourth Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Camp Latham, Cal.:

SIR: The department commander directs that Camp Latham will be broken up and the troops and property moved to New San Pedro, near {p.117} which place you will select a camp suitable for wintering six companies of infantry and two of cavalry. This movement will be made as soon after the receipt of this as practicable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 129.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, September 12, 1862.

...

II. Captain O’Brien, commanding Company C, Second Infantry California Volunteers, will embark to-morrow, the 13th instant, on board the steamer Panama, and proceed in her to Crescent City. On his arrival there Captain O’Brien will report for orders to Major Curtis, Second Infantry California Volunteers. The company will take with them all their camp and garrison equipage and company property.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter., September 12, 1862.

Maj. B. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: In my report of the 15th August relative to certain transactions on Puget Sound in connection with the U. S. revenue cutter Shubrick, wherein the possibility was intimated of a requisition being made on me for troops to enforce the requirements of the law under a warrant, said to be resisted, to arrest Victor Smith, collector of customs, and Lieutenant Wilson, commander of the Shubrick, I have the honor to state that there is no further apprehension of a collision between the authorities of the Territory and the officers of the cutter, as the Shubrick has returned to the sound and is now at Olympia, where I understand both Mr. Smith and Lieutenant Wilson have consented to undergo a legal investigation of the matter alleged against them, for which the warrant of arrest was issued by the U. S. commissioner on the 11th ultimo.

Very respectfully, I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

G. W. PATTEN, Major Ninth Infantry, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington City, D. C., September 13, 1862.

WILLIAM M. LENTER, San Francisco, Cal.:

If 1,000 men for the war are placed at Panama from California passage will be provided thence for them.

By order of Secretary of War:

C. P. BUCKINGHAM, Brigadier-General and Assistant Adjutant-General.

(Copy to M. Jessup, Eugene Sullivan, and William D. Chaplin.)

{p.118}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 13, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER AT FORT WALLA WALLA, WASH. TER.:

SIR: Your letter of the 8th instant is received stating that application for relief is frequently made to you by emigrants arriving from the east of the Rocky Mountains, who are destitute of provisions, and you request instructions for your guidance in such cases. I cannot find anything in the Regulations on the subject, but in cases of such suffering and destitution among those arriving this autumn with that emigration, you are authorized to order the issue of such articles of subsistence to them for a limited period as may be necessary. I shall desire you to use your discretion in each case as to the necessity, having instituted such investigation of each case as to satisfy you of the existence of real destitution.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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[SEPTEMBER 14, 1862.-For Canby to Adjutant-General of the Army, transmitting report from Carleton of September 9, see Vol. IX, p. 695.]

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COOKE’S WELLS, CAL., September 14, 1862.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I arrived here this morning at 12.30. All things so far safe and right. I halted at my camp, some four to six miles northwest of Indian Well, until 4 p.m. of the 11th instant. The cavalry escort requested of Colonel Bowie arrived in the night of the 10th instant. Since the overflow of the Colorado the whole face of this country has completely changed, and one who has traveled it before could hardly recognize it. I am perfectly satisfied that a plan was matured to attack this train, but the precautions taken so far have prevented anything of the kind. The desert is swarming with greasers, &c., and as there is plenty of water everywhere there would be no difficulty in forming a rendezvous at almost any point. I shall resume my march at noon to-day, and expect to reach Fort Yuma to-morrow morning. I will notify you of the day when I shall leave that post. The further I progress the worse I find has been the management of this road, and it is only surprising that many of the vedettes have not deserted. The first desertion has yet to be chronicled. Two men (Connelly and Getchell) of Company D, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Captain McLaughlin, stationed at Camp Wright, Cal., guarding quartermaster’s and commissary stores, are supposed to have deserted a few days since. The vedette is hourly expected.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM G. MORRIS, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. Army.

{p.119}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Fort Ruby, September 14, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report my return to this post from Salt Lake last evening. I am glad I made the journey, as it will be the means of saving my command much suffering for want of water. The country between this point and Salt Lake is an alkali desert, scarce of wood and water, but I have made such arrangements as will enable me to take my command over with comparative comfort. It will be impossible for me to describe what I saw and heard in Salt Lake, so as to make you realize the enormity of Mormonism; suffice it, that I found them a community of traitors, murderers, fanatics, and whores. The people publicly rejoice at reverses to our arms, and thank God that the American Government is gone, as they term it, while their prophet and bishops preach treason from the pulpit. The Federal officers are entirely powerless, and talk in whispers for fear of being overheard by Brigham’s spies. Brigham Young rules with despotic sway, and death by assassination is the penalty of disobedience to his commands. I have a difficult and dangerous task before me, and will endeavor to act with prudence and firmness.

I examined the country in the vicinity of the city to find a suitable location for a post. Fort Crittenden (Camp Floyd) is in ruins, except the few buildings, of which I send you a description; and for which the owner asks $15,000.* There are also some buildings purchased by and belonging to the Overland Mail Company, and now occupied by them, but which are not for sale. Of the remaining buildings there is nothing left but the adobes, except two or three buildings owned by former sutlers, which are in tolerable repair, and could be purchased cheap. If it were designed to establish a permanent post, most of the buildings would have to be torn down and removed, as many of them are half a mile from the officers’ quarters, or what was known as headquarters. The latter buildings are the only ones in tolerable repair; the others require doors, windows, and considerable work to place them in habitable order. The land is considered a Government reserve, but the post is badly located, being on the edge of the reserve and adjoining a small village, inhabited-by a class of persons of questionable character. There is good grazing on the reserve, which is the only redeeming quality, in my opinion, it has. There are sufficient adobes on the ground to erect such additional buildings as I may require, but good timber is scarce, and the saw-mills are sixty miles distant.

I found another location, which I like better for various reasons, which I shall explain. It is on a plateau about three miles from Salt Lake City; in the vicinity of good timber and saw-mills, and at a point where hay, grain, and other produce can be purchased cheaper than at Fort Crittenden. It is also a point which commands the city, and where 1,000 troops would be more efficient than 3,000 on the other side of the Jordan. If the general decides that I shall locate there, I intend to quietly intrench my position, and then say to the Saints of Utah, enough of your treason; but if it is intended that I shall merely protect the overland mail and permit the Mormons to act and utter treason, then I had as well locate at Crittenden. The Federal officers desire and beg that I will locate near the city. The Governor especially is very urgent in the matter. It is certainly rather late in the season to build quarters, but I believe I could make my command comfortable {p.120} before very cold weather sets in. It is raining here now, and snowing on the surrounding mountains. It is important that I should know the general’s decision as soon as possible, as winter is fast approaching. Communication by mail or telegraph will, until my arrival at Salt Lake, reach me earlier by being directed to Ruby Valley than to any other point.

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infty. California Vols., Comdg. District of Utah.

* Description omitted.

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WASHINGTON, September 15, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

It has been proposed to send a regiment of five companies of cavalry from California to New Mexico. Could they at this season pass over the southern route without serious difficulty?

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, September 15, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Inclosed herewith is a copy of a telegraphic message sent to the Secretary of War on the 12th instant, signed by His Excellency Governor Stanford and myself.* I hope that authority will be granted to raise another regiment of volunteer infantry in this State. The force at my immediate disposal is small. The large command dispatched to the Rio Grande under Brigadier-General Carleton and the command of Colonel Connor on the Overland Mail Route has reduced my force much, yet I have troops enough for all present purposes, although an emergency might arise requiring an increase. The late election in this State passed off very quietly, resulting in the success of the Union ticket by large majorities. But our enemies are not idle; they are making every effort to depreciate our Government and our currency. I have had interviews with the Governor of the State, the U. S. marshal, collector, postmaster, and chief of police, and I am happy to find that perfect harmony exists amongst them all, and that I can rely with perfect confidence upon receiving their cordial support in maintaining the supremacy of our laws and the enforcement of the orders lately received from the War Department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p. 115.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC San Francisco, Cal., September 15, 1862.

Col. FERRIS FORMAN, Fourth Infantry, California Volunteers, Commanding Camp Latham, near Los Angeles, Cal.:

SIR: Immediately upon the receipt of this communication the department commander directs you to dispatch an express to Lieut. Col. {p.121} George S. Evans, Second Cavalry, directing him to proceed with two companies to Visalia, there to await further orders.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 15, 1862.

His Excellency IGNACIO PESQUEIRA, Governor of Sonora, Republic of Mexico, Ures, Sonora:

Your Excellency I fear will think I am a troublesome neighbor. I have the honor to address you now on a subject of vital interest to Sonora and Arizona. Its importance is my apology for troubling you. Your Excellency will at once agree with me that the greatest enemy to the progress, prosperity, and development of these rich mineral, pastoral, and agricultural regions is the treacherous Apache. My object is to bring about a perfect understanding, combined efforts, harmony of design, and unity of purpose between Your Excellency and your people and the authorities and inhabitants of this Territory, in regard to these Apaches, who have so long been the scourge and terror of Arizona and Sonora. I have been informed that several hundreds of Indians have been very lately in Fronteras, Sonora, making preparations for hostilities against the troops, citizens, residents, and travelers of Arizona, and that they even had the effrontery to send a deputation to Your Excellency, with the hopes of obtaining a treaty of peace, in order that they might with more impunity commit their atrocities in this Territory. I know the answer Your Excellency would make to such an infamous proposal, for you are well informed of their treachery and of the end they desire in asking for peace, though they would of course try to conceal it. I imagine I see Your Excellency rise in indignation and order the savage embassy that would dare to ask peace from the ruler of a people whose blood they have been wantonly shedding for over a century to be arrested. It appears to me, sir, that in view of the fact that there are several towns on the frontiers of Sonora, Fronteras, and Janos in particular, where Apaches rendezvous for the purpose of obtaining supplies of ammunition, &c., and of disposing of the effects of their murdered victims it would conduce to the interests of Sonora and Arizona that the troops of either nation should have the right of following the barbarous enemy beyond the frontiers of the other. For my part, I would be very glad to see the troops of our sister Republic follow Apaches to any part of this Territory, and would respectfully ask of Your Excellency to grant to our troops the right to cross the frontiers of your State in pursuit of the inhuman enemies of civilization. It seems almost incredible that people claiming to be civilized should, as it is said the people of Fronteras and Janos do, allow their towns to be made cities of refuge and depots of supply for the wretched Indians whose sole object in life appears to be to rob, torture, and murder all who do not belong to their accursed tribes. It is said these people so far forget themselves as to give timely warning to the savages when danger threatens them. This, with the alleged fact that they furnish them the means of dealing death and destruction to their own people, their kindred and friends, puts them on a level with the Apaches. I am well informed of Your Excellency’s sense of justice in regard to this subject, and realize and appreciate the obstacles and difficulties besetting your path in carrying out your designs in regard to the Apaches {p.122} and their aiders and abettors on the frontiers. I am well persuaded that once an understanding is had between Your Excellency and the military authorities of this Territory in regard to the right of the troops of either nation crossing the frontiers of the other, the Apache race will cease to be formidable, and when it is convenient for the troops of both nations to act jointly against the common enemy, it will, in my opinion, be very desirable to do so. I submit these considerations to Your Excellency, with the hope that you may agree with me, and that hereafter we may act as one against the enemy of both. I would also trouble Your Excellency on another subject. It appears when the troops of the Republic of Mexico were withdrawn from the Presidio of Tucson that the military commandant took the records of the town to Sonora with him. Many of the people here, being simple-minded persons, have not the proper titles to prove their right to property really belonging to them, having either failed to get written grants or having lost the evidences necessary to establish their claims. Many of the citizens of Sonora also have equitable claims difficult to establish. Without the records it will be impracticable to settle questions of titles to land, thus giving unprincipled men an advantage over honest men, who cannot establish their rights. Your Excellency would confer a great favor and further the ends of justice by ordering the return of the records referred to if they are not necessary for the archives of your State.

I have the honor to be, sir, with sentiments of distinguished consideration and respect,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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CAMP INDEPENDENCE, OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, September 15, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that owing to the fact that there are no provisions in the commissary department of this command, I deemed it advisable to order the tents to be struck and the entire command to move toward Los Angeles until we meet a provision train, which is in all probability now on the road for this camp. In the meantime I have authorized Capt. T. H. Goodman, acting assistant quartermaster, to purchase such stores for the subsistence of the troops as he may be able to procure in or near Union Camp or Keysville. The command commenced its march at 9 a.m. instant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN M. O’NEILL, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 15, 1862.

Capt. HENRY B. MELLEN, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Red Bluffs, Cal.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 11th instant, I am instructed by the department commander to inform you that your command will remain in the field, operating against the hostile Indians in Tehama {p.123} and adjoining counties, until the objects of the expedition are accomplished, i.e., the punishment of the Indians and the re-establishment of quiet and security in that quarter.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Carson City, September 15, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, U. S. Army, Commanding Pacific Department:

SIR: I have seen an order issued from the Department at Washington in relation to the treatment of prisoners who speak disrespectfully of the Government. I see likewise that you are about to appoint a military commission to act upon and decide the several eases arising in this department. How are we to bring such cases before said commission? Is there power; if so, where does it exist, to transport them across the mountains? Can we have a commission appointed for this Territory? Treason is very openly spoken here now since Colonel Connor’s proclamation. The trouble lies here in the fact that there is only one company stationed at the fort, and they can raise a force any day more than sufficient to overpower them. To obviate this difficulty I can furnish you with two or three companies, or have them at hand subject to call if you can furnish them with arms. The arms that we had are now pretty much distributed to such companies as have and are now forming. I have taken pains to so distribute these companies as to secure the greatest efficiency in case of trouble. I am quite apprehensive that there is a band of guerrillas forming in this Territory to burn, rob, and plunder all of the loyal citizens they can reach. They formed under the pretense of going east to join the rebel army, and received material aid from the rebel sympathizers here to help them across. They now think they are lurking about the country, and threaten to destroy it. I am quite certain that these Indian difficulties on the plains are brought about by the interference of the secessionists. I am of the opinion that there will be a necessity for stationing troops from the Humboldt to Ruby Valley. There has been some bloody work there within a few days.

I think a portion of the command destined for Salt Lake should halt in the neighborhood of Gravelly Ford until the emigration has passed. The depredations appear to be committed north of the line of march of Colonel Connor’s command; the troops keep the mail road and the emigration north. It seems too bad that so many should be killed so near their journey’s end. You will know much better than I do what to do. I will inclose a copy of a letter from my Indian agent from Humboldt, showing the state of things there, and I have to-day heard of much more bloody butchery. If I can procure arms I can put a thousand good men in a condition to render good and efficient aid in any emergency. Can I do it? I see a troublesome winter before us and am anxious to be prepared for it. How to be prepared and what to do are the points upon which I desire your counsel and advice. I hear the mutterings and desire to prepare for the storm. At the bottom of all these troubles are the cursed rebels. If we could send them all to Alcatraz the troubles would end. The sooner the work is commenced and consummated the better. If we could have those in our {p.124} midst removed the exciting cause would be gone. If you will advise me in relation to, first, what is the best to be done with the traitors and how it is to be done; second, what can be done with the Indian troubles; third, in relation to arms, &c., I will be much obliged to you.

I have the honor to be, your humble servant,

JAMES W. NYE, Governor of Nevada Territory.

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CAMP LINCOLN, HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, September 15, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that in accordance with instructions from-district headquarters I assumed the command of the U. S. troops in Smith’s River Valley on 11th instant, and on the following day removed the command (Captain Stuart’s company (G), Second Infantry California Volunteers) six miles south of Smith’s River, equally distant from Crescent City, still to the south. The camp is upon dry, sloping ground, an opening in a redwood forest, and upon the main road between Crescent City and the Indian reservation, and where it is intersected by the Yreka and Jacksonville turnpike. Communication with the steam-ship landing will always be open over a good road, and we are sufficiently near Crescent City to afford that town protection from the powerful tribe of Klamaths, as well as from the reservation Indians. Good water, wood, and grazing in abundance. The point has the approval of Mr. Hanson, Indian agent. The name Camp Lincoln is retained and the post-office address not changed. Before selecting this site I examined the proposed Russell place and found it entirely unfit for a camp in consequence of its liability to overflow. During the past winter there was but a single knoll above water there, and that not one-half the area of the plaza of San Francisco.

All of which is submitted for the consideration of the general commanding.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES F. CURTIS, Major Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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CAMP LINCOLN, HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, September 15, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I was to-day re-enforced by the arrival of Capt. M. O’Brien’s company (C), Second Infantry California Volunteers, who came by sea from Fort Humboldt, Cal., having escorted 820 Indians from that place to Smith’s River Valley Reservation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES F. CURTIS, Major Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Camp.

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FORT CHURCHILL, September 15, 1862-11.30 a.m.

General WRIGHT:

Indians at Gravelly Ford, 200 miles from this post, on Humboldt River, have murdered twenty-three emigrants. Residents of Lower

{p.125}

Humboldt ask for assistance. Distance from this post too great to render required protection. Gravelly Ford seventy-five miles from Ruby Valley. I have dispatched above to Colonel Connor.

C. MCDERMIT.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 163.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 16, 1862.

Capt. Salem S. Marsh, Second Infantry, is relieved from duty in this department and will proceed without delay to join his company (C), Second Infantry.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10.}

HDQRS. OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, Camp Independence, Owen’s River Valley, September 16, 1862.

I. The undersigned hereby resumes command of the companies (D, G, and p, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, composing the Owen’s River Expedition.

II. Pursuant to instructions from headquarters Department of the Pacific, a one-company military post will be established on Oak Creek, Owen’s River Valley, to be called and known as Camp Independence. Said post to be garrisoned by Company G, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, and commanded by Capt. Theodore H. Goodman, of said company, for which service they are hereby detailed.

...

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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FORT RUBY, September 16, 1862-1.10 p.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

I will not leave here for a week or more. No supplies arrived yet. Indians murdering emigrants on the Humboldt. Will attend to it.

P. E. CONNOR, Colonel, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 34.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 17, 1862.

In pursuance of an act of the Congress of the United States entitled “An act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and rebellion, to seize and confiscate the property of rebels, and for other purposes,” approved July 17, 1862, the attention of all persons in this military department (embracing the States of California and Oregon, and the Territories of Washington, Utah, Nevada, and that portion of New Mexico known as Arizona) is called to the following provisions of said act:

SECTION 5. And be it further enacted, That to insure the speedy termination of the present rebellion it shall be the duty of the President of the United States to cause the seizure of all the estate and property, money, stocks, credits, and the effects of the persons hereinafter named in this section, and to apply and use the same and the proceeds thereof for the support of the Army of the United States; that is to say:

...

{p.126}

Sixthly. Of any person who, owning property in any loyal State or Territory of the United States, or in the District of Columbia, shall hereafter assist and give aid and comfort to such rebellion; and all sales, transfers, or conveyances of any such property shall be null and void; and it shall be sufficient bar to any suit brought by such person for the possession or the use of such property, or any of it, to allege and prove that he is one of the persons described in this section.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 18, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have to report that the communication with the troops under General Carleton is yet suspended. I received no express since my last report to you, thus making my latest dates from General Carleton the 4th of August. I cannot on any reasonable or satisfactory hypothesis account for the suspension of communication and why trains have not returned for subsistence. The general has not given me any instructions in regard to such a contingency. He intended to return about thirty wagons, as soon as unloaded, with forage; and I expected them to return from Mesilla, and some even from San Simon. I inclose a report* of means of transportation in possession of Captain Davis, chief of transportation. It will show that only six wagons and teams are here for replacing broken-down wagons and animals. Instead of this number of wagons and mules, General Carleton went off with the impression that there were 200 mules, and wagons enough to use them in. I cannot well see how this miscalculation occurred. All the trains sent to the Rio Grande he was aware of. Every commander of detachments had a list supplied of his transportation. The general could have known the exact state of the case before he left; he was in daily consultation with his chief of transportation, had his chief quartermaster with him, and certainly as soon as I was called upon to send forward 200 mules I undeceived him, and had a clear statement of the means of transportation sent to him, but I have no instructions how to act as yet. The inclosed extracts * of several letters written to General Carleton, through his acting assistant adjutant-general, will show you how much I am in the dark as respects this column, how I am placed in regard to receiving supplies from Fort Yuma, and the uncertainty in which I am in regard to what is in advance as well as in rear. Supplies for this Territory should not be mixed up with those for Fort Yuma. So long as they are, there will be delay, confusion, and dissatisfaction, especially so long as the commander of that post ranks the commander of this district.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* Not found.

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[SEPTEMBER 18, 1862.-For General Orders, No. 83, Department of New Mexico, in which Canby relinquishes command of department to Carleton, see Part I, p. 116.]

{p.127}

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[SEPTEMBER 18, 1862.– For General Orders, No. 84, Department of New Mexico, in which Carleton assumes command of the department, &c., see Part I, p. 116.]

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 3.}

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 18, 1862.

I. The following extract from an act of Congress is published for the information of all concerned:

SECTION 20. And be it further enacted, That if any person shall sell, exchange, give, barter, or dispose of any spirituous liquor or wine to any Indian under the charge of any Indian superintendent or Indian agent appointed by the United States, or shall introduce or attempt to introduce any spirituous liquor or wine into the Indian country, such person, on conviction thereof before the proper district court of the United States, shall be imprisoned for a period not exceeding two years, and shall be fined not more than $300: Provided, however, That it shall be a sufficient defense to any charge of introducing or attempting to introduce liquor into Indian country, if it be proved to be done by order of the War Department, or of any officer duly authorized thereto by the War Department. And if any superintendent of Indian affairs, Indian agent, or sub-agent, or commanding officer of a military post has reason to suspect or is informed that any white person or Indian is about to introduce or has introduced any spirituous liquor or wine into the Indian country, in violation of the provisions of this section, it shall be lawful for such superintendent, agent, sub-agent, or commanding officer to cause the boats, stores, packages, wagons, sleds, and places of deposit of such person to be searched, and if any such liquor is found therein, the same, together with the boats, teams, wagons, and sleds used in conveying the same, and also the goods, packages, and peltries of such person shall be seized and delivered to the proper officer, and shall be proceeded against by libel in the proper court and forfeited, one-half to the informer and the other half to the United States; and if such person be a trader, his license shall be revoked and his bond put in suit. And it shall, moreover, be lawful for any person in the service of the United States, or for any Indian, to take and destroy any ardent spirits or wine found in the Indian country, except such as may be introduced therein by the War Department. And in all cases arising under this act Indians shall be competent witnesses.

Approved February 13, 1862.

II. The whole of the District of Western Arizona is hereby declared to be Indian country and the above law will be rigidly enforced therein.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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FORT YUMA, CAL., September 19, 1862.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I arrived here without meeting with any opposition, as I have informed you I had surmised. The cavalry requested of Colonel Bowie joined me, and will accompany me to Tucson, together with a detachment of infantry of the Fifth California Volunteers, unless I meet more cavalry at the Pima Villages. I shall resume my march to-morrow, and endeavor to get through with all convenient speed. Lieutenant Sherman leaves to-morrow on his return to Camp Latham with the teams hired by me from Mr. Banning. He deserves all credit for the faithful and energetic manner in which he has commanded the escort.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM G. MORRIS, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. Army.

{p.128}

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., September 19, 1862.

Col. P. EDWARD CONNOR, Ruby Valley, Nev. Ter.:

As no provision has been made for cavalry at Ruby Valley, you will leave Gallagher and two companies of infantry at that point.

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS THIRD REGIMENT, Ruby Valley, September 20, 1862-11.30 a.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

Will my other companies join me this winter? If not, would respectfully suggest that only one company (infantry) be left here. No supplies yet. Answer.

P. E. CONNOR, Colonel Third Regiment Infantry California Volunteers.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., September 20, 1862.

Colonel CONNOR, Ruby Valley:

The other companies will not join you this winter. Two companies will be left at Ruby. Keep a good lookout for guerrilla bands. By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Fort Yuma, September 21, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

MAJOR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of instructions of the 11th ultimo [instant], in which you say that the department commander desires me, as soon as possible after the receipt of it, to move with three companies of my regiment and the headquarters to New San Pedro. As I should not be able to carry out the orders fully, but only in part, I have thought it best that I should give you a statement of the difficulty in the way and await further instructions. In the first place there are no troops at Fort Barrett, the companies that were stationed there having been ordered from that post to Tucson some time since; nor are there any between this post and Tucson, except the few men at the express stations, so that, five companies of my regiment being at Tucson and beyond with General Carleton and four here, I cannot leave two companies here if three are to go with me. Then, again, as Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbins is under arrest, in consequence of an unfortunate affair between him and some other officers of the regiment, and charges of a grave character have been preferred against him, which you will receive by the mail with this, there is no field officer to take command of the post, as I respectfully submit there should be, considering its importance and the vast amount of Government stores almost constantly arriving here. As these facts were not {p.129} known to you and are matters of moment, I hope the course which I have pursued under the circumstances will meet the approval of the general commanding the department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. BOWIE, Colonel Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 21, 1862.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California:

SIR: An express arrived here this morning from the west three days previous to the usual time of the arrival of the express. Though there is no communication from department headquarters for me or from any other source in regard to this extra express, I send it forward this evening en route to Fort Bowie, where I hope it will arrive by the time that the detachment of cavalry under Lieutenant Wardwell will have returned from the Rio Grande. I regret that I have had no dates from you or any one with the column in advance since the 4th of August, when the commanding general was at Ojo de la Vaca. I have advised Colonel Drum of the suspension of communication and the non-return of trains for supplies. I inclose herewith a statement of the subsistence stores on hand here on the 15th instant, and of those en route from Fort Yuma.* The acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence at Fort Yuma, notwithstanding frequent instructions and requests through the commanding officer of that post, has ceased to send me any statements of stores on hand at, en route to or from, Fort Yuma. The vedettes have ceased, except in one or two instances, to make any reports. I have no idea of where Beard’s cattle are. Fort Yuma stands upon a severe dignity and elevated independence and reticence. I have no report of the whereabouts of Captain Morris with the funds. He ought to be here now unless delayed by accident. I send three wagons with provisions to-morrow for Fort Bowie with two teams belonging to that post. I again respectfully request that Lieutenant Coleman be returned to settle with the Pimas. White has resigned. He has been accused of buying the Indian paper at a discount. Those papers that Lieutenant Coleman gave the Pimas as evidences of indebtedness are worthless as vouchers for any other officer, as they do not express for what quantity of wheat, &c., they are given. None but Coleman should be put in a position to have his disbursements disallowed on account of his own stupidity. I have no information of when the Indian goods are coming or when the clothing for the troops will be sent from Fort Yuma. The fifteen wagons in charge of Sergeant Naper are now under the orders of Colonel Bowie and doing he alone knows what. Four trains are en route here from Fort Yuma with provisions. Captain Kellogg made another deposit of $10,000 to my credit, so that I have now at my command $36,932.82. Captain Davis has just received from Captain Ogden an invoice of 182 camp kettles and 232 mess pans, shipped August 11 per schooner Morning Light. This is on the estimate made in July for 276 camp kettles and 690 mess pans, which were requested to be sent to San Pedro and forwarded by express

Omitted. {p.130} wagon to Fort Yuma. Where the Morning Light is is in the dark, no destination having been given in Captain Ogden’s advices.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, CALIFORNIA MILITIA, Columbia, September 21, 1862.

General G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding, San Francisco:

GENERAL: I have reason to believe there exists in this county a secret organization having for its object the embarrassment of the Government in the prosecution of the war. This spirit breaks out and is shown by cheers for Jeff. Davis and other disloyal practices. About a month since I applied to the Governor as commander-in-chief of the State militia, making the inquiry if anything could be done in the matter through the militia organization. We have as yet failed to obtain the desired authority to suppress this detestable crime. I now make application to you as the general commanding the U. S. forces on this coast, praying you to appoint a good loyal man to act in the capacity of provost-marshal, or any other that may accomplish the desired end, with authority to arrest and confine all persons guilty of uttering publicly disloyal sentiments in this county. And should you conclude to make such an appointment, I beg leave to suggest the name of and recommend Mr. D. O. McCarthy, of Sonora, as eminently qualified for the position, knowing also that the loyal people of this county (Tuolumne) would hail his appointment as a guarantee that the traitors’ practices complained of would be effectually stopped.

Hoping you will consider the urgency and importance of the petition as sufficient excuse for trespassing upon your time, I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. M. DOBBIE, Brigadier-General, Commanding Third Brigade, California Militia.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, September 22, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a communication from Col. P. E. Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the District of Utah, dated at Fort Ruby, Ruby Valley, September 14, 1862.* Colonel Connor is now on his march to Salt Lake, and I have instructed him to take up his position at the place he suggests, three miles from the city, as that appears to be the best location for the accomplishment of the object in view, viz, the protection of the Overland Mail Route and the due execution of the laws of the United States. The energy of Colonel Connor, coupled with his sound judgment and decision of character, point him out as eminently fitted for the command with which I have intrusted him.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p. 119.

{p.131}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, September 22, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: An express arrived here this morning with the mail from the west, three days before the usual time. I judge there must be some important communication for General Carleton, and therefore dispatch an express this evening with the mail for the Column from California as far as Fort Bowie, hoping by the time it reaches there that the detachment sent to the Rio Grande on the 9th instant may have returned with news of the column. The detachment left Fort Bowie on the morning of the 14th instant, and Major Coult expected them to return about the 25th instant. Not a word has been heard directly or indirectly from General Carleton or any of his command since the 4th of last August. I have received no communications in regard to this extra express that arrived this morning from any quarter. I understand from unofficial sources that I have been ordered to proceed to Libertad, but I never heard of it officially from any source. I have to report that I have, by direction of General Carleton, called upon the acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence at Fort Yuma to send me tri-monthly reports of quartermaster’s and commissary stores on hand at, en route to and from, Fort Yuma, for the troops in this Territory. This was done four times, and twice through the commanding officer. The only attention paid to the request was one statement of subsistence sent on the 22d of August by Lieut. E. B. Frink, Fifth Infantry, acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence. Those reports are necessary for my information for the information of the commanding general who directed me to call for them, and to keep him supplied with them. It is for the commanding general to decide if discipline is to cease, and if officers are to do as they please and let the public interests suffer.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, September 23, 1862.

General GEORGE WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific:

SIR: In view of the threatening appearance of affairs in this State growing out of the present rebellion, we, the undersigned citizens of San Francisco, beg leave to request that if this military department is not supplied with the necessary arms and munitions of war you would make immediate application to the proper authorities to be furnished with a supply to arm at least 30,000 men. As we consider the exigency of the case requires the utmost promptness of action, we would respectfully suggest that these arms should be sent by the return California steamer.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

WM. T. COLEMAN & CO. MACONDRAY & CO. PARROTT & CO. FREDERICK BILLINGS. L. H. ALLEN, Major-General, California.

{p.132}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 168.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 23, 1862.

Capt. Edward Barry’s company of Washington Territory Volunteers will proceed to and take post at Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter., relieving the Fourth Infantry company (Crowninshield’s), now at that station; the latter will be brought to this city on the return steamer. The quartermaster’s and commissary departments will provide the necessary transportation and subsistence.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 23, 1862.

Maj. GEORGE W. PATTEN, Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Comdg. Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: The department commander has this day directed Captain Barry’s company, Washington Territory Volunteers, to proceed to Fort Steilacoom, relieving the company at present at that station, the latter to repair to this city on the steamer taking up Barry’s company. The general directs that you will not detain the steamer over ten hours in debarking and embarking the troops. If necessary the acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence can remain to transfer the property for which he is responsible, after the completion of which duty he will be directed to report to his captain.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 23, 1862.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to report that I have just returned from a personal inspection of the district down the Rio Grande as far as Franklin. At that point and at Hart’s Mill everything is progressing satisfactorily. As I have communicated to the general commanding in a private note by last express, the animals, battery and cavalry horses and train mules at Camp Johnson are not thriving; in fact, they look and are lower in flesh than I have seen them on the campaign. With a wide extent of country to watch and defend, with comparatively a small command, the efficiency of the latter under such circumstances must depend greatly upon its mobility. I have deemed it, therefore, imperative to look up better grazing at some point adjacent to more substantial forage, and for the latter, when I see the absolute necessity of so doing, I shall incur the expense of providing sufficient to prevent at least the animals from getting too poor to be serviceable. The general commanding directed the invitation of proposals for 100 tons of hay delivered at Fort Fillmore and an equal quantity at Mesilla. The contract has been awarded at $30 per ton. As I may find it necessary to {p.133} locate the cavalry camp at a point remote from Fort Fillmore, I respectfully ask permission to have the delivery of the hay for that point changed either to Mesilla or to whatever locality may be deemed most advisable. After detaching one company from Fort Fillmore to relieve the garrison at Craig there will remain but one at the former point. I beg to suggest that I can have matters much in hand by abandoning Fillmore, and ask permission to do so. To watch the approach by Fort Quitman, if a cavalry camp can be found near San Elizario, Captains Pishon and Wellman will be stationed there with scouting parties as far as grazing and water will permit. Captains McCleave and Shirland will alternately move out on that Fort Stanton route. The occupation of Fillmore seems under the circumstances useless, and is embarrassing in consequence of the posts in the district so far outnumbering the facilities for medical attendance. No progress whatever has been made in obtaining wheat and corn in the lower part of the district under the order of the general commanding that the people should sell their grain at $3 per fanega. Au agent has been dispatched to that section for the purpose of buying the grain at the price named, and funds for payment have been placed at Franklin. I am in hopes of being able ere long to report greater success.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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RUBY VALLEY, NEV. TER., September 24, 1862.

Major-General HALLECK, Washington, D. C.:

The Third Infantry California Volunteers has been in service one year and marched 600 miles; it is well officered and thoroughly drilled; it is of no service on the Overland Mail Route, as there is cavalry sufficient for its protection in Utah District. The regiment will authorize the paymaster to withhold $30,000 of pay now due if the Government will order it east, and it pledges General Halleck never to disgrace the flag, himself, or California. The men enlisted to fight traitors, and can do so more effectually than raw recruits, and ask that they may at least be placed on the same footing in regard to transportation east. If the above sum is insufficient we will pay our own passage from San Francisco to Panama.

By order of the regiment:

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel, Commanding.

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RUBY VALLEY, September 21, 1862. (Received 12.45 p.m. 25th.)

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief:

My regiment will if ordered east pay their own passage from San Francisco to Panama. Our services are not required here. We desire to strike a blow in this contest.

P. EDWARD CONNOR, Colonel Commanding Third infantry California Volunteers.

{p.134}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 24, 1862.

Lieut. J. F. GUIRADO, First Cavalry California Volunteers:

SIR: You will proceed this evening with your detachment and resume command at San Pedro Crossing. To prevent any future stampedes by Indians you will habitually keep all your horses tied to the picket-line. They will be fed full allowance of hay and grain when on hand. You will also cause your men to cut green grass for them and feed them as much as they can eat, but they must be exercised. For this purpose you will drill your men daily for at least one hour and a half. Should there be any persons encamping near your station with stock, you will order them to guard their stock in such a manner as to insure their safety and prevent their offering inducements by their carelessness to Indians to prowl around your post to steal animals. Should any party refuse to comply with such instructions as you give, you will order them away from your station to such a distance as you choose. You may graze your animals within sight of your station where there may be good grass, but each horse must be held by a trooper by a riata, and each trooper must be fully armed and equipped and have his bridle ready to put on his horse, so that he can mount at once and follow any hostile Indians that may appear when you order them pursued without delay. The horses must not be grazed within gunshot of woods, chaparral or brush, where Indians can be concealed, and every man in your command must be ready at a moment’s notice, night or day, to spring to arms. The horses when on the picket-line will be guarded by at least one armed sentinel in the daytime and two by night. You must omit no precaution to save your animals from being run off; or your post from being attacked.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 48.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA. Mesilla, September 25, 1862.

...

III. Company B, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Capt. Emil Fritz commanding, will be held in readiness to march for Tucson as soon as the requisite transportation can be furnished. Captain Fritz will provide himself with subsistence to the 15th proximo from the depot at Mesilla. Not less than thirty rounds carbine and twenty rounds pistol ammunition will be taken by Captain Fritz.

...

By order of Colonel West:

W. A. THOMPSON, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., September 25, 1862.

Lieut. Col. RICHARD C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: I have to acknowledge the receipt of the copy of Brigadier-General Alvord’s letter of the 10th instant, made official by yourself and addressed to me, probably, for my information. The act of {p.135} Congress to which General Alvord alludes contemplates permanent defenses at the entrance of Columbia River, and in pursuance of that act I was directed by General Totten, chief engineer, to examine the several points at the entrance of the river and to prepare a project for such defenses, to be submitted to Washington for approval. The several plans and drawings, including surveys, which accompanied my report to the general, left here by the mail of the 20th of last month, and I am in hopes to receive further instructions from the Department about the 20th of next month.

Very respectfully, I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

R. E. DE RUSSY, Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers.

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CAMP INDEPENDENCE, OWEN’S RIVER VALLEY, September 26, 1862.

[HENRY D.] BARROWS, U. S. Marshal, Southern District of California, Los Angeles, Cal.:

SIR: By direction from headquarters Department of the Pacific I shall proceed hence to Visalia with a portion of my command, there to spend the winter. I have been further directed to communicate with you in regard to a deputy U. S. marshal for the Southern District of California being appointed by you to reside at Visalia or near my camp. As my duty in Tulare County will be mostly to look out for secesh and to enforce the proclamation of the President in regard to the arrest of traitors, you will see the necessity of a deputy U. S. marshal for the Southern District of California being appointed immediately, to reside in the vicinity of Visalia. I would most respectfully suggest that unless you are acquainted personally with some good, sound Union man in that vicinity to appoint, that in order to save time and bring things straight amongst the traitors of Tulare and surrounding country, you had better send a blank commission to me immediately, with directions as to the amount of bond required, &c., and I will see that it is filled up with the name of some proper person, and that the bond is duly filed, &c.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., September 27, 1862. (Received 11.40 p.m. 28th.)

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief:

It is too late to raise a new regiment and pass it over the southern route this season. The troops on this coast should not be sent beyond my control. They may be needed here.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General.

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SAN FRANCISCO, September 27, 1862. (Received 6.40 p.m.)

General THOMAS:

I have to request that 20,000 rifle muskets and equipments may be sent here by first steamer.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.136}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 171.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 27, 1862.

I. The headquarters of the Fourth Regiment of Infantry California Volunteers will be established at Benicia Barracks, to which point Colonel Forman, with the regimental and non-commissioned staff will repair without delay. Lieut. Col. Harvey Lee will proceed on the next steamer to New San Pedro and assume command of the Fourth Infantry companies in camp near that place.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11.}

HDQRS. OWEN’s RIVER EXPEDITION, Camp Independence, Cal., September 27, 1862.

I. The commanders of Companies D and I, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, will hold themselves in readiness to march hence with their respective companies and all their camp and garrison equipage on Monday morning, September 29, 1862.

II. The commanders of said companies will see that their respective companies are provided with fifteen days’ rations from September 30, 1862.

...

By order:

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 27, 1862.

Maj. Gen. HENRY W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I trust you will have time to read this short private note. In organizing the small force known as the Column from California, and in conducting it over the Yuma and Gila deserts to the Rio Grande, the assistance rendered by my second in command, Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, was of the most efficient character. The zeal, energy, and high soldierly qualities of this officer demand more than a passing notice. He should receive promotion to the grade of brigadier-general of volunteers. I earnestly recommend him to your favorable consideration, not only because he is your personal friend and a Californian, but because of the efficient and important services he has rendered and is rendering, and because of the size and importance of his present trust as commander of the District of Arizona, which comprises the Territory of that name, all of New Mexico south of Fort Thorn, and Northwestern Texas. I beg also to recommend First Lieut. John B. Shinn, U. S. Third Artillery, and First Lieut. Franklin Harwood, of the Topographical Engineers, to be brevetted, the former as a major. He is now first for promotion to a captaincy. The latter as a captain. The uncommon labor and zeal shown by these officers in bringing a light battery through the desert, the first one that ever crossed it, and having it always in fighting condition, demand at least this reward. I am sure you will feel that they richly deserve this compliment. I beg you will pardon my trespassing upon your time, but {p.137} as it is that these three gentlemen deserve this consideration on your part, I earnestly entreat that you will use your powerful influence in their behalf.

I am, general, very sincerely,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 27, 1862.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to transmit, for the information of the general commanding, copy of my letter of instructions to the commanding officer at Tucson in reference to forwarding the 1,000 head of cattle coming from California. As stated to Major Coult, I am apprehensive that he will not have sufficient escorts to send the cattle through, compelled as he will be to divide them up into several bands. There seems good reason to believe that Captain Greene’s company of infantry will have left Tucson before any of the cattle could reach there, and one-third of Captain Wellman’s company of cavalry have already come through with an express. There seems now the greater occasion for sending Captain Cremony to relieve Captain Fritz, as suggested by me to the general in a private communication recently. Captain Fritz if thus relieved can bring the remainder of the cattle through. This is submitted for the better judgment of the general commanding.

Your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 27, 1862.

Maj. THEO. A. COULT, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding, Tucson:

Information has been conveyed to the general commanding the Column from California that 1,000 head of cattle en route, to the Rio Grande should have arrived at your post ere this. These you will send here as soon as possible, and such accounts as you get from Captain Fritz, now about leaving for Tucson, in regard to the water on the road, will guide you as to the size of the bands in which they will be forwarded. They must be accompanied by suitable escort of troops. For this purpose you will send on Captain Wellman, with the remainder of Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, and any other troops ordered this way. It is possible that your escorts may not be sufficiently numerous to enable you to send all the cattle. Send what you can with due regard to their safety and maintenance on the road, and advise me accordingly. You will instruct the agent of the beef contractor to permit the commanding officer at Fort Bowie to take such cattle as he may need for the supply of his post for sixty days. Captain Fritz takes over a train of twenty wagons, one forge, and one tank. These are all to be returned here, either all together or divided among the detachments accompanying the cattle. Such transportation as is required for the troops will be furnished out of this train, and you will fill up the remainder with the clothing, keeping on hand sufficient for the command at your post and letting me know how much you keep. Should there still be any transportation unoccupied in these twenty wagons, complete the loading with {p.138} subsistence stores. You will also send here all Government wagons under your control except forty, which you will employ in getting your supplies from Fort Yuma, loading them as above. You are authorized to keep, in addition to the Fort Yuma train, such post trains as may be absolutely required at Tucson.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., September 27, 1862.

Capt. HENRY B. MELLEN, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg. Fort Crook: (Through Hinchman & Bartlett, Red Bluffs, Cal.)

SIR: The department commander has received information which leads to the belief that the party of Indians against which you were directed to operate are marauding on the Chico road in the direction of Mountain Meadows. As the emigration into the northern part of this State is now passing over that route, the general desires you to afford it all the protection in your power, in addition to the other duties assigned you.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, September 28, 1862.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to report that in obedience to orders from the general commanding, Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg left Mesilla this morning with Companies F and I, First, and B, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, to relieve the garrison at Fort Craig. A train of twenty wagons accompanied this command, under orders to proceed to Peralta and report to Captain Enos, assistant quartermaster. Under similar instructions Captain Fritz’s company (B), First Cavalry California Volunteers, marched for Tucson this morning with a train of twenty wagons. The instructions to the commanding officer at Tucson have been already transmitted to you. Eight days have elapsed since I first received the orders for these movements. The delay has been caused by the necessity of sending to San Elizario, Tex., for forage.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Judd’s Valley, September 28, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: In accordance with instructions I left Camp Drum on the 18th instant with Companies C and E, Second Cavalry California Volunteers. I have examined the country around Battle, Antelope, Deer, and Mill Creeks. From information received at Red Bluff I supposed {p.139} that the Indians would be among the cañons of the above-named creeks, but within a circuit of about twenty miles found no signs, except what were about three weeks old. Not considering that any good can be accomplished by remaining, I have directed Lieutenant Berry to send a detachment from his company to scout among the foothills in the direction of Chico, and if nothing can be discovered to return to the Bluff and report for orders. Information reached me yesterday that a settler living in Mountain Meadows had been killed by the Indians. I shall proceed with Company C in that direction and inquire into the matter, and after examining the country in that region shall go to Fort Crook by that route. I believe that the Indians who have been committing depredations in Tehama County are roving bands, who make their raids and immediately retreat to the mountains, assisted in every way by those who are in a measure domesticated at the different ranches along the Sacramento River. And it is the opinion of every settler with whom I have talked that, so long as they are allowed to remain, there will be trouble. Some believe that the pet Indians are the ones who commit all the depredations, leaving the ranches for a foray, and as soon as any expeditions are sent out quietly return to their homes.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY B. MELLEN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, Camp Independence, Cal., September 30, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: The order directing me to proceed to Visalia with two companies Second Cavalry California Volunteers did not come to hand until day before yesterday, the 28th. On yesterday, the 29th, I started the command, and will leave here myself to-day and overtake them at the Big Lake. The wagons will have to go by the way of Walker’s Pass and Keysville (the only wagon road, and that almost impassable), but I shall take one company from the foot of the lake without wagons or packs, the men taking rations in their haversacks, and attempt to travel straight across the mountains into Visalia. I think that I can reach Visalia in this way by the 6th or 7th of October, whilst it would take until the 14th or 15th to go around by the road. I adopt this course for the reason that Doctor George informs me by private letter that there are wagons on the road from Stockton with stores for the command, and it may not be safe to have them in the vicinity of Visalia without troops to guard them. Again, by going across the mountains and getting into Visalia in the night I may possibly catch the notorious traitor Baker, who would be sure to know of may coming and escape if I should go by the road.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 30, 1862.

Brig. Gen. J. W. RIPLEY, U. S. Army, Chief of Ordnance Department, Washington city, D. C.:

GENERAL: Since my communication to you of the 27th of August inclosing a requisition for heavy ordnance for the mouth of the Columbia {p.140} River, I have received a letter from First Lieut. G. H. Elliot, of the Engineers, who has recently been engaged in a survey of the mouth of this river with a view to the erection of fortifications. He says that Point Ellen (two miles above Point Adams) is the most important position to fortify, as it is above the point of junction of both channels. There he would place the largest number of guns, and recommends that I should apply for 13 or 15 inch Rodman guns to be placed at that point. For a battery on Cape Disappointment, commanding the north channel, now most used, which approaches very near the cape, he recommends rifled cannon, which can be fired at great angles of depression. The cape is high, and on the approach of a vessel the danger is that the firing would be too high. If depression carriages can be sent with them he thinks such guns would be very desirable. If, therefore, you have not already acted upon my communication of the 27th of August I desire now to modify it. I will ask you to answer my requisition and that of General Wright of the 13th of October, 1860, by forwarding forty Rodman guns and twenty Parrott rifled guns, with depression carriages. With these should be forwarded all the necessary appurtenances, platforms, &c., and 400 rounds of ammunition for each piece. This I ask if it concurs with your judgment, for which I have the highest respect. In fact, remote as we are here from all sources of correct information as to the improvements in ordnance, we cannot employ very definite language in our requisitions as to the caliber, &c. We must necessarily defer to your better knowledge, aware that in asking the Ordnance Department for these articles now we are applying to a department whose time and resources are severely taxed in this war. But I trust that you, general, having visited this region in person, will know and remember our wants, and will concur with us in believing that the commencement of defenses should not be deferred until foreign war is upon us. A vessel or vessels can no doubt be chartered to sail from New York direct to Astoria or this post With the articles. Lieutenant Elliot thinks they should be landed at Astoria or at this post. A large share, at all events, of the articles shipped should come to the Vancouver ordnance depot. An officer who recently visited Vancouver Island informs me that the British naval authorities are landing from their ships 68-pounders to establish a battery at the mouth of Esquimault Harbor. This communication is forwarded through Col. R. E. De Russy, of the Engineers, at San Francisco, who is requested to forward it to your office.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 30, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R E. DE RUSSY, Corps of Engineers, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: Herewith I inclose to you a letter* to the Chief of Ordnance which asks for heavy ordnance for the mouth-of the Columbia. I have left blank the number of guns and have respectfully to request that you will insert the number of each kind which according to your judgment it is judicious now to ask for. I have written in pencil forty {p.141} Rodman guns and twenty Parrott rifled guns with depression carriages. Will you please insert in ink the number you decide upon, and do me the favor to forward the letter to the Chief of Ordnance and also notify me of your action. I trust that you will be able to forward it with such a letter from yourself as will stimulate the Ordnance Department to comply with the requisition. Agreeably to your verbal suggestion at our interview at San Francisco, I wrote on the 27th of August to the Chief of Ordnance, through the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific, requesting that thirty rifled cannon of heaviest caliber should be forwarded, and mentioned my conversation with you. I also requested that a requisition of Brig. Gen. George Wright (then commanding the Department of Oregon), dated the 13th of October, 1860, should be complied with. It reached the Ordnance Office the 28th of November, 1860, and no doubt the secession movement caused it to be neglected. It asked for twenty columbiads, &c. My requisition of the 27th of August was (I am informed by Colonel Drum) favorably indorsed and forwarded by General Wright. Since that date I have received a letter from Lieut. G. H. Elliot, of the Engineers, of the 26th of August, in which he has been kind enough to give me some of the results of his examination at the mouth of the river. These are referred to in the accompanying communication. As the erection of batteries at the mouth of this river would devolve upon your corps, it is proper that the supply of ordnance should be asked for on consultation with you. Therefore your name was mentioned in my first letter, and therefore I send this through you for your information and action. I am not informed, but suppose that the recent examination of the mouth of this river was made pursuant to the act of 20th of February last. It is certainly important that such fortifications should be as soon as practicable commenced, and I hope that the necessary estimates may be made out and appropriations obtained. The batteries now erected need not necessarily be temporary, but could no doubt form a part of the permanent fortifications, and could as soon as convenient be made bombproof. I wrote on the 1st of September to the Secretary of the Navy urging in the strongest terms the importance of the construction of an iron-clad vessel of the character of the Monitor for this river. As stated in the accompanying letter, an officer who recently visited Esquimault, Wash. Ter., says that the British naval authorities are landing 68-pounders to establish a battery at the mouth of Esquimault Harbor. We ought not to postpone to the actual breaking out of hostilities preparation for a time of war. The armament, too, of such remote posts should have the heaviest and best improved guns. A post on the Atlantic seaboard can easily be furnished with new ordnance, whereas in this remote region such change would be impossible or difficult. I inclose herewith a copy of a letter dated the 3d of November, 1860, to Lieut. J. Dixon, of Topographical Engineers, giving the order of Col. George Wright, then commanding the Department of Oregon, to that officer to procure information concerning the military reservations at Cape Disappointment near Point Adams. The replies and the report of that officer are not here, but you will find them on file at the headquarters in San Francisco. I send this copy to you, as it is possible you have not been furnished with the information thus obtained. Please be good enough to show this letter to Lieut. G. H. Elliot, of Engineers.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* See next, ante.

{p.142}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 30, 1862.

Maj. J. S. RINEARSON, First Oregon Cavalry, Comdg. Camp Lapwai, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: Rumors have reached these headquarters that white men, lost alike to a sense of duty and humanity, are mixing among the Indians in your locality, instilling into their minds a disregard for the peace of the frontiers, and under a pretext that the Government is powerless to protect or punish, to incite them to revolt, and with it all the horrors of rapine and murder. The general commanding directs that you arrest and hold subject to his disposition any person or persons caught in the act (or when reliable information is furnished you of such fact) of inciting, advising, or in any way encouraging disaffection and revolt among the Indians. While you are expected to use these instructions with discretion, you are nevertheless to act with promptitude and vigor, and not to hesitate, if necessary, to use the force at your command for the purpose above set forth. Similar instructions have been furnished to Col. J. Steinberger, commanding at Fort Walla Walla.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 1, 1862.

Col. GEORGE W. BOWIE, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Southern California, Fort Yuma, Cal.:

SIR: The course pursued by you with reference to the movement of troops from Fort Yuma is approved by the general commanding. The general directs that you will heave two companies at Fort Yuma, the captain of one, to be a reliable man, as commanding officer of the post. With the other two and your headquarters you will move to New San Pedro, bringing Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbins to the latter place. Should Colonel Dobbins tender his resignation you will forward the same, granting him leave of absence; otherwise the general will consider the propriety of discharging him from the service.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant. General.

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TUCSON, ARIZ. TER., October 1, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that by virtue of General Orders, No. 20, headquarters District of Arizona, Las Cruces, N. Mex., September 5, 1862, 1 was relieved in command of the District of Western Arizona and of the post and town of Tucson on the 27th ultimo by Maj. Theo. A. Coult, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, and on the 29th ultimo was relieved as chief commissary of the Column from California by Capt. N. S. Davis, First Infantry California Volunteers, and by the same order directed to proceed to La Libertad and examine the intermediate country with a view to the transportation of supplies, ascertain the resources of the country on the route, and also the availability of Lobos Bay as a port where military supplies destined for Arizona {p.143} maybe landed; then to repair in person to the headquarters of the District of Arizona, and make a report of my examination of the port of Lobos route to the general commanding the Column from California, and as soon thereafter as practicable to assume command of my regiment, the First Cavalry California Volunteers. I would remark that there is a confusion in regard to Lobos Bay and Libertad. They are entirely distinct and separate places, as I understand. As soon as Major Coult, commanding, shall be able to give me an escort I shall start on this duty. I can find no odometer here, and no ambulance or spring wagon has been left to carry instruments. Thus my reconnaissance will be one such as I will dislike to make. I am detailed to General Carleton as a member of a military commission to convene at this place on the 6th instant. The cavalry force at this post does not exceed nine privates for duty, and it is doubtful if the new commander of Arizona will permit the detachment under Lieutenant Wardwell, which left here on the 9th ultimo, to return.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Fort Ruby, October 1, 1862.

[Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:]

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that in consequence of the non-arrival of supplies I have been unable to advance from this post to my destination. Some supplies have arrived, sufficient to warrant me to leave to-morrow. I would respectfully ask for instructions as to the kind of quarters I am to erect, whether temporary cantonments, or to erect with a view to permanency. Captain Rowe desires to withdraw his resignation. He presented it under excitement on account of Captain McLean’s ranking him. I approved it, as I have made it a rule to so do under all circumstances. The captain has proven himself an efficient and intelligent officer since joining my command, although I do not approve of his course at Fort Churchill last winter. As a military necessity I would respectfully recommend that the order accepting his resignation be rescinded, as the two companies of cavalry now with me are commanded by second lieutenants of little experience. Captain Price is on sick leave, and Captains Smith and McLean have gone with Major McGarry. The inclosed letter of instructions explains itself. Captain Smith’s company left day before yesterday for Gravelly Ford, with instructions to scour the country in that vicinity well before joining the major. Inclosed I have the honor to forward a regimental order made by Major McGarry, changing his adjutant. Since my arrival at this post I have had sufficient timber cut and hauled to erect winter quarters, store-house, &c., for the command to remain here, viz, Companies C and F, of my regiment. The labor has all been done and several buildings partly erected by a few extra-duty men, the police, and teams of the command. It is necessary and important that I should have money to pay for such supplies as I am compelled to purchase of the Mormons, viz, forage, beef, &c. Otherwise Brigham may seize the want of it as a pretext to prevent his people from supplying me. The people of Utah are under the impression that I am to winter at Fort Crittenden, and I am credibly informed by letter this morning that the flag-staff at Fort Crittenden was cut down since my visit and hauled away by Brigham’s order. The staff belonged to the reservation, and {p.144} was not sold by the Government at the time of the sale of the other property. Inclosed I have the honor to transmit a communication from Captain Rowe, and charges against Private Cox, of Company M, Second Cavalry. I have now in confinement three general prisoners, and would respectfully ask that a general court-martial be convened at as early a day as practicable. A reply to the application of Captain Rowe by telegraph is respectfully requested.

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

[Inclosure.*]

* The other inclosures are omitted as unimportant.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Fort Ruby, September 29, 1862.

Maj. EDWARD MCGARRY, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Fort Ruby:

MAJOR: You will proceed hence to-morrow morning with Company H, of your regiment, to the confluence of the South Fork with the main Humboldt River, and there await until joined by Captain Smith’s company (K), of your regiment. On the route thence you will examine every valley or place where you have reason to believe guerrillas or hostile Indians are congregated, whom you will capture; but if they resist you will destroy them. In no instance will you molest women or children. If on the route to Humboldt friendly Indians deliver to you Indians who were concerned in the late murder of emigrants, you will (being satisfied of their guilt) immediately hang them, and leave their bodies thus exposed as an example of what evil-doers may expect while I command in this district. When you are joined by Captain Smith’s company you will proceed by the northern overland route via City of Rocks to a point about ten miles north of Salt Lake City, where you will leave your command and report to me in person if I am in the vicinity of the city. If not, await further orders at the point designated. On the route from South Fork of Humboldt to Bear River you will spare no pains to discover the whereabouts of a band of traitors or guerrillas reported to be encamped in the vicinity of Humboldt, and who are believed to be the instigators, if not the participants, in the late Indian murders. If you should discover such a band you will take them prisoners and convey them to headquarters near Salt Lake, but if they should resist you will destroy them without mercy. You will also destroy every male Indian whom you may encounter in the vicinity of the late massacres. This course may seem harsh and severe, but I desire that the order may be rigidly enforced, as I am satisfied that in the end it will prove the most merciful.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, October 2, 1862.

Brig. Gen. G. WRIGHT, U. S. Volunteers, San Francisco, Cal.:

Assignments to brevet rank as in case of Major Lugenbeel are not now sanctioned. Your action in case of Mullan’s escort is approved.

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

{p.145}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., October 2, 1862.

Lieut. W. A. THOMPSON, First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., District of Arizona, Mesilla, Ariz. Ter.:

LIEUTENANT: I have to report that in obedience to General Orders, No. 20, from headquarters of the District of Arizona, I relieved Maj. D. Fergusson, in command of the District of Western Arizona, on the 27th ultimo. Assuming the command near the end of the quarter, I have not yet had time to make myself thoroughly acquainted with the condition of affairs within the district, but there are some things that have already come under my cognizance, concerning which I desire full information and instruction. First, in regard to the force at present stationed within the district. I consider it inadequate for the duties required under General Orders, No. 11, headquarters of the Column from California. The return will exhibit the fact that there are but little over 200 men in the whole district for duty. These men have to perform garrison duty at this post, at San Pedro Crossing, and at Cerro Colorado, besides furnishing escorts to every party which it is necessary to send two miles from town. In this connection, within the past two months rich mines have been discovered at Fresnal, and reliable information has been received that there is now a foreign mining population of at least 500 persons at that place. I deem it highly important that at least one company of infantry and a detachment of cavalry should be stationed there to preserve order. Major Fergusson appointed a local judge for that place, but among the class of persons who usually congregate at those localities it will be impossible for him to administer justice without sufficient power to enforce his authority. I would also respectfully suggest to the colonel commanding the District of Arizona the propriety of assessing and collecting a foreign miners’ tax at the Fresnal mines. I also respectfully call the attention of the colonel commanding to the small force of cavalry stationed here, There are now but eighteen men of Company E, First Cavalry, not sufficient to furnish the necessary escort to Major Fergusson on his expedition to La Libertad. After Major Fergusson’s departure there will be none to do express duty and other duties highly essential which pertain to the proper administration of the affairs of the district. Secondly, I desire that I may be fully informed concerning the prisoners who were sent from this place to Fort Yuma, and the disposition which was made of their property, with the necessary instructions in the premises. Many of them have returned to Tucson, released by order of General Wright, commanding Department of the Pacific, and persistently urge claims for property which they allege was taken from them when arrested. There are no records here throwing any light upon the subject; not a paper relating to the proceedings of military commissions or showing what property was taken from them at the time of their arrest, or what disposition was subsequently made of it. The urging of the claims of these men is very annoying to the commanding officer here, and he can only acknowledge his ignorance of the transactions and refer them to those in authority at the time. I respectfully request, therefore, if I am expected to take any action in these matters (and I would suggest that some action is necessary to preserve inviolate the credit for honor and integrity of the Government), that the information asked for may be furnished. Thirdly, in relation to the post at Apache Pass, Fort Bowie. In consequence of {p.146} its proximity to the headquarters of this district and its distance from and the difficulty of communication with the headquarters of the District of Arizona, I respectfully suggest that it be included within the limits of this district. My principal object in making this suggestion is that the garrison may be changed at stated periods, if it is the intention of the colonel commanding to maintain a garrison there during the coming winter. I would respectfully recommend, if it is the intention for the troops on the Rio Grande to draw their supplies from Santa Fé, and there will in consequence be no supply trains passing over the road between here and Mesilla, that the garrison be withdrawn during the winter months. The locality is decidedly unhealthy, and I am informed by reliable persons that during the winter season the snow falls there from three to five feet in depth. During the period of my stay at Fort Bowie I do not think a single man escaped having an attack of fever, and some came very near dying. The garrison there have no protection save tents, and there are no stoves here to send them. The place can be dismantled, and, if necessary, reoccupied in the spring. If, however, it is the intention of the colonel commanding to maintain a force there during the winter, I think it proper that other troops should take their turn at that outpost duty. I have to report that a small supply of medicines, ordered for Fort Barrett, arrived at this post yesterday, and as the hospital here and at Fort Bowie were utterly destitute of medicines of all kinds, I stopped this supply for use at these posts. Captain Davis, with the officers and men now here and at Fort Bowie, belonging to companies on the Rio Grande, with a small train of wagons, will start for Mesilla about the 10th of this month.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 2, 1862.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have to-day received the Special Orders, No. 168, of the 23d ultimo, from department headquarters, ordering Captain Crowninshield’s company of Fourth California Volunteer Infantry to San Francisco. I desire again respectfully to request, as I did on the 19th of July, that the general commanding will not direct that any more companies of California volunteers be removed from this district. There are now but sixteen companies in it. Two companies of the Fourth California Volunteers remain, viz, Captain Fitch’s, at Fort Dalles, and Captain Scott’s, at Fort Yamhill. If anything in the internal condition or demoralization of Company E, at Fort Steilacoom, renders its removal advisable, I desire to say that I know of nothing of the kind in reference to the other two companies. The frontiers of this district are nearly as extensive as California, with a much smaller population; therefore it would not be out of place for California volunteers to remain in Oregon. On the 17th ultimo, as shown in my Special Orders, No. 67, of that date, forwarded to you, the organization of Capt. W. Y. Spencer’s company (F), First Washington Territory Volunteer Infantry, was completed and it was mustered into the service. But little progress (twenty-seven recruits last date) is made with the company attempted {p.147} to be raised at Olympia, and the last tri-monthly report from Fort Walla Walla does not report any raised there, as it was proposed.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

P. S.-In a few days I shall send a detailed report on Indian affairs, showing that on account of the occupation by the whites of that country the establishment of a post near Fort Boisé next spring will be desirable.

B. A.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 175.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 3, 1862.

I. Capt. William M. Dowling’s company, Washington Territory Volunteers, will proceed on the next steamer to Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., whence it or some other company of the same regiment will be sent to Fort Dalles to relieve the company of the Fourth Infantry California Volunteers. When relieved the latter will be sent by the district commander by first opportunity to Benicia, Cal. The quartermaster’s and commissary departments will provide the necessary transportation and subsistence.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., October 3, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, Commanding District of Arizona, Mesilla:

COLONEL: I have received your letter of the 24th ultimo.* The anomaly of the column and of the district will have to be tolerated until the matter is decided in relation to the absorbing of the column into the force of this department. If the duties cannot be done without too much embarrassment we must see what will remedy the matter. The orders in relation to affairs in Arizona which you say you lack to enable you to attend to the current business have never been issued; that is to say, the troops were left at Tucson and at Fort Bowie to attend-to all matters needful to the service, without having specific instructions on all points. I propose to keep a train running from Tucson to Fort Yuma and back that supplies may accumulate at Tucson for future contingencies. A six months’ supply drawn from Tucson should be kept at Apache Pass (Fort Bowie). The garrison at Tucson should be two companies of infantry and one of cavalry. This will enable one company of infantry and one of cavalry to take the field against Indians, to furnish necessary escorts, &c., while a company of infantry guards the depot of supplies. The troops at Fort Bowie are to fight the Apache Indians in that vicinity whenever found, and are to help people, by escorts, through the pass whenever necessary. (See the orders establishing that post.) No flour or other subsistence stores are to be purchased in any part of your district if they can be {p.148} furnished from the depots at Fort Yuma or Fort Craig. You are at liberty to order the men of Capt. Joseph Smith’s company from Fort Bowie to Mesilla. Mangus Colorado sends me word he wants peace, but I have no faith in him; nor have I faith in the belief that the Indians have permanently left the Apache Pass. The garrison there should now be on its guard, as there are no signs of Indians about. Give instructions that all specie funds which Captain Morris may have brought to Tucson will be sent to the Rio Grande, where these funds will not be expended until further advices from these headquarters. It may be necessary for Lieutenant Coleman to be sent to the Pima Villages to clear up any difficulty about the tickets he gave the Indians for wheat. (See Major Fergusson’s letter on this subject, dated September 10, 1862, herewith inclosed.**) I desire that you furnish these headquarters with copies of all letters, orders, and instructions of any importance which you may issue. Order Lieutenant Bennett, Second Cavalry, to join his company. Captain Davis must come forward at once. When he arrives at Mesilla order him to report to me, bringing with him such papers as may be necessary to a full understanding of all his means of transportation. It will be better for him to bring with him all his papers and all the funds for which he may be responsible which he has on hand in either the quartermaster’s or subsistence department.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

** Page 109.

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FORT CHURCHILL, NEV. TER., October 3, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: I had a talk with Governor Nye several days ago. He was very positive that the secessionists are moving in this Territory, and thought there was a band of guerrillas out near Ruby Valley, &c. His information was gained from a man at Gold Hill who is a secessionist and very rich, but being afraid of having his property confiscated, the Governor says, is giving him information which I think is all gammon. Probably one-third of the population of this Territory are secession sympathizers. None have as yet refused to take the oath of allegiance. There is considerable excitement at Carson, Gold Hill, and Virginia Cities about reported secession movements. I think it is helped along from the fact that there are a number of persons whose interest it would be to have a large number of troops at these places, and also those who sympathize with the rebels are always starting and helping along reports. There were a number of rebel bummers at these places without any visible means of support, who have gone off somewhere, probably some had means given them to go east. One party of secessionists of fifteen persons going east were attacked by the Indians on the Humboldt, and all but one supposed to be killed. I do hot think from the information I could gain from the emigrants who came that route that secessionists have anything to do with the Indian difficulties there. There are Mormons keeping ferries in the neighborhood of the Indian troubles who sell ammunition and arms to them, and if there are any trains worth robbing the Indians are sure to be informed of it by these scoundrels, and probably a few white men who are rebels to all governments. The Indians have good arms, and {p.149} on the approach of the troops retreat into the mountains, where they are inaccessible to an immediate attack. They ought to be completely wiped out, which could only be done by establishing a post there well provisioned and clothed and armed in the winter time. The winters are very cold, but it is the best time to hunt them.

Very respectfully, yours,

A. BROWN.

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OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Olympia, Wash. Ter., October 3, 1862.

General B. ALVORD, Commandant of Oregon Mil. Dist., Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that on my return home at the first of the present week I immediately advised the Commissioner of your having issued more explicit orders to the officers in command east of the mountains to prevent trespass on the lands of the Indians and to suppress the traffic in liquor. I find much uneasiness and dissatisfaction among the Nez Percé Indians, which is spreading amongst the adjoining tribes, and am well satisfied that there is good reason to fear a serious outbreak there before the winter sets in unless great watchfulness and care shall be exercised. The removal of trespassers from their grazing and agricultural lands and the breaking up of the whisky shops scattered through the reservation, if done thoroughly, judiciously, and speedily, will have much to do with allaying the excitement and restoring the confidence of the Indians. I have therefore respectfully to ask that you will not at present diminish the force now placed there or permit them to relax any of their efforts to secure the faithful observance of treaty stipulations until I can see you again, as it is my purpose to return to that region in the course of a week or two that I may satisfy myself more fully as to the indications. I trust also that you will instruct Major Rumrill, at Fort Colville, to use every means in his power to secure the faithful observance of the amendment of last session to the intercourse act, as it refers particularly to the introduction or attempting to introduce spirituous liquors, &c., into an Indian country. The whole of that upper region comes under that denomination, and the introduction of ardent spirits for the purpose of traffic in any shape is expressly forbidden, and the provisions of the law for its exclusion should be enforced to the very letter where parties are knowingly and willfully persisting in these violations.

Very respectfully, yours,

C. H. HALE, Superintendent of Indian Affairs Washington Territory.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 4, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I am still without late advices from Brigadier-General Carleton. I have received dispatches from Maj. D. Fergusson, First Cavalry, commanding in Arizona, dated at Tucson, 18th of September. He had heard nothing from General Carleton since the 4th of August. General Carleton’s force is deemed ample, in co-operation with that previously in New Mexico, to hold securely that country; or even, should it {p.150} be deemed advisable, to advance into Texas and create a diversion in our favor, should it be the design of Government to re-establish our authority in that State at once, by landing a force on its southern borders. I learn (unofficially) that Brigadier-General Canby has been withdrawn from New Mexico; if so, I presume that General Carleton is now in command of all the troops in that country. Colonel Connor, Third Infantry, having established a post at Ruby Valley, is now on his march to Salt Lake, and on his arrival there will establish himself near the city, as I have already advised you. Affairs in the District of Oregon, under the management of Brigadier-General Alvord, are quiet. In the District of Humboldt the Indian difficulties still continue. However, nearly 1,000 Indians have been captured or induced to surrender to the military authorities and have been transferred to the reservations. Arrangements have been made to so dispose of the troops as to afford the greatest possible security to the settlements. I am happy to say that quiet prevails generally throughout the department; yet we must not disguise the fact that there is a large element of opposition on this coast, and that it is only by watchfulness, prudence, and prompt action in case of emergency that we can expect to preserve the peace. I telegraphed to you a few days since asking that 20,000 stand of small-arms and equipments might be sent here by the first steamer. I hope they will be sent; occasion might arise rendering it necessary to use them. I would most respectfully request that authority be given for raising another volunteer regiment of infantry in California for service here, as I do not think it would be prudent to send beyond the limits of the department any more troops raised on this coast. I have deemed it proper to prohibit the transmission through the United States mails and post-offices, and express, of several newspapers published in California and Oregon. They were violent in their denunciations of the Administration, of its policy, and the war, thereby discouraging enlistments in the army. You can rest assured that I shall take no measures to disturb the quiet of this country unnecessarily; but if it becomes necessary to strike, I shall be prepared to do so effectively.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., October 4, 1862.

Maj. Gen. HENRY W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States, Washington, D. C.:

MY DEAR GENERAL: Some time when you have more leisure than you have now, you may feel an interest to know how the California troops got through the desert, what they accomplished, &c. It is a meager, bloodless record, yet it is one of much hard work, of many privations, and as the times go, of but little credit, except to the officers and men who did the labor. The last part of the accompanying report to General Wright will call your attention to the claims of Colonel West and First Lieuts. John B. Shinn and Franklin Harwood. Last summer I wrote to General Wright a letter, marked A, setting forth my wishes to have gentlemen on my personal staff promoted, i.e., Surg. James M. McNulty, whom you know; First Lieut. Benjamin C. Cutler (nephew to Judge McAllister), my adjutant, and First Lieut. {p.151} Lafayette Hammond, my regimental quartermaster. No notice has been taken of my application. I beg, as a slight reward for very hard work in the public service, that First Lieut. Benjamin C. Cutler, First Infantry California Volunteers, be appointed an assistant adjutant-general of volunteers, to rank as major. He is now assistant adjutant-general of this department. That Surg. James M. McNulty may be appointed a surgeon of volunteers. He is now medical inspector of the Department of New Mexico. That Lafayette Hammond be appointed an assistant quartermaster of volunteers, with the rank of captain. He is now captain of infantry. If this communication should be sent to the Adjutant-General it would be put in a pigeonhole. As it is only to obtain the just dues of some of your old California soldiers, pray overlook the impropriety of my writing direct to you about them. I ask nothing for myself.

I am, general, very respectfully and truly, yours,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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TUCSON, ARIZ. TER., October 4, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: As considerable difference of opinion has existed, and does exist, in regard to the number of rebel troops that occupied this Territory since the commencement of the insurrection, I have taken considerable pains to set the matter at rest, and have the honor to transmit herewith affidavits made by reliable residents of this place on this subject. A few days ago a person named Ferguson passed through here en route to Camp Wright, from Mesilla. He stated to Major Coult, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, that he resided in Mesilla from March, 1861, until last month, and the number of the Confederate troops in Mesilla never exceeded 270; that they belonged to Baylor’s regiment, and that this was the force to whom Major Lynde surrendered 700 men in New Mexico. The command of Hunter at Tucson, and Baylor at Mesilla, comprised all the enemy’s force in this Territory, viz, 375 men. A few of the miners at Pino Alto, for the purpose of self-protection against the Apaches, organized themselves into a company, and in order to obtain arms, ammunition, &c., from Colonel Baylor, they took the oath of allegiance to the Confederate Government, but in nowise formed part of its forces or took any part in its service. Mr. Ferguson, above referred to, is a brother of Mrs. Cable, at Oak Grove, San Diego County, and is now on his way there, where his affidavit can be taken if necessary. The statements of Stevens, Aldrich, and Gay are abundantly corroborated by the evidence of almost every person residing in Tucson during its occupation by the rebels.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

P. S.-I have opened this to inclose copy of a scrap of a letter found amongst the records of Tucson (Post) from Colonel Baylor, which substantiates the statements in regard to the force of rebels in this Territory.

D. F.

TUCSON, October 5, 1862.

Hiram Stevens, at present a resident of Tucson, Ariz. Ter., being duly sworn, deposes and says that he accompanied a detachment of C. S. troops from Mesilla {p.152} to Tucson; that the said troops left Mesilla in January and arrived at Tucson in February, 1862; that the said detachment was composed of Captain Hunter’s company and Lieutenant-Colonel Reily’s escort; that the whole number of the said detachment, including employés, did not exceed 105 men; that the means of transportation consisted of three wagons; that they had no artillery; that the men were all mounted and well armed; that the said detachment was the only Confederate forces that occupied Tucson, or any part of the Territory of Arizona west of the Pinos Altos Mines; that the escort of Colonel Reily consisted of thirty men; that the colonel returned to the Rio Grande with his escort in March, 1862, and that Hunter’s company after that time was not re-enforced, and that its numbers did not exceed seventy-five men from that time until it left the town of Tucson in May, 1862, for the Rio Grande; that his company was not drilled nor disciplined during its stay in Tucson so far as he (Stevens) knows, and he had every means of knowing, being a resident of Tucson during the time the said company occupied it; that the horses of the said company were kept in the corral of the Overland Mail Company; and that the men of the said Hunter’s company slept each where he liked, in any part of town he chose, as a general thing, while the said company occupied Tucson.

H. S. STEVENS.

Sworn and subscribed to before me this 3d day of October, 1862, at Tucson, Ariz. Ter.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

Mark Aldrich and M. G. Gay, of Tucson, Ariz. Ter being duly sworn, depose and say that they are acquainted with Hiram Stevens, who made the foregoing affidavit, and that they were residents of Tucson during its occupation by the troops of the Confederate States between the months of February and May, 1862; that the statements made by the said Hiram Stevens in regard to the numbers, discipline, &c., of the said Confederate troops are correct and true to the best of their knowledge and belief.

M. ALDRICH. M. G. GAY.

Sworn and subscribed to before me this 3d day of October, A. D. 1862, at Tucson, Ariz. Ter.

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

[Inclosure.]

DEAR THEODORE: I write this letter in hopes that it may reach you by some good luck. I am, as you may know, in command of this Territory as civil and military governor, having come up in July last with 375 men-thrashed and took prisoners all the troops at Fort Fillmore, 700 in number, and have held the country until the arrival of General Sibley with 4,000 Texans, who are now en route for Fort Craig, where Colonel Canby is, with 1,200 regulars and 2,800 greasers, all of whom will get used up in no time when the fight comes off. [I take] it for granted that you are with us. So far Mr. Lincoln is not making much headway in suppressing the rebellion. He has got himself thrashed in every fight from Manassas to Mesilla, and to-day we dare them to attack us at any point. I have only to say that I would be glad to see [you] with us, and the way is open. Sister is with me at Galveston [sic] who is Captain Wharton now and quartermaster. She wrote to you, but I have had no chance to send the letter. She was well by last letter from San Antonio. Our family are all in the rebellion. I am [sic] and when the Union is restored by force of arms it will be when there is not a battalion of Southern men left to fight. I rely on your coming to me, for I can now aid you and give you a position; so come and bring with you in your own way all who want to fight for Dixie’s Land.

Yours,

JNO. R. BAYLOR.

{p.153}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 4, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: By your letter of instructions of the 11th of July quarters at Fort Walla Walla for four companies of Oregon cavalry and two companies of infantry were directed to be placed in readiness. There are five companies of Oregon cavalry in that vicinity. Unless I receive orders from your office to the contrary I propose to order one of those companies after they reach Fort Walla Walla on the 1st of November to take post at Fort Dalles. Preparations for it have been made at that post. I shall probably order Major Rinearson, of First Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, to command at that post, the company under his command at Camp Lapwai, near Lewiston, accompanying him thither. The Nez Percé Indians near his camp are very restive under the occupation of their reservation by the whites. There are many dissatisfied spirits among them, under Eagle of the Light. Congress having appropriated $40,000 to enable the Indian Department to extinguish the Indian title to a portion or to the whole of the reservation, the hope is entertained that some satisfactory arrangement may eventually be made with that tribe. Major Rinearson appears to have made strenuous efforts, but with little success, to break up the sale of liquor to the Indians. The chiefs have a very creditable desire to prevent the traffic.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Crook, October 6, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco:

COLONEL: I arrived at the post with my command to-day by the way of Big Meadows. On my arrival at that place I received information that the party who went in pursuit of the Indians who committed the depredation in Mountain Meadows had returned, having trailed the Indians to the vicinity of Eagle Lake and killing 2 and taking 2 prisoners. Came down the Lawson trail to the Honey Lake emigrant road. Met several trains, the members of which reported no trouble since leaving Humboldt. I left two non-commissioned officers and six men to patrol the road between Honey Lake and Hot Creek Station, as the only difficulty to be apprehended in that neighborhood would be of those Indians stampeding the cattle of small parties, and that force would, I think, be sufficient for that duty. It having been reported that a band of Indians had assembled on Cañon Creek, some thirty miles to the southeast, I sent a scout in that direction, whom I expect to return in three days, when, if necessary, I shall proceed in that direction. During my absence one Bailey, from Oregon, whose brother was killed in Big Valley last year, came here to get his remains, and while in the valley killed three squaws, which may result in giving me some trouble. The Indian guide, Pugh, has several trusty natives under his control, and employs them in hunting the hiding places of the neighboring tribes, and through them I shall endeavor to keep myself posted as to their movements. The trouble reported at Mountain Meadows amounted to killing one man by a party of Eagle Lake Indians, the pursuit of whom was {p.154} ended on my arrival in the vicinity. My provisions being exhausted, I was obliged to return, but shall again go out on receiving the necessary information.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY B. MELLEN, Captain, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 6, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Herewith I have the honor to forward a copy of a dispatch of the 22d ultimo from Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, commanding the expedition upon the emigrant road.* He was encamped on Bruneau River, about forty miles from Salmon Falls. You will perceive that he proposes to start on the 28th ultimo on his return. So far as I can learn, the emigrants who kept the old road south of Snake River have had little trouble from Indians. Those who crossed Snake River above Fort Hall and kept north of that river, trying to get to the Salmon River mines, have been in some instances attacked by the Snakes, who have also attacked travelers east of Fort Hall. Colonel Maury and Captain Crawford, commanding the expedition of seventy-five men enrolled in Nebraska Territory, have naturally kept the old emigrant road. You will notice that Colonel Maury reports an emigration this autumn of about 1,300 wagons with 8,000 people.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJAMIN ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* See Part I, p. 167.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 6, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: The department commander desires you to reduce the garrison of Fort Gaston by one company, believing the remaining force (two companies) sufficient for the protection of that point. While affording the greatest possible protection to the various settlements, you will have the least number of posts practicable for permanent locations. All small detachments should be withdrawn and the troops concentrated at the points suitable to commence a vigorous winter campaign.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Salem, Oreg., October 7, 1862.

General B. ALVORD:

DEAR SIR: The Legislature has under consideration a militia law; and there is a question under our constitution as to what officers are {p.155} to be appointed by the Governor and which are elective. The question arises as to which are “the chief officers of the general staff” and which are “officers of the line.” Herewith I send you a copy of our constitution * and call your attention to sections 3 and 4, article 10. Who are “officers of the line?” Where is the distinction between “line” and “staff?” There is a difference of opinion here. If our constitution means anything I presume you are perfectly familiar with the rule that should govern, and you will place me under renewed obligations by giving me information upon these points at your earliest convenience. Any general suggestions you may be pleased to make on the organization of the militia will be gratefully received. Doctor McBride has just returned from the Powder River mines, and he told me this morning that in his opinion, there will be trouble with the Indians in that vicinity; that the Indians had informed the miners that they might dig gold, but must not take their lands.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ADDISON C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon.

* Not found as an inclosure.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 7, 1862.

Maj. J. S. RINEARSON, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, or COMMANDING OFFICER, Camp Lapwai, near Lewiston, Idaho Ter.:

SIR: You are hereby directed not to move with your command to Fort Walla Walla until you receive further orders from these headquarters. I expect to leave in a few days for Fort Walla Walla and Lewiston, probably in company with the two superintendents of Indian affairs.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 55.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, October 7, 1862.

I. In obedience to Department Special Orders, No. 173, Light Company A, Third Artillery, and Company C, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will be held in readiness to march for Fort Craig by the commander of Camp Johnson under such instructions as will be communicated to him. In case any men of these companies shall be unable from sickness to travel, their descriptive rolls will be left in the proper hands.

II. Company D, First Cavalry California Volunteers, upon the return of the detachment now on a mission into Texas under Lieutenant French, will report at its regimental headquarters. The detachment of Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, now stationed near San Elizario, Tex., will remain there, or at such point in that vicinity as Capt. Nathaniel J. Pishon shall approve of, until further orders.

...

By order of Colonel West:

W. L. RYNERSON, Second Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.156}

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP DRUM, October 8, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that I arrived at this encampment on the 7th instant, and in obedience to the requirements of Special Orders, No. 171, Department of the Pacific, I assume command of Companies F, G, and H, Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, now stationed here.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY LEE, Lieutenant-Colonel Fourth Infantry California Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP BABBITT, Near Visalia, October 8, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that pursuant to instructions from headquarters Department of the Pacific I have this day selected a permanent camp in the neighborhood of Visalia. Said camp is situated about one mile north of the town of Visalia, and has been by me named, subject to the approval of the general commanding, Camp Babbitt, in honor of the deputy quartermaster-general of the Pacific Department, Lieut. Col. E. B. Babbitt. I have further to report, pursuant to said instructions, that flour can be purchased at $5 per 100 pounds, barley at 2 cents [per pound], hay from $20 to $25 per ton, according to quality; wood from $3 to $4 per cord, and beef at 5 cents per pound, and that all such articles can be procured from loyal citizens. All supplies other than those mentioned will have to be shipped by way of Stockton.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, October 8, 1862.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your instructions from department headquarters for the movement of Company C, First Cavalry California Volunteers, to Fort Craig, and Light Company A, Third Artillery, to Albuquerque. There have been heavy rains here for the last four days, which retarded bringing grain up from San Elizario. In all probability these companies cannot be moved for a week. The want of forage on hand here, and the neglect of advice of what is being collected below (for which Captain Roberts, First Infantry California Volunteers, has been placed under arrest), has caused me some temporary embarrassment, and until obviated will prevent the prompt execution of orders for any movement. I therefore send twenty wagons to Fort Craig for grain by permission of the general commanding. Upon its receipt no more delays need occur. Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg {p.157} informs me that the train of twenty wagons that accompanied him to Fort Craig were being loaded with subsistence stores to return to this post. He had written instructions to send them to Peralta to report to Captain Enos, assistant quartermaster. These may have been countermanded by higher authority. The inclosed order* also refers to movements of troops within the district, which are deemed judicious in consequence of the reduction of my force. After Captain Pishon’s return Lieutenant Wardwell with twenty-one men of Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will form the extreme outpost at San Elizario. Captain Willis, with Company A, First Infantry California Volunteers, will guard Franklin and Hart’s Mill, and will, in my opinion, be sufficient for that purpose. Companies A and D, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will be located at Camp Johnson, five miles below La Mesa. The garrison at Mesilla will consist of Companies B, C, D, E, H, and K, First Infantry California Volunteers. Fort Fillmore will continue to be occupied by Company A, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, until further orders. The withdrawal of the artillery from the district greatly weakens my strength. I trust the deficiency will soon be supplied by the battery which the general commanding designs sending from above. I propose to put it in charge of Lieutenant Thompson and Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers. I know of none better for the purpose. I was on the point of sending Captain Shirland with twenty men to the Pinos Altos Mines. Active operations are going on there; the Indians are troublesome, and disorder prevails among the Mexicans and Americans. Should the general commanding agree with me that one company of infantry and one of cavalry are sufficient for the garrison at Tucson, I will order Captain Whitlock with Company F, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, to take station either at Fort McLane or at the mines. This company is now at Tucson. If moved as indicated it can be used in case the Texans advance.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* See Special Orders, No. 55, October 7, p. 155.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, October 8, 1862.

Capt. WILLIAM MCCLEAVE, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg. Camp Johnson:

The inclosed order* relates to the movement of Company C, First Cavalry California Volunteers, and Company A, Third Artillery, to Fort Craig. Make up a train of twenty wagons and one water-tank to accompany them, and as soon as you have six days’ full grain forage in camp, at twelve pounds for horses and nine pounds for mules, let them take up their line of march, crossing the river below and camping the first night in the vicinity of Fort Fillmore. Send a detachment with two, or as many wagons as may be necessary to carry ten days’ rations for both companies, by way of this post, leaving your camp when they do, with the requisite provision returns half a day in advance. The remainder of the train will carry company property (except the tents, which will be sent here by the provision wagons and turned in), all the ammunition belonging to the artillery, the six days’ grain forage, and as much corn fodder as may be necessary for six days, at fourteen {p.158} pounds per animal, if practicable. Keep me advised of the probable time when these companies will move, and 1 will endeavor to have the paymaster (expected here on the 13th instant) go down and pay them off. Send the extract of same order referring to Captain Pishon’s company to Lieutenant Wardwell; also that for the latter officer. Instruct Lieutenant Wardwell to throw out a picket after Captain Pishon’s return of three men daily from three to five miles below his camp, locating them at some prominent point. Direct him to observe the utmost watchfulness, as he will then be the extreme outpost between us and the enemy. If they do approach, their first efforts will undoubtedly be to steal his horses. This must be strictly guarded against. Stimulate Lieutenant Wardwell’s precaution and zeal to prevent our being surprised.

I am, captain, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* See p. 155.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 8, 1862.

J. J. MCGILVRA, Esq., U. S. Attorney for Washington Territory, Walla Walla:

SIR: I have to acknowledge the reception of your communication of the 27th ultimo. I have not in any instructions from this office designed to interpret the laws for any other department of the Government but the military. Any interpretation which the civil officers of the Government may place upon them it is in their power to carry out. I did not deem it advisable as a practical question that the military should originate or institute proceedings in certain impracticable cases under the act of 13th of February, 1862. It is the first duty of the military to defend the frontiers. It should also, as far as it can, aid the civil authority. If you in the discharge of your duty choose to institute any proceedings under the laws, and if the marshal in obeying the mandate of the magistrate cannot get a sufficient civil posse, and calls upon the military, we are bound to assist him. This is the general rule. Any exception would grow out of extraordinary circumstances. It was reported to me by the inhabitants that the commanding officer at Fort Colville had arrested a white man in whose possession liquor was found, who was passing through the country of Spokane. It became a question whether I should authorize a conflict with the Territorial authorities who had organized a county and extended their laws over it. I knew that Judge Oliphant had held court at Colville. I said to Major Rumrill, “As we do not undertake to prevent the transit and mining of the whites, it is idle to prevent liquor being sent to or sold to them. The laws of the Territory must govern in these matters.” I meant by this, perfect submission to the laws of the land. If the laws of the Territory are in conflict with the laws of Congress or the Constitution of the United States, they are null and void, and are, in point of fact, no laws. I did not dream of putting these laws superior to the laws of Congress. I have enjoined in the strongest terms the enforcement of the laws against the sale of liquor to Indians and the destroying of liquor in the hands of those who sell to them. The act of 13th of February applies in that respect to the whole Territory, leaving no ground to raise the question of what is “Indian country.” I have notified the commander that they {p.159} had this option in stopping the sale of liquor to Indians, to make complaint either under the laws of the Territory or under the laws of Congress. My object in this was only to increase the chances of efficient action. Of course, if any competent judicial authority decides that the laws of the Territory are null and void, or cannot be enforced for want of jurisdiction upon an Indian reservation, nobody would resort for such purposes to the Territorial magistrates. It would seem reasonable that wherever the whites go in the Territory of Washington they must carry with them all the laws of the land for their own safety and protection. And this brings us to the main point at issue in this subject. We must either prevent the whites going in any way, except for mere transit, into that country, or we must suffer them to carry on the ordinary commerce of the country. The first step is the false step. The Government has an undoubted right under the treaty to prevent their settling on the Nez Percé Reservation. On the 7th of July last I was placed in command of this district, and what was then the state of things? There were 10,000 or 15,000 people, either on that reservation or beyond it, compelled to look to Lewiston for supplies. I am not informed whether any branch of the Government attempted to prevent the whites going on it. The miners commenced going on it two years ago. I know of no call upon the military being made to remove them. I have been notified by C. H. Hale, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs for Washington Territory, that Lewiston and the mining towns have been “excepted from the strict provisions of the treaty by the Indians themselves.” I have not been informed what was the exact date of said arrangement, but think it was made more than a year ago. Of course this arrangement encouraged the whites to continue to enter the country. Lewiston seems an absolute necessity as a depot of supplies to the large mining population. Florence is also on the Nez Percé Reservation. Having admitted the impossibility of keeping the miners in search of gold from that country, it seems but natural and expedient to let all the trade which follows be regulated by the laws. As commerce for all the wants of the people in the nature of things will inevitably exist, the remaining practical question is, whether it shall be wholly unregulated, or shall the laws of the Territory be permitted to control and restrain it.

You, as a law officer of the Government, should be ready to construe with tolerance all action of the military having for its purpose to leave the people in the enjoyment of the laws and of civil government. Unless the necessity is irresistible, the military should leave the whites to their own self-government. Military rule is always odious. It is for this reason I would not wish to stop the formation of counties where the whites are suffered to go. A more fearful responsibility than an Indian war might follow any other course on the part of the military authorities. As to the Colville country, the donation act was in operation up to the 1st of December, 1855, and whites were invited under it into that region. By an act of Congress of 17th of July, 1854, and by the act of 29th of May, 1858, all the provisions of this donation act were extended to the country east of the Cascade Mountains (see Brightly’s Digest, pp. 574 and 1105). By an order dated the 31st of October, 1858, issued by General Harney, then commanding the Department of Oregon, it was directed:

As it appears that citizens are prevented from locating near some of the military posts in this department, the general commanding directs that hereafter every encouragement will be given them to do so, provided no infringement is made upon either the military or Indian reservation.

{p.160}

When I came to Oregon in 1852 the Indian title had not been extinguished at Salem, the very seat of government, the Senate having refused to ratify the treaties. An attempt was made by Mr. Parrish, an Indian agent, to prevent the introduction of liquor at Salem for sale to the whites. A chief justice of Oregon Territory, then embracing Washington Territory (I think it was Judge Williams), decided that the Indian intercourse act of 1834 was not applicable there in respect to the introduction of liquor for sale to the whites. The act of 5th of June, 1850, extended the Indian intercourse law “so far as applicable” over Oregon Territory. But he argued that Congress having, by the donation act, invited the settlement of the country by the whites, that portion of the intercourse law was not applicable. It is certain that the pre-emption law does not authorize settlements where the Indian title has not been extinguished. But it is unfortunately too true that the whole early settlement of this country, both before and after the organizing of a Territorial government and the passage of the donation act, was in utter neglect of the Indian title. I lament this state of things, and know that it probably caused the former Indian wars and may cause another. I have instructed the military commanders to protect the Indians in the most efficient manner, to the extent of their power, from all aggression and violence, and from all encroachment on their grazing and agricultural lands. Our Indian relations, in their present attitude, are not according to my wishes. Far from it. They grew out of the policy of the Government in stimulating the early settlement of this country, and are also due to the gold mines and the irresistible spread of the whites in the search for gold.

I might here close, but I shall add a few words as to my personal history. In the spring of 1853, then captain Fourth Infantry and brevet major in command at Fort Dalles, I declared the country east of the Cascade Mountains not open for settlement. I sought repeatedly from the Government, in the most earnest manner, a decision as to whether that was not the Indian country under the act of 1834. That act says that the President shall, when he thinks proper, order the execution of said act. I never got any decision from Washington. I was not sustained. The only effect of my movement was the passage of the act of 17th of July, 1854, extending all of the land laws east of the Cascade Mountains. Major Lugenbeel says he repeatedly sought from higher authority and from Washington a decision as to whether the country around Fort Colville, where he then commanded, was the Indian country, but he never received any reply. My instructions to Major Rinearson, commanding at Camp Lapwai, have received the approval of my immediate commander, General George Wright, at San Francisco, commanding the Department of the Pacific. I shall most cheerfully obey any orders on this subject which I may receive from higher authority. I desire to add, also, that I have felt a strong personal interest in the Nez Percé Indians. From their evidences of dawning civilization and their past unwavering attachment to our people and adhesion to our Government amidst every temptation, they have merited not only justice, but the kindest and most generous treatment at our hands It is melancholy to reflect that the march of events should have caused them to have received such rough usage, and to be placed in a position so trying to their loyalty. I hope they will look favorably upon the receipt offer of Congress to purchase a portion or the whole of the reservation.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

{p.161}

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OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, October 9, 1862.

Brig. Gen. G. WRIGHT:

SIR: I am just in receipt of two letters from the supervisor of the Indian reservation at Round Valley, and two letters from other persons corroborating his statements, informing me that some of the settlers in that valley have in a clandestine manner from time to time during the growing season opened the fences on the Indian farms and turned in their cattle, hogs, and horses, until the entire crop of corn (over 100 acres) and nearly all the wheat, oats, and barley have been destroyed except about 500 bushels, whereas there should have been more than that many thousand in the aggregate. He informs me also that the settlers told the Indians that they had not provisions now to last them through the winter, so that they must steal or starve, and if any of their stock was missing they would kill every Indian; thus alarmed, they induced two entire tribes to leave, the Con Cows and Hat Creeks, and went with them part of the way. The supervisor had no troops to assist him, and consequently was compelled to submit, and he now expects every day they will drive away the remainder of the Indians. The settlers now propose furnishing me with supplies for the winter if our Congressmen will guarantee them assurances of payment for them and also for their land claims in the valley, so that they may remove and give up the entire valley for a reservation. Whether they have destroyed our crops in order to sell us their own surplus the facts and circumstances can only determine. I shall endeavor to get either Mr. Phelps or Sargent to visit the valley and see for themselves what is actually needed, that when in Congress they may govern themselves accordingly.

My policy heretofore recommended to the Indian Commissioner I have again urged in my last report, viz, to abandon and sell the lands of Nome Lackee and Mendocino Reservations, which are entirely unsuited to the Indian service, and enlarge Round Valley Reserve so as to include all the forks of the Eel River, thereby giving the Indians an extent of mountain territory of twenty-five by thirty miles for hunting and fishing purposes, and pay the white settlers for every legitimate land claim they have in the valley, removing them entirely beyond the line of the reservation. The mountain district included in the enlargement is entirely unsuited to white settlers’ use and will give general satisfaction to the Indians. This enlargement would be locating the reservation in the northeast corner of Mendocino County and adjoining Tehama, where the Indians would be protected against the trespasses of white settlers hereafter by interminable mountain barriers, and upon this reservation could be collected and subsisted all the interior Indians of the northern district. The same can be said of Smith’s River Valley for the use of every coast Indian. Ranges of mountains on its north and east which can never be settled by white men, only suited for Indian hunting grounds, constitute a barrier for the protection and safety of both races, with the Pacific Ocean on the west and south affording an entrance at Crescent City. The troops under Major Curtis, at Camp Lincoln, stationed midway between the settlements of whites and Indians.

The settlers’ farms of this valley have also to be paid for, and the money arising from the sale of Mendocino and Nome Lackee Reservations will nearly or quite refund the money thus expended, and one-half the expenses of keeping up these reservations thereby reduced. It has {p.162} been suggested to me by the Members of Congress, as well as other officers of Government, both civil and military, if you would write to the Secretary of the Interior, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, stating “that you have been made fully acquainted with the policy of the superintendent of Indian affairs in the northern district in securing Smith’s River Valley for the coast and Round Valley for the interior Indians, and that you fully indorse it good,” as set forth in my last reports, it would accomplish much in securing the object desired.

I have the honor to be, very truly, your obedient servant,

GEO. M. HANSON, Superintending Agent Indian Affairs, Northern Dist. of California.

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CAMP LINCOLN, CAL., October .9, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform the general commanding that a large number of the Humboldt County Indians, recently placed upon Smith’s River Valley Reservation, have escaped. The number approximates 400, including all the worst men. So soon as I could learn the direction they had taken, Capt. M. O’Brien, Second Infantry California Volunteers, was dispatched in pursuit and returned to camp without success. Information has since been received that they rafted themselves across the Klamath, proceeding south. Indians inclined to leave Smith’s River Reservation can do so at any time, favored by the forest of redwoods by which it is surrounded and by the topography of the country.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES F. CURTIS, Major Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Camp.

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OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, October 10, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT:

SIR: Inclosed please find copies of letters from my supervisor at Round Valley Indian Reservation; also one written, I suppose, by Col. T. J. Henley, who was one of my predecessors, and who has sons owning farms in the valley. The letter had no signature, which, I think, was simply an omission. In an interview with our Congressman, T. G. Phelps, last evening, he expressed himself thus: “See General Wright; inform him about the annoyances, the Indians that have been killed by the white people in the valley from time to time, the destruction of the Indian crops, their driving away the Indians, and threats to kill the rest of them if they don’t leave, &c., and ask him to declare martial law in all the valley, for the whole is now an Indian military reservation.” Colonel Henley informed me that before he surveyed the whole valley into a reservation and gave notice that it should not be settled on any further, more than half the settlers that are now in the valley were in it then. The truth is, there are not five good Union men in the valley, except my employés, as the several elections show.

Mr. Phelps thinks “that when you see the necessity for such a course you will order sufficient troops to at once remove every man from the {p.163} valley and then take possession of the same, and let them present their claims to Government for the damages sustained, and the Government will pay all loyal men for any such losses.” If ever a case of military necessity of the kind existed this is one, and I make the above suggestion to you at the instance of Mr. Phelps. Should all the Indians be driven off, as I fear they will, a war of extermination will inevitably be the result, and it would be too humiliating on the part of the Government to be thus coerced into purchasing farms and provisions (which have been nearly all made by Indian labor) after they have thus killed our Indians and destroyed our crops. I would be pleased to hear from you on this subject at your earliest convenience.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

GEORGE M. HANSON, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Northern Dist. of California.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

ROUND VALLEY, CAL., August 23, 1862.

Hon. G. M. HANSON:

DEAR SIR: I should not again have addressed you so soon, had it not been for the fact, or receipt of a visit from Colonel Lippitt. It was agreed upon by the party following Colonel Lippitt, Colonel Henley, and myself, that information should be given you, that you might come in company with Sargent, and meet here, and, if possible, devise some means to purchase the surplus produce in this valley, which is thought sufficient until the season comes round, and which can be done in case Sargent will agree to use his best endeavors to obtain an appropriation to meet it. But I am fully of opinion it is with the view of Government taking the whole valley, or, in other words, buying them all out. Do not delay this visit.

Truly, yours,

JAMES SHORT, Supervisor Round Valley Reservation.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

ROUND VALLEY, September 25, 1862.

Hon. G. M. HANSON:

SIR: It becomes my duty to inform you that the whole of the Con Cow and Hat Creek tribes of Indians pulled up stakes yesterday evening and left. The settlers have succeeded in destroying a large portion of the crops of small grain and the entire crop of corn (over 100 acres). We have found as high as seven slip gaps of one morning, where they had raised up the corners of the fence, put in chunks and slipped out the rails, until the largest hogs could walk in. And when they had destroyed the crops, they then told the Indians there was nothing for them to eat, that they would have to starve or steal, and if they did not leave they would kill them. There were quite a number of the settlers came in about the time they left, I suppose, to see that all went off right. I did not attempt to prevent them by force, for I knew it would be useless, as I could do nothing alone, when every person in the valley was, doing all they could do to put them off. Old Reese, after my feeding him all the winter, came here and told the Indians “to leave and go back to their homes, that there was no reservation any longer; that it had gone in.” Several of the citizens went up and spent the first night with the Indians on Eel River as they journeyed on. On their return, some brought their squaws back with them, &c. Smith told {p.164} the Pitt River Indians if they did not leave inside of three days they would all be killed. Some talk of leaving; others say they will stay and risk it, &c.

JAMES SHORT, Supervisor.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

ROUND VALLEY, CAL., September 27, 1862.

Major HANSON, Superintendent Indian Affairs, Northern District of California:

SIR: Since I came into the valley the Hat Creek and Con Cow Indians have left the reservation to return to their old homes in Butte County. They left in consequence of there being no food here for them. The Pitt River Indians still remain here; these with the Yrekas, belonging to the valley, make the number of about 500 that have to be provided for this coming winter. There are but few cattle here that are in condition to kill. The quantity of grain on the reservation I think does not exceed 600 or 700 bushels. The potato crop is not harvested, but I am told it is short. This makes your supply of food totally inadequate to the number of Indians to be fed. Now, the question is, what is to be done? If these Indians are left in a starving condition they will undoubtedly kill the stock of the settlers, and that will naturally result in Indians being killed by the whites; and if a war of this kind begins no one can tell us where it will end. It may be very disastrous both to whites and Indians. Colonel Lippitt, of the volunteers, is here on a tour of observation; he looks upon this subject precisely as I do, and that is, that prompt and efficient action is necessary to avoid a great calamity.

Now, in answer to the question, “What is to be done?” I will reply that there are surplus grain and cattle enough in the valley belonging to the settlers to supply you through the winter, and they will sell it to the Government on credit, provided they can be assured of two things-first, that the money will be appropriated next winter to pay for the supplies thus furnished, and that provision will also be made for the purchase of their claims and improvements, and the appropriation of the entire valley to the purposes of a reservation and the removal of the settlers from it. When I saw you last you informed me that Mr. Sargent had promised to accompany you in a visit to the valley. Now, there is but one way to accomplish these objects, and that is for Mr. Sargent and yourself to come here and give the assurances I have mentioned, and the whole matter can, in my opinion, be arranged in a single day, and this is, I think, the only method by which anything can be done. The settlers are very anxious, and will do anything in their power to assist you in providing for the Indians this winter, provided they can look forward with some hope to a period when their difficulties with the Indians can be terminated. I wish, now, to impress upon you the importance of coming, in company with Mr. Sargent, immediately, while there is yet time to provide for the winter. It will do no good to come unless Mr. Sargent is with you. His presence is necessary to give confidence to the measures proposed. Write to him that it is all-important for him to come with you; but I would not undertake to explain to him these plans in writing. It will be better to explain them to him here, where he will have no difficulty in understanding what is necessary to be done. Write to me when you will come, so I can make arrangements to be here at the time.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

--.

{p.165}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 8.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, October 10, 1862.

I. The troops at Fort Fillmore are ordered withdrawn, and will repair to Mesilla and join the garrison of that post. The sick and the hospital department will be removed to-morrow. Acting Assistant Surgeon Kittridge will report to Surgeon Prentiss on reaching Mesilla.

...

By order of Colonel West:

W. L. RYNERSON, Second Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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[OCTOBER 11, 1862.-For Carleton to West, relating to expeditions against the Mescalero Indians, &c., see Vol. XV, p. 580.]

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 11, 1862.

Hon. A. C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon, Salem, Oreg.:

Who are “officers of the line?” The third section of the tenth article of the constitution of Oregon says: “The Governor shall appoint the adjutant-general and the other chief officers of the general staff and his own staff, and all officers of the line shall be elected by the persons subject to military duty in their respective districts.”

My opinion is requested as to the meaning of the term “all officers of the line” in the above paragraph. I understand by this all regimental and company officers, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, majors, captains, first lieutenants, or second lieutenants, either of infantry, cavalry, or artillery. I understand the constitution to confer upon the Governor the appointment of all other officers, that is, the officers of every branch of the staff. (See Col. H. L. Scott’s Military Dictionary, p. 389.) The phrase “officers of the general staff” must include all officers not regimental, including general officers. (See Halleck’s Military Act, p. 236, first edition.)

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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LEWISTON, October 11, 1862.

Colonel STEINBERGER, Walla Walla:

SIR: At a meeting held in this town a short time since the citizens drew up a series of resolutions and also a memorial, which they have forwarded to His Excellency Governor Pickering, requesting or urging upon him the necessity of continuing the troops now at Lapwai at or near Lewiston during the ensuing winter; also for an additional force of 200 muskets with which to protect themselves in case of need, as it is greatly feared that there will be an outbreak among the Indians. They have commenced to show signs of hostility already, and I am authorized by them to notify you of the facts. Anything that you can do in this matter to aid us in getting the necessary force or arms will be kindly remembered by our citizens.

Your most obedient servant,

E. BAILEY, Secretary.

{p.166}

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OFFICE NEZ PERCÉ INDIAN AGENCY, Lapwai, Wash. Ter., October 12, 1862.

General ALVORD, Commanding District of Oregon and Washington:

SIR: I understand from Major Rinearson, commanding the detachment of troops stationed at present on this reservation, that his command will probably be removed from this part of the country in a short time. I fear the withdrawal of all the military forces from this neighborhood at the present time will be attended with serious consequences. A very considerable portion of the Nez Percé tribe are disaffected toward the whites, and I fear only await a favorable opportunity to retaliate on the settlers on their lands, and on those passing through their country, for the many wrongs they have suffered at the hands of the whites. The reservation is infested with a great number of lawless white men, who sell whisky to the Indians, steal their horses, and debauch their women. A military force, and one that will act promptly, is essentially necessary to hold these men in check, as well as to protect the whites against the depredations of the Indians. If either the whites or the Indians be permitted to carry on their acts of violence and wrong without restraint, a war between the two races must necessarily ensue. Day before yesterday a white man was murdered by an Indian within three or four miles of the agency; to-day I hear of another murder within five or six miles of the agency on the other side. I do not know positively who committed this last murder, but from the few facts I have been able to gather I doubt not it was done by Indians. I have sent out a party of men to bury the dead body, but they have not yet returned. I am afraid we are only at the beginning of our difficulties with the Indians. I have conversed with numbers of them since I have been here, who do not hesitate to express their unfriendly feelings toward the whites. Lawyer, the head chief, seems much excited, and says he is apprehensive of danger from a portion of the tribe. The military force stationed here at present is, in my opinion, entirely inadequate to protect the Indians in their rights and at the same time insure safety to the whites over so great an extent of country as that covered by this reservation. Could two or three companies of troops, say two of infantry and one of cavalry, be stationed at different points on the reservation, their presence would no doubt overawe the disaffected portion of the Indians, and thus maintain peace and quiet in the country until a treaty could lie effected with the tribe. I have taken the liberty of calling your attention to the existing state of affairs on this reservation, that you may take such measures as you deem necessary to insure protection both to whites and Indians.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. W. ANDERSON, Sub-Indian Agent, Washington Territory.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, October 12, 1862.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I respectfully ask permission to return the within copy of a letter from Major Fergusson, commanding Tucson, to the Governor of Sonora, suggesting the establishment of a passport system between our lines {p.167} and the neighboring territory of Mexico.* In my opinion such a system would be totally ineffectual, owing to the extent of a frontier line that is altogether without prohibition of free passage either way. An individual desiring to avoid the necessity of a passport can choose his own point for crossing the line, and can tell his own story whenever questioned as to where he comes from. When there are troops in the district no man goes to and fro without the cognizance of the officer in command. That is all I can presume to control without a certainty of failure.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

[First indorsement.]

OCTOBER 21, 1862.

This correspondence is respectfully referred to the commanding officer at Tucson for his information. The whole matter is left with Colonel West, commanding District of Arizona, to decide upon.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Second indorsement.]

MESILLA, November 1, 1862.s

The within correspondence is forwarded to the commanding officer at Tucson with instructions to enter into any arrangement in regard to the subject-matter that may be deemed by him expedient, but in no event will anything be attempted that cannot be effectually enforced. Otherwise the subject will be dropped.

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* See Fergusson to Pesqueira, September 15, p. 121.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 73.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 12, 1862.

I. Captain Dowling’s company of Washington Territory Volunteers will proceed to Fort Dalles, Oreg., and take post, pursuant to instructions of the 3d instant from department headquarters.

II. The detachment from Company B, Fourth California Volunteer Infantry, at the Warm Springs Reservation, will at once join its company at Fort Dalles, bringing to the latter post all the supplies which may be remaining on hand.

III. On the arrival of this detachment at Fort Dalles, Company B, Fourth California Volunteer Infantry, will proceed to Benicia, Cal., pursuant to Special Orders, No. 175, of October 3, 1862, from headquarters Department of the Pacific.

IV. The quartermaster’s department will furnish the necessary transportation.

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Vols., Commanding District.

{p.168}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 13, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose-herewith a copy of a communication addressed to me by His Excellency Don Ignacio Pesqueira,* Governor of the State of Sonora, in reply to mine of the 3d of May last, a copy of which was sent to your office.

Your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See Pesqueira to Wright, August 29, p. 93.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 13, 1862.

Maj. G. M. HANSON, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Northern District of California, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communications of the 9th and 10th instant, with copies of three letters addressed to you from the Round Valley Reservation. To prevent any further molestation of the Indians remaining on the reservation, I have directed Col. F. J. Lippitt to declare martial law over the whole valley, and to station a sufficient number of troops there to insure peace and quiet as well as protection of the public property. After a careful consideration of the subject, I fully concur with you as to the best disposition of the Indians, viz, let there be but two reservations, one embracing the Round Valley for all interior Indians, and one at Smith’s River Valley for the coast Indians. Should you deem it advisable you are at liberty to submit this communication to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 180.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 13, 1862.

I. Capt. John C. Crowninshield’s company, Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, will proceed to and take post at Benicia Barracks. Capt. R. W. Kirkham, assistant quartermaster, will provide the necessary transportation.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, October 13, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report my return from a tour of inspection in which I have visited Round Valley, Fort Bragg, and Camp {p.169} Lincoln, near Smith’s River. The reservation in Round Valley is in urgent need of a military force. The settlers in the valley, some eighty or ninety in number (nearly all of whom are open secessionists), are evidently determined to break up the reservation. Four of them have squatted upon 1,080 acres of it and refuse to go off. The settlers generally are constantly threatening the Indians, that they will kill them if they do not leave. Some three days before my arrival they had thus succeeded in driving away two entire tribes, the Con Cows and the Hat Creeks, from 400 to 500 in number. The remainder, consisting, it is stated, of some 1,500, are being worked upon in the same manner, and Mr. Short, the supervisor, thinks that nothing will prevent them from leaving also but the presence of troops. Ample crops of grain had been planted this season, all carefully hedged or fenced. Mr. Short states that with the view of starving the Indians out, all these crops have been destroyed by the settlers, or by some among them. As the winter’s supply of grain for the Indians has thus entirely failed, and as there is very little live-stock left there must be great distress among them this winter for food, and many of them will no doubt be driven to obtain it by depredating upon the whites, who will naturally retaliate by massacring the Indians. Only a few weeks since some twenty-two Indians, including women and children, were killed by the settlers in cold blood. These were not reservation Indians, but belonged to a tribe of Wylackies that had taken refuge on the reservation from a band of white kidnapers that were in pursuit of them. The pretext for the massacre was that some forty head of cattle belonging to the settlers had disappeared, and that there was ground to suppose that they had been killed by these Indians. It afterward turned out that the cattle had only wandered out into another pasture ground, and they were all brought in safe and sound. Some of the murdering settlers admitted, Mr. Short says, that they knew these Indians had not taken their cattle, but that they killed them for fear that they would. The supervisor’s own life is perhaps hardly safe. Two rifle-shots were fired at him in his bedroom last May, though without effect. I shall send Captain Douglas’ company there as soon as possible. This is one of the three companies at Fort Gaston. Captain Douglas will take with him the mountain howitzer now at this post, and will be instructed to erect a stockade or other defense immediately on arriving. For obvious reasons it will be necessary for the company to be posted as far away from the Indian rancherias as possible, and the troops will be required to put up the buildings usually required for shelter during the winter season. I respectfully recommend that Captain Douglas’ acting assistant quartermaster be authorized to incur such expense as may be necessary to complete them. There are plenty of logs and building material in the neighborhood. Twenty of the thirty mules now at Fort Bragg will be turned over to Captain Douglas. All supplies for Round Valley should be landed at Fort Bragg or Mendocino City, ten miles below. From Fort Bragg to Round Valley the distance is seventy miles over a tolerable trail. After the winter rains set in Round Valley is for a great part of the time inaccessible. It is nearly surrounded by Eel River, which rapidly swells so as to be impassable. In cases where there should be no loss of time I trust that Captain Douglas may be permitted to communicate directly with your headquarters. By the overland mail from San Francisco, which is semi-weekly, dispatches would reach him in three days. Fort Baker, on the Van Dusen, and Camp Curtis, near Arcata, will be retained as posts through the winter, being necessary {p.170} pivots of operations. I trust that the requisite expense for providing shelter at these posts will be authorized, the labor being performed by the troops. The timber will cost nothing. The posts that will be kept up during the winter in this district are as follows: Camp Lincoln, two companies, and supplies to be shipped to Crescent City; Fort Gaston, two companies, supplies shipped to Eureka; Camp Curtis, one company, supplies shipped to Eureka; Fort Humboldt, two companies, supplies shipped to Eureka; Fort Baker one company, supplies shipped to Eureka; Fort Bragg, one company, supplies shipped to Mendocino; post in Round Valley, one company, supplies shipped to Mendocino. I found the discipline and instruction of the garrison at Fort Bragg (Company D, Second Infantry California Volunteers) in a highly satisfactory state, reflecting great credit upon Captain Hull, who is a very efficient officer. The discipline and drill at Camp Lincoln, near Smith’s River (Major Curtis’ post), I found to be admirable. The command there consists of Companies C and G, Second Infantry California Volunteers. At both these posts my visit was entirely unexpected. Of the 834 Indian prisoners taken up to the Smith’s River Reservation from this post by Mr. Hanson, some 400 more or less escaped about the 24th ultimo, including Las-Sic and all the more turbulent among them. Major Curtis on being informed of their flight lost no time in sending Captain O’Brien’s company in pursuit of them, which returned, as was to be expected, entirely unsuccessful. The Indians had scattered in parties of two or three through the woods and chaparral in every direction. In this country if Indians have a few hours’ start there are no troops in the world that can ever find them. I have now positive information that since then all or nearly all of the remainder of these Indians have stolen away from Smith’s Valley in small parties in such a way as to be unperceived, and that they have all made their way back to their old haunts in Humboldt County, the bucks returning more hostile and dangerous than when they went away, having been robbed of all their young squaws on their way down by the Klamath Indians, and being rendered reckless and desperate by the loss of their families. The few scattered settlers that have been willing heretofore to take their chances are now reported to be munch alarmed and moving away. In short, the state of things is far worse than when we arrived. My previous reports will suffice, I think, to show that for this result neither I nor my officers and men are responsible. The truth is, two companies of State volunteers could be raised here, consisting of old hunters and mountaineers familiar with the habits of the Indians and accustomed to hunt them, that would be of far more service than a whole regiment of the finest troops in the world, no matter how active and zealous they might be. A party of Indians was reported two days ago to have been seen near Cooper’s Mills, at about thirty-five miles from here. A detachment was immediately sent out in quest of them, but from past experience I have but little hope that they will be found. The number of Indian prisoners now at Fort Humboldt is forty-eight. In order that each post may have a medical officer I shall instruct Captain Douglas to employ the physician of the reservation of Round Valley. If this would violate any existing order I request to be informed of it without delay.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

{p.171}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., October 14, 1862.

Lieut. W. A. THOMPSON, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Mesilla, Ariz. Ter.:

LIEUTENANT: I have to report the arrival in Tucson at 9 p.m. on the 13th instant of Captain Fritz, First Cavalry California Volunteers, with train of wagons, forge, and tank, and express matter for this place, Fort Yuma, and California. In reply to the communication of the colonel commanding the District of Arizona, dated 27th ultimo, concerning beef-cattle, loading the train, and sending troops forward, I have to say that I have no information relative to the present whereabouts of the 1,000 head of cattle sent from California by Mr. Beard or Mr. Rains, excepting that contained in a letter from Lieutenant Bennett to Major Fergusson dated at Fort Yuma, October 3, in which he incidentally mentions that the cattle have crossed the river. Neither Mr. Beard nor the agent in charge of the band have vouchsafed any information as to the probable time of their arrival at Tucson. The contractors are some sixty days behind their time in the delivery of these cattle, and having been driven over so long a distance through such a country they will necessarily require at least thirty days for rest and recruiting before they can possibly be in a condition to drive to the Rio Grande. Besides this, cattle in excellent condition can be purchased in any quantities required for about the same price as Beard’s contract calls for. In view of these facts, it was the intention of Major Fergusson, had he been continued as chief commissary until the arrival of Beard’s cattle, to ignore the contract and make the contractor pay the difference, if any, between the terms of his contract and what he would have to pay for good wholesome beef. I respectfully refer the colonel commanding the district to Capt. N. S. Davis, First Infantry California Volunteers, chief commissary, for full information on this subject. I merely refer to it because under the existing circumstances as I have explained them, and with the knowledge that Captain Davis is accompanied by a baud of some 300 head taken from here to sell to Government at private risk, it had been my determination not to send any of Beard’s cattle on until I had communicated with the colonel commanding. I request that I may receive instructions on these points in full at an early day. There will be sufficient time before Beard’s cattle can be in a condition to advance beyond Tucson. Captain Fritz informs me that the train lie brought over is in a deplorable condition. Many of the mules gave out on the road, and he thinks that it will require at least three or four weeks’ rest before they will be able to pull a load from here to Mesilla. I will have them examined by Mr. Allen, who is now here, and the colonel commanding may rest assured that they shall not be detained a day after they are in a condition to travel. In regard to sending forward troops, I respectfully ask the attention of the colonel commanding the district to my letter of the 2d instant and to the district return for October 10. By these he will see that the garrison of this place is hardly sufficient for the purpose of affording protection to the supplies collected here and to fulfill the requirements of General Orders, No. 11, from headquarters Column from California, dated Tucson, July 21, 1862, organizing the District of Western Arizona and defining the duties of the commanding officer. Since the date of the return I have sent away two detachments of infantry; one of ten men to the Cerro Colorado mines, to relieve the detachment of Company E, First Cavalry, stationed there, who were ordered to report for duty to Major Fergusson as he passed that place on his way to Libertad. I have also sent {p.172} Lieutenant Burkett, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, with a detachment of ten men to the Pima Villages, to disburse the Indian goods which have arrived there in payment of the Government indebtedness in the hands of Indians. This reduces my force for duty in town to about 100 men, which I consider inadequate to properly carry out the requirements of the order above mentioned. There seems to be some misunderstanding as to whether Company G, First Infantry, is or is not to be ordered on. Major Fergusson received orders from General Carleton to send on 200 mules and some broken-down wagons under escort of Captain Greene’s company. As there was a much smaller number than that-in fact, but those now in charge of Captain Davis-Major Fergusson did not send Greene’s company on, and I cannot now spare it without weakening my force very greatly. To send on that company will, in fact, leave me but twenty or thirty men here. I will, therefore, retain it until I can hear further from the colonel commanding the district. I desire again to urge the propriety of ordering Hinds back to this place for the winter, or that proper arrangements be made for winter quarters for his men at that post. He is not within my district, but having been there so long I fully appreciate the necessity of prompt action in this matter. Before I left I found a fire very comfortable at night and in the morning, and Captain Fritz informs me that it is really very cold now. If the supplies for the troops in the advance are drawn from New Mexico, I cannot see the necessity of maintaining more than a vedette post at that station. If Captain Greene is ordered forward it would certainly be very injudicious to have the depot of supplies here guarded with the few troops which would be left unless Hinds is sent back. Captain Fritz informs me that he has no orders directing his movements, and none have been sent to me, but as Wellman is ordered to escort the train back I presume Fritz will be left here for some time. I have also to report that Maj. D. Fergusson, First Cavalry California Volunteers, started for the port of Libertad on the 10th with an escort of eighteen men of Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, commanded by Lieut. C. P. Nichols. I have also to report that Capt. S. P. Ford, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, tendered to me his resignation, which I sent to department headquarters direct on the 1st instant, with an indorsement strongly recommending its acceptance. I did not send it through the proper channels on account of the uncertainty of the communication, and because I deemed it would advance the public interests to have a speedy reply from the executive authority. I trust my action will meet the approval of the colonel commanding the district. I have appointed Lieut. W. B. Smith, First Infantry California Volunteers, to take the census of this district. In consequence of the scattered positions of the inhabited parts of the district, it will necessarily take some time before a report can be made on the subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 14, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I am satisfied that a post ought to be established at or in the vicinity of Fort Boisé next summer, and it is the object of this communication to recommend that authority be obtained from the War {p.173} Department to establish it. And I will accordingly respectfully request that this letter may be forwarded to the Headquarters of the Army, and I confidently ask General Wright to concur in the recommendation, as he two years ago, when in command of the Department of Oregon, made a report in favor of the same step. His dispatch on that subject was dated October 10, 1860. Every consideration which then called for it now applies with tenfold force. The whole route from Walla Walla to Fort Boisé (250 miles) is being settled with either farmers or miners. First comes Grande Ronde Valley, containing some inviting agricultural land, where there is a considerable settlement. Next, Powder River. On this river the gold mines have attracted many people and a large share of the emigration this fall. Auburn, on Powder River, twenty-five miles west of the emigrant road, contains now 300 houses. Next comes the mines on Burnt River, and lastly the recently discovered and very inviting gold mines on Boisé River. I am satisfied from personal inquiry of reliable persons whom I met in Portland that there have been discovered such attractive mines on that river that there can be no doubt there will be a rush of thousands in that direction next spring. I append to this letter one newspaper statement on this subject, which I have reason to believe is a fair sample of the well-vouched reports from Boisé River.

Two years ago the main object in the establishment of a post in that vicinity was the protection of the annual emigration from the Mississippi Valley. Now it is also needed for the protection of the settlements, for, as the general commanding the department well knows, the Snake Indians are, and have for years been, very hostile. They have made several attacks this season, killing several persons, as, for instance, the emigrants, who, unfortunately leaving the old road, crossed the Snake River above Fort Hall and kept north of that river. About the 9th of August they made an attack on Boisé River on a train, the captain of which was named Zimmerman. The same party had been attacked on the 9th of July near Soda Springs.

A party of emigrants who attempted to take the southerly emigrant road, intending to enter Oregon at Rogue River Valley, were attacked by the Snakes some time in September about a day’s journey after leaving the main emigrant road. Two parties of miners on Boisé River have also been attacked. The report that fifty-seven miners had been killed on Burnt River by the Snakes about the 19th of September was an utter fabrication. As a large share of the emigrants have stopped in that country and not come to this region, it is very difficult to procure the true statistics of these transactions. I have made it my aim to procure such in every way. Lieutenant-Colonel Maury, commanding the expedition upon the emigrant road, in his letter of the 23d ultimo, already forwarded to you, says that the emigrants “have met with very little trouble from the Indians, and that at or near Raft River, Fort Hall being the focus of their operations east and west.” The emigrants with Captain Crawford have also been well protected. But I am satisfied that mainly attacks have been made which could not necessarily come to the knowledge of those officers. Colonel Maury’s expedition has been very successful in protecting the emigration, and it is now fortunately in the very position to protect the whites, who in large numbers are prospecting for gold on the Boisé River. These miners are mostly armed. I hear of one party of 75 men and another of 100 men starting for that river two weeks ago. They will be likely to meet Colonel Maury about Fort Boisé.

Colonel Maury was not able to get possession of any of the guilty authors of the massacre of September, 1860. My instructions to him of {p.174} the 12th of July contemplated his doing so if possible. But so far no opportunity has occurred. Those Indians deserve to be well punished for all their offenses, and an efficient campaign against them next summer should be prosecuted. The establishment of a military post in their country would check then more effectually and permanently than any other step. But, until they should get a good whipping, that post would be harassed by the thieves. Gorged with plunder and steeped in blood, the appetite for robbing and marauding has been sharpened and cherished by their success and impunity. The dispatch of General Wright of two years since (above referred to) contemplated an active campaign against them; and no doubt but for the secession movement the proposition would have been carried into effect. A large share of the attacks on the emigrants and other travelers occurred between the South Pass and Fort Hall. The dispatch above mentioned recommended that early notice should be given in the newspapers when a column would leave Utah for the protection of the emigrants, so that they might avail themselves of the escort. As this department now embraces Utah, I recommend that orders be given that a command shall leave Fort Crittenden, Utah Ter., about the 15th of June next, proceed to some eligible point near the South Pass to intercept the emigrants, and, having gathered together sufficient to mender it proper to move for their protection, to repair on the emigrant road to Salmon Falls, on Snake River, there to meet a command from this district about the end of August.

I concur in the recommendation in the dispatch of the 10th of October, 1860, that the garrison at Fort Boisé should consist of three companies of infantry and two of cavalry. The latter for the first winter could return for shelter and subsistence to Fort Walla Walla. After the first winter plenty of forage would be grown for the supply of the post by the inhabitants in that neighborhood. I respectfully request that you will please direct Lieutenant-Colonel Babbitt, deputy quartermaster-general, in estimating for the funds needed for the quartermaster’s department for the fiscal year ending 30th of June, 1864, to include sufficient for the establishment of Fort Boisé. After all the companies of Colonel Steinberger’s regiment of Washington Territory volunteers shall have been raised, I shall need, to accomplish the purposes above set forth, three or four additional companies, say one of cavalry and the remainder of infantry. I may ask in the spring that they shall be sent from California, especially as I am satisfied it will be necessary next season to establish a permanent post at or near Camp Lapwai, on the Nez Percé Reservation.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJAMIN ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Vols., Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, October 14, 1862.

His Excellency WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I have this day received a communication from the citizens of Lewiston reporting the imminent prospect of Indian difficulties in their vicinity, and requesting my aid in having troops stationed at or near that place and in the procuration of arms for its defense. I am advised at the same time that a memorial {p.175} has been forwarded to Your Excellency on this subject. During the month of August intelligence reached me that gave evidence of disaffection among several of the tribes in this portion of the district, and as a precaution in the event of outbreak requisitions were made by the commanding officer of this post for increased supplies of arms and ammunition. William Kelly, esq., the assist ant adjutant-general of Washington Territory militia for this section, was also advised to make requisition upon the proper Territorial authorities for ordnance stores suitable to about 250 stand of arms now in his possession. In pursuance of the communication referred to, and in furtherance of the views of the citizens of Lewiston, I have respectfully to recommend their application for arms. The request for troops will no doubt be referred to the general commanding the district, with whom the disposition of the military force in this district rests. I have officially advised him of the matter of this communication.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

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OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, October 15, 1862.

Hon. WILLIAM P. DOLE, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: A few days since I received several letters from the supervisor and physician on the Round Valley Indian Reservation, giving me the unwelcome news that the white settlers in said valley had clandestinely after night, during the maturing and harvesting of the grain crops, from time to time thrown open our fences, making as many as seven gaps in one night on the Indian farm, turning in their hogs and cattle until nearly the entire crop has been destroyed, and then they told the Indians they had nothing to eat through the winter and must steal or starve, and if they stole anything belonging to the settlers they should all be killed. This frightened and induced several hundred Indians to heave the reservation and start back to their old homes in the mountains. I immediately telegraphed to the officer in command of troops at Red Bluff to stop them, which he has done, and they are now at Nome Lackee, in charge of troops, whither I go to-morrow to make some arrangement for their support. I have laid the whole matter before Brigadier-General Wright, who has answered me promptly, as you will see by the inclosed letter.*

I hope you will now, without delay, have instructions by telegraph given to the general to remove every settler within the limits of the valley immediately, all of which has been surveyed for and declared an Indian reservation, called Nome Cult. Some of the settlers in this valley have just claims for their farms made in the valley before the whole of it was declared an Indian reservation. But it is a military necessity now to remove them, in view of securing peace, quiet, and safety to Government property, and afterward let them bring their claims up against the United States for settlement and payment after having been compelled to remove. I know of no other way to have the constant annoyance we have with the settlers settled, for I feel sure nearly all who thus annoy us are disloyal to the Government of the United {p.176} States, and will continue these troubles while they remain. Should they be immediately removed I can buy their surplus grain, which will keep the Indians until in safety we can raise another crop, in 1863. Hoping to hear from you soon on this subject, I have the honor to be,

Your obedient servant,

GEO. M. HANSON, Superintending Agent Indian Affairs, Northern Dist. of California.

* See October 13, p 168.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, October 15, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that Maj. D. Fergusson, First Cavalry California Volunteers, with an escort of twenty cavalry, left Tucson on the 10th instant to examine the road between this place and the port of La Libertad, in the Mexican State of Sonora, under orders to that effect from headquarters District of Arizona. I have also to report that Capt. W. G. Morris, assistant quartermaster, U. S. Army, arrived at Tucson on the 9th instant and started on his return to San Francisco on the 13th.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 15, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: The general commanding the department directs that for the purpose of preserving the peace and quiet in the Round Valley Reservation, and protecting the public property therein, you will declare martial law to exist over the country embraced in the above-named reservation. For the purpose of enforcing all lawful orders and preventing a repetition of the disgraceful acts recently committed by the whites, you will post a sufficient force at such point or points within the reservation as you may deem best suited for the above purposes.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 1.5, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I start to-morrow morning for Fort Walla Walla and Camp Lapwai, Wash. Ter., on the Nez Percé Reservation. Agreeably to the wishes of the general commanding, verbally expressed to me in San Francisco, I had arranged (as my special orders set forth) for the return of all the parties in the field to Fort Walla Walla by the 1st of November, including the command at Camp Lapwai, Captain Matthews’ company of Oregon cavalry. Congress has appropriated $40,000 to pay the expense of instituting negotiations with the Nez Percés for a part or the whole of their reservation. C. H. Hale, esq., superintendent of {p.177} Indian affairs for Washington Territory, writes me on the 3d and 10th instant that he contemplates going to Lapwai Agency in a few days W. H. Rector, superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon, accompanies him. They are appointed commissioners to discharge this duty.

They are now to hold, I learn, a preparatory talk with the chiefs; but the final council for a treaty will not be convened until next spring or summer. On reaching Fort Walla Walla, I will have to arrange for a command to stay at or near Camp Lapwai until the commissioners leave. As cavalry ought not to be on the march after the 11th of November, I shall probably order Captain Matthews’ company at once to Fort Dalles, as contemplated in my letter to you of the 4th instant, and I shall probably order an infantry company to Camp Lapwai to remain there temporarily. Unless the winter is one of extraordinary severity, an infantry company can well remain encamped there until the 30th of November. Mr. Hale in his letter expresses the apprehension that there will be a “serious outbreak of the Indians before winter.”

There is too much reason for dissatisfaction among the Nez Percés, but I cannot believe from all the intelligence I can gather from that quarter that they will rise. Evil-disposed and abandoned white men may, as is rumored, have endeavored to incite them to revolt. Fortunately, the main body of the Nez Percés have more principle, more intelligence, and more loyalty than those men have. Secession sympathizers, fiendish enough to wish to see re-enacted the scenes in Minnesota, may exist there. But there is reason to hope that they would fail of their purpose. I have instructed the commanding officers in that quarter to arrest and hold subject to my orders any white man found guilty of such an atrocity. The Snakes may attack the outer mining camps south of Salmon River, but that must be expected. They are perpetually at war. Eagle of the Light, a Nez Percé chief who married a Snake woman, may have a small band of his people with him. It is rumored he is in affiliation with the Snakes. It may be so. He never assented to the treaty of 1855. On my return I hope to be able to report to you more satisfactorily on these subjects. I expect that no step will more conduce to quiet and satisfy the Nez Perces than the establishment next spring of a permanent military post. They have been habituated to look for protection from the military. Major Rinearson has, agreeably to my instructions, removed recently a good many intruders from their farming and grazing lands and broken up various grogshops, much to their satisfaction. I do not see how I can, unless there is a stern necessity, have a company there all winter, as no quarters have been erected. If I shall venture to promise to the Nez Percés the establishment of a military post next spring, I hope my course will meet the approval of the general commanding.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJAMIN ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Vols., Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, October 15, 1862.

R. BAILEY, Esq., Secretary, &c., Lewiston, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 11th instant on the part of the citizens of Lewiston, and referring to their requirement of troops and arms for the ensuing winter. Impressed with the belief that preparations should be made in that {p.178} portion of the district for the defense your letter suggests, [and] by other and frequent reports received at this post, I have some time since represented the necessity to the proper authority. Judge William Kelly, assistant adjutant-general of the Territorial militia, near Walla Walla, has in his charge about 230 stand of muskets, and during the month of August last he was requested by myself to make requisition on the Governor for 100,000 rounds of ammunition for that arm. At the same time, and in view of the contingency your letter now refers, requisition was made by myself for a supply of ordnance and ordnance stores for the garrison. Since the receipt of your letter yesterday, and in furtherance of your request for my assistance [in] the procuration of arms, I have written to the Governor of Washington Territory commending your memorial to his earnest attention and indorsing your views. Referring to the posting of troops at or near Lewiston, which forms a part of your communication, I have officially forwarded a copy thereof to the headquarters of the District of Oregon for the consideration of the commanding general. I am advised of the early visit of Brigadier-General Alvord, in company with the superintendent of Indian affairs for Washington Territory, to this post, en route to your city and Lapwai Agency, and reserve a representation of your requests for a personal interview with these officers.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Drum, October 17, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: On my arrival at this encampment I found the command, both officers and men, very uncomfortably situated. The encampment is stationed on a low, flat plain about half a mile from New San Pedro. The soil is sandy, but I am told mixes into mud after the rains begin to fall, until the roads are nearly or quite impassable. There is nothing to shelter us from the sea winds, which at times are very severe. Tents are often blown down and the atmosphere filled with sand. There is no such thing as keeping anything free from sand; desks, tables, and papers are constantly covered. The tents are old, and I am told leak very badly; indeed, I think they are totally unfit for service even in a better locality, and here they certainly would furnish a poor protection from the winter storms. If it is the intention of the department to keep troops at the present locality temporary quarters should, in my judgment, be at once constructed. I fear that I will find it difficult to keep this command in proper discipline unless quarters are built or a more comfortable location selected.

I have the honor to be, colonel, your obedient servant,

HARVEY LEE, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Camp Drum.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 17, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of a communication addressed to these headquarters by Brig. Gen. James H. {p.179} Carleton, commanding Column from California, dated at Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 20, 1862.* General Carleton forwarded with his dispatches copies of his correspondence with Brig. Gen. E. R. S. Canby, then commanding the Department of New Mexico, and other officers serving in that quarter. I have selected out such as I deemed necessary and proper to forward to the Headquarters of the Army, viz: First. Copy of a communication from Lieut. Col. E. E. Eyre, commanding First Cavalry California Volunteers, dated at Las Cruces, Ariz., August 30, 1862.* Second. Copy of a communication from Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton, U. S. Army, to the commander of the C. S. troops at San Antonio, Tex., dated headquarters District of Arizona, Franklin, Tex., September 1, 1862.* Third. Copy of a communication from Capt. B. D. Shirland, First Cavalry California Volunteers, to the acting assistant adjutant general of the Column from California, dated at Camp on the Rio Grande, September 2, 1862.*

The communication of Brigadier-General Carleton will fully inform the General-in-Chief of the movements of the Column from California up to the 20th of September. I am happy to say that the troops from this department have successfully accomplished all that I proposed to do when I asked authority to organize the expedition. The hardships endured in crossing the deserts, the subordination and good conduct of the officers and men of General Carleton’s command are fully set forth by the general. This expedition I organized and prepared in Southern California during a winter and spring unprecedented for severity. Its advance was delayed, on account of the roads being impracticable for wagons, until late in the season. I then launched forth this column on the dreary desert with perfect confidence in success. I knew the officers and felt assured that, with the indomitable perseverance, energy, and foresight of General Carleton and those under his command, there was no such word as fail. General Carleton speaks in glowing terms of the conduct of several of his officers and asks for their promotion. I most cheerfully unite in that recommendation. Although they have not been engaged in any brilliant action with our enemies, yet the hardships they have endured without a murmur and the zeal they have manifested in the discharge of all their duties will, I hope, be recognized by the Government, and that they may be promoted for meritorious services.

With great respect, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See. Part I, pp. 100, 126, 114, 111, respectively.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., October 17, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, Commanding District of Arizona, Mesilla:

COLONEL: In pursuance of my purpose not to keep any one company for a long while at Fort Bowie, Chiricahua Mountains, you are authorized to relieve Captain Hinds’ company by Captain Ford’s as soon as it may be, in your judgment, practicable to do so. When thus relieved, Captain Hinds’ company will be ordered to take post at Mesilla. The officer and twenty men, named as a scout beyond the Waco Tanks in my letter to you dated the 2d instant, will not need to be kept upon that duty during the time Captain Roberts’ expedition is in the field.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.180}

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FORT CRITTENDEN, October 17, 1862-9.13 p.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

Have just arrived. Will cross the Jordan to-morrow.

P. E. CONNOR.

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OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Salem, Oreg., October 17, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have to inform you that the protection of the Siletz and Alsea Indian Agencies on the coast reservation in this superintendency demands the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua by a military force. Herewith I transmit a copy of a letter recently received at this office from the agent in charge of the Siletz Indian Agency. The special agent at Alsea writes that-

The Siletz Indians have succeeded in making the Coos Indians disaffected. A few of the Coos Indians have already left this agency, and others will go. By all means, use your influence to have the fort at Umpqua immediately occupied by soldiers, or the Siletz Indians will leave and take mine with them. They are going now almost daily, and when they reach their old homes they will fight rather than return to the reservation.

The special agent at Alsea, from whose letter I have quoted the foregoing, extract, resides about fifty miles up the coast north of Fort Umpqua, and has the Coos and Umpqua Indians under his charge. The Siletz Agency is about thirty miles to the north and east of the Alsea, and the Indians who leave the Siletz pass by the Alsea as they go down the coast to their old homes. Fort Umpqua is located about six miles south of the southern boundary of the coast reservation, and I am compelled to urge upon the consideration of the commanding general of this military department the necessity of the immediate reoccupation of that post, and I hope it will not be deemed inconsistent with the interests of the service to order a company to Fort Umpqua at an early day.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. RECTOR, Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

[Inclosure.]

SILETZ INDIAN AGENCY, OREG., October 1, 1862.

W. H. RECTOR, Esq., Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Salem, Oreg.:

SIR: I would urge upon your immediate consideration the importance of having Fort Umpqua reoccupied by troops. Since the evacuation of that post large numbers of Indians from this agency have availed themselves of the opportunity and fled down the coast to their former homes on Smith’s and Rogue Rivers. Had the fort been garrisoned they could not thus have made their escape, for the reason that this fort guards the only road leading from this agency to the country south of the Umpqua River. I am of the opinion that if the fort is not reoccupied most of the coast Indians who reside at this and the Alsea agencies will leave before next spring. The expense of removing to this agency those Indians who will escape and go down the {p.181} coast will far exceed the cost of maintaining a company of soldiers at Fort Umpqua. That fort is of much more importance to this agency than Fort Hoskins.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. R. BIDDLE, U. S. Indian Agent.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., October 18, 1862.

Hon. MONTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster-General, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: Last winter General George Wright, commanding the Department of the Pacific, submitted to the General-in-Chief a proposition to have the Southern Overland Mail Route opened by volunteers from California, and to have certain forts in New Mexico then held by the rebels reoccupied by our troops. General McClellan acceded to this, and I was directed to organize and conduct a military expedition from California across the great desert to the Rio Grande, to give practicable effect to the proposition. This duty has been done. Our troops now occupy Mesilla and Tucson, Ariz. Ter. Besides, I have established a post at Apache Pass, and have now in successful operation a chain of vedettes from Tucson to Los Angeles, in California. One great purpose had in view by this movement was to give your department an opportunity to remove the overland mail from its present route, where, in the Sierra Nevada and eastward from the range of mountains to Salt Lake, for months in the year the mail is obstructed by snows. Tons of mail matter it is said the company was obliged to leave along the road on this account last winter. The Bannock and Shoshone Indians west of Salt Lake, and the Sioux Indians between Salt Lake and Kansas, are more hostile and offer greater risks to the safe transit of the mails by that route than are offered by any Indians on the southern mail route. If the mail should run from Independence, Mo., or Fort Leavenworth, Kans., via Santa Fé, N. Mex., thence down the Rio Grande to Mesilla, and thence over the Southern Overland Mail Route to Los Angeles, Cal., it would have little or no obstructions by Indians; would absorb the present mail to New Mexico; would afford to this Territory a daily mail; would absorb the present mail from Los Angeles to San Francisco, Cal., and afford that portion of California with a daily mail. It would run through a country where in winter there are no obstructions by snows, and over which it ran in other years almost invariably inside of schedule time. On the southern route from Mesilla to Los Angeles the road is good; the stations are nearly all built, and many are yet in tolerable repair; the wells are dug, &c., and I have been informed by the agent of the company in San Francisco, Mr. Louis McLane, that if the southern mail route should again be opened the road could be restocked and the mail set running in sixty days from the time the order to that effect should be given. Time has proved and will always prove that the Northern Overland Mail Route in winter is not a sure, safe, practicable route. No sophistries can stop the snow from blocking the road west of Salt Lake and through the Sierra Nevada, and none can prove that the southern mail route is not now entirely practicable. Should the people on the Pacific Coast be granted a daily overland mail by your Department, your Department will be sure to find that it must be by the southern route. {p.182} This being a matter of great moment to them, as well as of official interest to yourself, I have felt constrained to write to you this letter, and have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Olympia, Wash. Ter., October 18, 1862.

General B. ALVORD, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

DEAR SIR: Judge Hewitt and family arrived at this place yesterday safely and in good health from the States by the overland route of the South Pass, and from him I learn that he had the satisfaction of seeing you as he came through Vancouver, when he explained to you at full length all that he had previously heard about the truly horrible murders and robberies committed by the Snake (and perhaps by other) Indians, and it is generally believed that villainous white men have been mixed up with those atrocious savages, completing the gangs of white and Indian land pirates, thieves, and murderers. This is a sad and bloody page in the history of our overland emigration to the gold diggings of Oregon and of this Territory. This black picture of the past season’s emigration points out the positive and determined necessity of such suitable provision being made for the protection of the next year’s emigration as shall completely put it out of the power of any black-hearted redskin or whiteskin devils in human shape from injuring or jeopardizing either the life or limb or property of any one man, woman, or child who may desire to travel across any part of the soil of the United States between the Missouri and the Columbia Rivers. For the numerous robberies and murders that have been committed upon overland travelers during every season for many years past, and with continuous impunity, for I have never heard of any of the vile criminals being justly punished, so that the escape from worse punishment of all the vast numbers of those cruel murderers and robbers seems to have operated as a license and as an encouragement for murderers and thieves to select the overland travel road as their field of operations, their harvest field of plunder, of robbery, and of murder. And I now pledge you my troth that I will do everything in my power to assist to do full justice and obtain full indemnity, and inflict just and righteous punishment and satisfaction for the past crimes of those marauding guerrillas, whether red or white, and to insure peaceful security for all travelers over our roads for the future. And I am very confident that you will cheerfully do all in your power to carry into full effect whatever plan may be finally agreed upon and adopted, by which to insure the success of such highly desirable and necessary action. And whatever plan may be decided on, we shall have to rely and depend upon your well-known zeal and energy in the cause of right, truth, and justice to carry such highly benevolent and holy purposes into successful execution.

Judge Hewitt also informs me that quite a large number of hardy, enterprising miners and settlers are going to remain during the coming winter at their mining claims, and they are all scattered widely about in companies and squads at long distances apart from each other, and scatteringly spread over a widely extended mining region of country; and in his opinion those miners and settlers will stand in as much need of military protection to save them from Indian depredations during {p.183} the coming winter as the overland emigrants have needed military protection during their journey through this Territory during this past season’s travel.

And now, my dear sir, the first question to be rightfully asked and rightfully answered, which is deeply impressed upon my mind as an imperative duty, is this: How can all these vast numbers of miners and settlers be perfectly protected in their lives and property during this coming winter and spring? For the proper solution of this all-important question, involving nothing less than the saving or the losing of a large number of lives of our fellow-beings, who are our fellow-countrymen and citizens, I shall have to seek aid and counsel of your more enlarged experience in protecting our brethren of the white race from the savage murders of the degraded and untutored Indians, who now feel themselves aggrieved by the intrusion of our miners and settlers upon their lands, which by solemn treaty regulations the United States Government and people solemnly bound themselves to protect the Indians in their quiet and peaceable possession both to themselves and to their heirs and descendants forever. I repeat that I must look to you for advice and information about the best and most efficient plan for securely saving the lives of each and every person, of each and every company, of all this large number of our American citizens at this time spread over a large extent of mining country. For such advice and for all advice your generous good-will may prompt you to give me I beg leave to assure you I shall be very thankful to receive, and I close with requesting you to consider that for the present, and for the coming winter, the lives and safety of every person within the limits of this Territory are placed by the law of our land as completely under your kind care and mine as are the lives of the inhabitants of Washington City now placed under the kind care of President Lincoln and the commander of the U. S. Army of Virginia, Maj. Gen. George McClellan, for to nobody else but to you and myself to whom the power of protecting the inhabitants of this Territory has been intrusted. President Lincoln on one part and General Wright on the other have confidingly given to us this sacred trust and power.

Very respectfully and very truly, yours, &c.,

WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory.

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STATE DEPARTMENT, Salem, Oreg., October 18, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit the inclosed memorial adopted by the Legislative Assembly of this State at its late session.

Your obedient servant,

SAMUEL E. MAY, Secretary of State.

[Inclosure.]

To the General Commanding the Department of the Pacific:

Your memorialists, the Legislative Assembly of the State of Oregon, respectfully represent that the protection of the Coast Indian Reservation in this State requires that Fort Umpqua should be occupied by U. S. troops.

{p.184}

Resolved, That the Secretary of State is hereby requested to forward a copy of the above memorial to the general or other officer commanding the Department of the Pacific.

Adopted by the House October 17, 1862.

JOEL PALMER, Speaker of the House.

Adopted by the Senate October 17, 1862.

WILSON BOWLBY, President of the Senate.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, October 19, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

COLONEL: I desire to submit through you to the department commander, and if necessary to the Secretary of War, that Fort Bragg, in my district, has long enough borne the name of a traitor, and to respectfully suggest that its name be changed to Fort McRae, in honor of the hero of Fort Craig.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, October 19, 1862.

Lieutenant-Colonel DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: In connection with my official report of the 13th instant I deem it my duty to lay before the department commander the following facts, learned by me in my recent visits to the Round Valley and Mendocino Reservations: For upward of a year that Mr. Short has been the supervisor of the Round Valley Reservation no funds whatever have been received from the superintendent, Mr. Hanson, for the payment of his salary, or that of the physician employed, or of any other of the employés, nor for the necessary expenses of the reservation. Mr. Robinson, one of the employés, told me that Mr. Short had already been obliged to use from $4,000 to $5,000 of his own private funds for these expenses. The grain crops of this year have been destroyed, and there are but few cattle left for the consumption of the 1,500 Indians stated to be remaining on the reservation. There are no means to purchase any supplies, and there is great danger of the Indians starving to death during the coming winter. To remedy the evil-the credit of the Indian Bureau being entirely exhausted-I suggested to Mr. Short to get some of the settlers to furnish the complement of supplies needed, they consenting to look for their payment to a special act of Congress to be passed for the purpose at the coming session, the Hon. Mr. Sargent to be requested to visit the reservation immediately in company with Mr. Hanson, in order that he might verify personally the necessity of the purchase and the justice of the claims, and satisfy the settlers that such an act would be passed. Mr. Short accordingly wrote to Mr. Hanson to have this done. In reply to the repeated application for funds, Mr. Hanson has always answered that {p.185} no remittance had yet been made to him from Washington. It was suggested to me that all the settlers would be willing to sell out to the Government, leaving the whole valley, containing some sixty square miles, for an Indian reservation. One great objection to this scheme is that the valley has no river or running stream, which is everywhere almost an absolute necessity to the Indians for fishing and for bathing. But the principal objection is one that applies also to every reservation in the district, and I consider it a fatal one, that all the turbulent Indians, those whom it is one of the chief objects of the reservation system to withdraw from contact with the whites, never stay on these reservations unless compelled to by force, and that to prevent their escaping from Round Valley it would require an army of 100,000 men. On the Mendocino Reservation there are said to have been formerly several thousand Indians. Some months since the post commander at Fort Bragg reported to me that there were then about 1,000, but on my visit there I was informed that there are now only about 280 left. They go when they please; it is seldom ever known when they leave. The reservation contains forty square miles, and to prevent the Indians from escaping from it, or from any other of the reservations, it would require a chain of sentinels to be kept posted entirely around it. Mr. Whipple, the supervisor of the northern station, told me that Mr. Hanson admitted he had received $14,000 from Washington for the payment of the employés and other expenses of the Round Valley and Mendocino Reservations, but stated that he had been obliged to spend all this remittance on the Smith’s River Valley Reservation (the purchase of which has not yet been sanctioned by the Government). Of this amount Mr. Whipple obtained from him $1,100, leaving some $6,000 due him and the employés, besides $2,000 to $3,000 owing to traders for supplies furnished.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

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ROUND VALLEY,. October 19, 1862.

Hon. G. M. HANSON:

DEAR SIR: I again call your attention to the aggrievances which I have given you an account of in a former communication, perpetrated by a portion of our white population. In addition to what I have written you, I will briefly state that our supervisor planted 100 acres of corn, 50 or 60 acres of wheat, which has been entirely destroyed by our neighbors’ cattle and hogs, and destroyed a part of other grain which has been raised on this reservation; fences have been let down at night and their stock driven in. Now, sir, what language can I make use of to awaken you so that some action may be taken to prevent these outrages? Winter is near at hand and nothing to feed our Indians. There are many other strong reasons I might add why some immediate action should be taken, but forbear with a single remark, that unless Some steps are taken in earnest immediately we shall be obliged to leave the reservation.

Very truly, your obedient servant,

W. P. MELENDY.

{p.186}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, October 19, 1862.

Don Jose MARIA URANGA, Prefect, &c., El Paso, Mexico:

A reply to your communication of the 8th instant, advising me of your authority to comply with the terms of the extradition treaty, celebrated between the Governments of Mexico and of the United States of America, has been delayed until I should receive a copy thereof. I have the honor now to apprise you that I am empowered, as superior military chief commanding in this district, to comply with such demands for the surrender of criminals in accordance with the terms of said treaty as you shall make upon me. The difficulties in the way of compliance with this convention of our respective Governments which you seem to anticipate do not suggest themselves to my mind. If you will be so good as to apprise me of their nature, I shall be much pleased to adopt proper measures to obviate them. In the meantime the responsibility will be assumed on my part of surrendering to your demand persons duly charged in accordance with the terms of said treaty with the larceny of property of less value than $25. One such case, that of Nicholas Flores, is now within my authority. On the 3d instant I had the honor to address you a note in regard to him. As no reply has been received from you the note may have miscarried. He will be delivered upon your requisition.

Trusting to find you disposed to exert your authority in every way toward the suppressing of the disorders which unfortunately prevail upon the frontiers of our territories, I am, sir, with much respect, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 76.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Walks Walla, Wash. Ter., October 19, 1862.

I. Company E, First Infantry Washington Territory Volunteers, commanded by Capt. W. M. Knox, will repair without delay to Camp Lapwai, Wash. Ter., near the Nez Percé Agency, where it will be stationed.

II. Quarters will be erected at some eligible point in that vicinity for the company, and Lieut. W. B. Hughes, acting assistant quartermaster at Fort Walla Walla, will furnish, so far as practicable, the necessary tools, materials, &c., for that purpose. He will also supply the company with Sibley or other tents, and with all the necessary wagons and teams for the wants of that post.

...

V. So far as practicable the labor will be performed by the troops, but such citizen employés as are absolutely necessary for the erection of the quarters at Camp Lapwai will be hired by Lieut. W. B. Hughes, acting assistant quartermaster; but in all the expenditures the utmost economy will be practiced. Major Rinearson, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding post, will vigilantly guard the public interests in all disbursements and in the care of public property.

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.187}

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, October 19, 1862.

Col. R. F. MAURY, First Oregon Cavalry, Comdg. Emigrant-Road Expedition:

SIR: I am directed by the commanding general of the district now at this post, to inform you that it is his wish that you reach this post with your command as soon as possible consistent with the safety and good condition of your troops, and without any reference to his instructions to remain in the field until the 1st of November. Have the muster and pay rolls of your field and staff and companies of your command made out ready for muster and inspection on the 31st of this month. It is desired that the muster should take place here, and the sooner you arrive here the better, unless some pressing necessity connected with the object of your expedition compels delay.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 20, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Colonel Connor, commanding expedition for the protection of Overland Mail Route, telegraphs me from Fort Crittenden October 17: “Have just arrived; will cross the Jordan to-morrow.”

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SALT LAKE, October 20, 1862-9.30 p.m.

Maj. R. C. DRUM:

Just arrived. Encamped on site of new post. Command in good health and discipline.

P. E. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 15.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., October 20, 1862.

I. Col. Justus Steinberger, First Infantry Washington Territory Volunteers, is placed in command of all the troops on the Nez Percé Indian Reservation and at Fort Walla Walla, and on the departure of the general commanding the district he will give such orders for the movement of the troops to and fro as may be necessary for the public service.

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.188}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 77.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., October 20, 1862.

I. Col. J. Steinberger, First Infantry Washington Territory Volunteers, will on the arrival of the superintendents of Indian affairs accompany them to Fort Lapwai and remain there during their visit. He will not return to Fort Walla Walla until the approach of winter and the state of affairs shall render his presence unnecessary.

II. Company F, First Oregon Cavalry, and Company E, First Washington Territory Volunteers, will constitute the garrison of Fort Lapwai, and quarters and stables will be built for both under the orders of Maj. J. S. Rinearson, First Oregon Cavalry.

III. On the arrival of Colonel Maury’s command Company A, First Washington Territory Infantry Volunteers, will proceed to Fort Lapwai, Wash. Ter.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Alvord:

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., October 20, 1862.

J. W. DAVENPORT, Indian Agent, Umatilla Reservation:

SIR: Your communication of the 19th instant was received this morning by the general commanding. The general commanding directs me to inform you, in reply, that instructions have been heretofore given to the commanding officer of the post, Col. J. Steinberger, for the protection of the whites from the trespasses of the Indians, upon your application and after notice. Colonel Steinberger says that in six hours a mounted force from this post can reach your agency. Instructions have been issued to commanding officers to render the Indian Department all necessary aid to enforce the laws and preserve the peace.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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SANTA FÉ N. MEX., October 21, 1862.

Colonel WEST, Commanding District of Arizona, Mesilla:

MY DEAR COLONEL: I inclose herewith for your perusal a note from Mr. Beard. I should judge from this that he has plenty of cattle on the road, and so, if his agent can get along until a herd arrives from Tucson, by your arrangement in loaning him some of the Government cattle you will have no embarrassment. If you can figure it out so that justice can be done to all concerned without sending Coleman to Tucson I beg you to do so; otherwise send him. I had White’s Mill repaired, and let him have a bolt, belt, and pledged my credit for some lumber for the making of a bolting chest, and agreed to loan some mules to help drive the mill until Lennan and himself could get a start, and to take pay for all this in the service of the mill in grinding for the Government. This I believe to be substantially my understanding of all {p.189} the bargain made with Lennan. Under no circumstances is the garrison at Fort Bowie to be withdrawn. You can, by your own order, if you so desire it, attach that post to the District of Western Arizona; and please to give such orders in relation to the clamors of the released gamblers as will be just to them and to the Government; and, if they still continue to give trouble after that, you will give orders “needful to the service.” That part of Arizona is under martial law. Continue to get up supplies of subsistence stores from Fort Yuma. Obtain information of Somers’ train, which went for clothing. Ascertain where the clothing is and when you may be expected by me to receive it. Try and get an account of the stores on hand at Fort Yuma. See if Colonel Bowie will not send another company at once to Tucson to help Coult out, in view of the influx of people to Fresnal. Write to Colonel Drum, assistant adjutant-general, on this latter point. I think Colonel Bowie’s whole regiment will be ordered on to the Rio Grande.

In haste, very truly, yours,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Olympia, Wash. Ter., October 21, 1862.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, Comdg. Pacific Military Department, San Francisco, Cal.:

DEAR SIR: Notwithstanding all your careful vigilance in providing military protection for the overland emigrants, and notwithstanding the prompt manner in which Col. Justus Steinberger carried your orders into execution for that purpose, together with General Alvord’s hearty concurrence and support of all your plans and directions given to dispose of the troops under your command in this Territory in the most advisable manner, so as to render the most efficient protection to the whole population of emigrants coming on the overland road from the States to this Pacific region, yet with all this care and pains thus taken by yourself, by General Benj. Alvord, and by Colonel Steinberger, with which I have felt so well pleased and for which yourself, Alvord, and Steinberger have so well merited and deserved not only my sincere thanks, but the thanks, the confidence, and the good will of the whole community, and yet, sir, after all has thus been done that could be done to afford protection to the lives and property of our overland emigrants, Judge Hewitt informs me that from the most reliable statements he has received he has reasons for believing that a larger number of emigrants have been robbed and murdered along the Snake River road during this season than in any previous year. This terrible human butchery of our own white American population of men, women, and children is too horrible a picture to think of, to look at, to reflect upon, or to record in the history of the manner in which settlers have had to come to this country, in constant jeopardy of losing their lives and property, and numbers have been thus sacrificed in their efforts to get here. We cannot bear to hear this tale of accursed cruelty told without every feeling of sympathy being aroused, of sorrow and pity for the sufferers and all their family relations, their friends and acquaintances; nor can we think of those flagrant outrages without every sense of justice and every feeling of our hearts and souls being roused to the highest pitch of resolute indignation against these foul and atrocious murderers and robbers. My dear sir, it is enough to make us all instantly raise our hands and our voices and swear by all that is {p.190} sacred in heaven and on earth that the avenging hand of public justice shall be swiftly, yes, immediately stretched out to deal energetic and proper punishment upon all those fiends in human form who have been guilty of these recent as well as all former murders and robberies on these emigrant roads for all time past since these roads have been traveled by the Pacific Coast emigration.

General Wright, in the name and on the behalf of the population of this Territory, I want instant and immediate retributive justice done in these cases of brutal murders and robberies that have been so lately inflicted upon our own innocent, peaceable, and unoffending fellow-citizens while they were quietly traveling from the Valley of the Mississippi to the Pacific States and Territories. And expressly for this purpose, I now most earnestly, respectfully, and urgently beg and request that you will immediately decide upon the most practicable plan of dealing out the proper measure of punishment upon each and every one of these monsters in atrocity who have been guilty of all these foul crimes against the just laws of God and man; against the lives and property of our fellow-citizens. And I pray you do not delay nor weaken the blow of inflicting punishment by procrastinating the time of action for ten, nor five, nor four, three, two, nor one year after the perpetration of these crimes against humanity, but strike quickly, and I pray you strike now, while the hands of these villainous murderers are yet reeking and red with the blood of their innocent and unoffending victims; for if your effort be left until next spring before you begin the work of preparation to then send troops in warm sun-shining weather to catch these vicious murderers, long before our troops can reach that bloody ground the white and red skinned demons who have murderously assassinated our own peaceable fellow-citizens will by that time have safely gotten out of the reach of all who may then be sent, entirely too late to catch the guilty men; it will then be, as it has always been, a mere farce. To effectively punish the guilty and strike terror into the hearts of all others, as a lasting warning, and to give positive and enduring proof that their crimes shall not go long unpunished, it is absolutely necessary that troops should be sent at least as far on the road up Snake River as Fort Boisé, or perhaps still farther, and with plenty of provisions with them, there to winter, if they could get no farther (with safety) toward Salmon Falls, where it is thought the Snake River Indians and their white associates reside during winter. And the protection of our scattered mining population will need two or three new military stations being immediately established as far southward and eastward as Fort Boisé. Therefore, with these views of the necessity of immediate action being taken by the troops under your command, in order to inflict a lastingly righteous punishment upon the murdering and plundering Snake River Indians and their associates in crime, and for the further purpose of affording suitable and necessary protection to our newly settled farming and mining population now going to winter on both sides of the Snake River Valley, I respectfully request you will authorize and direct General B. Alvord to establish a military post at Fort Boisé, and another half way between that place and Lewiston, with plenty of provisions to sustain the troops through the winter and spring months, and for all our forces to be directed to reach the Salmon Falls and Fort Hall at the earliest day practicable to punish the murderers and robbers of our citizens.

With great respect, &c., your obedient servant,

WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory.

{p.191}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 23, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I am advised by Colonel Connor of his arrival with his command at Salt Lake City on the 20th instant, and occupation of the site for a new post. The colonel reports his command in good health and discipline. I also inclose* a copy of a communication received from Maj. D. Fergusson, First Cavalry California Volunteers, dated at Tucson, Ariz. Ter., October 4, with two inclosures, all relating to the occupation of Arizona by the rebel troops previous to the arrival of the Column from California.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See pp. 151, 152.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Olympia, Wash. Ter., October 23, 1862.

General B. ALVORD, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

DEAR SIR: I have received a memorial signed by 151 citizens of Lewiston expressing their conviction of the positive necessity of the company of soldiers now stationed at Lapwai being allowed to remain there all winter for the purpose of preserving the public peace by the influence of their presence; and in case of any disturbance or Indian insurrection, then by the advantage of the troops being on the spot they could more readily suppress and put down any such outbreak at its first onset much better and more certainly than if the same number of soldiers had to be sent for if stationed at Walla Walla for the winter. I have written to General Wright, and have requested him to consider the propriety of complying with this reasonable request of the citizens of Lewiston. I have also informed the postmaster at Lewiston, A. L. Downer, esq., that I have received the said memorial of 151 of his neighboring citizens and have forwarded their request to General Wright, at San Francisco. To Mr. I. L. Downer I have stated that from my personal knowledge of General Wright, of General Alvord, and of Colonel Steinberger, I have every reason to believe that each and every one of said military officers will cheerfully carry out in all good faith everything best calculated to preserve the public peace and protect the lives and property of our whole population. With my sincere wishes for your deliberate considerations on the subject of my communication forwarded to you a few days since on the horrible murders and robberies committed upon overland emigrants along the Snake River road, and upon the quickest and surest method of dealing out immediate punishment upon the offenders,

I remain, dear sir, yours, very truly, &c.,

WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory.

P. S.-I am exceedingly anxious to see you and learn from your own lips all your views and opinions of and concerning punishing the murderers and robbers on Snake River Valley, and upon the best plan of Preventing any more murders and robberies. I think I shall leave {p.192} here on Tuesday morning next along with Mr. Hale, superintendent of Indian affairs, and I will try and get to Walla Walla if I find you are still in the far-off eastern part of our Territory, for I feel very deeply and very severely the imperative necessity of having everything done that can be done to have full satisfaction and compensation for all their past offenses and crimes and full indemnity and perfect security for the future.

W. P.

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Talk of Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord to the chiefs of the Nez Percé Indians, assembled at the Lapwai Agency, Wash. Ter., on the 24th of October, 1862.

I left Fort Vancouver to visit you before I had heard of the murders in your country. The report of them met me at the Des Chutes on my way up the Columbia. I have come to see you in order to assure you that the Government desires to do all in its power to protect you. Hereafter, as heretofore, every officer under me will be directed to spare no exertion to afford all possible protection to you. Oftentimes this duty must necessarily be performed imperfectly, and you will, as heretofore, often find our intentions and wishes more satisfactory than our performances. You are entitled to this protection by the treaty. You are also doubly entitled to this care and friendship from your long and unwavering fidelity to our people and to our flag. You received with kindness Lewis and Clark sixty years ago, when they crossed the Rocky Mountains and wintered on the Clearwater. You were kind to Colonel Bonneville in 1835, and to Frémont in 1843. In 1847 you indignantly rejected the proposition of the Cayuse, after the murder of Doctor Whitman, to join in a war. In the spring of 1853 I was in command at The Dalles, and I learned that you again scornfully rejected the messages of the Cayuse asking you to join in a grand combination for a war against the whites. That war did not finally break out until two years later, when you refused to join them and aided Governor Stevens in safely reaching Walla Walla from the Blackfeet country. In 1858, under General Wright, in the Palouse and Cœur d’Alene country, some of you fought on our side, and we promised accordingly to fight for you against your enemies. You will never have a worse enemy than the whisky sellers and the bad whites who intrude upon you and commit outrages upon you and on your families.

Major Rinearson has been making war upon them as Captain Smith did a year or two ago. Like Captain Smith, he is a warm friend to the Nez Percés. Major Rinearson shall continue to discharge this duty. He will remain here permanently, and will build a military post, and will no doubt continue hereafter, as heretofore, faithfully to discharge the task confided to him. It will be his duty to make all good Indians his friends by doing all he can to protect you when requested by the Indian agent to prevent the whites from settling upon your farming and grazing lands, to aid in the arrest of whites who commit crimes against the Indians, and to punish those who sell or give whisky to your people. When I first met Lawyer with Mr. Craig in 1853 at The Dalles you were then fortunately remote from the emigrant road, and I had hoped that thus you would have an opportunity of developing and cultivating those elements of Christianity and civilization which had by the aid of missionaries been planted among you. As one worshiping the same God and Savior, I must admit that I took a deep interest in the experiment.

When encamped near The Dalles in May, 1853, your men were seen to kneel on the ground and say their prayers and worship in truth and {p.193} sincerity the great God of Heaven. You won in that way my respect and regard. Could I have had my will, I would have raised a wall as high as the heavens around you to keep out intruders. It is very sad to find that the discovery of gold and the consequent rush of miners to this country should have brought such a mass of the very worst white men in contact with you, and thus impeded your improvement. Better if all the gold found there were sunk in the ocean than that such injustice should be done you. In this unfortunate and unlooked-for state of affairs the best the Government can do for you is to provide, as it has, for the making of a new treaty, so as to compensate you so far as possible for the unauthorized occupation of the gold mines by our people. It is true that no amount of money can compensate you for your injured feelings. But the making of this treaty is not given to me. It is in other hands.

It will be my duty after a new treaty is made to aid the Indian agent in enforcing it. Some vexatious delays have occurred in executing the old treaty. A portion of the annuities were at Wallula as I passed there. The new superintendent, Mr. Hale, is an honorable gentleman, who I am sure wishes to do you justice. He had to send his bonds to Washington before he could get money for you. But that delay will soon be at an end. When the Pacific railroad is built, which the present Congress has provided for commencing, we can communicate so quickly with Washington that such delays will be at an end. Some of you and some of your sons will yet visit the Great Father at Washington on that railroad. Believe not the deceitful words of the cunning and slanderous men who say that this great Government has lost its power. The very reverse is true. Never was the Government so mighty and terrible in its power. Never did it have so many rifles or so many soldiers. It has a million of brave and gallant warriors in the field. In the very midst of such a war it makes a beginning, as I have already said, of a Pacific railroad. Owing to the delays interposed by the Southern States, that measure was never before started. The Northern people have all the country from here to Texas, including California, Utah, New Mexico, Nebraska, and Kansas-nearly all to the Mississippi River. You are under a great, a proud, a rich, and a generous Government, and never did we have more noble, patient, and faithful allies than the Nez Percés. It takes fire to temper steel. Temptation is the test and trial of virtue. If a Nez Percé’s lodge will stand rain and storm and hail and hurricane, it is then well pitched; it is then firmly secured to the earth. The sun may shine, but fair weather and sunshine are no test for it. It required all this severe and harassing treatment by the gold diggers to show how true and honest and straightforward a Nez Percé can be. Such fidelity shall always have my praise. We wish in return for it not only to be fair, not only to be just, but to be also as kind and as generous as possible toward you.

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, Commanding District.

(Copy for Maj. J. S. Rinearson, First Oregon Cavalry.)

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 25, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: A few days since I had an interview with His Excellency J. W. Nye, Governor of Nevada Territory. It is well known that many {p.194} persons in the Territory of Nevada sympathize strongly with the rebellion, and the character of many of the emigrants recently arrived in that country has only added to the disloyal element previously there. The Governor, anxious for the welfare of the Territory, came to consult with me as to the best means to be adopted to crush any attempt of the disaffected to raise the standard of rebellion. The Governor had already organized and armed four companies of loyal men at different points in the Territory, and he proposed to organize two more of infantry and one of cavalry, composed of good men and true, who would be always ready to meet any emergency which might arise. To enable the Governor to carry out his patriotic views I have placed at his disposal 100 stand of small-arms and equipments, also such arms and equipments for a company of cavalry as could be spared from our limited supply. For the same purposes I some time since placed at the disposal of His Excellency Governor Stanford, of the State of California, 500 stand of small-arms, to enable him to organize and arm companies of good Union men at certain points in the State. The Governors are particularly careful that none but men of undoubted loyalty shall enter the companies, and the very fact of having such organizations of men well armed and ready to act will go far to prevent any demonstrations of disloyalty. I have placed these arms at the disposal of the Governors without any special authority from the General-in-Chief or the War Department, not doubting that my acts would be approved, having for their object the maintenance of the peace and quiet of the country.

I beg here to renew my former request that 20,000 stand of small-arms and equipments may be sent to this coast at an early day; they may be needed, and remote as we are from the source of our supplies, prudential considerations demand that in an emergency we should be able to call out and arm 30,000 men at once. I would also respectfully recommend that another regiment of infantry be raised in this State, and that the First Cavalry Regiment of California Volunteers be increased to twelve companies. It will be recollected that this regiment, now consisting of only five companies, commanded by a lieutenant-colonel, was originally organized for special service with the command designated to protect the Overland Mail Route; subsequently its destination was changed to Southern California; it is now in Arizona and New Mexico, having formed a part of the Column from California under Brigadier-General Carleton. Owing to the vast extent of this department, and the detaching of large forces to New Mexico and Utah, the increase herein recommended is deemed absolutely necessary. I am compelled in the present state of our affairs to post troops at a great number of points, and it is highly important that they should be sufficiently strong to command respect for the Government of the United States.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 25, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith communications from Brig. Gen. B. Alvord, commanding the District of Oregon, dated, {p.195} respectively, on the 14th and 15th instant.* In the general’s letter of the 14th of October he has frequently referred to the policy which I recommended to the War Department when I was in command of the Department of Oregon in 1860, and which, but for-the breaking out of the rebellion, would doubtless have been carried out with beneficial effects. I most cordially approve of all the recommendations of General Alvord, especially as to the establishment of a post at or near old Fort Boisé, and the arrangement of a system of escorts for the protection of the large and annually increasing number of emigrants arriving from the east.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See pp 172, 176.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., October 25, 1862.

Maj. Gen. L. H. ALLEN, San Francisco:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 1st instant has been received and submitted to the Secretary of War. At the present time no additional arms or artillery can be sent to California, but measures will be taken as early as possible to arrest any apprehended danger to the harbor of San Francisco.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 191.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 25, 1862.

...

2. Capt. Daniel O’Regan’s company, Washington Territory volunteers, will proceed to Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., on the steamer leaving this port on Monday next.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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ORDERS, No. 14.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp No. 49, near Salt Lake City, October 26, 1862.

Pursuant to orders from department headquarters a military post is hereby established at this camp, to be called Camp Douglas. The following is declared to constitute the military reserve pertaining to this post. Commencing at a post due north one mile distant from the garrison flag-staff and running thence west one mile, thence south two miles, thence east two miles, thence north two miles, and thence west one mile, to the place of beginning, containing 2,560 acres more or less.

By order of:

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

{p.196}

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, October 26, 1862-10 p.m.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, Commanding District of Oregon, Camp Lapwai, Wash. Ter.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge your letter of the 25th instant, 9 p.m. In compliance with your directions I will await the arrival of Mr. Hale and accompany him to Fort Lapwai, unless otherwise directed by you. Company A, First Washington Territory Infantry, will be moved immediately after the arrival of Colonel Maury’s command as indicated in District Special Orders, No. 77. It was may intention to dispatch also a detachment, say thirty men, of Company E, First Oregon Cavalry, to Lapwai, as suggested by you in conversation on your recent visit here. I will be glad to know your wishes in this respect and if recent events since your arrival at Camp Lapwai will make any change advisable. Forage has been distributed on the road to Lewiston, and a rapid march can be made hence and returning. Lieutenant-Colonel Maury is expected on the 28th instant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 27, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have served on the Pacific Coast for ten years, the last year in command of this department. My duties have called me to nearly every section of this great country; from the sunny plains of the south to the farthest bounds of our possessions in the north. I have been called, either to battle with our savage foes, or to aid in the preservation of this beautiful land from the horrors of civil war. During this long period I have had ample opportunity of judging of the character of the people and the value to the Union of these remote possessions of the United States. Previous to the war with Mexico but little comparatively was known of this country; a few of our most adventurous people had found their way across the continent and taken up their abode either in Oregon or California; but when peace was restored, and we acquired California, and coeval with that event the discovery of gold mines, extensive and almost fabulous in richness, caused a large influx of population. It was not alone from the States of our Union that the people came; every quarter of the globe, as well as the isles of the ocean, contributed to swell the number. It will thus be seen that this country was overrun and occupied by people bringing with then and retaining all their home prejudices, and ill calculated to establish a colony of loyal citizens eager to promote the prosperity of the country. Time and contact have done much to harmonize and smooth down the discordant elements of this incongruous population, yet the outbreak of a formidable rebellion in our land had a tendency to revive those sectional sympathies and attachments, which have prompted men to glory in the fact not that they are Americans but that they are from such or such a State, to which their paramount allegiance is due.

Happily the number of men who thus ignore the authority of the Federal Government and declare their fealty to the State from which they came is small compared with that of the men who are Americans, {p.197} and who love the Union and are willing to risk their all for its preservation. Such was the character and such the division of sentiments on this coast when I assumed command of the department. I saw at once that to overcome all these threatening difficulties it was necessary to be watchful, vigilant, and firm; not create unnecessary alarm in the public mind by hasty and ill-advised acts, but to pursue the even tenor of my way, regardless of personal consequences, and feeling assured that such a course could not fail to secure the respect of political parties of every complexion, and ultimately redound to the honor of our Government and country. If what little I have done has contributed in the smallest degree in preserving intact our glorious Union and maintaining unsullied our flag, I shall feel more than repaid. It affords me high satisfaction to inform the General-in-Chief that during all the period of my command in this department I have received the most cordial approval and assistance from the Governors and State officers, as well as from the most prominent citizens.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 192.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 27, 1862.

I. As soon as the organization of Captain Whannell’s company is completed Lieut. Col. T. C. English, Washington-Territory volunteers, will proceed to Fort Steilacoom, Wash. Ter., and relieve Maj. G. W. Patten, Ninth Infantry, in command of that post. When relieved, Major Patten will repair to the Presidio of San Francisco and report for duty to the commanding officer thereof.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 149.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, October 28, 1862.

I. Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, will proceed to Round Valley. For this purpose it will march for Fort Humboldt as soon as practicable after the receipt of this order, to be in readiness to embark for Mendocino or Fort Bragg. The company will take with them six days’ rations.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 30, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have already written to you asking for authority to raise another regiment of infantry in this State, and also to raise seven additional companies of cavalry to complete the organization of the First {p.198} California Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, now in New Mexico, and composed of only five companies. Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, of the First Cavalry, is now here, having been sent from New Mexico with dispatches by General Carleton, and if the authority is granted for the additional cavalry companies I will thank you to inform me by telegraph in order that no time may be lost.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., October 31, 1862.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, Washington, D. C.:

All the companies of Washington Territory volunteers required have been organized, and I find one extra company at Alcatraz Island. Can I retain this company in a new regiment for California, or transfer it to the Oregon calvary?

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 195.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 31, 1862.

...

3. Company I (Atchison’s), Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, will he held in readiness to proceed by water to Fort Umpqua.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 13.}

CAMP BABBITT, Near Visalia, Tulare County, Cal., October 31, 1862.

I. This camp is hereby named and shall hereafter be known and called Camp Babbitt, in honor of Lieut. Col. E. B. Babbitt, deputy quartermaster-general, U. S. Army, Department of the Pacific.

...

By order:

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, D. C., October 31, 1862.

Brig. Gen. J. H. CARLETON, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé:

SIR: Your communication of the 30th of September has been received and submitted to the General-in-Chief.* The General Orders (No. 29) {p.199} to which you refer does not apply to your command. You having succeeded Brigadier-General Canby in the command of the Department of New Mexico, your troops have become a part of the force stationed in that department, and are considered as detached from the Department of the Pacific.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

* See Carleton to Thomas, Vol. XV, p. 576.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., October 31, 1862.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg., Round Valley, Cal.:

SIR: The general commanding the department directs that until further orders you will report direct to these headquarters on all matters relating to Indian affairs in the circuit of your command. All requisitions will be forwarded direct, except those on depot at Fort Humboldt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, November 1, 1862.

Hon. WILLIAM P. DOLE, Commissioner of Indian Affairs:

SIR: Have just returned from a tour to Nome Lackee and Round Valley Indian Reservations, and on inquiry found the statements communicated to you in my letter of the 15th of October to be correct.

The crops of this year have been nearly all destroyed by the hogs and cattle of the settlers in Round Valley, and the Indians that had left the valley by the persuasions and threats of the settlers, and whom I had stopped at Nome Lackee Reservation, I have temporarily provided for on the Sac River, where they can fish and collect some acorns, which, with an occasional supply of coarse flour and beef, which I have procured, will suffice until I can in safety return them to the reservation in Round Valley, which cannot be done until the settlers are removed, that we may in security plant and grow our future crops. The Indians thus stopped on the Sac River number about 400. They were ordered and advised by the settlers to return to their old homes in the mountains, and I had been notified if they did thus return the miners would immediately exterminate them; hence, without any money to purchase, I was compelled to engage a temporary supply, contrary to instructions in which I was ordered not to incur any debts, &c. This I was compelled to do or disgrace the service by allowing them to go off and all be massacred by white people. I would be pleased to know whether in such emergency I am allowed any discretionary power, or whether to follow the strict letter of instructions.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

GEO. M. HANSON, Superintending Agent, &c., Northern District of California.

{p.200}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 1, 1862.

Maj. JAMES F. CURTIS, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Camp Lincoln:

SIR: The general commanding the department desires me to express his admiration of your prompt action in arresting the deserters from your command and your manner of dealing with the disloyal element in Southern Oregon.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 2, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General Santa Fé:

The desire expressed by the general commanding to scud an expedition against the Indians in the vicinity of the Pinos Altos Mines can be attained, and I think with successful results, if troops can be spared from the northern portion of the department. Jack Swilling is at the mines and is available for service. I have in Government employ here a Mexican boy stolen from Sonora, who was seven years a captive of Mangus Colorado’s band. With such guides and a good force a severe castigation could most likely be inflicted upon the Indians. The Pinos Altos Mines are growing in importance daily. Were they relieved from the danger of Indian outrages they would rapidly develop.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 2, 1862.

Lieut. Col. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I am directed by Brigadier-General Carleton, commanding Department of New Mexico, to request that the general commanding the Department of the Pacific will be so good as to order a company of infantry forward from Fort Yuma to Tucson. It is contemplated to require some of the troops now at the latter post to advance to the Rio Grande, and the additional company now asked for is needed to take their place. I am also directed by the same authority to request that the commanding officer at Fort Yuma be ordered to furnish me at stated periods with an account of the stores on hand at that post. Also that the commander of the District of Southern California be instructed to make such arrangements of vedettes as will insure regular communications between San Pedro, Cal., and Tucson.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

{p.201}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, D. C., November 3, 1862.

Brig. Gen. G. WRIGHT, Commanding, San Francisco, Cal.:

The extra company Washington Territory volunteers will be retained. Assign it at your discretion.

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, November 3, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, U. S. Army:

SIR: Since I had the honor of addressing you in regard to the trouble on the Indian reservation at Round Valley, I have received other information which I beg leave to lay before you*; also, I have just returned from a visit in person and find the facts are not exaggerated. I inquired into the cause of the late massacre of twenty-one Indians at one of the Indian farms, viz: In July last, some twenty-eight whites came armed after night, surrounded the Indian camp, and killed 12 men, 7 women, and 3 children, wounding several others. The reason alleged was that they killed them because they expected the Indians would leave the reservation and steal their cattle, hogs, or horses. Since then they cut the throat of one, stabbed and hanged two others. They have now destroyed our crops and driven or frightened away some 400 Indians. Nearly all this mischief is done after night, and I fear the presence of troops, even, will not remove the principal trouble. I represented to the Department at Washington that the settlers were entering upon our lands in the valley and giving us much trouble, as they called it “swamp” land which they had purchased from the State, and requested advice in the premises. They answered, directing me to consult the U. S. district attorney, but carefully to protect the rights of the Indians, and Government would sustain me. I advised with the U. S. attorney, and he said “take troops and put them out.” While in the valley I talked with the most interested, and they all admitted that the two races could not remain in peace so near each other, and they would all be willing to leave if they had any assurance that they would be paid for their improvements on the reservation lands. I then told them I must apply to you for troops to expel them from the valley, and asked if they intended to resist. They answered they would not. I promised them if they left peaceably I would purchase their surplus produce, and some of their stock, and furthermore I would go immediately to Washington and urge payment for their improvements. They appear to be satisfied with this. The fact is, the whole valley was surveyed for a reservation years ago, and as such reserved from sale, and notice to that effect frequently posted by my predecessors, as well as myself, forbidding further improvements and settlements, which has all been disregarded. I cannot hazard another crop in the valley while the settlers remain there. They keep immense herds of cattle, hogs, and horses, devouring our grass, as well as our grain. So the crisis is upon us, and I do hope you will come to our relief before the {p.202} winter sets in, and they cannot be removed. Indeed, I believe most of them would be glad to be coerced, thinking they would then get paid for their improvements.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

GEO. M. HANSON, Superintending Agent Indian Affairs, Northern Dist. of California.

* For inclosure (here omitted) see Robinson to Hanson, August 28, p. 92, and Melendy to Hanson, October 19, p. 185.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 155.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Port Humboldt, November 3, 1862.

I. Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, is hereby ordered to proceed immediately to Fort Humboldt en route for Round Valley.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjt. 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Bragg, Cal., November 3, 1862.

First Lieut. and Adjt. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt:

SIR: Agreeably to post order dated Fort Bragg, Cal., October 27, 1862, copy herewith inclosed, I have the honor to report that I proceeded in the direction of Eel River a distance of sixty miles. While in the vicinity of that river made a thorough search, but found no fresh Indian signs except that of one or two, whose camp-fires showed they were simply on a fishing excursion; neither could I hear of any depredation being committed against ranch owners.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. HULL, Captain, Second California Volunteer infantry, Comdg. Post.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, November 3, 1862.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Comdg. Detachment 2d Infty. California Vols., in Round Valley:

CAPTAIN: On arriving in Round Valley you will send for the supervisor of the Indian reservation, with whom you will confer in regard to the best location for a military post, which should be as far removed from the Indian rancherias as will be consistent with your affording them protection in case of need. You will lose no time in erecting the necessary buildings for the preservation of your stores and other public property, and for the shelter of officers and men, using for this purpose the labor of the men exclusively. There are a number of dilapidated huts around the headquarters of the reservation which will furnish at least a part, if not all, of the materials needed. You will cause your acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence to forward without delay to department headquarters an estimate of the articles required for the completion of the buildings, as also his requisition for at least six months’ subsistence. You will forward at {p.203} the same time your own requisition for ammunition, both for the howitzer and small-arms. You will erect the buildings in such a manner as to afford shelter to the whole command in case of attack; as, for instance, by connecting them together by a stockade work, which should be loop-holed as well as the buildings. On arriving you will cause the copies of the proclamation you take with you to be distributed throughout the valley. You will receive herewith a list of the returns and reports required to be made, by post commanders to these headquarters. If from any unforeseen accident you should be in want of supplies, whether of subsistence or of ammunition, you will send for them to Fort Bragg. If this is impossible you will obtain the same by purchase, immediately reporting the circumstances to department headquarters. For re-enforcements, if any should be needed, you will call on the commanding officer at Fort Bragg. You will be ready at all times when called upon by the superintendent of Indian affairs or his agents to furnish the requisite protection to all Government property in the valley and to remove all trespassers upon the reservation. You will also at all times afford protection to the Government agents and employés, as also to the Indians of the reservation, against molestation from any quarter whatever, and you will arrest and confine all persons who shall attempt by violence or by threats to drive the Indians away. You will also promptly arrest and confine all persons in the valley who shall be guilty of any treasonable act or openly express any treasonable sentiments. You will disregard all writs of habeas corpus for the bodies of citizens whom you may have arrested under these instructions, from whatever court or magistrate they may come, and if any magistrate or other civil officer should attempt to interfere with your duties in this respect you will immediately arrest and confine him. You will report all arrests of citizens made under these instructions without delay to department headquarters, as well as to the headquarters of the district. You are expected to use your utmost efforts to prevent the demoralization of your command by intercourse with the Indians.

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjt. 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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CAMP HOOKER, CAL., November 4, 1862.

Lieut. Col. K. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen. U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: Herewith I have the honor to forward the inclosed report of a recent expedition to Merced County, in this State, by Lieut. Caleb Gilman, Third Infantry California Volunteers. Lieutenant Gilman was ordered upon the service indicated in the report for the purpose of ascertaining the facts in relation to alleged disloyal armed organizations in the above section. Believing the report to be important, as showing the true state of public opinion in the above-named county, I respectfully submit it for the consideration and information of the general commanding the department.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. POLLOCK, Lieutenant-Colonel Third infantry California Vols., Comdg. Post.

{p.204}

[Inclosure.]

CAMP HOOKER, Near Stockton, November 1, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. POLLOCK, Commanding Camp Hooker, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report:

In consequence of certain rumors received at this camp from various sources, concerning the open and avowed disloyalty of a large portion of the population of Merced County and vicinity, and of the strong suspicion entertained by many loyal Union men of there being a secret armed organization in that section of country for the purpose of carrying out some treasonable design against the Government, I received verbal instructions from you to travel through that portion of the country as a citizen, for the purpose of eliciting what information it was practicable to obtain, in order that the true condition of affairs, if possible, might become known. In obedience to those instructions I left this camp on the 12th of October and proceeded to travel on horseback, in citizen’s clothes, through the various settlements of that section of country for several days. While among those whom I knew to be disloyal (from information derived from reliable Union men) I found by careful questioning that, though personally embittered against the Union cause, all expressed themselves as willing to pay the Government tax without any resistance or opposition, and many of them did not hesitate to say that they thought it extremely unwise for those whose sympathies were with the South to pretend to offer any opposition to the Government while living in a loyal State like California. I heard no one make use of any expression that would imply that there was anything like an armed organization among them. The Union men living in that vicinity say that several months ago many of them were very bold in giving expression to their treasonable feelings by cheering for Jeff. Davis and the Southern Confederacy and cursing the “Lincoln Government,” but that such expressions were confined chiefly to a low, ignorant, worthless set of men, who had no property at stake and the larger portion of whom have since left the country. Parties, consisting of some three or four of these desperadoes, are occasionally seen on horseback, armed with a rifle and pistol, ostensibly bound for the Colorado mines. But it is the opinion of many of the Union men that there is a rendezvous somewhere in the southern portion of the State, where they meet and arrange for an expedition across the country to Texas. There are several Union men living among them who are keeping a sharp lookout and try to catch every item that may escape them. Mr. Anderson, county clerk of Stanislaus County, who has recently moved to Snellingville, a Kentuckian by birth, but who from the start has been a most genuine Union man, thinks there was evidently a design among the secessionists of that county several months ago to perfect a secret armed organization for treasonable purposes, but in consequence of the strong military force that was then being raised in the State they abandoned the idea. The same opinion was expressed by Mr. Wilson and Mr. Ayres, living on the San Joaquin River near the mouth of the Merced, both true and active Union men, who are watching very closely all the movements of those who they have reason to believe are disloyal. All the reliable Union men with whom I conversed promised to forward any information they might obtain at the earliest moment. From what I could learn and observe, therefore, while traveling among them, I do not think that there is any difficulty to be apprehended with them, though it is very evident that {p.205} the stringent orders which emanate from department headquarters, backed by the strong military force of the State, are powerful agents in restraining them in their mad career and operate very effectually in keeping them from carrying out any of their wicked and treasonable purposes.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CALEB GILMAN, Second Lieutenant, Third Infantry California Volunteers.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 157.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, November 4, 1862.

I. Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Capt. C. D. Douglas commanding, will embark on board the steam-tug Mary Ann for Fort Bragg, where it will disembark and march without delay to Round Valley. On arriving at Round Valley, Captain Douglas will establish a post on the Indian reservation, agreeably to his letter of instructions of date November 3, instant.

...

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjt. 2d Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Bragg, Cal., November 4, 1862.

First Lieut. and Adjt. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Second California Volunteer Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt:

SIR: I do myself the honor to report, for the information of the colonel commanding, that I have made a thorough investigation of the state and condition of the Indian reservation since being in command of this post, and which is nearly as follows: The present number of Indians now on the reservation amounts from about 200 to 300, consisting of old men, women, and children, mostly sick or diseased. I am informed, that there were some 400 or 500 about six months ago. Since then the young men capable of work have straggled off through the country, induced to leave by the encouragement given them from neighboring farmers to work in digging potatoes, &c., at 50 cents per diem. The licentiousness of the females causes the young men of the command to be continually under medical treatment, otherwise those Indians are inoffensive and peaceable. On the Noyo River, adjoining the headquarters of the reservation, is situated the Noyo steam sawmills, which give employment to sixty men, who are fully capable of protecting themselves and the establishment. The reservation improvements appear dilapidated and the fences broken and out of order. There are some potatoes, oats, and barley under cultivation, but at present the few Indians that are here appear to live upon fish, mussels, and such breadstuff as they get by begging and by their womens’ prostitution. If the Indians cannot be induced to remain on the reserve by their own free will I fear that the presence of a military post on the reservation will not have the desired effect. The brigadier-general, taking into consideration the expense to Government attending {p.206} the existence of a military post here and the apparent uselessness of its position, may please to cause it to be abandoned.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WM. E. HULL, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., November 4, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report my return to this post, having, as I proposed in my letter to you of the 15th ultimo, made a visit to the Nez Percé Reservation. On my way, at the Des Chutes, I heard of two murders of white men in that country having occurred, supposed to be the act of Indians, and was thus, besides the reasons assigned in my dispatch of the 15th ultimo, gratified to find myself en route to the scene of trouble. I have been compelled to establish a military post on the Lapwai, three miles above its mouth, where the Nez Percé Agency is established, and twelve miles from Lewiston, Wash. Ter., which is at the confluence of Clearwater and Snake Rivers. I have left there Maj. J. S. Rinearson in command, with two companies-one, Captain Matthews’ company (F), of First Oregon Cavalry, and the other, Captain Knox’s (E), of First Washington Territory Infantry. You have seen by Special Orders, Nos. 76, 77, and 78, heretofore inclosed to you (duplicates sent herewith), that I have enjoined the strictest economy in the execution of this duty, and have ordered First Lieut. D. W. Porter, regimental quartermaster First Oregon Cavalry (daily expecting his commission as captain and assistant quartermaster), to be stationed there as acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence.

For taking this step, I hope to be able to assign reasons satisfactory to the general commanding the department. I have to throw myself on his indulgence, as he verbally expressed a wish before we separated at San Francisco that no new post should be established without his authority being previously obtained. I found that the motives alluded to in my letter of the 15th ultimo, which would demand its establishment next spring, imperatively demanded it now. When I assumed command of the District of Oregon on the 7th of July last, there were about 15,000 people, mostly gold miners, on the Nez Percé Reservation, in defiance of the express provisions of the treaty with that tribe which was ratified by the Senate 29th of April, 1859. The treaty was made 11th of June, 1855, and not ratified until the above date on account of the revolt of other Indian tribes, with whom treaties had been made at the same time. As the Nez Percés never shared in said revolt, but on the contrary opposed it, and assisted our troops to suppress it, it was very hard that they had to wait four years before their treaty was ratified. Even now, at the end of seven years, I can find but few evidences of a fulfillment of the treaty. Lawyer has never received but six months of his salary as head chief, and the house with which he was to be provided has but just been commenced. Few of their annuities have ever reached them. I met some now on the way to Lewiston, and I am happy to say that I think the new superintendent of Indian affairs for Washington Territory, C. H. Hale, esq., is a {p.207} man of integrity, who will take an interest in securing so far as practicable the rights of those Indians. Their whole history, from their earliest contact with the Americans, has been signalized by their fidelity to the whole white race, especially to us, the other tribes having rather called themselves “King George Indians” before the boundary line was run.

In every war they have indignantly refused to join those tribes, and sometimes fighting on our side, as in 1858, when we promised in return to aid them in future against their enemies. Two years ago the stream of gold-seekers began to invade their country. I shall not attempt to portray the number and nature of the outrages to which this faithful tribe has accordingly been subjected. With no evidence of any adequate fulfillment of the old treaty, the tribe is agitated with the prospect of being invited to form a new treaty, provision for making one being made at the recent session of Congress. They learn that the whites are clamorous to get possession as well of their farming and grazing as of the gold-mining regions. Vile rebel sympathizers, of the lowest class of gamblers, outlaws, and land pirates, such as always haunt an Indian frontier, have infested the reservation and instilled poisonous words into their ears, such as representing that the power of our Government was gone, &c. I doubt not that a few such vagabonds have sought to hatch a revolt. The signal was to have been any great reverse at the East, as the capture of Washington or Baltimore. The object was nothing but plunder, pillage, and robbery in the midst of the disorder. On the 30th of September I sent the instructions, a copy of which is herewith inclosed,* to Major Rinearson, but he has been unable to obtain sufficient testimony upon which to found any action.

As the Nez Percés had in their own recent experience too much reason to regard the power of our Government a myth, the fiendish plotters might have supposed that they had ready prepared for them a congenial soil upon which to operate. Fortunately the Nez Percés’ fidelity has been able to withstand even all this unwonted array of temptation; the two murders had occurred, one on the 10th and the other on the 11th of October. These the whites attributed to an intention to make war. The imputation, even if untrue, was calculated to excite and irritate. To crown all, the military force which has been at Camp Lapwai this summer was about to be withdrawn for the winter. As they afforded the Nez Percés their only protection against trespasses, outrages, and whisky-selling, you can readily imagine the disturbed and dissatisfied condition of the tribe on my arrival. I reached Fort Walla Walla on the 19th and met there the letter of the Indian agent, herewith inclosed, and the proceedings of the mass-meeting of citizens of Lewiston, both on the subject of additional force being ordered to the reservation.

I immediately ordered forward Captain Knox’s company to Fort Lapwai, and directed also Captain Thompson’s company (A) of Washington Territory volunteers to go thither on the arrival of Lieutenant-Colonel Maury’s command. But I subsequently (on the 28th) countermanded the order for the last-named company. I placed all the troops (as see in accompanying General Orders, No. 15) upon the Nez Percé Reservation and at Fort Walla Walla under the command of Colonel Steinberger, with authority to move them to and fro, according to the demands of the public service. This is eminently proper, as the winter may soon cut off all communication with these headquarters for a long period of time. On reaching Camp Lapwai, on the 23d, I found that in {p.208} anticipation of my arrival and that of the Indian superintendents (for whom I had not waited), a large gathering of the Indians of the tribe had occurred, in part also occasioned by the reported murders, which were evidently a cause of as much concern to the Nez Percés as to the whites.

On that day one of the accused, named Wet-too-law-in, an illegitimate son of Pe-pe-mox-mox by a Nez Percé woman, was surrendered by Lawyer to Major Rinearson. He is accused of the murder of Mr. Titus, a citizen of Oro Fino. On the 24th I met the Indian chiefs, thirty in number, in a grand council composed of Lawyer, Joseph, Big Thunder, and all the principal chiefs except Eagle of the Light, who has never participated in any of the treaties. A brother of Looking Glass was there. They were assembled to see me, and expected from me a talk. I gave them the talk, a copy of which is herewith inclosed** I have every reason to believe that it had a happy effect upon them. I dwelt upon their past fidelity, and promised them protection to the extent of our ability, stating that the military whom I should leave in their country would protect them so far as possible under the old treaty, and also under any new treaty which might be formed. Under the operation of the confidence inspired by the establishment of a military post among then, they may by spring be prepared to form a new treaty, surrendering their gold mines to the whites. It appears that all factions of the tribe are pleased with the establishment of a military post, which is to this faithful tribe a harbinger of good. Major Rinearson appears to have discharged his duty with fidelity and discretion, and obtained the good will of the Indians, as Capt. A. J. Smith, First Dragoons, did a year ago last summer. The company of Oregon cavalry there is composed of excellent material, who have behaved well and have not been ruined by the temptations of a mining town. The infantry company sent there is composed of the best behaved men in the garrison at Fort Walla Walla. I was desirous, with a view to economy, to leave only an infantry company there this winter; but I am satisfied that it would not answer. The Indians would see no token of good faith or efficiency in such a command. A mounted force inspires their respect, as they rate the consequence of any man by the number and value of the horses he owns, and it is only a mounted force which can promptly move for their protection. Their chiefs, to their credit be it said, persistently insist on the removal of whisky-sellers from points outside the mining towns and the lines of transit.

I inclose herewith a copy of my instructions of the 7th of September, to Major Rinearson, in reference to the removal of intruders on their farming and grazing lands.*** You were furnished at the time with a copy of my instructions of the 18th of July, to which the other is only supplemental. I found on leaving that I had no further instructions to give. One of the Indians accused of murder belonged to the band of Big Thunder, who is a leader of the party in opposition to Lawyer, and a rival candidate for the head chieftainship. He and the chiefs in his interest sought an interview with me at Camp Lapwai on the 27th ultimo. He said that he wanted more time to investigate the question of the guilt of the accused. When satisfied of his guilt lie would surrender him, as required in the treaty. Doctor Newell, Mr. Craig, and Mr. W. H. Rector (the latter superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon) concurred in advising me to give him more time as he asked. He went on to profess that he was for peace, that this murder, if it was committed, was the act of a mere boy and no indication {p.209} or presage of war. The above-named gentlemen agreed in thinking that he was sincere, and that he and his adherents, notwithstanding the causes of irritation, have evinced no warlike intentions or preparations. Thus I am pleased to say that I think the murders were exceptional cases, and not the precursors of revolt. One of the accused, a half Walla Walla, can find sufficient cause for his deed in the killing of his father, Pe-pe-mox-mox, by the whites in 1856. The other, if guilty, remains the only full-blooded Nez Percé who ever killed a white man. This is averred as true of them by Doctor Newell and Mr. Craig, who have known them for thirty years. It is a miracle, with all the causes of conflict existing on that reservation for the last two years and all the outrages from bad whites to which they have been subjected, that some white man has not before been killed. It is an exception which proves the general rule. It is truly wonderful to find such persistent loyalty, and such a want of crime in a tribe subjected to such trials and temptations.

I have reason to hope that under existing circumstances no general outbreak will occur, but we may from time to time hear of more murders, as it can hardly be anticipated that even the virtues of this tribe and the establishment of the military post will prevent the natural consequences of such provocation, of whisky and of contact with bad white men. The military post will act as a check both to the whites and to the Indians, and I trust that my course in establishing it will be approved. As the roads are now painfully infested by robbers and cutthroats, the presence of the military will materially aid the civil authority. Still I declined the entreaties of some of the citizens of Lewiston to establish martial law for the preservation of order among the whites. I conceived that the troops had full as much on their hands as they could accomplish in attending to their legitimate duties. No such step would, of course, be justifiable, unless it was entirely practicable and absolutely necessary for the preservation of the peace of the frontiers. Of the interest centering in Lewiston you can form some idea when I state that half a million dollars for freights have been paid at that place during the last year. I have called the new post Fort Lapwai. Letters for that post should be directed to Fort Lapwai, near Lewiston, Wash. Ter.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, commanding District.

* See p. 142.

** See p. 192.

*** See p. 103.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 199.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 6, 1862.

...

3. Captain Atchison’s company (I), Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, will be sent to this city on Wednesday next, 12th instant, whence it will proceed to Fort Umpqua. The assistant quartermaster will make the necessary preparations for transportation.

...

5. The troops now in camp near Stockton will proceed by land to Camp Union, taking with them all the movable public property.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.210}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 7, 1862.

His Excellency WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia,. Wash. Ter.:

SIR I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency’s communication of the 31st ultimo. During the past season no pains have been spared by General Alvord and Colonel Steinberger to afford protection to the emigrants approaching Washington Territory and the State of Oregon, and had the emigrants followed the usually traveled routes they would doubtless have all reached their destination in safety; but on their approach they break up into small parties-some strike for the Salmon River mines, others diverge off for the Willamette Valley, and it is impossible to afford escorts for every family or small party. Your Excellency may be assured that I fully concur with you as to the propriety and necessity of severely chastising those Indians. I am under the impression that the number of emigrants reported to Your Excellency as having been murdered during the past season has been greatly overestimated. However, as soon as the final reports are received I hope to ascertain all the facts. In the meantime your communication will be referred to Brigadier-General Alvord, who will be instructed to do all that is possible to capture and punish the murderers. Estimates have already been made for the establishment of a strong post at or near old Fort Boisé, but I have but faint expectations that any force we can send on the route would entirely stop these murders. I once recommended a system to protect the emigrants as they approach, and if the Government and emigrants will adhere to it, there will be no difficulty.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, Sacramento, Cal., November 8, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Since I last had the honor to address you nothing of importance has taken place in this department. From Oregon I have received advices from Brigadier-General Alvord. He was at Walla Walla making arrangements for the continuance of the military post at Camp Lapwai, in the Nez Percé country, during the winter. This has been rendered necessary in order to maintain the peace between the miners and Indians. General Alvord has already strongly recommended the establishment of a military post at or near Fort Boisé, on the Snake River. I have concurred in the general’s views, and directed the deputy quartermaster-general to prepare his estimates accordingly. The establishment of a post at Boisé was directed by the War Department some three years since, but the order [was] afterward revoked, and in consequence of the disturbed state of our country nothing further was done in the matter. It is now considered important to create the post to overawe the marauding savages and afford protection to the emigrants annually approaching that country. The public sentiment in this country remains unchanged, and it is believed that the precautions already taken will effectually suppress any attempt of the disaffected {p.211} to throw this State into the vortex of rebellion. I have frequent personal interviews with the Governor of this State, and I am happy to state that he is watchful and vigilant, doing all that is possible for the preservation of this country from the horrors of a civil war. We have frequent reports of organizations in the remote interior districts of the State for resistance, but such reports have, upon investigation, been found highly exaggerated; that many organizations hostile to the Government do exist I have no doubt, but they are principally confined to the localities where the sympathizers with the rebels are in the majority. By the organization of militia companies in those places, composed of loyal men, with officers appointed by the Governor, together with a judicious posting of U. S. troops, I can apprehend but little danger that any open demonstrations against the Government will be made.

I propose to make a tour through different sections of the department for the purpose of ascertaining more correctly the true state of feeling, and to be prepared to meet any emergencies which may arise. In the absence of any special authority to travel over the department or to remove my headquarters temporarily, I have thus far been no farther from San Francisco than this city. In the present condition of our affairs I beg leave to ask that authority may be given me to remove temporarily my headquarters to such positions as may be deemed necessary. During a few months past I have been suffering with the asthma, the only affliction I ever had, and this only in San Francisco. Anywhere removed from the coast I am perfectly well. I find this city, which is the seat of government and the residence of the Governor, very convenient for the transaction of the business of the department; besides, being but a few hours from San Francisco, the mails from the East reach me here a day sooner. Under these circumstances I respectfully request that authority be granted to remove my adjutant-general’s office to Sacramento, at least during the session of the Legislature, as well as a general authority to visit any post or section of the country where my presence would be beneficial to the interests of the Government.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Camp Drum, November 9, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that I arrived here last night. The command, consisting of the non-commissioned staff, Companies I (Captain Tuttle) and K (Captain Tidball), Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, will be in to-day.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. BOWIE, Colonel Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 9, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to transmit herewith official copies of letters to Colonel Rigg, Captain Pishon, and Captain Willis, and Special Orders, {p.212} Nos. 71, 72, and 73, from these headquarters, all relating to the expedition ordered by the general commanding to leave Franklin, Tex., on the 15th instant on a campaign against the Mescalero Apaches.* The repetition of the order that Captain Roberts’ company should constitute the infantry arm of Captain Pishon’s expedition was received subsequent to the issue of my Special Orders, No. 71, by which the company was detailed for the duty required. I have endeavored to fully meet the wishes and comply with the orders of the general commanding in the directions given this expedition. Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, has been sent as auxiliary for the reasons that the inclosed correspondence explains. As the gang of secessionists in El Paso are making some threats against Captain Willis’ stores at Franklin I would respectfully ask permission to keep the remainder of Captain Hammond’s company at that post until such precaution is deemed no longer necessary. I was ordered to send out all of Captain Pishon’s company north of Fort Quitman. Circumstances which are deemed justifiable have induced me to keep five men of that company on picket at San Elizario. These were, that no spy that I could trust could be engaged for that duty. Captain McCleave’s expedition will be dispatched at the appointed time. With this also an auxiliary company will be sent unless orders to the contrary should be received in the meantime. When I call the attention of the general commanding to the fact that neither McCleave’s nor Pishon’s expedition will likely number over 100 men in two companies, I trust that the sending of an auxiliary force to guard their depots and their trains returning will meet with his approbation. They have been so sent solely because I believe that the fighting force falls within his expectations. Without the auxiliary companies each field force would have been further reduced by thirty men at least.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* Special Orders, Nos. 71 and 72, omitted as unimportant.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 9, 1862.

Lieut. Col. EDWIN A. RIGG, First Infantry California Volunteers, Franklin, Tex.:

Referring you to Special Orders, No. 186, current series, from headquarters Department of New Mexico, you will inspect Capt. N. J. Pishon’s company (D), First Cavalry California Volunteers; Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers, and twenty New Mexican spies and guides, under Gregorio Garcia, constituting a force ordered by the general commanding the department to operate against the Mescalero Apaches beyond the Hueco Tanks. The campaign is ordered for the period of six weeks, and the nature of the service and its duration will govern you in your inspection in the following particulars: See that the horses of Captain Pishon’s company are well shod; that enough extra shoes, set, and nails go with them; that their saddle blankets are good; that hobbles and picket ropes are provided, and that all the horse equipage is as complete as it can be made from the supplies at hand; that all the men’s arms are in good order; that 100 rounds carbine and fifty rounds pistol ammunition per man are provided, with a small surplus for accidents; that their train be filled with all the forage it can contain, in addition to the other supplies of the expedition; that Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers, is equipped with knapsacks, haversacks, {p.213} and canteens, and provided with necessary clothing for their comfort and service; that they have 100 rounds ammunition per man and a small surplus for accidents; that the twenty Mexican spies and guides are complete in their organization and comprise not less than five men accustomed to packing mules; that they have blankets and comfortable clothing; that their horses are shod, on the forefeet at least; that each man has a rifle and 100 rounds of ammunition. You will see that the foregoing force has rations from the 15th of October to the 31st of December next; that all the salt meat in the hands of acting commissary of subsistence at Franklin is taken by the expedition, and that any deficiency be supplied in fresh beef-that both companies and the detachment draw rations for the full term before leaving, and that these be separated in the train, so as to prevent their being improperly appropriated. If jerked beef can be procured in El Paso at a proper cost you can substitute it for fresh beef if desired. If onions or other fresh vegetables can be procured, see that the regular allowance is taken by the troops. Acting Assistant Surgeon Kittridge is ordered to accompany this force. See that his medical supplies are ample; that two hand litters and one horse litter are taken by him. See that each company has the requisite supply of axes, spades, and picks; that one paulin, five common tents (bell pattern) complete, thirty pack-saddles and saddle blankets be taken by the acting assistant quartermaster of the force. A train of twenty wagons and one ambulance, under Assistant Wagon-master Allen, are ordered to accompany Captain Pishon. Inspect this train thoroughly; see that all the animals are well shod; that extra shoes and nails are provided; that a suitable number of herders accompany the train, and that some are designated to remain with the mules that Captain Pishon will take for packing. As the orders from the general commanding direct that a depot for this expedition shall be established and well guarded farther out than the Hueco Tanks if practicable, and that can be reached by wagons, I have deemed it advisable, owing to the reduced numbers of the companies above named, to send Captain Hammond, with Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, for the purpose of detaching a guard of twenty-one men for that depot and to escort the train back to Franklin. You will accordingly inspect that company with reference to such duty. See that the guard to be detached has rations to the 31st of December and 100 rounds of ammunition per man; that it is composed of one sergeant and two corporals (selected for their prudence and reliability) and eighteen privates, picked men; that the remainder of Captain Hammond’s company has twenty days’ rations from the 15th instant and thirty rounds of ammunition per man. See that all surplus transportation is filled with grain forage packed in the bags which have been provided, and that no officer or man composing the expedition carries the least article that is not indispensably necessary. It will be well that you make inquiries as early as possible on reaching Franklin with the view of ascertaining whether any article named above, or any others which reflection may suggest, are deficient. If so, let me know by express what is wanting, and I will endeavor to supply it. Report to me in writing when these duties are completed. I particularly wish to know how much forage is taken, and you will embrace in your report to me all points that are necessary to convey to the general commanding the department a proper idea of the efficiency of the force which you are ordered to inspect.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

{p.214}

[Inclosure No. 2.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 9, 1862.

Capt. N. J. PISHON, First Cavalry California Volunteers, San Elizario, Tex.:

You are intrusted with the command of an expedition composed of your own and Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers, attended by a party of twenty Mexican mounted men under Gregorio Garcia, who are ordered to report to you. This expedition is sent out under the direction of the general commanding the department, with orders to start from Franklin, Tex., on the 15th instant. It was the general’s design that Captain Roberts, First Infantry California Volunteers, should command, but subsequent orders devolve that duty upon you, and all the original papers sent from department headquarters to Captain Roberts have been delivered into your hands. These comprise a map of the country in which you are to operate, a copy of the general’s letter to Col. Christopher Carson, who has been sent with a force to Fort Stanton, and a copy of a letter to myself dated headquarters Department of New Mexico, October 11, 1862.* These will convey to you the general’s wishes as to the duties you are to perform, and they are so marked and worded as to make any elaboration on my part unnecessary. For the purpose of guarding the depot which you are ordered to establish, “if practicable at a point beyond the Hueco Tanks that can be reached by wagons,” and for the purpose of guarding your train on its return to Franklin after depositing your supplies for the campaign, I have deemed it advisable, owing to the limited numbers of which your two companies are composed, to send with [you] Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, under Captain Hammond. This company will go with you to the depot that you establish. You will detach front it one sergeant, two corporals, and eighteen privates to remain with and guard your supplies. The importance of this duty will not escape your observation, and every precaution must be taken that it shall be faithfully and efficiently executed. This detachment forms part of the command under your orders. To conduct your operations against the Indians beyond your depot you can take such number of mules, not exceeding forty, from Allen’s train of twenty wagons that is sent with you as may be in your judgment necessary for transporting supplies. Thirty pack-saddles have been provided you. An ambulance is sent to bring wounded men into the posts. This will remain at the depot. Doctor Kittridge is supplied with horse and hand litters for service beyond your depot. As soon as you establish the depot, order Captain Hammond to return with the train and the remainder of his company to Franklin and report to the commander of that post. The general commanding writes to me under date of October 17, as follows:

The officer and twenty men named as a scout beyond the Hueco Tanks will not need to be kept upon that duty during the time Captain Roberts’ expedition is in the field.

This implies that you will dispense with Garcia’s party at some time before returning with the main body of your command. The determination of that period must be left to your judgment. On the 19th ultimo the general also writes to me, “After the campaign is over which is to be made by Captain Pishon, direct him to march all his force, but the spies and guides, to report to you at Mesilla.” You will be governed accordingly. Special Orders, No. 73, from these headquarters, {p.215} are herewith inclosed for your information. They relate to the contingency of an advance by the rebels up the Rio Grande during your absence. Acquaint the commanding officer at Hart’s Mill with the direction in which you will be found. How you will elude the enemy in case you should be recalled can only be determined by yourself. An official copy of extract of department Special Orders, No. 186, directing Colonel Rigg to inspect your command before it takes the field, is herewith transmitted for your information. Your attention is called to that portion of the letter of the general commanding which directs that journals shall be kept and transmitted to department headquarters. On the day of your leaving Franklin you will transmit to me a field return according to district General Orders, No. 23. These returns will also be sent during your campaign if opportunity offers. Garcia’s party is only to be noted in the remarks. The correspondence from department headquarters which has been placed in your hands will convey to you the wishes and designs of the general commanding as to the warfare that you are to conduct against the Indians. I am aware that the fullest confidence is felt in your ability and judgment, and that it is expected that you will teach the Indians a lesson that will be long remembered.

Wishing you the fullest success, I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

P. S.-I have mistaken the general’s wishes as to Garcia’s party. Keep them with you as long as you are out.

* See Vol. XV, pp. 579,580.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 9, 1862.

Capt. E. B. WILLIS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Hart’s Mill:

An expedition composed of Company D, First Cavalry California Volunteers, and Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers, under Captain Pishon, is ordered by the general commanding to start from Franklin, Tex., on the 15th instant, against the Mescalero Apaches beyond the Hueco Tanks. Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, is sent by me as auxiliary to the above expedition. Twenty-one men of this company will remain in the field. Captain Hammond with the remainder will return to your post with Allen’s train. Future instructions will be sent to you how to dispose of those upon their return. Special Orders, No. 73, from these headquarters, are herewith inclosed for your guidance. Captain Pishon has been ordered to leave five men at San Elizario, with instructions to scout down the Rio Grande to prevent your being surprised. You should hear from that picket occasionally. When left with only your own company at Hart’s Mill and Franklin, keep a watch over the movements of the gang of secessionists in El Paso that they work you no damage. I shall leave Captain Hammond’s command with you if it meets the approval of the general commanding. It is desired that Captain Pishon’s object be kept secret as long as possible. To that end you will keep this letter and inclosure in your own possession until no longer necessary. By direction of the general commanding, Colonel Rigg is sent to Franklin to inspect the troops ordered into the field.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

{p.216}

[Inclosure No. 4.]

SPECIAL ORDERS No. 73.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 9, 1862.

Should an advance by the Rio Grande by rebel troops be threatened during the absence of Capt. Nathaniel J. Pishon’s expedition against the Indians, the commanding officer at Hart’s Mill will immediately notify Captain Pishon to rejoin the main force in this district, and furnish him with every information essential to the execution of that step in a manner that will prevent his falling into the hands of the enemy.

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 9, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

The postscript to instructions sent to Captain Pishon under this date will explain that I have discovered my mistake as to the general’s design to have Garcia’s party return while Captain Pishon was in the field.* I would respectfully state that for some time after receiving the general’s direction of October 2 to send a scout to the Hueco Tanks of an officer and twenty men “as soon as practicable” I had no force nor officer fit to send. Lieutenant Wardwell’s detachment was recruiting, and before it could be sent on the duty named orders came to send it back to Tucson. I endeavored to get Lieutenant Baldwin off from here. He was so engaged with his papers that he could not leave. Meanwhile the orders for Captain Roberts’ expedition came, and I concluded that the general had changed his plans. I now see my mistake, and regret it very much. My duty was plain, had I the means at command to have performed it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* See p. 214.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Carson City, Nev. Ter., November 9, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, Commanding Pacific Department:

SIR: I inclose you two articles clipped from the Sacramento Union of Saturday describing two bloody atrocities committed on the road between Honey Lake and Humboldt. They are very startling, and quite indicative of the intentions of the Indians for the coming winter. I do not know what to do. I have no money or rations to supply men with if we send them out. If we could have a company stationed in that vicinity for the winter they would be able to keep peace. If there is not, I am apprehensive of serious and constant trouble. While I write two of the representatives from the county of Humboldt are present and inform me that these depredations were committed on the road over which the supplies are taken into all that mining region, and will subject them to great inconvenience if they are not able to get {p.217} supplies from that direction. Some of the persons killed are acquaintances of theirs, and they are filled with anxiety in view of the future. What can be done? How can it be done? Those people must not be sacrificed. They must be protected. Will you inform me what to do? I am willing to aid in all possible ways. If I had means I would not call upon the department for aid.

Please answer at the earliest convenience, and oblige, yours, &c.,

JAMES W. NYE.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

INDIAN OUTRAGE AT HONEY LAKE.

MARYSYILLE, November 7, 1862.

The Quincy Union extra of November 5 contains the following exciting news from Honey Lake Valley:

SUSANVILLE, November 3, 1862.

EDITOR UNION: But a few days ago I wrote you an account of an Indian outrage in the vicinity of Lathrop, at the lower end of Honey Lake Valley; also of the burning of Hot Springs Station on the Humboldt River. On Saturday last Theo. C. Purdoll, a citizen of Honey Lake Valley, and ten others were returning from Humboldt. At Mud Flat, nine miles from Lathrop, they were fired upon by about fifty Indians, who were concealed by sagebrush. Purdoll fell at the first fire, severely but not dangerously wounded. In the fight that followed G, L. Kellogg and Joseph Block were killed and one McCoy dangerously wounded. The Indians pillaged two wagons and drove off three horses and a mule. Block was known to have about $500 upon him and Kellogg $180, all of which they obtained. Purdoll is a well-known citizen of this valley; Kellogg has lived in the valley with Lewis Stark, but for some time past has resided at Humboldt, where he was a partner of Purdoll in mining claims. His father, the Rev. Mr. Kellogg, lives in this State and, it is thought, in Yuba City. Block and McCoy have lived in the vicinity of Red Bluff. Yesterday a party from this place recovered the dead bodies, which they found horribly mutilated.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

TEAMSTERS ATTACKED BY INDIANS.

The Quincy (Plumas) Union of November 5 gives the following particulars of an Indian attack and robbery: We were informed by Oliver, of Indian Valley, who passed through town on Sunday last, that some time during the early part of last week two teamsters on their way from Humboldt to Red Bluff were attacked by Indians about two miles beyond Lathrop’s ranch, in Honey Lake Valley. The party had two teams (an ox and a mule team), and at the time of the attack the mule team was some little way in advance. The Indians were fifteen in number, and as the ox teamster passed the Indians rose up out of the sagebrush about thirty yards from the wagon and discharged their rifles at the driver and a passenger. The latter in endeavoring to get his rifle, which was under some blankets, was shot in the arm (very slight wound) by one of the Indians more daring than the others who had advanced to within a few yards of the wagon. The passenger succeeded in getting his rifle and handed it to the driver, who discharged it at the Indians, whereupon one of them fell, but soon recovered himself and ran off. Several shots were fired by the passenger, {p.218} who had a revolver, but upon a nearer approach of the Indians they were compelled to leave their teams and retreat to Lathrop’s, where they raised a small party and started in pursuit. They recovered the wagons and teams, the Indians having plundered the ox wagon of a trunk containing $250 and then left. The money stolen belonged to the ox driver. Our informant did not learn the names.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., November 9, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that pursuant to orders from headquarters Department of the Pacific on the 26th day of October, 1862, I established a military post in Utah Territory, and which I have named Camp Douglas. It is situated at a distance of three miles east of Great Salt Lake City, at which place there is a post-office and telegraph office, with good facilities for communication both east and west daily. It is situated at the foot and on the west side of a range of mountains which form the divide between Weber River and the Great Salt Lake Valley. It is on an elevated spot which commands a full view of the city and the Great Salt Lake and Valley, with a plentiful supply of wood and water in its vicinity, and in the neighborhood of numerous quarries of stone adapted to building barracks. If it is contemplated to establish a permanent post in this Territory I know of no spot so desirable as this. Besides the above advantages, it is the center from which diverge three roads to California, two to Oregon, and the great Overland Mail. Route to the east. The low price of forage for animals is an additional advantage which it possesses, and the health of the soldiers has also materially improved since their arrival here.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

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SACRAMENTO, November 10, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General:

Suspend movement of company to Umpqua and refer the subject to General Alvord for a report.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General.

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PROCLAMATION TO THE SETTLERS IN ROUND VALLEY.

For the purpose of preserving peace and quiet on the Round Valley Reservation and of protecting the Government property and the Government agents there, by virtue of authority in me duly vested, I hereby declare martial law to be in force throughout the said valley, of which the civil authorities there and all persons whatsoever will take due notice and govern themselves accordingly. No civil officer or any other {p.219} person will be molested or interfered with in any manner whatsoever by the military authorities except when it shall become necessary in order to carry out the objects above declared.

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, November 10, 1862.

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OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DIST. OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, November 11, 1862.

General G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding:

SIR: I am just in receipt of another letter from Round Valley from Supervisor Short, in which he says: “No troops have yet come and no news of them.” “David Jordan has come into the valley with six or eight barrels of whisky, and I know we will have trouble here as long as it lasts.” “There was a Peter McWilliams started out of the valley last Monday with a little Indian child about four years old;” (hearing of it) “I got out a writ for him and started a constable after him, who caught him at the McCord camp and brought him and the child back; had a trial and was acquitted. He proved by Mr. Witt he got the child by consent of its parents: Witt done the talking” (interpreted, I suppose). The foregoing paragraphs are taken from the supervisor’s letter of the 4th instant, which demonstrates more than ever the importance of martial law in the valley. The reason I quote these facts is, Mr. Short also says in his letter: “The settlers have held a meeting and got up a remonstrance to General Wright against declaring martial law in the valley, or against their removal, setting forth their loyalty and good intentions.”

I wrote to the supervisor immediately after I received your letter of the 5th instant in relation to removal of settlers, informing him not to make the requisition until the weather would be favorable and they could have time to dispose of their produce, stock, &c., for the object was not to injure them, but to protect the rights of the Indians and Government property, &c. “Martial law,” I said to him, “was declared over the whole valley, as it was all a regularly surveyed Indian reservation, and reserved from sale or pre-emption, and map filed in the U. S. office here, all done by orders of U. S. authorities at Washington.” Hence, I have instructed him to require troops to arrest these Indian kidnapers, take or destroy the whisky brought in the valley to retail, &c., and for all other necessary purposes protecting the United States in its rights.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

GEORGE M. HANSON, Superintendent, &c.

P. S.-Please say if I have done right in said instructions.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 203.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 12, 1862.

1. Lieut. Col. George W. Patten, Second Infantry, is, agreeably to instructions from the Adjutant-General’s Office, relieved from duty in this department, and will proceed without delay to join his regiment.

...

{p.220}

4. The battalion of the Third Infantry California Volunteers, under the command of Lieut. Col. Robert Pollock, at Camp Hooker, near Stockton, Cal., will take up its line of march on the 17th instant to Camp Union, near Sacramento, Cal. Such of the movable property as cannot be sent with the command will be transported by water to Sutterville, on the Sacramento River.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson. November 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that Maj. D. Fergusson, First Cavalry California Volunteers, arrived at Tucson on the 11th instant from his reconnaissance of the port of Libertad and the road from here to that place. Major Fergusson reports the road good and the harbor excellent, and I trust to receive the first invoice of supplies over the new route ere many days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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TUCSON, ARIZ. TER., November 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I returned to this place yesterday after having made a reconnaissance of the routes to the ports of La Libertad and Lobos Bay, in Sonora. I found the routes to both ports practicable for transportation of supplies, and the ports both adapted for landing stores from any class of vessels and affording safe anchorage. As the express leaves to-day I am unable to send my detailed report, but will mail it by the next express, one week hence.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 13, 1862.

His Excellency JAMES W. NYE, Governor of Nevada Territory, Carson City, Nev. Ter.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 9th instant the general commanding instructs me to say that directions will be given to afford all possible protection in the region of Honey Lake, Capt. Henry B. Mellen, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, a very excellent officer, has recently been sent to that part of your Territory, and as soon as his report is received the general will determine what course to pursue. The general’s absence prevents his writing.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.221}

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, November 13, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: Owing to various unforeseen and unavoidable delays in regard to transportation (which I will hereafter explain if desired), Captain Douglas’ company has not yet left for Round Valley. It leaves this afternoon on board a steam-tug for Fort Bragg, where it will land to-morrow morning and march to Round Valley. It ought to arrive there by the 18th instant. A copy of my proclamation of martial law is herewith inclosed,* as also of my instructions to Captain Douglas.** Being satisfied from my visit there that the object of the department commander could not be fulfilled otherwise, I have taken the responsibility of extending martial law over the whole valley, and I trust my action will not be disapproved. Acting Assistant Surgeon Deans leaves this forenoon for Fort Baker, whither he was ordered some time since. The circumstances under Which he was temporarily detached at Fort Humboldt will be fully explained by Surgeon Egbert in a letter to the medical director which goes by this mail and to which I beg leave to refer. It appears from Major Curtis’ reports that all, or nearly all of the Indian prisoners (some 835 in number) that were sent from this post to Smith’s River have left the reservation. From information received by me from various quarters I am satisfied that they have returned to their old haunts, or are on their way there. The only effect of the summer campaign has been to transform some hundreds of peaceable Indians into hostile ones. Since these prisoners began to leave Smith’s River Valley we have been learning of fresh outrages in every direction-ranches burned, their owners killed, travelers waylaid and murdered, mail stations plundered of their horses and forage. On the 21st of October Captain Flynn while traveling alone to Fort Baker was fired on by a party of some ten Indians in the Redwoods, two miles east of Yager Creek. On retreating down the hill he was fired on by another party stationed there to intercept him. He had the good fortune to escape after having killed one of them. The detachment under Lieutenant Hubbard, reported by me some time since as having been sent out in pursuit of the Indians seen near Cooper’s Mills, returned after a five days’ scout without being able to find the Indians or any track of them. To send soldiers in pursuit of any particular party of Indians in this country is as futile as it would be to send a two-horse stage in pursuit of a locomotive. To send a detachment to the spot where an outrage has been committed is simply to exhaust the men and expend the Government money for nothing, for that is the only place where the Indians will be sure not to be a few hours afterward. In a few weeks when the hills are covered with snow it may be possible to track them. At present it is impossible. No addition has been made to the forty-seven prisoners reported some time [since] as being under guard on the peninsula opposite this post. I see no prospect of any more being brought in, at least for the present. I hope I may be soon directed to send them away, as it requires a standing picket of eleven men to guard them. When the snows set in the Indians they say will be driven into the mountain gulches for shelter and for food. It is here that they will be found by the troops, if found at all. They will have to be approached by stealth in the night-time and surprised and surrounded. As the bucks invariably attempt to escape the troops will have to fire at once upon the whole {p.222} party-men, women, and children-indiscriminately. I appeal to the department commander that this sort of warfare is better suited for savages than for the troops of a civilized and Christian nation, and could certainly be carried on far more effectually by a company or two of wild beasts and Indian hunters as well as far more economically to the United States. Plenty of such men can be found by the State government in this district ready and desirous to be enlisted, and if the systematic attacks upon me in the Humboldt Times can lead to such a result and the withdrawal of my regiment from this odious and thankless work I shall be but too glad to have them continued. I respectfully request that another mountain howitzer may be sent to the post commander at Fort Humboldt to replace the one that Captain Douglas takes with him to Round Valley. If there was need of one before there is equal need of one now. The present one is furnished with a prairie carriage which is entirely too large and cumbersome to be packed over such mountains as we have here, although it will be well suited to Round Valley when once arrived there. I have been teaching a few detachments for the last few days the artillery drill, in which they have made very rapid progress. On another howitzer being sent here I would be soon able to make all the officers and men at the post good artillerists, and if sent with a mountain carriage it would, moreover, be very useful in case of emergency. I feel quite mortified at the delay in getting the troops to Round Valley, where they might have been two weeks ago but from my desire to have them there even sooner, a desire that has been frustrated by unforeseen disappointments.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

* See November 10, p. 218.

** See November 3, p. 202.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 14, 1862.

Col. G. W. BOWIE, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Southern California, San Pedro, Cal.:

SIR: The general commanding the department directs that Captain Ffrench’s company at New San Diego will be relieved by Captain Grant’s company, Fourth Infantry. The latter company will proceed by land as soon after the receipt of this letter as practicable. Captain Ffrench will march his company to and take post at Camp Drum, forming a part of your immediate command. It is presumed that sufficient transportation is on hand at New San Pedro for the movement of Captain Grant’s company. If not you will hire a sufficient number of teams for the purpose, the allowance, however, not to exceed that specified in regulations.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., November 14, 1862.

Maj. Gen. HENRY W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I write this direct to you because I believe you will desire to mark the man to whom I refer as one deserving of your {p.223} notice as head of the Army. Capt. William McCleave, of Company A, First Cavalry California Volunteers, served ten years under my command, nearly all the time as a first sergeant in Company K, First Dragoons. When the California volunteers were organized he became the ranking captain in the First Cavalry. While on a scout last spring he was taken prisoner by the secessionists, and was not exchanged for four months. When he came to draw his pay he presented to the United States $582.50, stating in his letter of transmittal, “I am not here for pecuniary purposes, and respectfully ask that the amount revert to the Federal Government, whose servant I am.” This was the pay which accrued while he was a prisoner. In a letter to myself Captain McCleave says: “I prefer a clear conscience rather than possess anything the ownership of which is doubtful, and especially in times like these, when the Government is engaged in such a desperate struggle, I can but render my humble assistance in the noble work.” The devotion of this noble Irishman to the country of his adoption should be known. If you can give him a helping hand you may rest assured you cannot assist a finer soldier or one whose heart is in all respects without fear and without reproach. He should belong to the regular service. He possesses all the elements of which heroes and patriots are made.

I am, general, very sincerely and respectfully,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General.

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[NOVEMBER 14, 1862.-For West to McCleave, relating to operations against the Mescalero Indians, see Vol. XV, p. 596.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 14, 1862.

Capt. HENRY B. MELLEN, Second Cavalry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Crook, Cal.:

SIR: The general commanding the department directs that you will send a detachment consisting of one commissioned officer and twenty-five enlisted men to take post at or near Susanville, near Honey Lake. You will accompany the detachment to the point designated and make all the necessary arrangements for quartering it during the winter and supplying forage for the animals. For this purpose you are authorized to hire a house of sufficient capacity and stabling. Subsistence will be taken from Fort Crook to last this party until the opening of communication in the spring. You will give the lieutenant in command detailed instructions as to his duties, to be vigilant and active in protecting the settlers and emigrants against marauding bands of Indians, pursuing and punishing any band that may threaten the quiet and peace of that region. In performing these duties he must exercise judgment in determining the truthfulness of the numerous statements that will be made by irresponsible parties. If there is not transportation at Fort Crook sufficient for this purpose (wagons or pack animals) you will notify this office of the fact without delay. After completing the duties assigned you (making the detachment comfortable) you will return to Fort Crook. You will require the officer left at Susanville to report to you, or direct to this office, whichever is most practicable, as often as possible the actual condition of affairs in the neighborhood of {p.224} the lake. In connection with the above the general directs me to express his admiration of your energy and zeal displayed in the recent expeditions against the Indians.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 204.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal November 14, 1862.

I. Captain Whannell’s company of volunteers will proceed to and take post at the Presidio of San Francisco.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 14, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

The attack by Indians on the 31st ultimo on the train of John Davis, assistant wagon-master, then on its way from Fort Craig with supplies for this district, has already been reported to you by the commanding officer of Fort Craig. I know of no additional facts to communicate that would be serviceable at department headquarters in connection with this matter. I inclose a certified list of the property which appears to have been taken by the Indians from the train. The socks are the greatest loss, and there is not a bootee in the district fit to issue, owing to the inferior quality of some and the extreme large sizes of the remainder. I look for a train with clothing to arrive about the 1st proximo from Tucson.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., November 15, 1862.

Hon. MILTON S. LATHAM, U. S. Senate, Washington, D. C.:

MY DEAR MR. LATHAM: I wrote to you a short note by Colonel Eyre as he started for California about the 21st of last September, in which I inclosed some duplicate original papers going to show that some property in Albuquerque, N. Mex., belonging to my children, had been burned up by order of the military authorities on the 2d of March last. I inclose herewith a certificate of Capt. Herbert M. Enos, assistant quartermaster, U. S. Army, that he gave the order for the destruction of the property. The proceedings of the board which assessed the damage to the property at $7,600 I sent to you by Colonel Eyre. Captain Enos’ inclosed certificate makes the chain of evidence perfect. The rents per month which accrued to my children from this property was $105. If the United States had vacated and not destroyed the {p.225} property it could have been rented to others, but now all my children have to contemplate as their property is a blackened mass of unproductive ruins. I think in equity the Government should pay what is right for rendering the property valueless to rent to others, besides paying for its destruction per se. Pray do me the favor to help them out in the matter. The loss of this property and of some real estate which I had bought for my children in Texas, and which was long since confiscated by the rebels, takes everything I had in the world. I now have only my commission, after twenty-odd years’ hard work, and if I should die to-morrow my children would be beggars. I mention this to show you that I am solicitous that this little should be saved to them. My wife bought a lot in San Francisco. If I can get a bill for the relief of my children for the destruction of this property I will have a house built on that lot, and have at least a home for my family. Hon. J. S. Watts, the Delegate from this Territory, has promised to help in the matter. I inclose a copy of a letter to him on the subject. I worked hard with our California boys, and got them safely through the desert. When time wears away and people begin to think again, the passage of 2,000 men over the great desert in the heart of summer will be thought to be not a contemptible achievement. I could not have done it with any other troops. The men were devoted to me, and never murmured in all their hardships and sufferings. When all their toils and all their privations are thought of by myself, and when I look back and see that a single mistake would have been a horrible disaster, I shudder at my responsibility even with that small force. It is a matter that will never properly be appreciated, but if one can fancy a desert with its hot sands, its brassy sky, its utter desolation, and its want of everything which would go to sustain life, and then imagine a caravan of 2,000 men and 1,800 animals passing over it, one could fancy what would be his feelings of responsibility as he saw them on their weary journey and saw them gathering around the scanty supplies of water with famished looks, and absolutely holding him responsible all the time that the supply should meet their wants. What if one of his calculations failed? You can imagine the result. I felt a great burden fall from my shoulders when I saw the Rio Grande. I assure you I would not encounter the same anxiety again for ten major-generals’ commissions. Present my regards to Mrs. Latham, and believe me to be,

Very sincerely, yours,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 15, 1862.

Maj. THEODORE A. COULT, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Tucson, Ariz.:

SIR: The department commander approves of your circular to the inhabitants of Western Arizona in relation to persons trafficking with the Indian tribes. The general cannot approve of your order of the 23d of October, preferring to leave the adjudication of rights as to real estate to the action of the civil courts when established. The general desires you to take and keep possession, for the use and convenience of the troops, of such houses, corrals, and other structures as may have {p.226} been occupied by U. S. troops, or formerly by the Mexican Government, and such places as can be secured without positive injury or inconvenience to the loyal citizens within your district.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 15, 1862.

Col. F. J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Humboldt:

SIR: In executing the instructions contained in letters to yourself and the officer in command at Round Valley, directing assistance to be rendered to the supervisor of Indian affairs in removing intruders from the reservation, the general commanding the department desires you to exercise great discretion. The superintendent represents that many very deserving settlers are willing to be removed; therefore so long as these continue to behave properly they will not be removed at an unsuitable or inclement season, nor will harsh measures be applied to them when the proper time of their removal arrives.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[NOVEMBER 16, 1862.-For Carleton to Lorenzo Thomas, in regard to threatened invasion of New Mexico by Confederate forces under Baylor, see Vol. XV, p. 597.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, November 17, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith a communication addressed to these headquarters by Brig. Gen. B. Alvord, commanding the District of Oregon, dated the 4th instant,* with nine inclosures. The report of General Alvord, with accompanying documents, will fully inform the General-in-Chief of the state of affairs in the district, especially in relation to the Nez Percé Indians and the reservation set apart for them by treaty stipulations. I have fully approved of all that General Alvord has done and proposes to do to maintain the peace and quiet of that country. The large and constantly increasing number of miners in the Nez Percé country can only be held under proper restraint by the strong arm of military power. The Nez Percés have been our steadfast friends for more than half a century; they rendered me essential aid in my campaign against the northern Indians in 1858, and still later they have yielded to the encroachments of a multitude of miners, who have overrun nearly their entire reservation, asking only that they may receive protection from the Government in their just rights, and that the white intruders may be held under proper restraint. This must be done; and other means failing, I shall not hesitate to declare martial law over the entire reservation, and strictly enforce the {p.227} laws of Congress regarding Indian country, and take such other steps as may be deemed necessary to suppress the disloyal practices of those sympathizers with the rebellion, who have sought an asylum in the country with a view of encouraging those Indians to revolt against the authority of the United States.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p. 206.

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FORT VANCOUVER, November 17, 1862. (Via Yreka, 9 p.m. 21st.)

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army:

There is, in my judgment, no necessity for troops at Umpqua.

B. ALVORD, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., November 18, 1862.

General GEORGE WRIGHT, Comdg. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to inclose a duplicate original of a letter sent by express, via Mesilla and Tucson, to Colonel Bowie, requesting him to march without delay with three companies of the present garrison of Fort Yuma to the Rio Grande.* I consider it important that you give me all of Bowie’s regiment on the Rio Grande; that other troops occupy Tucson and Fort Bowie in the Apache Pass, and that Fort Yuma be garrisoned by at least six companies. If you can send three companies of the Second Cavalry under such a man as Colonel Evans to Tucson, it would give me all of the First here, and I cannot get along with less of this description of troops. It seems to be a settled purpose of the rebels to occupy this country and Arizona. If you will help me with another regiment of infantry, posted as herein indicated, and three companies of cavalry, I believe he cannot succeed. I shall try to get some troops from Colorado Territory to make this part of New Mexico as warm as possible for him in case he comes here. What you do, general, should be done at once. You are aware that there are many stores accumulated at Fort Yuma and at Tucson, so that these movements will not be attended with much additional expense. The means of transportation now at Tucson, and which I can send there, will be sufficient for all movements this side of Fort Yuma. I will send a duplicate of this letter by express over the southern route.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

NOTE.-Please notify me by telegraph via Denver City of what you decide on doing.

J. H. C.

* See inclosure No. 2, Vol. XV, p 605.

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[NOVEMBER 18, 1862.-For Carleton to West, relating to threatened invasion of New Mexico by the Confederates under Baylor, see Vol. XV, p. 599.]

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{p.228}

FORT CHURCHILL, November 18, 1862-8.40 p.m.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Metropolitan Hotel:

Citizens of Humboldt ask protection of the troops at this post against hostile Indians of that vicinity. Will I send a detachment of soldiers to their assistance?

C. MCDERMIT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 19, 1862.

Maj. THEODORE A. COULT, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Tucson, Ariz.:

SIR: The general commanding desires you to retain at Tucson, subject to the order of this department or of Brigadier-General Carleton, all papers relating to political prisoners that are now in your possession.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SAN FRANCISCO, November 19, 1862.

Major MCDERMIT, Fort Churchill:

Send a detachment to the assistance of Humboldt people.

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 19, 1862.

Maj. CHARLES MCDERMIT, Second Cav. California Vols., Comdg. Fort Churchill, Key. Ter.:

SIR: I sent you by telegraph to-day authority to send in the direction of the Humboldt settlements a detachment from your command. It is not the purpose of the general commanding to continue this force on the Humboldt during the winter, but merely to afford temporary protection until the arrival of the detachment ordered to Honey Lake from Fort Crook. The time for withdrawing the force sent from your post will be left discretionary with you.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant. General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., November 20, 1862.

Maj. E. MCGARRY, Second Cavalry California Volunteers:

MAJOR: You will proceed this p.m. with a detachment of sixty men of your command to Cache Valley, at which point are encamped Bear Hunter’s tribe of Snake and Bannock Indians, who, I am credibly informed, have in their possession an emigrant boy about ten years of age, whose parents were murdered last summer by Indians, The boy’s {p.229} uncle is at present at Cache Valley and will guide you to where the boy is. You will march by night and by a trail which will be shown you by a guide who will accompany your command. Surround the Indians, if possible, before they become aware of your presence, and hold them prisoners while you send a part of your men to a valley about two miles from the Indian camp, where, I am told, there is a large number of stock stolen from murdered emigrants, which, if you have reason to believe that my information is correct, you will drive to this post. You will search the Indian camp thoroughly for the emigrant boy, and if you should not find him you will demand him of the Indians, and if not given up you will bring three of their principal men to this post as hostages. You will also investigate as to their complicity in the massacres of last summer, and if you have reason to believe any of them are guilty you will bring all such to this post for trial. You will not fire upon the Indians unless you find it necessary to the proper execution of your instructions.

P. EDWARD CONNOR Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter., November 22, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that Captain Ketcham, Third Infantry California Volunteers, with a detachment consisting of 1 sergeant and 2 corporals, 1 bugler, and 21 privates left this post this day for the place where the late Indian depredations were committed, between Honey Lake and the Humboldt. The acting assistant quartermaster furnished said detachment with the necessary transportation, forage, and subsistence for twenty days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. MCDERMIT, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, November 22, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: Captain Douglas’ company did not leave here for Round Valley until yesterday, the 21st instant. A delay so extraordinary requires explanation. Your letter instructing me to send a force to Round Valley was received on the 23d of October. Some ten days before that on my return from Round Valley I was already about to order the company to proceed thither by land from Fort Gaston. On making inquiry, however, I found it would require twenty days for the company to make the march with a pack train carrying the necessary baggage and sixty days’ subsistence, which would delay their arrival till the 10th of November; that using all our own mules that were disposable the hire of the additional number needed would amount to about $2,000, and that to obtain and collect together the number required would have involved a further delay of ten days at least. I deemed it imprudent to send the company down without sixty days’ subsistence at least, because Round Valley is generally inaccessible for {p.230} two months or more in the winter season, and there was no surplus subsistence at Fort Bragg on which they could draw, and in the valley itself they could obtain nothing by purchase but meat and bread. For these reasons I determined to await the arrival of the Panama, due here on the 22d of October, with the expectation of being able to send the company and their supplies and baggage by her on her down trip to Fort Bragg, which is within four days’ march of Round Valley, where they would have arrived, if no unusual delay had occurred, by the 1st of November, instead of the 10th, and, as was supposed, at considerably less expense to the Government. But the Panama did not arrive till several days after she was due, and no arrangement could be made with her for the transportation of the company. On ascertaining this I directed Lieutenant Swasey, regimental quartermaster, to charter the steam-tug Mary Ann for the purpose, which was done on the 29th of October for the agreed sum of $700. From that date the tug kept us waiting under various pretexts from day to day until the 13th instant, when I was informed that she would take the company on board in the afternoon without fail, agreeably to my letter to you mailed in the forenoon of that day. As she again disappointed us, I directed the contract to be thrown up and another vessel to be chartered, and on the 14th instant Lieutenant Swasey chartered the schooner Dashaway for $1,000 (lighterage at Fort Bragg not included). She was ready to leave immediately, but it was not till yesterday that the tug could be got to tow her over the bar. If there should be no further cause of delay the company ought to arrive in Round Valley by the 27th instant. They have with them about eighty days’ rations, which ought to carry them through the worst part of the winter. Early in September last, when the contractors for the overland mail from San Francisco applied to me for two detachments of ten men each, to be posted during the winter at the two mail stations of Larrabee Creek and Fort Seward, I told them I considered such detachments entirely too small for safety; that I would prefer posting a whole company at one of these stations, detaching from it twenty-five or thirty men, with an officer for the other, and that I expected to be able to do this. Since then I have heard nothing further from these gentlemen, and under present circumstances I rather doubt the expediency of sending a force to those two points for the following reasons: First. It would be rather for the individual benefit of the contractors than necessary for the public at large, since there is another mail route by the way of Sacramento, Weaverville, and Fort Gaston, at all times about as expeditious, and in the winter season much more reliable. Second. Guarding two of the mail stations on the route would be but imperfect protection, as the Indians must be expected to attack those left unguarded. Third. Ten men, or thereabouts, under a non-commissioned officer at each station would be in imminent danger of destruction, especially considering that a portion of even these must be expected to be occasionally absent from the post in quest of game or for purposes connected with their duty. There should be at least twenty or twenty-five men at each post under a commissioned officer. Now the only company in that section of the country is Captain Flynn’s, at Fort Baker, and such detachments from that post would virtually destroy it by leaving it barely enough men for a camp guard. This would deprive us both of the services of one company for the winter’s scouting, and of the benefit of Fort Baker as a post, which has been proved by experience to be the most important pivot of operations against the Indians in the district. About 750 of the 835 Indians sent to Smith’s River were captured by detachments {p.231} from that post. From its close proximity to the Mad River country, where the hostile Indians mostly rove, I am placing great reliance on the co-operation of the company there in our Indian hunt the coming winter. As to affording protection to escorts to the mail riders, that is another thing. But this is what the contractors on that route have never asked, and whenever they choose to intimate to me that they would like to have escorts they will be furnished at once. My reason for troubling you with this statement is that I understand a complaint is going down by this steamer that I have refused all protection to the overland mail. If the department commander should desire me to post detachments at the two stations mentioned, I should send thither (unless otherwise directed) one of the two companies at Fort Gaston, as one of these companies could be better spared than any other. On my recent visit to Fort Bragg I became convinced that the further continuance of that post is entirely unnecessary. I respectfully refer the department commander on this point to the report of Captain Hull, a copy of which is transmitted herewith.* I have not yet received an answer to my inquiry as to whether regimental and garrison courts are considered to be abolished in this department by the act of Congress. A number of men have been for some time in confinement at Fort Humboldt awaiting their trial. I have received your letter of November 15 in regard to the removal of the regimental sutler, but no further instructions as to the collection of his demands from Company A. I infer that if Captain Flynn confines himself to making the best arrangement for the sutler that he can, his conduct will not be disapproved.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

* See November 4, p. 205.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 210.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., November 24, 1862.

...

2. Paragraphs 3 of Special Orders, No. 195, and 3 of Special Orders, No. 199, are hereby revoked.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, D. C., November 25, 1862.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

GENERAL: Your interesting communications of the 17th and 18th of October were duly received and submitted to the General-in-Chief. Brigadier-General Carleton, having successfully accomplished the object with which you dispatched his command from the Pacific Coast, has now been ordered to relieve Brigadier-General Canby in command of the Department of New Mexico. I respectfully inclose a copy of a letter addressed to him the 31st of October.*

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See p. 198.

{p.232}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 27, 1862.

Capt. E. B. WILLIS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Hart’s Mill:

Your communication of yesterday with news of the rebels was received last night.* Major McMullen with two companies will march for your post to-morrow morning. He will probably be at Camp Johnson to-morrow night, where you can communicate with him in case of emergency. The price asked by Don Juan Zubrian for corn is too high for my orders. His offer cannot be accepted. Say nothing to any one about the force of ours coming your way. Gather all the intelligence you can of the enemy. You have done exceedingly well so far.

Yours, truly,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California. Volunteers, Commanding.

P. S.-Should Allen’s train return, retain it for further orders.

* See Vol. XV, p 606.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 27, 1862.

Maj. WILLIAM MCMULLEN, First Infantry California Volunteers, Mesilla:

You will march with Companies D and K, First Infantry California Volunteers, without delay, to Franklin, Tex. An attack is threatened upon that post by a force of the enemy now said to be at the Presidio del Norte. A detachment of five men, First Cavalry California Volunteers, is at San Elizario, and will be useful to you in obtaining information of the enemy’s movements. Take with you 100 rounds ammunition per man. A citizens’ train will be your transportation. Return this from Franklin as soon as possible, as it is hired by the -. Rations to the close of December are sent for you to Franklin. When Allen’s train returns from Captain Pishon’s expedition retain four wagons from it for a farther advance of your force down the Rio Grande. It is my desire to establish your command at San Elizario, Tex. You will therefore have that objective view, and proceed there as soon as you may consider it judicious to do so, either to meet the enemy as he advances, or to push our outposts nearer to him, if he stands still. Care must be taken to prevent him from getting in between you and the command at Hart’s Mill. You will find it prudent to take only ten, or at most fifteen days’ rations to San Elizario. Unless there is urgent necessity for such course you will not interfere with Captain Willis’ command of the post of Franklin, but in such event you have my authority for embracing his force within your orders. There is little occasion to cumber you with detailed instructions. You are sent to foil and defeat the enemy if you can; to retire before him if he is so strong as to render a contest hopeless, and in that event to leave no particle of property in his track that can be of the least service to him. Beginning at San Elizario, Ysleta, Socorro, Fort Bliss, Franklin, and Hart’s Mill must all be devastated. All grain must be carried away or destroyed; the buildings of rebels in either of the above places must be consumed; the machinery of Hart’s Mill destroyed, except a set of mill-stones and the bolting cloth, if they can be carried away; a lot of fine lumber at {p.233} Franklin burnt up, and, in fine, you must make a desert of the country as far as you evacuate. Should you obtain undisturbed occupation of San Elizario, I shall send you further instructions about preparations for defense of the valley. Be watchful and keep me apprised of every incident of interest.

Yours, very truly,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 27, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of various communications from department headquarters, dated November 10 to 18, inclusive. Most of the instructions therein contained are minor matters and have been complied with; the others will be in due course. The latest news of the enemy is contained in the inclosed copy of letter from Captain Willis, at Hart’s Mill, yesterday.* A line from a friend from El Paso of same date says, “The talk about town is that the Texan troops are at Fort Clark.” The accompanying copy of instructions to Maj. William McMullen to move with two companies will convey to you what has been done to prevent any raid upon Franklin.** I had the move in contemplation before any force was removed in the vicinity. San Elizario is the starting point for carrying out the instructions of the general commanding to lay everything waste if the enemy advances in too large force, as also the locality fixed by him for the first collection of grain. On the latter point I shall lose no time. I feel quite assured that I can cripple the enemy by following the general’s instructions, if he comes this route. And I feel quite as well assured that he will go by way of the Pecos. If any force appears upon the Rio Grande, in my opinion it will be sent there to hold me in check and mask the designs of the main force. Hence my suggestion to have a scout at Fort Lancaster. Without cavalry and the New Mexicans without arms I can send none. Can it be done from Colonel Carson’s outpost at the Peñasco? Horsehead Crossing must determine which road the enemy will come, then the news could be carried to Fort Craig, thence to me at San Elizario in forty hours; or, perhaps, a few men could get through by the Hueco Tanks road. If the enemy gets too munch the start up the Pecos while I am at San Elizario, there is danger of preventing the junction of my force with that of the general commanding. I merely mention these matters for consideration. I am ordered to inspire the Mexican population. This is a task probably neither difficult nor injudicious. I must conclude that I am to be the judge, however, when such inspiration can be effected. It cannot be done without arms to put in their hands to assuage the fears that an allusion to danger must give rise to. Yet it shall be attempted in obedience to orders whenever the danger becomes imminent. I am asked how many arms can I use in their hands? I reported six weeks ago that 500 are needed, and adhere still to that opinion. Captain Shoemaker has sent me no rifle ammunition, nor have I a line from him on the subject. I do not intend to complain of my position; it may the result of necessity. But I trust the department {p.234} commander will not expect too much of my exertions, when he remembers that he has taken away every mounted man from the Lower Rio Grande, and that my only efficient quartermaster is absent when most needed; that I have no arms for a New Mexico partisan warfare and they have none; that I have no funds to purchase forage; that I have no shoes for my men to wear; that I have a partially demoralized command from lack of efficient officers to control them; that I have neither men to spare for escorting my supply trains, nor wagons to send for them; and, finally, that I have enough prisoners on my hands to occupy the attention of a full company. It is but just to myself that I should state these facts, and it is but just to the general commanding that he should know them all, that his expectations of my ability to do the enemy damage shall not work injury to his plans. I do not mention them complainingly. The means at my command I shall use according to my best abilities, but I do not wish to be understood as being so powerfully efficient, when I know that I am really so powerfully weak. I ask for no help. What there is to do shall be done, and the debris of the California Column will hurt somebody, even if they have come to their last totter.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* See Vol. XV, p. 606.

** See next, ante.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., November 27, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER FORT WALLA WALLA, WASH. TER.:

SIR: Orders have been issued from these headquarters and sent by express this morning for you to detach one company of Oregon cavalry volunteers to winter at Fort Dalles, Oreg. The command is to march overland with a light train and as rapidly as circumstances will permit. If the weather in the meantime becomes too inclement and the order can be complied with only at great risk to the men and animals you are authorized to use your discretion in the matter and suspend the order if necessary, reporting your action to these headquarters.

Respectfully communicated by command of Brigadier-General Alvord.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FREDERICK MEARS, First Lieut., Ninth Infantry, U. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., November 28, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JOSEPH R, WEST, U. S. Volunteers, Mesilla:

MY DEAR GENERAL: Inclosed herewith I have the great pleasure to forward to you your appointment as a brigadier-general. I received it under cover from the Headquarters of the Army. I beg to congratulate you on your good fortune. You have worked hard and earnestly and well deserve this reward. Report to me by letter, as I cannot have you leave your district at this time.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.235}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., November 28, 1862.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have to report that I have directed Colonel Steinberger, commanding at Fort Walla Walla, to detach a company of Oregon cavalry from that post to winter at Fort Dalles, unless the extreme severity of the weather should at the moment of starting render it not advisable. This measure is owing to the fact that Lieutenant Hughes, acting assistant quartermaster at Fort Walla Walla, reports under date of the 21st instant that he has overrated the amount of oats to be obtained in that valley. I have to express my satisfaction in receiving your letter of the 18th instant in which you state that the general commanding fully approves of what I have done and propose to do in the establishment of the military post at Fort Lapwai, on the Nez Percé Reservation.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., November 29, 1862.

Major MCDERMIT, Fort Churchill:

A detachment of twenty-five men will be sent from Fort Crook to Susanville. Send thirty days’ rations to that point to await its arrival. Keep it supplied during the winter.

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, November 29, 1862.

Capt. ED. B. WILLIS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Hart’s Mill:

Bradford Daily and Capt. W. L. Parvin date of our regiment) are sent out by me to watch the movements of the Texans on the Pecos. As they will go by way of Captain Pishon’s depot, be good enough to apprise them of the readiest mode of reaching it. This they can learn through Captain Hammond, if he has returned, or they can meet him on the road. While at your post these gentlemen will remain at Hart’s Mill and out of sight as much as possible. No one but yourself, Captain Hammond, or Major McMullen must know their business. Be good enough to render them every assistance to put them on the road in proper trim.

I am, captain, yours, very truly,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 107.}

HEADQUARTERS, Tucson, December 1, 1862.

I. Companies G, First Infantry California Volunteers, Capt. H. A. Greene, and E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will march for {p.236} Mesilla, Ariz. Ter., to-morrow morning, under command of Capt. H. A. Greene, First Infantry California Volunteers.

...

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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CAMP BABBITT, Near Visalia, Tulare County, Cal., December 1, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to make the following report of facts for the consideration of the general commanding: I have been in this place, Tulare County, now nearly two months, and have since my arrival made it my special business to inquire into and examine without prejudice the condition of affairs as between Union men on the one hand and secessionists and sympathizers with the South on the other, and I have come to the conclusion, and am fully satisfied after a careful investigation, that there are more secessionists in this and the adjoining counties than there are in proportion to the population in any part of the United States this side of Dixie, or the so-called Confederate Government; and not only that they are in great numbers, but that they are organized and armed, ready at a moment’s warning to take up their arms against the Government of the United States. They are, many of them, the bitterest haters of our Government that can be found alive, and do not attempt to conceal their hatred. It is an everyday occurrence for them to ride through the streets of Visalia and hurrah for Jeff. Davis and Stonewall Jackson and often give groans for the Stars and Stripes, and, in short, they do and say everything in the presence of soldiers to insult them by calling them Lincoln hirelings, and that they wear Abe Lincoln’s livery, &c., and in one instance have gone so far as to draw a pistol and present it at a soldier, telling him that he had a good mind to shoot the buttons off of his coat just for fun. One Doctor Russell, one of their leaders, paid his license, and posted the license up in a conspicuous place in his office with the following words written upon the bottom of it in his own handwriting, and his name signed to it in full: “I pay this license to help murder my people.” The Equal Rights Expositor, a newspaper published in this place, the same that was by order of the general deprived of postal rights, is, and has been since the date of that order, becoming more and more bitter in its abuse of the Government and all in authority, until it goes as far if not further than the vilest sheet published in Richmond. These things being persisted in on the part of the secessionists of this county and vicinity, in my opinion will inevitably bring about civil war in this State. Already there have been several fist fights and knock-downs between the citizens and the soldiers, and on Saturday, November 29, there was quite a serious difficulty occurred in which fire-arms were used and one soldier shot (who died from the effect of his wounds to-day) and two citizens wounded, the citizens, as the proceedings of the coroner’s jury show, commencing the shooting. As I have stated above, if these things are persisted in, if the open and avowed secessionists of the county are permitted to come in presence of the soldiers and insult them by all kinds of slurs and insinuations against their Government, and them as men because they wear the uniform of the United States, and hurrah for Jeff. Davis and Stonewall Jackson, and above all if this paper is allowed {p.237} to be published, as it has been, urging them on to perpetrate these acts of treason, all the officers between here and the Potomac, in my humble opinion, cannot prevent frequent collisions between the soldiers and the citizens, the ultimate result of which will be civil war. I see it stated in one of the public prints that a U. S. marshal cannot hereafter make arrests under the order of the President relative to arrests for disloyal practices, but that all arrests must be made by a provost-marshal. I, not being at the headquarters of the regiment, am unfortunately deprived of the privilege of seeing any orders from Washington (none ever being forwarded to me), and therefore most respectfully ask that if such are the facts the present deputy U. S. marshal here, Mr. W. S. Powell, be appointed provost-marshal, with instructions how to proceed and what his powers are, &c.; also that I may receive some definite instructions relative to disloyal parties and what course I am to pursue in the premises. My last instructions relative to disloyal parties, dated October 16, 1862, according to my interpretation, do not permit an arrest to be made in any case except upon affidavit. Accompanying this communication I have the honor to forward such numbers of the Equal Rights Expositor as I have been able to procure, that the general may read and judge to what extent they are treasonable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, December 2, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

You are authorized by the Secretary of War to raise the regiment of infantry and the seven companies of cavalry mentioned in your letter of October 30.

THOMAS M. VINCENT, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT BRAGG, CAL., December 2, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

SIR: I have the honor to report that my company (F), Second Infantry California Volunteers, embarked on the schooner Dashaway at Bucksport, near Fort Humboldt, at 10 a.m. on the 21st of November, 1862, and landed at Noyo Creek near this post at noon yesterday. We were at sea over ten days. This slow passage and great delay was occasioned by the calm and foggy weather which prevailed during the entire passage. I exceedingly regret this delay. Here I was led to expect means of transportation to Round Valley some seventy-five miles distant, but I find upon examination that the acting assistant quartermaster at this post is unable to transfer to my acting assistant quartermaster (Lieut. P. B. Johnson) not to exceed twenty-three mules and fourteen incomplete and old and dilapidated pack-saddles. Lieutenant Johnson has been, or rather will be, able to put them in serviceable condition by tomorrow night, at a small expense for new material. To-morrow or next day I shall start, with from twelve to fifteen pack animals belonging to a citizen, the only means of transportation it has been possible to {p.238} employ. With these and the fourteen Government packs we hope to be able to transport to Round Valley the company property, ammunition and supplies, mountain howitzer and ammunition and acting commissary of subsistence stores for at least thirty days for the command, numbering sixty-nine men and two commissioned officers, before the 15th of the present month. It is absolutely necessary to use the utmost dispatch and every available means to hurry along the supplies of the command, because the rain will so greatly raise the waters of Eel River as to prevent its being crossed, in fact [it will be] quite impassable and at the same time [will] obstruct the trail over the mountains to such an extent, I am informed, as to prevent the passage of a pack train. I will start from here on Friday morning, the 5th instant, with my command, and will be in Round Valley on or before the 10th, and, as a matter of course, I shall make forced marches in order to get across Eel River before the rainy weather sets in. I shall have the honor to forward an official report in detail of my progress from Fort Humboldt to Round Valley as soon as practicable after my arrival at the latter point.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 2, 1862.

Maj. WILLIAM MCMULLEN, First Infantry California Volunteers, Hart’s Mill:

I have received your letter of yesterday. Move on down to San Elizario without delay. Brad. Daily and Parvin are out watching the enemy. Should you get news from them or any other source by which you are assured that the Texans are advancing upon you in larger force than you can successfully meet, or if you learn beyond doubt that they have moved up the Pecos beyond Horsehead Crossing to the north, then carry out my instructions of the 27th of November and fall back on Franklin. If you think that you have time to send me word before you begin your work, do so, and wait as long as you can for an answer. I shall endeavor to join you, but in every event you must keep me advised of any important news, and how you intend to act upon it. Keep Lieutenant French’s detachment of cavalry with you at San Elizario. Out of the wagons with him or those with you retain five (or more if you really require them) for the use of your command. District General Orders, No. 24, will put you in possession of forage, and you can possibly buy some grama hay. If so, you have hereby the necessary authority. Get flesh onto horses and mules; insist upon the people bringing in their grain; the price is liberal. Stop any of it going to Mexico. Occupy your men with throwing up some temporary defenses, loop-holing houses, getting ready to lay waste, so that if the enemy should come upon you suddenly you will be quite ready to act. It will interest the men and keep them out of mischief. Lieutenant French’s account contradicts all the rumors that we have had heretofore, yet it would be very easy for General Baylor to keep our men at Fort Clark purposely in entire ignorance of his movements at San Antonio; to send them up here with news that he was not coming, and then to follow immediately on their heels. At all events, we can lose nothing by watchfulness and precaution. As yet I have no authority to take any spy company into the service, nor even to issue them subsistence. If the man Miller wants to organize a spy company I know {p.239} of nothing to prevent him. Organization is a very good basis, and he had better effect it. Let the people keep cool; try and instill them with some sort of confidence. It is really amusing to see how that one man, Skillman, has frightened them. Keep on the alert yourself, and we will fulfill our mission.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 24.}

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 2, 1862.

There is reason to believe that the Texans propose to recover possession of the Mesilla Valley. Its inhabitants have once been subjected to the outrages committed by the rebels. They remember well how they have been despoiled of their property; how their cattle have been stolen and their fields laid waste by these marauders. They remember, too, how all security to life, person, or property ceased to be when the forces of the enemy occupied the country. To a repetition of all these evils, and in a greatly exaggerated degree, must they now look forward unless they themselves shall join with the U. S. troops in resistance to the advancing foe. When the time comes for active resistance the undersigned will call upon the people of the Mesilla Valley to rally for the defense of their homes and their property, and he will place means at their disposal to enable them to do so effectually. Meanwhile some preparatory steps are necessary. It is indispensable that the U. S. troops should have in their possession all the corn, wheat, and flour in this valley not required for the immediate use of the people. If it falls into the hands of the Texan not only will it be totally lost to its proper owner, but it will assist the Texan to ward off his direst foe-hunger. When delivered to U. S. officers it will either be paid for in cash or vouchers will be given to secure proper recompense to parties delivering it. And for their own use the people of the valley shall always have the privilege of purchasing these supplies at the cost price to Government. As hereafter supplies that can be made available by the enemy will not be allowed to remain in this district in a manner that will permit of their falling into his hands, the people of San Elizario, Ysleta, Socorro, Franklin, Amoles, La Mesa, Sanchez Ranch, Santa Tomas, Mesilla, Las Cruces, and Doña Aña are now hereby ordered to bring in their grain and flour to the U. S. authorities, and they will be settled with as hereinbefore indicated. Any person found with over two months’ subsistence for his family, or necessary grain for his animals, within fifteen days after the publication of this order, will be considered as an enemy to the Government of the United States and will be treated accordingly. The commanding officers at San Elizario, Franklin, and Mesilla are ordered to provide depots for the reception of the property designated, and to give receipts in due form for the same. The depot quartermaster at Mesilla will settle with the proper owners upon the presentation of these receipts. The people of the Mesilla Valley know that the U. S. troops have afforded them protection, have paid them for their property, have re-established laws, government, and security among them. That people are now called upon to assist those troops in defending their homes from outrage and plunder. Unity of action is indispensable. There must be one head and one control. This duty has devolved upon the undersigned. Be will exercise it for the welfare of the whole people, and he {p.240} will as assuredly summarily punish any one who shall jeopardize the safety of the community by any contravention of his orders.

J. R. WEST, Colonel First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., December 3, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report for the information of the general commanding the department that Company G, First Infantry California Volunteers, Capt. H. A. Greene, and Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Capt. C. B. Wellman, marched yesterday for La Mesilla, in accordance with orders from Col. J. R. West, commanding District of Arizona, to that effect. This leaves me but three companies in my district, two of infantry and one of cavalry, a force I consider inadequate to perform the duties prescribed in General Orders, No. 10, from headquarters Column from California, organizing this district. Colonel West also in his letter ordering forward Greene’s and Wellman’s companies, intimates that he will soon send for another company from here. I have now less than seventy-five men in garrison, and the town is filling up rapidly with a class of men who require constant watchfulness. In addition to this, Mr. Abraham Lyon, an Indian agent and deputy collector of customs, has arrived from Santa Fé, and will require military assistance in executing his duties. Under these circumstances I shall be compelled to take the responsibility of retaining the troops here, despite the order of Colonel West, unless more are sent from California to supply their place.

Trusting that this action, if I am compelled to take it, may meet the approval of the department commander, I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, December 3, 1862.

Maj. CHARLES MCDERMIT, Fort Churchill:

The detachment from Fort Crook will be stationed on Smoke Creek near Mud Lake.

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 4, 1862.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Humboldt, Fort Humboldt, Cal.:

SIR: The explanation relative to the delay of Captain Douglas’ company in departing for Round Valley is satisfactory to the department commander.* The general leaves it discretionary with you whether to {p.241} post or not companies at Larrabee Creek and Fort Seward. With reference to trial for minor offenses, the general instructs me to say that offenders of that character will be tried in accordance with the late law on the subject. The general desires me to say that Fort Bragg cannot for the present be abandoned. You are authorized by the general to assemble a board of officers for the examination of such persons as may be recommended for appointment or promotion in your regiment, reporting the result of examination to this office.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Lippitt to Drum, November 22, p. 229.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., December 6, 1862.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

Your attention is called to the propriety of garrisoning Fort Bridger with a part of the California regiment.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 220.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 6, 1862.

...

7. Lieut. Col. George S. Evans, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, will proceed without delay to Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, and assume command of his regiment.

8. Company F, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, will on Thursday next proceed to and take post at Camp Union, near Sacramento. The enlisted men, except Sergeant Manning, belonging to this company, on duty at the provost-marshal’s office, will be relieved from duty thereat and sent to their company. A number of men equal to that now on duty at the provost office will be selected from the Second Cavalry recruits at the Presidio to replace those of Company F, relieved. The Second Cavalry recruits at the Presidio not required for duty as provost guard will remain at that post under the command of Lieutenant Starr, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, December 6, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General. San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report the reception of orders from Col. J. R. West, First Infantry California Volunteers, commanding District of Arizona, to forward from this place without delay Company B, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers. As the order was coupled with the information that the enemy were expected, I cannot take the responsibility of retaining the company, though it will weaken me very {p.242} much. I shall be compelled to call in the small detachments I have now stationed in various places and concentrate as munch as I am able. This action will I fear give rise to claims for damages against the Government for want of that protection which settlers here protest was guaranteed them. I do not now consider myself competent to carry out the instructions contained in General Orders, No. 10, headquarters Column from California, by which this district was organized, and my object in communicating these facts to the department commander is that the responsibility of such claims or failure on my part to carry out these instructions may rest in the right quarter.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 6, 1862.

Maj. THEO. A. COULT, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Western Arizona, Tucson:.

Your communication of the 22d ultimo, giving an account of your action and the progress of affairs in the Western District of Arizona, has been received. It is gratifying to note that your command is experiencing the good effects of proper management and zealous attention. I take occasion to thank you for your earnest desire to assist me in the management of the affairs of this district. Full copies of your records have been forwarded to department headquarters, and no doubt will commend themselves to the approval of the general commanding. Permit me to call your attention to district General Orders, No. 23, and to the fact that up to the latest dates the field returns thereby required had not been forwarded by you.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, December 8, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Assistant Adjutant-General Vincent’s telegraphic dispatch of the 2d instant, conveying the authority of the Secretary of War for me to raise a regiment of volunteer infantry and seven companies of cavalry. To insure the appointment of none but efficient and competent officers, I have organized a board of experienced officers of the army at my headquarters, to examine into the qualifications of all applicants for appointments, and submit to me recommendations for filling the different grades; and if approved, I shall then present their names to the Governor of the State, who will issue the commissions. This plan will secure the services of good and reliable men as officers, and has received the cordial approval of Governor Stanford. The seven companies of cavalry will complete the organization of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, {p.243} now with Brigadier-General Carleton, in New Mexico; and if it is the wish of the General-in-Chief (as I presume it is from his dispatch to me some time since) that these seven companies should be sent to New Mexico by the southern route, I propose to advance them by company or squadron as fast as organized, via Fort Yuma, thus enabling them to pass the deserts without the inconvenience attending the movement of a large command.

The infantry regiment can be well employed within this department. The vast extent of country and the threatening aspect of our Indian affairs require at least one of the arts of war to be well understood; that is the “art of distributing troops.” In the District of Oregon, by the prudence and foresight of Brigadier-General Alvord, peace has thus far been maintained, but it is much to be feared that collisions will be brought about between the large number of our people who have overrun the mining regions and the Indians now on their reservations. Last winter, in accordance with the authority granted to me by the Secretary of War, I suspended the further organization of the Oregon cavalry regiment, on the completion of six companies. Circumstances may arise in the early spring rendering it necessary to complete the regimental organization by raising six additional companies of cavalry. I doubt not that an entire regiment of mounted troops will be necessary on the route from Fort Hall to Oregon and Washington to protect the large emigration arriving from the Eastern States during the summer and fall months.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 8, 1862.

His Excellency LELAND STANFORD, Governor of the State of California, Sacramento City, Cal.:

SIR: I have authority from the Secretary of War to raise in this State another regiment of infantry and seven companies of cavalry. The cavalry companies are designed to complete the organization of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, now consisting of only five companies.

I have organized a board of experienced army officers at my headquarters for the purpose of preparing a plan of organization, and examining the candidates for appointment, and submitting their recommendations for my action. From time to time, as I receive the recommendations of the board, I propose to submit them to the consideration of Your Excellency. It is believed that the plan proposed for selecting the officers will Secure the services of efficient and reliable men. The power of commissioning the officers is by law vested with the Governors of States, and should you approve of my plans, and refer all applicants for appointments to the consideration of the board before giving any commissions, Your Excellency will be relieved from much embarrassment and annoyance.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.244}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 8, 1862.

His Excellency WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency’s communication of the 25th ultimo. I have instructed Brigadier-General Alvord, commanding the District of Oregon, to issue on Your Excellency’s requisition 250 stand of small-arms with a suitable amount of ammunition. I cannot issue arms to citizens direct. In fact, it is only in cases of emergency that I assume the responsibility of issuing to the Governors of States or Territories. It will be necessary that Your Excellency should receipt to the ordnance officer at the Vancouver Arsenal for the arms and ammunition. Permit me to suggest to Your Excellency that before issuing these arms the volunteer companies should be fully organized, and the officers appointed by yourself, and the greatest care taken that none but men of undoubted loyalty and devotion to the Union be enrolled.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., December 9, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

All communications received at the War Department from Overland Mail Company, Post-Office Department, and Department of the Interior urge the removal of Colonel Connor’s command to Fort Bridger and Ham’s Fork, as a check upon the Indians.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, December 9, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Major-General Halleck’s telegraphic dispatch of the 6th instant, calling my attention to the propriety of garrisoning Fort Bridger. My latest accounts from Fort Bridger, obtained from an officer who passed there, represented everything as quiet in that neighborhood, and I have received no intimation from Colonel Connor, the commandant of that district, as to the necessity of posting troops at Fort Bridger. However, as it is an important station of the Overland Mail Company, and good quarters already built, I have directed Colonel Connor to detach one or two companies from his command and occupy Bridger. I have two companies of Third Infantry California Volunteers (Connor’s), now at Sacramento, and one company of the same regiment at Fort Churchill. In the early spring, or as soon as the roads are passable, I shall send them forward to Salt Lake. From the best information I can obtain, I am fully satisfied that we should have a force in the Salt Lake Valley of at least 2,000 men, commanded by a firm and discreet officer. {p.245} Without entering into details I am well convinced that prudential considerations demand the presence of a force in that country strong enough to look down any opposition.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 221.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 9, 1862.

1. Company D (Ffrench’s), Fifth Infantry California Volunteers will proceed to and take post at Fort Yuma.

2. On the arrival of Capt. Ffrench’s company at Fort Yuma Company H, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, will proceed to Tucson, Ariz. Ter.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT CHURCHILL, December 9, 1862-12 m.

Col. R. C. DRUM:

The Pi-Ute chiefs informed me that the Smoke Creek Indians, who have been committing depredations in vicinity of Honey Lake, are now camped thirty miles from this post. I sent out yesterday sixty soldiers and ten Indian guides under command of Captain Ketcham. Hope entire party of sixty warriors and families and stock will be captured.

C. MCDERMIT, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 9, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

The impunity with which the rebels continue to plot and practice against us in El Paso and throughout certain portions of Chihuahua induces me to suggest to the general commanding the department the expediency of coming to an understanding on the subject with the Governor of that State. To this end I recommend that Maj. D. Fergusson, First Cavalry California Volunteers, be sent to Chihuahua with a suitable escort to confer with the Governor, under such instructions as seem called for by the facts of which the general commanding is cognizant. I also beg leave to remind the department commander that although the enemy may not advance as lately threatened, we are liable to be diverted from really serviceable duties by constant alarm of his intention to invade the Territory. A discreet officer could make secret arrangements in the city of Chihuahua to send and keep spies at all times in San Antonio, Tex. This would be an economy to Government, and, in my opinion, a judicious precaution.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.246}

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, December 10, 1862.

GEORGE M. HANSON, Superintending Agent, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Carry into effect your recommendations of 15th October last.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM P. DOLE, Commissioner.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, December 10, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I feel it my duty to call the attention of the general commanding Department of the Pacific to certain reports which have been in circulation here for some weeks past. I have previously paid but little attention to these reports, deeming them the emanations of nervous brains or to have been started by would-be alarmists. By the mail which arrived this morning, however, I received the inclosed letters from Capt. J. S. Thayer, commanding Fort Yuma. One (marked A) from Herman Ehrenberg is entitled to some consideration; the other (marked B), purporting to have been written by one Thomas Asher, who signs himself “Second Lieutenant, Confederate Volunteers,” is not so reliable. Upon the reception of Captain Thayer’s letter I sent for Mr. Martin, joint proprietor of Grinnel’s ranch with King and Woolsey (the same persons referred to in Asher’s note), and questioned him closely as to any knowledge he might have of such movements. Mr. Martin informed me that for some time past parties of men have been crossing the road between here and Fort Yuma, on their way to Sonora; that these men were well armed and mounted, but poorly clothed and without subsistence; that the largest party he had heard of numbered some fifty men; that they had helped themselves to such things as they wanted, and that their principal desire seemed to be for arms and ammunition, taking only sufficient forage and subsistence to meet the demands of immediate necessities; that their avowed purpose was “to get into Texas.” Mr. Martin further said that he had entertained some fears as to the security of his own property and for the safety of Government trains. He also remarked that none of these men had been seen in this part of the country until after the California papers had ceased to chronicle the “outrages on emigrants” on the upper route, and he ventured the opinion that they belonged to the same band and were driven away from their former field of operations by the fear of Colonel Connor’s force.

It becomes necessary, with the weakened force I shall have in a few days, for me to give heed to reports substantiated as these are, but unless re-enforced speedily it will be impossible for me to effect anything. I shall have but one company of cavalry and one of infantry (neither of them at their full strength) with which to guard a scope of country 300 miles in length and from 100 to 150 in width. I am ordered by Colonel West to send forward all men belonging to companies now in the advance. This will necessitate my supplying all the vedette posts (eleven in number) from my two companies, from which I cannot muster more than 100 men for duty. It will require at least six men at {p.247} each station-three of infantry as a standing guard and three of cavalry to ride. It will from this readily be seen that the force at present here is inadequate for the service required. I would respectfully suggest that there should be at least three companies of infantry and two of cavalry stationed in this district. With that force I could, I think, secure protection to our own trains and to the property of the citizens of this Territory. I would further suggest, however, that it is inconvenient and a cause of great delay to compel this district to report to Mesilla and be obliged to wait until communication can be had through those headquarters to department headquarters and a return through the same channel. I would recommend, therefore, that this district be made independent of the other, or that the headquarters of the whole District of Arizona be removed to Tucson.

I have the honor to remain, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

FORT YUMA, December 6, 1862.

DEAR MAJOR: Inclosed please find two letters, one from Mr. Ehrenberg, of La Paz, and one found near this post and directed to Joseph Dan or Grinnel. I have instituted inquiries about the matter and will, I think, be able to give you full particulars in my next. In the meantime I most respectfully advise you to be on your guard. Please return the letters.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,

JNO. S. THAYER.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

LA PAZ, N. MEX., November 6, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER FORT YUMA, CAL.:

SIR: By Cruz, a Yuma, and Triteva, head chief of the Mojaves, I send you certificates of several horses of mine-fifty, stolen here from Reed and Brother’s ranch by the said Reeds and some twenty-five other persons, day before yesterday. Persons here who seem to have been privy, state that these horse thieves are secessionists; that they are to be joined by from 300 to 500 others scattered through the mountains and along the bottoms of the Gila and Colorado Rivers; that it is their intention to take all Government stores and trains in the road to Tucson, surprise the latter place, and then move on to Fort Yuma. Succeeding in their scheme, it is the intention to start a rebellion in California. I do not know how much of this may be true, but there is more mischief brewing, or it may be only a feint to cover their retreat or flight into Sonora. At all events it would be well, if it is not too late, to put all these places on their guard. I take the liberty to advise the following plan: First. To start an express forthwith via the old Gila route to Tucson. Second. A second express via Tinaja Alta, Sonoita, and Cahuali to Tucson. Third. An express to Sonora, with the inclosed certificates, and a requisition to have the party arrested and delivered over to the U. S. authorities as horse thieves-a crime coming under the provisions of the late extradition treaty between the United States and Mexico. I also send you the names of so many of the party as I could gather in a hurry, amongst which is one of the Showalter party, I am told. I would have sent this yesterday, but by a succession of reverses I have been cut off from my supplies; that is, I was {p.248} without the necessary means here. Had I had a good mule I would have taken an Apache guide to the Gila and started for Tucson yesterday; but I could not do it, for the reasons above stated. I have told Cruz and Triteva that you would pay them liberally for their services, and hope you will do so. For myself, I refer you to General Wright, Colonel Beale, surveyor-general of California, Messrs. Hooper, Jacques, Hinton, and Fitch, now at Fort Yuma. You will of course keep my name secret, as it might inconvenience me and prevent me from rendering further service to the cause of the great American Union.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HERMAN EHRENBERG.

If there is really any danger for the party at Tucson, they might concentrate at Apache Pass, provided there are provisions enough there. As they hold the only water for some distance, no long siege could be made. The place would be safe consequently if a good position could be secured. Many persons, under pretense of prospecting the country for minerals, have crossed here and at Fort Mojave from time to time, and have disappeared afterward, and others are reported on their way out, some down the river, others toward the San Francisco Mountains by the Beale’s route, perhaps to go down the San Francisco and Salinas Rivers to the Gila bend below the Maricopa villages, which may be the rendezvous.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

CAMP GALEN, November 22, 1862.

This camp is about sixty miles from Fort Yuma. I don’t know where the attack will be made. There is one man there that I fear and that is a God damned cock-eyed fellow that did ride express up on the Gila River. He cut us out of Veck’s train by reporting at Bowie. He is there now, for John Frazier saw him and says that he has been waiting for a discharge for a good while. He is as smart as a steel trap and a God damned Southern abolitionist. King or Martin would give $500 for his head. I send this by an Indian. Burn it as quick as read.

Yours, truly,

THOMAS ASHER, Second Lieutenant, Confederate Volunteers.

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OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, December 10, 1862.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT:

SIR: Inclosed please find copy of my letter to Hon. William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, at Washington, and his reply by telegraph received this day.* I hope the orders you have given declaring martial law in the Round Valley and authorizing the removal of the settlers will not be annulled or revoked. I have directed the supervisor to let the settlers remain and not to make a requisition for their removal until spring, or until the weather is favorable, provided they discontinue their annoyances.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

GEO. M. HANSON, Superintendent Indian Affairs, Northern District California.

* See pp. 175,246.

{p.249}

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SAN FRANCISCO, December 11, 1862.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, Washington, D. C.:

Your dispatch of 2d instant received. Please notify Governor Stanford by telegraph. Your dispatch of 6th instant received. Fort Bridger ordered to be garrisoned.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., December 12, 1862.

Adjt. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Washington, D. C.:

Major-General Halleck’s dispatch of 9th received. Occupation of Bridger previously ordered. Colonel Connor directed to occupy other points if necessary.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, December 12, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have this day acknowledged by telegraph the receipt of Major-General Halleck’s dispatch of the 9th instant, in reference to the occupation of Fort Bridger and Ham’s Fork by the troops of Colonel Connor. I had already ordered the reoccupation of Fort Bridger, and I have now sent instructions to Colonel Connor to occupy such other points as he may deem necessary to guard against Indian disturbances on the Overland Mail Route. I would not recommend the entire abandonment of the position now occupied by Colonel Connor, in close proximity to Salt Lake City, where he is erecting temporary shelter for his men.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 12, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER CAMP BABBITT, Visalia, Cal.:

SIR: In reply to Lieutenant-Colonel Evans’ letter of the 1st instant, reporting facts for the consideration of the department commander, I am instructed lo say that under no circumstances will disloyal citizens be permitted to harass your troops or speak disrespectfully of our Government. If necessary to check conduct so unworthy of those seeking the protection of the Government, you will arrest a few of the worst, holding them in close confinement, sending the leaders, if men of position, to Alcatraz Island.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.250}

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FORT WRIGHT, CAL., December 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report for the information of the general commanding that all I have met so far of the settlers in Round Valley appear to be peaceable and law-abiding men. I have only seen about twenty or so, and they tell me that they are entirely willing to live under any law the Government pleases to set over them. There is no doubt that there are some disloyal men here; but so far they have kept very quiet. On my march into the valley yesterday, I passed the only whisky shop in this valley. I ordered it closed forthwith. The order was obeyed without a word. I had information that this was the headquarters of the disloyal men of the valley, and to prevent trouble between my men and them just now I thought it was best to close the house. I have had no time to investigate any charges against the settlers of this valley, such as destroying fences on the reservation and running off the Indians and like misdeeds. The men that it is supposed shot at Mr. Short (the supervisor) were two men named Lamb and Ward, both since dead. I will hold an investigation of all these matters as soon as Mr. Short returns from San Francisco.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

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FORT WRIGHT, Round Valley, Cal., December 12, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

SIR: I have the honor to report the safe arrival of my command in this valley late yesterday evening. The command marched from Fort Bragg at noon on the 5th instant and encamped that night in Little Valley, ten miles from Fort Bragg. I was compelled to remain there a day to wait the coming up of part of the pack train with a portion of my provisions. At Long Valley I was detained another day by a severe rainstorm which rendered traveling an impossibility. The march front Fort Bragg was a very severe one, taxing the powers of endurance of the men to a great extent. At one time it seemed as though I should be compelled to abandon the object of my march and erect winter shelters in Long Valley. The sudden rains of this season of the year are liable to raise the waters of Eel River so as to render it nearly if not quite impossible to cross it. Even in the present low waters it is a bad stream to cross, and when the waters rise it must of necessity become very dangerous and difficult to pass. Now that the command is in the valley, I am running a great risk of becoming short of subsistence stores. The means of transportation, Government and citizen, that could be obtained did not suffice to bring with the command into the valley ten days’ complete rations. If the pack animals (they return to Fort Bragg this morning) can cross Eel River on their return in about ten days they will be able to bring with them a large proportion of the subsistence stores (forty days) turned in by Acting Commissary of Subsistence Swasey, at Fort Humboldt, to Acting Commissary of Subsistence Lieutenant Johnson. Lieutenant and Acting Commissary of Subsistence Johnson has forwarded the necessary requisitions on the proper departments at San Francisco for supplies for six months, to be shipped to {p.251} Fort Bragg. I shall make every exertion to get all of the supplies into the valley if possible before the flood, but with only fourteen pack-mules and fourteen imperfect pack-saddles belonging to Government and fifteen old pack-horses hired of a citizen I cannot hope to receive any great supply. I beg leave to suggest that Acting Commissary of Subsistence Johnson be authorized to purchase if possible a six months’ supply of flour. It can be purchased, I am assured, within a two days’ packing distance of this valley for from $4 to $5 per hundred. I am compelled to pay $6 per hundred for packing from the coast here-Fort Bragg. To-day I have reconnoitered the valley. I have been unable to find a suitable place for a camp and the erection of a winter shelter in the immediate vicinity of the headquarters of the Nome Cult Reservation. The best place, and the one I have selected, is near the center of the valley on a high ground, never overflowed, handy to wood and water and to building materials. It is about a mile and a half from the headquarters of the reservation, and in a military and every other point of view by far the most desirable place in the whole valley for a military camp or post. I have taken the liberty of naming this post Fort Wright, in honor of the commander of the Pacific Department, and trust that my choice will be approved.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal December 12, 1862.

Col. P. EDWARD CONNOR, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Ter:

SIR: Inclosed you will receive a copy of a telegram from the General-in-Chief to the department commander.* In addition to the garrison sent to Bridger, the general commanding desires you to occupy such other points on or near the overland route as you may deem essential for its proper protection, retaining, however, your present position.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Halleck to Wright, December 6, p 241.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 15, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: His Excellency Governor Stanford has organized at various points within this State volunteer companies of militia, composed entirely of good Union men. The great difficulty has been the want of arms. The quota for the State has long since been exhausted, and in view of the good results to be expected from these organizations, I have already placed at the disposal of the Governor a limited number of small-arms and equipments, and he now asks for an additional supply {p.252} for several companies he is organizing in the State. In view of the state of feeling existing in certain localities, and the impossibility of posting my troops at every point, the best interests of the Government require that we should encourage by every means in our power the formation of volunteer companies of patriotic men. The greatest care will be taken by the Governor that no man who is disaffected toward the Union, or who has any sympathy with the rebellion, be enrolled. I have assured Governor Stanford of my cordial co-operation and assistance, and that I would give him such arms and equipments as could be spared from the Government arsenals without detriment to the service.

Hoping that my acts may be approved by the General-in-Chief and War Department, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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PORTLAND, OREG., December 15, 1862.

GENERAL ALVORD, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

DEAR SIR: It has been rumored that the company of Captain Whannell, of San Francisco, is not attached to any regiment. I therefore respectfully recommend that it be attached to the Oregon cavalry. Allow me further to recommend that the regiment of Oregon cavalry be filled up. However, I do not think it can be made up in Oregon in the same manner that it was commenced; that is, by furnishing their own horses. Men might be got, I think, if horses can be furnished them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ADDISON C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 15, 1862.

His Excellency WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:

GOVERNOR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency’s communication of the 21st ultimo. I think that with the force I shall have during the coming year at or in the vicinity of Salt Lake, and the re-enforcements which I propose to send to the Walla Walla District, ample protection will be afforded for all emigrants approaching this country, provided they themselves exercise ordinary precautions, and will avail themselves of the offered escorts; but if they on entering the Indian country Scatter in every direction, I cannot be responsible for their safety. I have already recommended the establishment of a strong military post on the Snake River, which with the movable column to be sent out during the summer and fall months will, it is believed, effectually prevent a recurrence of those scenes of murder and pillage which have been enacted for so many years past.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.253}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 16, 1862.

The undersigned, commanding the Military Department of the Pacific, takes great pleasure in announcing to the patriotic citizens of California that he has been authorized by the honorable Secretary of War to call upon His Excellency, the Governor, for an additional regiment of infantry and seven companies of cavalry to be mustered into the service of the United States. The troops called for are designed for distant service in the field, and will be commanded by able and experienced officers. Californians, you have already exhibited a noble devotion to the Union. Ten thousand men furnished by your State, and the magnificent voluntary contributions in money and supplies which you have sent forward to aid our sick and wounded soldiers in the East, bear witness to your love for the old flag. Knowing, as I do, the people of this State, their love of country, their intelligence, their zealous and holy attachment to the Union, I appeal to them with confidence. Respond promptly to the call; rally under the protecting folds of the glorious old star-spangled banner, and swear fidelity to the Union.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 16, 1862.

Maj. DAVID FERGUSSON, First Cavalry California Volunteers: (Through Brigadier-General Carleton, Santa Fé, N. Mex.)

SIR: The general commanding the department has perused with care and much interest your report* as to the practicability of the routes from Tucson to Libertad and Lobos Bay, copies of which will be forwarded for the consideration of the Secretary of War and the Quartermaster-General. The accumulation of so large an amount of valuable information is highly creditable, and the general with pleasure commends your zeal in carrying out his instructions. The general desires me to say that he will recommend you for the colonelcy of the First Cavalry, the additional companies of which will join you early in the spring.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* To appear In Series III.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 16, 1862.

Col. P. EDWARD CONNOR, Third Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Utah, Camp Douglas, Salt Lake City, Utah Ter.:

SIR: Your letter* transmitting Maj. Edward McGarry’s report of an expedition to recover a white boy held by the Indians has been submitted to the department commander, and by him forwarded for the information of the War Department. The general commends your activity and promptness, as well as the good conduct of Major McGarry and the officers and men under his command. All that you {p.254} have done and propose to do is approved by the general, who feels that he can safely rely upon your sound judgment for conducting to a favorable issue the delicate duty assigned you.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Part I, p. 181.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Camp Drum, New San Pedro, December 18, 1862.

Lieut. Col. B. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: By the express of last evening from Fort Yuma I received a communication from Brigadier-General Carleton, dated headquarters Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé, N. Mex., November 18, 1862, in which he says:

I have recently received such circumstantial rumors that 6,000 Confederate troops are about to make another demonstration against this Territory as to justify me in calling upon you to come forward without delay to the Rio Grande with at least three of the five companies now forming the garrison at Fort Yuma; that you request, by express, the commander of the Department of the Pacific to send Forman’s regiment to Fort Yuma, so that on its arrival these two last companies of your regiment left by you under Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbins can come on without delay to join you, and I beg of you to request of General Wright that he will order four of Forman’s companies forward to Tucson; that three of these may hold that point and one occupy Fort Bowie. This will relieve the whole of the Fifth Infantry California Volunteers by the Fourth, and give you your whole regiment on the Rio Grande I shall count on your leaving Fort Yuma for Tucson immediately on the receipt of this.

I do not know what view the general commanding the department may take of this matter, but it seems to me that it would be scarcely possible to make a march of 1,000 miles, as I would have to do from this point, in time to render him any aid against the supposed Confederate force by which he is threatened. May General Carleton not be mistaken about the rumor of rebels [moving] into New Mexico, for if General Banks be on his way in Texas all of the rebel troops will be needed there. I am willing to do any service required of me, but I should be sorry to make such a march merely for the sake of a march.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. BOWIE, Colonel Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, December 18, 1862.

Lieut. Col. JAMES N. OLNEY, Second Infty. California Volunteers, Comdg. at Fort Gaston:

COLONEL: The colonel commanding the district directs you to obtain from the Hoopa Indians, under the treaty made with them by you, two reliable Indian guides and to forward them without delay to Captain Flynn, at Fort Baker. You are authorized to commence operations against the Indians with your command as soon as in your judgment there is a reasonable prospect of success, forwarding in all cases an official report to these headquarters of all scouts or expeditions made under your orders.

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN HANNA, JR., First Lieut. and Adjutant Second Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. Humboldt Military District.

{p.255}

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SAN FRANCISCO, December 19, 1862.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS:

I request authority to raise four companies of native cavalry in the Los Angeles district, to be commanded by a patriotic gentleman, Don Andres Pico.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 19, 1862.

Maj. THEODORE A. COULT, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District of Western Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. Ter.:

SIR: Your letter of the 26th ultimo with inclosures having been submitted to the general commanding the department, I am instructed to say in reply that the District of Western Arizona was temporarily placed under the command of Brigadier-General Carleton for the purpose of facilitating the movement of the Column from California, and having it promptly and properly supplied. As this necessity no longer exists, General Carleton has been informed that the department commander will relieve him of the command of the district. The general desires you to comply with General Carleton’s requisitions for supplies for Colonel West’s command. Authority has recently been received to raise seven companies of cavalry to complete the organization of the First Regiment of California Cavalry. This force will be sent forward early in the spring. In the meantime the general desires you to make such preparations as may be in your power, and forward for his consideration such suggestions as you may deem pertinent for the speedy and economical transfer of these companies to the Department of New Mexico. The general has recommended to His Excellency the Governor your name for the vacancy created by the resignation of Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbins, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 19, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES H. CARLETON, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé, N. Mex.:

GENERAL: Brigadier-General Wright desires me to inform you that authority has been granted the Governor of this State to raise seven companies of cavalry to complete the organization of the First Regiment of California Cavalry. This force will be thrown forward by company, via Fort Yuma, as rapidly as its organization and equipment will permit. With the exception of two companies now at Camp Drum, the whole of Bowie’s regiment is at and in advance of Fort Yuma. The general has heretofore refrained from giving any orders in relation to Western Arizona, fearing that if he did so you might possibly be trammeled in your operations. As the Column from California has passed beyond the limits of this department, and there being no possibility of its return to this coast, at least for some time, the general will relieve you from the command of the district, giving commanders {p.256} therein instructions to comply with such requisitions for supplies as may be deemed necessary for the column. Should you now or at any time hereafter deem it important and necessary in your operations that Arizona should be embraced within the limits of the Department of New Mexico, the application for its transfer will meet with no objections from General Wright.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 19, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fe’:

I returned to this post on the 16th instant from a visit to the troops at Franklin and San Elizario. At both points the discipline is excellent and the commands fully prepared for such action as the advance of the enemy may render necessary. Of the Texans there is nothing new. A paragraph in the San Antonio Herald of October 25, forwarded in a bundle to the general commanding, is somewhat significant. The scout to Horsehead Crossing has not been heard from, nor have I any news from either Captains McCleave or Pishon. The inclosed copy* of a letter from Major Coult will apprise you that Captains Greene and Wellman are on the march for this station; they will probably reach here to-morrow. I inclose a list of clothing coming forward with them from Tucson. Captain Moore, assistant quartermaster, arrived to-day. Captain Davis, acting assistant quartermaster, should reach here on the 22d instant. On the arrival of the latter a reorganization of the entire quartermaster’s department of the district will be made.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Omitted.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, December 20, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Your communication of date December 12, [862, in closing telegram from General-in-Chief to department commander, is just received. In reply I have the honor to inform you that since my arrival here I have been aware that efforts were being made to dissever my command. The real Governor of this Territory, Brigham Young, and his satellites on the one hand, and agents and contractors on the other, have since my arrival here constantly worked to separate this command, the former, with his usual sagacity, for the attainment of his own purposes and without the least doubt of his success (high authority states that he has openly boasted, in fact, that he would drive me away from here before spring), and the latter from a desire to make money out of the Government. Judge Carter, agent of the Overland Mail Company east of here and sutler of Fort Bridger, with other interested persons within this district, have not so much the interests of the Government or the {p.257} Overland Mail Company at heart as a desire to speculate upon the necessities of this command by selling to it supplies, of which Judge Carter has large quantities on hand. As an evidence of this fact that gentleman has been the only one of a great many among those interested largely in the Overland Mail Company who has desired the establishment of more posts on the line; and I am now satisfied that the rumor started by him previous to my garrisoning Fort Bridger of 100 head of stock being stolen by Indians from the reservation was false, and circulated for the purpose of having troops ordered to that post. I am reliably informed that the so-called President Young is making active preparations indicating a determination on his part to oppose the Government of the United States in the spring, provided Utah is not admitted into the Union as a State, or in case of a foreign war or serious reverse to our arms. It is constantly asserted by him and his agents that this command should be moved and scattered along the line of the Overland Mail Company as a “check against Indians,” who they say are ready to attack the property at any moment; and many willing converts to this fear are found among Brigham’s hosts. But no one having the interest of the Government or the company in view can be found here credulous enough to be blind to the real motives which actuate their desires. Brigham Young is now engaged in mounting cannon for the purpose of resisting the Government, and has reports circulated, which have reached the ears of those highest in authority, in order to mature his plans, gain time, and prepare his cannon. Desirable as this would be to him I hope to defeat his intentions. From a careful scrutiny of the state of affairs here and a thorough knowledge of I he country, I am satisfied I occupy every necessary position. The entire line from Ruby Valley to Ham’s Fork is completely under my control, and while, in my opinion, there exists no necessity for troops at Fort Bridger, to quiet the apprehensions of the Overland Mail Company, if they have any (which I doubt), and to obey the orders of the general commanding, I shall continue to garrison Fort Bridger, and will immediately send a sufficient force to occupy Ham’s Fork, although I am of the opinion there is no real necessity for it. My present position was selected for its availability, and commanding as it does not only all the avenues to but even the town itself, it is an important one, and I am not surprised that Brigham Young considers its occupancy dangerous to his interests. The presence of this command here, which the informants of the General-in-Chief desire so much to have removed, indicates that my information regarding the real intentions of these people is correct, and events will prove that in selecting my position and carrying out my own views the interest of the Government and of the Overland Mail Company has been anticipated. I am truly glad that the department commander has given me discretionary powers in the premises. I am credibly informed and believe that Mormons have instigated the late attack by Indians on the telegraph station at Pacific Springs in order to draw my forces to that point. Mormons also, in the northern part of this valley, encourage depredations by the Humboldt Indians by purchasing of them property of which massacred immigrants have been despoiled by giving them in exchange therefor powder, lead, and produce. I have heretofore refrained from submitting a report of these transactions to the general commanding for the reason that I desired to be previously well informed.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

{p.258}

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CAMP BABBITT, Near Visalia, December 21, 1862.

[Col. H. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General:]

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of instructions dated headquarters Department of the Pacific, December 12, 1862, and beg leave to make known the following facts for the consideration of the general commanding the department: I have caused to be arrested and confined, as per instructions, the three following-named persons: Smith Fine, David Fine, and Work, who had the audacity to ride and drive in front of the battalion while on dress parade, hurrahing for Jeff. Davis and Stonewall Jackson. These men, though very rabid secessionists, are merely the ignorant tools of designing men, and I think a short time in military prison will probably cure them of the mania. The archtraitors and head and front of the rebels I should have had already arrested and sent to Alcatraz Island had the force at my disposal been sufficient to warrant me in thus weakening the command. This command does not number more than 100 effective men, and the rebels can bring against it 250 men in twenty-four hours, and 400 in two days, all of them well armed. The Union element is greatly in the minority and almost without arms. The route from Visalia to Stockton or to Los Angeles is through the most rebel portion of the State, and would necessitate a guard of at least fifty men, which would leave this camp almost at the mercy of the enemy and without a sufficient number for camp duty. I have, therefore, after consultation with my brother officers, thought it more prudent not to arrest the ringleaders, but wait for re-enforcements that they may be arrested and sent to department headquarters with all the force necessary for the due enforcement of the law and dignity of the American Government. In the meantime I will have them, if necessary, arrested and confined here, feeling confident that I can hold the camp until the arrival of re-enforcements. I would most respectfully urge the necessity of having Companies D and I filled to their maximum number.

All of which is most respectfully submitted.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. MCLAUGHLIN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Crook, Cal., December 22, 1862.

Lieut. Col. H. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco:

COLONEL: In obedience to orders headquarters Department of the Pacific, of date November 14, I have established Lieutenant Williams and twenty-five men of Company C, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, at Smoke Creek, Nev. Ter. The detachment left this post on the 10th instant, and arrived at their destination on the 15th instant. The quarters and stables are sufficiently finished to afford comfortable shelter for men and horses, and the remaining work will be completed immediately. I was enabled to take but forty days’ subsistence stores from here, but one load having arrived from Churchill before I left. The command will be well supplied until the balance required can be forwarded, Lieutenant Williams has received orders {p.259} as directed relative to protecting the inhabitants. I do not think that the people in the immediate neighborhood of Susanville are, or will be, in any danger. From the information received while in the valley it is evident to me that the Indians infesting that region are a small band of renegades from different tribes, and owing allegiance to none, but not of sufficient numbers to interfere with the business of the valley or create any serious alarm, but whose depredations will be confined to stealing cattle and killing any small unarmed parties they may be able to surprise on the Humboldt road, and then retreating to their haunts in the mountains. I have instructed Lieutenant Williams to consider all Indians found in arms, either on the road or in its immediate vicinity, as hostile, and to kill them without any reference to depredations committed, as I consider that they will not be found there unless they mean mischief. The difficulty of communication with Fort Crook being great at this season, and frequently impossible, Lieutenant Williams will report direct to department headquarters the state of affairs at his station.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY B. MELLEN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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ORDNANCE OFFICE, WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, December 22, 1862.

Brig. Gen. B. ALVORD, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: Your letters in relation to heavy ordnance for armament at the mouth of the Columbia River have received the attention of this, and the Engineer, as also of the War Department. After full consideration of the subject, in connection with our present means of providing armament, and of the want of it in other positions requiring more immediate attention, it has been suggested to, and approved by, the War Department, to supply a portion of that you mention, viz, two 15-inch guns, twenty-three 10-inch and five 8-inch columbiads and fifteen Parrott 200-pounders with proper ammunition, &c., as soon as possible, consistently with other imperative requirements.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. W. RIPLEY, Brigadier-General, Chief of Ordnance.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, December 23, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have already forwarded estimates and asked for authority to establish a military post at or near Fort Boisé, on the Snake River. The great necessity for a strong garrison in that quarter is daily becoming more apparent. In the very heart of the mining districts of the north, and on the route by which the vast emigration from the East approaches that country, a strong military force can afford protection to all against those wandering bands of Indians which infest that section, and maintain peace between the races. In accordance with the authority of the Secretary of War, communicated to me through your office, I suspended the further organization of the regiment of {p.260} Oregon cavalry on the completion of the sixth company. It is now deemed important that the regiment should be completed, and I have directed Brigadier-General Alvord to call out six more companies and organize the regiment in accordance with General Orders, No. 126, current series. Inclosed herewith is a slip from a paper published at Lewiston, Wash. Ter., relative to the navigation of Snake River, and the probability that steamers will be able to ascend as far as Boisé or Salmon Falls.

Hoping that my action in completing the Oregon regiment may be approved, and that the establishment of a post at Fort Boisé may be authorized, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

NAVIGATION OF SNAKE RIVER.-STEAMERS TO THE BOISÉ MINES.

Our readers will remember that in our issue of October 24 we alluded to the navigation of Snake River, and furnished the outlines of the explorers who, were sent up to Boisé to examine the river. Through the kindness of Captain Ankeney we are able to give a much more extended account of the trip. The party consisted of three reliable men, Charles Clifford, Washington Murray, and Joseph Denver, and started from Lewiston under the auspices of Capt. A. P. Ankeney, on the 20th of September. They followed the meanderings of Snake to the mouth of the Grande Ronde, and found the distance to be twenty-seven miles, due south. It is an open river, with no obstructions. From Grande Ronde they proceeded to intersect the old emigrant road, and reached it at or near its crossing of Powder River; a short distance farther on diverged toward Snake River, and followed it up to the Boisé’. For several miles the river runs through deep cañons or mountain gorges, and has the appearance of being very deep, and shows by the banks that during certain seasons of the year it rises to the height of sixty feet. The party met several Indians, but none that were unfriendly. A great similarity exists in the whole country between Fort Boisé and Lewiston, as does between Lewiston and where snake empties into the Columbia. Sometimes bold, rocky sides, then beautiful rolling table-lands, interspersed with trees and prairie lands. The party passed through some of the most beautiful farming land in the world; deep, rich, dark loam, well watered and well timbered, with gold in all the ravines and gulches for the miner, and soil to provide him with the necessaries of life.

After their arrival at Fort Boisé they proceeded to construct a boat, or more properly a raft, to navigate the river with. In a few days they were rested and prepared, having taken the precaution to lash their provisions on to the raft, bid adieu to Fort Boisé’, and came dashing, foaming, down the wild, tortuous Snake. The first cañon of note was twelve miles in length, and here the banks gave indication of the water rising sixty or seventy feet. After this came an open space of eight miles, in which you could observe for a long distance the glorious open country. The weather was delightful, and scenery inviting. The next cañon or gorge was fourteen miles in length, and penetrated the two ridges of the Blue Mountains. The course seemed to be north, showing that Snake River runs north and south. After passing this cañon there came an open space, and alternately changing, but with no perceptible difference. About sixty miles brought them down to the month of Salmon, making, as they reckon, inside of 100 miles from Fort Boisé to Salmon. {p.261} From Salmon to Lewiston is inside of forty miles, so that the entire distance from this city to Fort Boisé is only 135 miles. They found nothing in the river to impede navigation whatever, and pronounced it feasible at any season of the year unless it be by ice. The examination of the river has resulted in establishing the fact that Snake is navigable for steamers, and will be much safer to travel than the river is from Lewiston to the mouth of Snake. This is equally as gratifying to the projector of the scheme as it is to the citizens of Lewiston and the country at large. A new route will now be opened for steam, the results of which cannot now be foretold. We shall penetrate Nevada and Utah Territories by steam, as it is well known that it is only ninety miles from Fort Boisé to Salmon Falls, on Snake River. Salmon Falls is within 250 miles of Salt Lake City. A new avenue of trade will then be opened, and those who have risked their fortune and periled their lives are justly entitled to the gratitude of the people, and a rich reward shall be their portion. But a few more suns will rise and set before the shrill whistle of the steamer will reverberate along the banks of this noble river, and its echo will be heard for ages yet to come through the ravines, gorges, cañons, and on the mountain tops in our golden land, as a symbol of ammunition, perseverance, and goaheadativeness. More anon.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 23, 1862.

Col. GEORGE W. BOWIE, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Dist. of Southern California, New San Pedro, Cal.:

SIR: The threatening aspect of affairs on the Rio Grande will in the opinion of the general commanding the department, require that strong re-enforcements should be sent as early in the coming spring as practicable from this coast to the Department of New Mexico. Should this necessity exist at the time specified, you will be sent with the balance of your regiment to the East. For this purpose, and to facilitate the movement of the new cavalry companies at the same time, the general desires you to make all needful preparations. The cavalry companies will be sent forward by company as fast as this organization will permit. The above will explain the order detaching Captain Ffrench’s company for temporary service at Fort Yuma. If the means at your disposal will permit and the weather in the south continues propitious, another company might be sent to Yuma. This arrangement would facilitate your movement in the spring.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FORT WRIGHT, CAL., December 23, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit a copy of the testimony taken at a general investigation of Indian affairs, held in Round Valley, by myself, on the 18th and 19th instant.* The examination was conducted {p.262} with reference to certain charges preferred against the settlers of this valley, such as killing Indians on the reservation, running the Indians out of the valley, destroying the Government fences, and turning their cattle and hogs into the fields, and destroying the crop and other Government property. Also that the settlers of Round Valley were a set of lawless men, and that all or nearly all were disloyal to the Government of the United States. The general commanding will see by the testimony given under oath by the employe’s on the reservation that they entirely fail to prove any of the above charges. They swear positively that they never saw any Indians killed on the reservation, and never heard any of the settlers threatening to kill the Indians if they did not leave the reservation and valley. It is shown that Captain Short, the supervisor, parted with the 400 or 500 Indians that left the valley last October, in a “very cordial manner.” It is now certain that these Indians did not leave through fear of the settlers, nor on account of any threats they had made. But they did leave to prevent starvation. Winter season they knew would overtake them if they remained on the reservation, where they knew there was nothing for them to eat. They knew and said that they would be compelled to kill cattle, if they remained, or starve, and they knew also that if they did kill the settlers’ stock the settlers would kill them; so that nothing but death awaited the poor Indian if he stopped on the reservation. No matter which way the Indian turned, a cruel death stared him in the face.

Now, the question is, which of the two parties is to blame for this wild and disorderly state of Indian affairs, the Government agents or the settlers? Without question, the superintendent, Mr. Hanson, and the supervisor, Mr. Short, are the parties guilty of the whole trouble. Through their misrepresentations they have caused it all. The interests of the Government and of the Indians have been grossly and shamefully neglected in this valley. The entire reservation is in a most ruinous condition, rendered so by neglect. There is no fencing on the reservation that will prevent stock from breaking in anywhere; they try nothing hardly to protect the crops, put in to feed the Indians, from the depredations of large bands of stock belonging to the settlers and the Government. The supervisor testifies on oath that he reported to Superintendent Hanson that the settlers were destroying the fences, and at the same time states positively that he never saw any one do it, and don’t know as any one did do it. There was no need of any one taking so much trouble, as any stock could easily get over or through the fencing. A great portion of the field is and was without any fencing at all, and Supervisor Short stated under oath that, if farming on private account, he “should have hated to put in a crop protected by such fences.” Yet he seems to consider a Government crop well enough protected by such fences. A faithful servant of the Government, surely!

The supervisor’s two sons, employés on the reservation, swear that if farming on private account they would not have trusted their crops to the protection of any such fencing as there is on the reservation. Mr. Robinson (an honest man, I believe, and the best man employed on the reservation), an old farmer, testifies to the same thing, and further states that it is the worst-managed place or concern he ever saw. From my own observation I know that he tells the truth. As per example: The supervisor does not know the number of Indians on the reservation, does not know the amount of provisions, if any, on the reservation, nor does he know the number of cattle, horses, or hogs {p.263} belonging on the reservation. He knows nothing of what he has or should have. While he was absent for at least ten days the first of the present mouth at San Francisco, he left the keys of the Government store-houses on the reservation in charge of a squaw. My acting assistant quartermaster, Lieutenant Johnson, could not obtain public letters, that were finally found in the supervisor’s room, because said squaw was absent with the keys. These letters were from headquarters of the department, and addressed to me at this place. I have myself rode around and all over the entire reservation, and have seen enough to convince me that Government interests have been most shamefully neglected. Even had the supervisor saved all of the crop put in last year, there would not have been enough to feed one-third of the Indians then on the reservation. The greater portion of the crop was put in a field full of weeds of all kinds; indeed, the field has not been plowed for two years or more. It could not, therefore, be expected that seed cast on such ground would yield a good crop. And even this poor crop, if it can be called a crop, was lost by carelessness and the utter uselessness of the fences.

There were about twenty-three Indians killed last August by about twenty or more of the settlers. These Indians were killed on the reservation within a mile of the supervisor’s house and about 100 yards from his son’s house; yet neither the supervisor nor his son could tell the names of any of the party that killed the Indians at their very doors. The Indians were Wylackees, a wild and hostile band. The supervisor’s two sons were told that the Indians were to be killed that very night, and one of his sons swears that he told his father of it the same night; yet none of them made any efforts to prevent the killing. The testimony shows that one of the supervisor’s sons gave his revolver to Martin Corbert, knowing what use Martin Corbert was going to make of it. Another one of the supervisor’s sons took his wife and family away from the upper station to his father’s house, as he swears himself, to prevent his wife from being frightened during the affray that he knew was to take place between the settlers and the Indians. This same son testifies under oath that all of the whites on the reservation and the Indians and all the settlers in the valley were in fear of this band of Wylackees. From all the testimony taken on this matter I am convinced that the settlers killed the Indians in self-defense. I would not say so much about these Indians but that it has been reported that they were a peaceful tribe living on the reservation. But as the whole testimony on the subject is before the department commander he is the proper officer to judge whether or not the Indians were killed by the settlers in self-defense.

It was also charged that the settlers of Round Valley shot at the supervisor in his own house on the reservation. This is not true. It appears that two men, of the name of Lamb and Ward, did this shooting because the supervisor took their squaws away from them. These two men were not at that time or any other the settlers in this valley; neither were they supported in their lawless acts by the actual settlers of the valley. There has been a continued misrepresentation of Indian affairs and settlers off and from this valley to the general commanding and to the public at large during the last year or more, and the superintendent, Major Hanson, cannot but know the fact. He has been here several times in the last year, and, in my opinion, no man could be in this valley twenty-four hours without seeing that the employés were grossly neglecting their duties, or at least those charged with the management of the reservation were doing so. I could and did see it {p.264} before I was here half the time named, and the superintendent ought to know, and no doubt does know, more about Indian affairs than myself. The supervisor testifies that he never had any difficulty with any of the settlers except with Lamb and Ward, who were not considered by him as settlers.

I will here state that the mismanagement of Indian affairs in this valley has brought the Government into discredit, so much so that the settlers of the valley will not sell a pound of provisions to the Indian Department without the cash in hand. The superintendent and the supervisor’s notes or bonds are held worthless, and the settlers justify themselves under the plea that the superintendent has never paid a dollar since he has been in office on any of the reservations, to their best knowledge and belief. He has not paid for anything in this valley since my coming into the valley.

The supervisor bought of Mr. Steven Smith about 2,500 bushels of corn to feed the Indians on, and for this small amount Mr. Smith would not take the notes of the superintendent or supervisor, and to keep the poor Indians from starving a private citizen went security for the payment of the amount. It cannot be said with truth that Mr. Smith refused the notes of the Indian agents through any other feeling than that of making sure of his money, for which he is not to blame. I know Mr. Smith to be a truly loyal citizen. Being from the State of New York, he could not well be otherwise than loyal.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

* Omitted.

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CAMP BABBITT, Near Visalia, December 24, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco:

COLONEL: In my letter of the 21st instant I had the honor to state certain facts for the consideration of the general commanding the department. I again most respectfully urge the necessity of re-enforcements being sent here. The rebels are gathering like locusts. On yesterday a writ of habeas corpus was served on me for the release of the prisoners, citing me to appear to-day at 12 m., which I shall most certainly not comply with, having refused to acknowledge the writ. I expect the sheriff will summon a strong posse comitatus, trying to regain them by force. Rest assured they will be warmly received.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. MCLAUGHLIN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Crook, December 24, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: The withdrawal of twenty-five men from my command to garrison the post at Smoke Creek has left me much too small a force {p.265} to be of any service should any trouble arise with the Indians in this vicinity, and I respectfully request that a sufficient number of recruits may be ordered to this post to render the garrison more competent to protect this portion of the country. I have at present but twenty-five men for all duties connected with the post.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY B. MELLEN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., December 24, 1862.

Hon. A. C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon, Portland, Oreg.:

GOVERNOR: I have the honor to acknowledge the reception of your letters of the 15th and 16th instant. I inclose herewith to you a copy of General Orders, No. 18, of the 21st of February, 1862, from the Adjutant-General’s Office.* When I was in San Francisco I was informed that General Wright had recommended to the Governor of California that after the regiments or battalions were fully raised and organized vacancies should, as a general rule, be filled by promotion, as in the Army. This would leave to be otherwise filled the vacancies in the lowest grade, that of second lieutenant. One-half of these should be filled from the faithful non-commissioned officers or from the ranks. If a captain resigns, the senior first lieutenant should be promoted to fill his place, unless in case of manifest injury to the service; or in case he should decline promotion, the senior second lieutenant would be promoted to first lieutenant in his place. This system is the one best calculated to reward the faithful officer or soldier. There are so few stimulants and rewards for faithful service in this quarter that it is desirable to avail ourselves of all that offer. I understand the Governors of New York and some other States have adopted this rule. This is the mode of procedure: The general commanding the department will notify me and Lieutenant-Colonel Maury of the acceptance of the resignation of an officer; Colonel Maury will recommend the promotion or appointment; I will indorse the letter and forward the same to you. If the recommendation meets your approbation, you will notify me of your wishes. If it was an appointment from civil life, as in the case of a second lieutenant, or if appointed from the ranks, he would have to be examined by a board of officers ordered by myself, to report upon his fitness, loyalty, &c. If the report of the board was favorable, I would then order that he should be mustered into the service of the United States, and would notify you so that you might send him a commission. Each of the officers now in the service was subjected to examination by such a board, but for promotion he would not, as a general rule, be directed to be re-examined. I am informed from department headquarters that Captain Whannell’s company will be attached to a California infantry regiment. It has not yet been decided to ask for any increase to the number of companies in the First Regiment of Oregon Cavalry.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* Relates to the raising of volunteer regiments, &c. See Series III.

{p.266}

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., December 27, 1862.

Col. FERRIS FORMAN, Commanding Benicia Barracks:

Hold Noble’s company of cavalry in readiness to proceed to Visalia. Direct quartermaster to get ready the transportation now on hand for that purpose.

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 28, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to report that Bradford Daily returned on the 26th instant from a scout down the Pecos River as far as Horsehead Crossing. He was accompanied to that point by Captain Parvin and two men of Captain Pishon’s expedition. At the crossing he discovered signs of a party of some fifty mounted men with a wagon having been encamped there some fifteen days previously. That party had left the crossing and taken the road to Fort Stockton. Daily and his men encamped a mile and a half below Horsehead. In a few hours the Texans (as they evidently were) returned and commenced to trail Daily. He and his party made a detour on this side of the Pecos and escaped them. From the fact that the Texans had been in that vicinity the length of time that their signs indicated Daily is of opinion that they were merely a scout of the enemy watching our movements. Other information of which I am possessed confirms that opinion. Mr. Daily’s mission having been ended I have ordered him discharged. He has fulfilled his charge faithfully and obtained all the information that was to be had under the circumstances. In a private letter in my possession, dated Matamoras, September 10, written by Gabriel Valdez to his brother Luis, at El Paso, mention is made that a party of ninety Unionists (Germans) attempted to escape in August from Fredericksburg into Mexico; that the Texans gave them battle and killed the majority of the party. Mr. Jegner, the leader of the Union men, arrived in Mesilla last night. His story is very interesting, and he sets forth that there are a large number of Unionists in the west of Texas who are cruelly oppressed, and who could co-operate effectually with any U. S. troops sent to their relief. I have taken Jegner into employment as teamster, so that his services may be availed of in future, if desired. Mr. Jegner says that General Baylor returned from Richmond to San Antonio with his appointment as Governor of Arizona; that he was endeavoring to raise a force of 6,000 men for a movement in this direction. Great difficulties were experienced; transportation and supplies were not to be had and the people at large were averse to the enterprise. They cited the failure of Sibley’s expedition; claimed that the country was not worth possessing, and now that their own coast was threatened all the Texans would be wanted home. From all the information that I can gather I have arrived at the conclusion that there are no reasons at present to apprehend that we shall be troubled by the enemy’s advance toward us. To endeavor to keep informed, however, Major Fergusson will visit Chihuahua to make the arrangements suggested by me previously. The contingency of our agents playing us false has not escaped reflection. Information obtained {p.267} through the sources in contemplation will require to be weighed, of course. It will be necessary to pay some agents well, but an expenditure in that way will be comparatively small, if the service is faithfully rendered, in view of the advantages resulting otherwise. It will either leave us at full liberty to wage war against the Indians or our expectations of an advance by the Texans will be reduced to certainty.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, December 28, 1862.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fe’:

I have the honor to report that I have been advised by both Captains McCleave and Pishon of their being en route for Mesilla, in accordance with their instructions to return by the end of this month. Neither officer reports his operations in detail as yet, but I gather from their communications that the results of both expeditions consist in having scoured the Mescalero haunts and in driving (not catching) the Indians. Though we must conclude that good will result from these visitations, yet the conviction would be more forcible had some of the savages been killed. Captain McCleave writes from camp on the Rio Tularosa December 22:

We returned from a trip to Dog Canon and Sacramento Mountains on the 20th instant, but saw no recent signs of Indians. On our first scout we surprised two parties of Indians, taking their stock, camp equipage, &c., one woman, and two children. One of the latter was recognized as the child of parents who were recently murdered near Fort Fillmore.

Captain Pishon writes from Ojo del Martin December 22:

I have been unsuccessful in finding Indians in this part of the country. I have scouted the Guadalupe Mountains; been to no less than nine different ranchos that Garcia said he bad always found Indians in some of them heretofore. The Indians discovered me en route before I established my depot, and left for the Sacramento Mountains, as was proven by those trails going in that direction. My men were disappointed, but none so much as myself, in not getting a fight out of the redskins.

The official reports will be forwarded to department headquarters as soon as received.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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SAN FRANCISCO, December 29, 1862.

Colonel FORMAN, Benicia, Cal.:

Company E (Noble’s), Second Cavalry California Volunteers, will proceed without delay to Visalia, via Livermore Pass.

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.268}

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Olympia, Wash. Ter., December 29, 1862.

General GEORGE WRIGHT, U. S. Army, Comdg. Military Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

DEAR SIR: I feel deeply and earnestly the importance of the present Congress providing for a line of military posts along the emigrant route across this Territory. From this view I have considered it my duty to recommend our Territorial Legislature, now in session, to memorialize Congress in behalf of suitable appropriations to secure the construction of those necessary military establishments at the earliest day practicable as the only efficacious plan by which the lives and property of all future emigrants can be securely protected. Also for a memorial for the extinction of the Indian title to all lands over which the said emigrant road passes, for the purpose of more effectually commanding and preserving the peace and quiet of all overland travelers from the South Pass to the Columbia River. By securing the whole length of the road upon lands belonging exclusively to the United States will give us a more certain hope of being better able to preserve travelers from Indian molestation than we can possibly expect to accomplish so long as the road passes over lands yet belonging to the Indians. Also for a memorial for such additional mail routes as the Legislature knows the increasing population needs. Both houses of the Legislature have unanimously passed suitable memorials for all these purposes, one of which prays for establishing a mail route from South Pass or from Salt Lake along the said emigrant road down Snake River Valley to Walla Walla. In order to impress upon the immediate consideration of the President, the proper Departments, and the suitable committees of Congress the requisite and necessary duty of thoroughly protecting the lives and property of all future emigrants, I have at length prevailed upon the bearer, my old political and personal friend for nearly thirty years past in Springfield, Ill., Dr. Anson G. Henry, to go to Washington City for those purposes. Doctor Henry has been the personal and political friend, neighbor, and associate of the President of the United States from the first day that Mr. Lincoln went to reside at Springfield, Ill. The President, as well as myself, have both well known Doctor Henry to have been on all occasions and at all times a strictly honest and upright man, and has always maintained the reputation of a truthful man of sterling worth and reliability, and a kindhearted, moral, good man, and the President, as well as myself, both very well know Doctor Henry to be at this day the same deservingly good man that he always has been through his whole past life, notwithstanding the vile bickerings of Democratic secession sympathizers against him, and against all prominent supporters of our present Administration, and against all its well-meant efforts to crush out the present monstrous rebellion. If you have any official, military, or confidential messages, packages, or communications to forward to Washington City you cannot find a more faithful messenger, or a more punctual and reliable bearer thereof than Doctor Henry, and I should be glad and esteem it a personal favor if you can furnish him with a messengership and a free pass from your department to Washington City and back again as bearer of your dispatches. I have no contingent fund at my disposal out of which to pay the costs of such a necessary journey, nor can I dispatch a messenger to Washington and give him a free pass; therefore unless you can oblige me by giving Doctor Henry a free pass, the unavoidable costs of the whole trip will fall heavily upon my own {p.269} private pocket, and it is truly hard that I should be compelled to pay out of my own private purse all these heavy expenses of such a round journey, made solely for the public uses and benefits, and not for any private purpose of my own in any way whatever; and I well know unless Doctor Henry goes to Washington at this time nothing whatever will be done for the public benefit of this Territory, no matter how much our population needs all I have requested our Legislature to pray Congress to bestow.

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory.

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[DECEMBER 29, 1862.-For Baylor to Magruder (Confederate), relating to operations against Indians in Arizona, &c., see Vol. XV, p. 914.]

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, December 30, 1862.

Lieut. W. L. RYNERSON, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Mesilla, Ariz. Ter.:

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report that Company E, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Lieut. John F. Qualey commanding, marched from Tucson to Apache Pass on the 27th instant, with orders to relieve the company now stationed at Fort Bowie. There was necessarily some delay in the execution of the order of the general commanding in relation to the movement of this company, from the fact that at the time of the reception of the order there was but a handful of men in garrison, the major part of the company being on detached service. All the enlisted men belonging to companies on the Rio Grande who are in a condition to travel are ordered forward, except a few men stationed on the road to Fort Yuma, who have not yet been relieved, from want of men to take their places. Company H, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, is ordered to Tucson, and will probably reach here in about a month. I have directed the commanding officer of that company to relieve all infantrymen he finds on the road with men from his own company. I hope, therefore, to make a thorough clearing up before very long. I have sent to Mesilla several men who were in confinement under charges for various offenses, some of them of a serious character. The charges have been forwarded to headquarters some two months since, and no return from them. To retain them until a court-martial could be had here would necessitate the retention of all the witnesses, hence I ordered all forward. My command is now very small, scarcely sufficient for garrison duty and to furnish escorts. I have been obliged to call in the detachments stationed at Cerro Colorado and Patagonia Mines, and to reduce the garrison at San Pedro Crossing to twelve cavalrymen. The Apaches are committing great depredations near the Sonora line, and certainly need punishing, but I have not the force to make a campaign against them. I have written to General Wright on this subject, and suggested that there should be at least three companies of infantry and two of cavalry in this district. Had I that force I could raise a partisan company and arm them with the rifles now somewhere en route for the Pima Indians, and with the six companies be {p.270} enabled to punish the rascals. I should be pleased to hear from the general commanding on this subject, and if my suggestion is approved, respectfully request that he will write to General Wright urging the granting of my request. About a mouth since two horses belonging to Captain Fritz, with Government saddles and carbines, were stolen from the corral attached to his quarters. In less than half an hour I had Lieutenant Guirado in the saddle with six men, with orders to pursue and recover the property, though it was necessary to go to Guaymas. Lieutenant Guirado returned on the 21st instant, having recovered the property in Hermosillo, but could not get the thieves in consequence of the obstacles thrown in his way by officers of the country and the smallness of his force. Had I been sufficiently strong in numbers I should have sent Captain Fritz with twenty-five or thirty men direct to the Governor as bearer of dispatches demanding the surrender of the culprits, with orders to take them himself in case the demand was refused. I am convinced that many of the border depredations for which the Apaches are held accountable are committed by the Mexicans, and I ant determined to make an example of the first one I catch.

Trusting these actions may meet the approval of the general commanding, I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, December 31, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that Company E, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Lieut. John F. Qualey commanding, marched from Tucson for Fort Bowie, Apache Pass, on the 27th instant. My command is now very small, scarcely sufficient for garrison duty and to furnish necessary escorts. I have concentrated my force as much as I was able, but do not feel at all secure. In addition to the reports of armed men assembling in Sonora, to which I called the attention of the commanding general in my communication of the 10th instant, the Apaches are committing great depredations in all parts of the country. I have just been informed that the Indians ran off from San Xavier, only nine miles distant, at 3 o’clock this morning, forty head of horses. The news did not reach me until 1 p.m., and having but twenty-three cavalry in garrison, and the Indians ten hours’ start, I am satisfied that it would take at least a week to catch them. Hence I could do nothing but bite my lips and let them go. I regret to be importunate, but it is extremely vexatious and annoying to be compelled to listen to the recitals of these outrages and feel that my hands are tied and I can afford them no relief. It would be folly to send less than two companies on a campaign against them, and the only available force I have is twenty-three cavalrymen. The infantry I must retain in town to afford protection to the Government supplies. I can raise a partisan company of sixty to eighty men here, who have had much experience in fighting the Indians, and who would gladly go on a campaign if supported by regular troops. Should such a suggestion meet the approval of the commanding general, the expense to the Government would be slight. They would furnish their own horses and would require only {p.271} arms, ammunition, and subsistence. The arms could be furnished from the 100 Mississippi rifles now somewhere en route for this place. I have further to report that about a month since two horses belonging to Captain Fritz, First Cavalry California Volunteers, with Government saddles and carbines, were stolen from his corral and quarters. It occurred about 9 p.m. In less than half an hour I had Lieutenant Guirado with six men in hot pursuit, with orders to proceed, if necessary, to Guaymas, but to recover the property and to bring back the thieves. Lieutenant Guirado returned on the 21st instant, having recovered the property in Hermosillo, some 350 miles from Tucson, but did not get the thieves in consequence of the obstacles thrown in his way by officials of that country and the smallness of his force. Had I been sufficiently strong in numbers to warrant such action, I should have sent Captain Fritz with thirty or forty men direct to the Governor as bearer of dispatches demanding the surrender of the culprits, and with orders to bring them to Tucson at all hazards. I am convinced that many of the border depredations for which the Apaches get credit are committed by Mexicans, and I am determined to make an example of the first one I catch. I do not wish to make a demand for the surrender of a criminal unless I can send force enough to give dignity to the requisition, and unless I have the strength to enforce my demand.

Trusting my actions may meet the approbation of the commanding general, and hoping soon to hear from him on the subject-matter of this letter, I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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Abstract from return of the Department of the Pacific, Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding, for December 31, 1862.

Command.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.Pieces of artillery.
Officers.Men.Heavy.Field.
General headquarters1711818
California*641,1721,5871,68816710
District of Oregon (Alvord)621,0481,4031,4665
District of Humboldt (Lippitt)233776176442
District of Utah (Conner)877921,0191,0606
District of Southern California (Bowie)275227938675
District of western Arizona (Coult)9226284341
Total2394,1385,7216,08216728

* Including San Francisco, the Presidio, Fort Point, Alcatraz Island, Benicia Barracks and Arsenal, Fort Crook, Camp Union, and Camp Baker, Oreg.

{p.272}

Organization of troops in the Department of the Pacific, Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding, December 31, 1862.

{p.274}

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 1, 1863.

I. It having been represented to the undersigned by the civil magistrates of that portion of this district watered by the Rio Grande that a number of occupants of agricultural lands in their several precincts have abandoned them under the apprehension that the Territory will again be invaded by the enemy, and that great prejudice is resulting thereby to permanent residents, who find themselves unable, without the co-operation of their neighbors at the commencement of the planting season, to irrigate their fields, it is therefore ordered that any person or persons may enter upon any lands in this district remaining unoccupied by the owner thereof, or his lawful agent, on the 31st day of the present month. The occupation by such owner or lawful agent shall only be of force and effect upon his or their compliance with the statutes regulating the labor upon acequias.

II. The entry upon such unoccupied lands hereby authorized shall be solely for the purpose of cultivating the same, and this privilege of occupation shall expire on the 31st day of December, 1863, at which time the land shall revert to its lawful owner, together with all the improvements made thereon by the temporary occupant.

III. No charge shall be made by the owner of the land for the use and occupation thereof hereby authorized. The temporary occupant shall comply in all respects with the statutes regulating labor upon acequias and shall have no claim upon the owner of the land for labor or improvements made upon the same.

IV. Persons desiring to avail themselves of the privilege of this order shall file their declaration in writing to that effect with the alcaldes of their respective precincts. The declaration shall describe as fully as possible the particular piece of land to be occupied, with the name or names of the owners thereof. If such land shall remain unoccupied according to the stipulators of this order at the expiration of ten days from the day of filing the declaration herein required, the alcalde with whom the same is filed shall authorize the occupation of the land in question by the applicant.

V. The alcaldes shall originally record these declarations in books specially kept for the purpose, and the signature of the applicant shall be affixed thereto. For each declaration the alcaldes shall charge and collect the sum of one dollar and the said books shall, during all business hours, be open for public inspection.

VI. It is hereby made the duty of all alcaldes within the jurisdiction of the undersigned to comply with the duties imposed upon them by this order, and all officers in the U. S. service within this district shall aid and protect persons who shall avail themselves of its provisions.

VII. The privileges and penalties of this order shall also extend to lands vacated by rebels, and which shall remain unoccupied on the 31st day of the present month.

VIII. The people of this valley are assured of the ability of the United States Government to fully protect them. They are advised to return to their homes, to divest themselves of all apprehensions of danger, and to renew peacefully their agricultural labors, with the prospect of a bounteous harvest and a larger market for their products than has ever offered upon the Rio Grande.

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.275}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., January 2, 1863.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I am strengthening the defenses of this post by fatigue parties and with the help of the citizens, so that should it ever be invested by the rebels I trust to be able to hold it and its magazines of supplies. To-morrow I leave for the Mesilla Valley and for the northwestern portion of Texas. Unless I hear beyond a doubt that Baylor’s forces are coming, I shall organize and send into the country around the headwaters of the Gila an expedition to punish, for their frequent and recent murders and depredations, the band of Apaches which infest that region. The Pino Alto gold mines can then be worked with security. From all I can learn, that is one of the richest auriferous countries in the world; one whose development will tend greatly to the prosperity of this Territory. Should I be so successful as to whip those Indians, I propose at once to establish a military post near the Pino Alto mines, not only to furnish protection to the miners already working there, but to have a moral effect in preventing the Indians from further depredations. A military road should be opened from Socorro or Fort Craig through by the copper mines to intersect the road leading from Mesilla to Tucson at Ojo de la Vaca. This would shorten the distance from Santa Fé, to Tucson at least 100 miles; would avoid the Jornada del Muerto, and in a strategical point of view would render Western Arizona less isolated and less in danger of being cut off by any enemy occupying the Mesilla Valley; besides it would make the Pino Alto gold region more accessible from the settled portion of New Mexico. You may rely upon it, the attention of the Government may be worthily drawn to the importance of this road. It would doubtless cost $100,000 to build it. I shall return to Santa Fé by the 25th instant.

I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, January 3, 1863.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: For the information of the General-in-Chief and War Department I have the honor to inclose herewith a communication, dated on the 20th ultimo, from Col. P. E. Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the District of Utah.* Colonel Connor is a man of observation, undaunted firmness, and self-possession under all circumstances, and his views of the state of affairs in Utah can be relied on. I have written to Colonel Connor fully in relation to the policy I desire him to pursue in Utah. With the small force now in that Territory the greatest prudence is required, and in the early spring I propose to throw forward to Salt Lake such a re-enforcement as will insure respect to our flag and a due observance of the laws of the United States.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p. 256.

{p.276}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 1.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 3, 1863.

I. The temporary occupation of San Elizario, Tex., being deemed no longer necessary, Companies D and H, First Infantry California Volunteers, will report to the commanding officer at Hart’s Mill and form part of the garrison of that post until further orders. The detachment of Company D, First Cavalry California Volunteers, under Lieutenant French, will join its company headquarters at Mesilla.

...

J. R WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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[JANUARY 3, 1863.-For West to Fergusson, relative to official visit of latter to the Governor of Chihuahua, &c., see Vol. XV, pp. 634,635.]

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, January 5, 1863.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg., Round Valley:

SIR: The declaration of martial law in Round Valley was only for specific purposes, which were set forth in the proclamation itself; and you have no authority under that proclamation to remove or appoint any magistrate or other civil officer; but if any such officer should be guilty of any treasonable sentiment, your duty will simply be to arrest and confine him, and immediately report the matter to department and district headquarters. You are directed, therefore, immediately on the receipt of this letter, to restore Mr. Gamble to the exercise of his functions as justice of the peace. A pack train with rations will depart for your post to-morrow morning, the invoices of which will be sent by the train.

By order of Colonel Lippitt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. SWASEY, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., January 5, 1863.

Hon. A. C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon, Portland, Oreg.:

GOVERNOR: I have been instructed by General George Wright, commanding the Department of the Pacific, to request that you shall raise the six additional companies required to complete the First Regiment of Cavalry Oregon Volunteers. They will be needed for service on the frontiers in the coming spring, and I cannot doubt that the patriotic citizens of Oregon, who have always heretofore promptly responded to any demand for their military services, will in like manner respond to this call. The enlisted men when mounted will be supplied with horses by the United States, it being understood that they will be mounted or not as shall be deemed advisable by the Government. Propositions to raise a whole company which will furnish their own horses and horse {p.277} equipments may be entertained. The men are in such cases entitled to 40 cents a day for the use and risk of their horses and horse equipments. The companies when they reach each 100 enlisted men will be mustered into the service of the United States to serve for three years unless sooner discharged.

I have the honor to be, with high respect, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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CAMP BABBITT, Year Visalia, Tulare County, Cal., January 6, 1863.

Col. B. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor most respectfully to report to the general commanding the Department of the Pacific that on yesterday I issued an order for the arrest of L. P. Hall and L. J. Garrison, editors and publishers of the Equal Rights Expositor, a newspaper published in Visalia, on the ground of disloyal practices. Both parties were duly arrested and placed in close confinement. In the afternoon of the 5th instant I received a telegraphic order from headquarters Department of the Pacific to release all political prisoners on taking the oath of loyalty to the Government of the United States. On receipt of the order I had all the political prisoners confined at Camp Babbitt brought before me and read to them the oath which they would be required to take. After some hesitation they subscribed, except L. J. Garrison, who refused, and who is now in close confinement, in accordance with a telegraphic order from headquarters Department of the Pacific, dated January 6, 1863.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. MCLAUGHLIN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 4.}

HDQRS. HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, January 6, 1863.

I. Captain Gibbs, commanding at Camp Curtis, will put a detachment of twenty men under Lieutenant Gonnisson at Daley’s Ferry as soon as he is notified that Mr. Daley is ready to proceed thither.

II. Lieutenant Gonnisson will guard the ferry and ferry-house from attack, and will use every exertion to capture or destroy every band of hostile Indians that may come into his neighborhood, leaving always a sufficient force at the ferry for its defense.

III. In case of need Captain Gibbs will re-enforce Lieutenant Gonnisson to any extent that may be requisite. He will forward Lieutenant Gonnisson’s reports of scouts or military operations to these headquarters.

By order of Colonel Lippitt:

W. F. SWASEY, First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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[JANUARY 6, 1863.-For West to Fergusson, relative to official visit of latter to Chihuahua, &c., see Vol. XV, p. 638.]

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{p.278}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 6, 1863.

Col. CHRISTOPHER CARSON, First New Mexico Volunteers, Comdg. Fort Stanton, N. Mex.:

The general commanding the department desires you to give your attention to the following matter: About the middle of last month a small spy party, sent out from here to Horsehead Crossing, discovered a trail there, then supposed to be fifteen days’ old, of a party of some thirty-five mounted whites coming in from Fort Stockton to the crossing and returning. On the same day, within sight of my spies, a mounted party, supposed to be about twenty-five strong, again visited the crossing. Mr. Brad. Daily, chief of my spy party, is of opinion that this is an outpost of the enemy scouting in that vicinity. The probabilities are that they will continue to do so for some time to come. General Carleton desires you to capture this party. He wishes, if possible, that every man of them shall be taken prisoner to prevent their communicating their mishap to the main body. The escape of one of the party would defeat this object. Of course if they offer resistance you need no reminder how to act. The manner of accomplishing this duty, as well as the most opportune time to undertake it without unnecessary delay, is left entirely to you. The general commanding desires me to express to you his perfect confidence in your judgment and ability to accomplish the capture or destruction of the party named. I have received your communication of the 3d instant relative to the arrest of José Lucero. I inclose his passport properly authenticated. Please send him on his way.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 7, 1863.

I. Companies A and C, First Cavalry, A, Fifth Infantry, and D, First Infantry California Volunteers, will form the expedition named in General Orders, No. 1, 1863, headquarters Department of New Mexico, and be held in readiness for marching orders.

...

IV. Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, will transfer his command to the senior officer of the garrison to remain at Tucson.

...

VI. Company B, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will be held in readiness to move toward the Rio Grande on the arrival of a train from Mesilla. Major Coult and Lieutenant Toole, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, will come forward with that company.

...

IX. Companies D and K, First Infantry California Volunteers, will be transferred from Hart’s Mill to Mesilla without delay.

...

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.279}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 7, 1863.

Capt. JAMES H. WHITLOCK, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding, Tucson:

I have the honor to inclose for your information extract of Special Orders, No. 2, by which it is presumed that you will be placed in command of the garrison at Tucson. If no other troops have come forward from Fort Yuma your command will be a small one, considering the duties you will be called upon to perform; but every man is wanted on the Rio Grande now that can be spared from elsewhere, and you will exhibit good soldiership in managing your post efficiently with the limited force that can at present be allowed for its garrison. It will be out of the question perhaps to keep any detachments at either the Mowry or Cerro Colorado mines, or in fact any detachments at all, except one at San Pedro Crossing, and the vedettes. I am ignorant of your surroundings, and you must judge for yourself, but the authority to withdraw troops from the above-named places is given to you. If Mr. Sylvester Mowry is at his mine or anywhere in your vicinity, or should come there, require him to report to you, and administer to him the oath of allegiance to the United States Government. He may already have taken this oath, but as there is no record to that effect in this district it must be taken again. Should Mr. Mowry object to taking this oath, you may give him his choice of becoming your prisoner until you can report the fact to me, or of being sent out of the district. You will adopt one of these alternatives immediately upon his refusal to comply with what is required of him above. Inclosed for your information is a copy of a letter written to me by the general commanding the department, in reference to tents ordered forward from Fort Yuma. Get them ready to send if they have reached your post, or else prepare the tents and paulins at Tucson, as the general requires. A large train from here should reach you in the first week in February, perhaps sooner. It will mainly be loaded with subsistence for a post near the Pinos Altos, drawn from your stores. Special instructions will be sent to you with the train. Major Coult is to come forward with Captain Fritz’s company. Keep your transportation running to Fort Yuma to bring forward subsistence, as there is a large surplus there which is destined for Tucson, and must come forward. They will spoil at Fort Yuma for want of months to eat them. Here they can be consumed, and others can be brought in their stead. Major Coult will turn over to you all records, orders, &c. I would suggest to you to study and make yourself thoroughly the master of all that is required from you. The monthly returns of the subsistence, forage on hand, &c., are essential to these headquarters. Keep your business sung, push everything forward this way that should come, and see if you can relieve Tucson of the unfortunate reputation that has attached to it here of being the sink that swallows up everything intended to come to the front.

Wishing you success in the discharge of your new responsibilities, I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-January 8, 1863: On reflection, inasmuch as the necessity for troops on the Rio Grande leaves you but a small garrison, all of whom will be required to guard the supplies at Tucson, you will not station any of your men at the Cerro Colorado or Mowry mines. Keep a {p.280} detachment at San Pedro Crossing until the hay there has been consumed by passing trains, but no longer. Take Mr. Mowry’s oath in triplicate, forward two copies to me, and file the other in your post records.

J. R. W.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., January 8, 1863.

Hon. A. C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon, Portland, Oreg.:

GOVERNOR: Each company of the First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, called for in my communication of the 5th instant, will be composed of 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 1 second lieutenant, 1 first sergeant, 1 quartermaster sergeant, 1 commissary sergeant, 5 sergeants, 8 corporals, 2 teamsters, 2 farriers or blacksmiths, 1 saddler, 1 wagoner, and 78 privates. The 2 buglers to be taken from the privates, the law not providing for increased pay for the musicians. The recruits as fast as raised will be sent in small parties to designated military posts, where they will be examined by the medical officers, quartered, subsisted, and drilled, those for each company being kept distinct under non-commissioned officers. When each company reaches 100 enlisted men, it will be mustered into the service of the United States by officers announced by orders from this office. If there is a failure to raise a full company within a period of time satisfactory to you, the men may be attached to some other company.

The companies raised in this vicinity will be mustered in at Fort Vancouver by Maj. Thomas M. Winston, U. S. Army, who has been appointed by General Wright the superintendent for recruiting and mustering volunteers in this district. He has also been appointed disbursing officer of the fund appropriated “for collecting, drilling, and organizing volunteers,” and has accordingly estimated upon the Adjutant-General for funds on account of that appropriation, to be sent to him. From that fund reimbursements will be made (vide War Department Orders, No. 70, of September 3, 1861) for the necessary transportation of volunteers prior to completion of company organization, rent of recruiting offices, advertising, &c. War Department General Orders, No. 70, above quoted, also says “actual stage or steam-boat fare necessarily incurred by authorized agents in raising or recruiting volunteers will be reimbursed from the same fund.” War Department General Orders, No. 75, of the 8th of July last, has already been sent to you. I also inclose herewith to you General Orders, Nos. 74 and 126, of 1862.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Lapwai, Wash. Ter., January 8, 1863.

Brigadier-General ALVORD, Comdg. District of Oregon, Hdqrs. District, Fort Vancouver:

SIR: I have the honor to report everything quiet at this post. As usual, there is some dissatisfaction existing among the Indians on Slate Creek and Salmon River. By request of the Indian agent I will send {p.281} out to-morrow to learn if possible the true condition of affairs at that place. Big Thunder has not as yet returned. His people are here and conduct themselves well. The young man charged with the murder of Varble is also here, not, however, in the guard house, as perhaps he should be. The buildings are progressing as well as could be expected. The company quarters are finished and occupied. The officers’ quarters will not be finished for some time, but will be completely inclosed in a few days, when they will be occupied. All the building has been done with a view to economy. Some of the building material has cost more than it should. Our mules and horses are in good condition, yet the ration of oats is but six pounds and twelve pounds of hay for the horses. At these rates our forage will last until the last of March or the 1st of April.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. S. RINEARSON, Major, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 9, 1863.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I would respectfully recommend that the District of Arizona be attached to the Department of New Mexico.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 9, 1863.

Col. EDWARD D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 9th of December. Should it become necessary to change my headquarters I will advise you by telegraph. In the meantime I shall be in this city or within easy communication.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 4.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 11, 1863.

I. Companies A and C, First Cavalry California Volunteers, and Companies D, First, and A, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, composing the expedition against the Gila Apaches, ordered to take the field by the general commanding the Department of New Mexico, will move to-morrow and encamp at El Picacho. The ranking officers of each arm will conduct their detachments to the point indicated, when Capt. William McCleave, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will assume command of the expedition.

{p.282}

II. Capt. Francis S. Mitchell, with Company D, First Infantry California Volunteers, will take charge of a battery of two mountain howitzers to accompany the expedition. He will see that 120 rounds shell, spherical-case, and canister ammunition in equal quantities are provided for these pieces. Also that 15,000 rounds rifle musket ball-cartridges are supplied to him.

III. Capt. William McCleave, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will have the cavalry supplied with not less than 15,000 rounds Sharps carbine and 10,000 rounds pistol ammunition.

...

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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SACRAMENTO, CAL., January 12, 1863.

His Excellency ABRAHAM LINCOLN:

Thomas M. Vincent telegraphs that Brigadier-General Wright was authorized to raise a regiment of infantry and seven companies of cavalry subject to my approval. I am ready cheerfully to respond to a call for troops, and do not understand why the call is not made upon me directly, as a requisition by telegraph will be obeyed.

LELAND STANFORD, Governor.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, January 12, 1863.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: About forty days’ subsistence for Captain Douglas, in Round Valley, left here day before yesterday by land. The distance is 150 miles, and the train ought to arrive there by the 5th of February at the latest, but there are so many difficult mountain streams to cross that it is doubtful whether it will be able to get there at all. It is fortunate we had a mule train of our own to send, as no contractor, Mr. Swasey tells me, could have been found to bind himself to get through at any price whatever. From Fort Bragg to Round Valley it is only seventy miles, and there is but [one] serious obstacle in the way, Eel River. A week ago I received a private letter from Captain Douglas in which he mentioned he had removed the justice of the peace and appointed another in his place. I immediately wrote him instructing him forthwith to reinstate the magistrate in his office, informing him that he had no authority to remove or appoint any civil officer. The standing nuisance of this post for the last eight years has been a whisky shop kept by one Shannahan close to the reservation. Strenuous exertions to have the nuisance abated have been made by every post commander, but without success. Immense quantities of soldiers’ clothing have been bought by the man, who is well known to have made a fortune in the-business. Meanwhile our guard house is kept filled, sometimes to overflowing, with men made drunk with his poisonous whisky, or who have committed offenses under the influence of it. During November, for instance, the daily average number in the guard house in a state of intoxication, without counting those whose offenses had been caused by liquor, was sixteen. Nearly all the liquor the {p.283} soldiers get is from this man. Articles of clothing are being constantly stolen from the men’s quarters, often from good, sober, and reliable men, who of course have the loss charged to them. It is notorious that most of these articles are bought by Shannahan at a trifling price and paid for in liquor, and yet so adroitly has the business been managed, and so numerous are his friends among the soldiers, that it has been impossible to fix it upon him by positive evidence. But this evening a man named Stephens, recently discharged from Company B, Second Infantry California Volunteers, has reported to Captain Schmidt, the post commander, having seen a large quantity of soldiers’ clothing put into a wagon at Shannahan’s shop two days ago to be transported to one Dengan, who lives near the mouth of Eel River, some fifteen miles hence. By my order Captain Schmidt was immediately sent to arrest Shannahan and search his premises. Shannahan is in close confinement in the guard house and will remain so until I receive instructions to send him to San Francisco for trial or otherwise dispose of him. The clothing found in his shop is of that class which has no Government earmark about it, and has, therefore, not been as yet seized, although precisely identical with that daily issued to the soldiers. I have also directed Captain Schmidt to send immediately to Dengan’s an officer and six men with a horse and cart to search for and recover the clothing just sent there, and all other soldiers’ clothing that can be found. I am informed that there will be no lack of positive evidence of Shannahan’s guilt, and I earnestly recommend that measures may be taken to bring him to punishment, the good of the service at this post, both present and future, urgently requiring it. Next to the steamer the shortest and most reliable mode of communication between San Francisco and Fort Humboldt, Fort Baker, Camp Curtis, and Fort Gaston, is by mail per Sacramento, Shasta, and Weaverville. This mail arrives at Arcata (on this bay) once a week in six days from San Francisco.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

P. S.-The other overland mail, per Healdsburg and Ukiah City, has just arrived, bringing your letter of the 29th of December in relation to the suspension of recruiting. The mail left San Francisco on the 30th. We have had no steamer here since November. The Panama stopped outside on the 29th of December and sent Captain Stewart ashore and the mails and proceeded up the coast, but she has not been seen or heard of since.

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PORTLAND, OREG., January 12, 1863.

General ALVORD:

DEAR SIR: Yours of the 10th, with circular of the 7th, is before me. I not only assent to your plan of placing men at once at Vancouver and other posts, but am much pleased with it. As boats will be running to Corvallis for some time, I had thought perhaps men could come down about as well as go to Fort Hoskins in winter. I never was at Fort Hoskins, however, and your decision in the matter will be satisfactory to me. I have requested Major Winston to muster in D. M. Thompson, John F. Noble, and Mr. Hand, as second lieutenants. Mr. Hand will recruit in Jackson County. He has been one of the publishers of the Sentinel. He is highly recommended by Secretary May {p.284} and General Reed. I know something of him also. He is now at Salem, but will be down soon. Mr. Thompson will call on you to-morrow. My adjutant, Reed, has gone to The Dalles, and will call on you on his way down, probably on Wednesday night.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ADDISON C. GIBBS.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, January 13, 1863.

Col. B. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 19th ultimo in which you inform me that seven companies of cavalry are being raised in California, which force will be sent forward early in the spring. I am directed in the meantime to make such preparations as may be in my power and to forward for the consideration of the commanding general such suggestions as I may deem pertinent for the speedy and safe transfer of these companies to the Department of New Mexico. I regret that I shall not have time to give to the latter part of the above directions that careful attention which it merits, yet the time when I think the force should leave California is so rapidly approaching that I fear to delay, and shall take the liberty of acquainting the commanding general with some facts which impressed themselves upon my mind during the march which I made to this point last spring and summer. The first and most important point for consideration in moving a cavalry force over a country as destitute of the elements of self-support as this is well known to be is to select that season of the year when the few advantages possessed can be improved. The troops should start from San Pedro (where I presume they will rendezvous) by the 1st of March, earlier if possible. They can move by easy marches with water and grass at convenient distances to Warner’s ranch. As this is the last place west of the Colorado desert where grass and water are found combined, I would from that point send them forward to Fort Yuma in detachments of not more than two companies each. If the commander of the District of Southern California was directed to have hay and grain put at the various stations and the wells kept in good order it would greatly facilitate the passage of the troops. It is proper to remark here that since the discovery of the Colorado mines other routes are recommended as better and shorter. Of these I know nothing, except by hearsay, and can only speak of the road over which I myself traveled. The vicinity of Fort Yuma being destitute of grazing facilities, it would be better that the force should make little or no halt at that place, but should push forward as rapidly as possible, having a due regard to the condition of their animals. They should cross the Colorado by the 1st of April at the latest. At that season they would have the advantage of cool weather and water and grass between Yuma and this post. The march can easily be made in from fifteen to seventeen days. Arrived at Tucson (by the 20th of April) I would recommend a halt sufficiently long to recruit their animals. For that purpose the Reventon Ranch, forty miles south of here, on the Santa Cruz River, possesses many advantages. Excellent grazing, good water, fine shade, wood in abundance, good camping ground, and sufficient quarters to accommodate all the officers. The crossing of the San Pedro River, fifty-five miles east of Tucson, on the direct {p.285} road to Mesilla, though not possessing as many advantages as Reventon, is also a very good point for a halt-possibly better than the other, as it is on the direct line. I would suggest that they remain here at least a month, in which time their animals could be in condition to undertake the march to Mesilla, the worst part of the whole road. At the Cienega, twenty miles east of Apache Pass, they could halt again for a few days. From there to the Miembres River, ninety miles, the march is a hard one, almost destitute of water and grass. A peculiarity of this country is that where you find water you rarely see grass, and where grass is plenty there is no water. The water is found in rugged and bare mountains, and the grass grows sometimes very luxuriantly on the wide open plain. From the Miembres River to the Rio Grande the march is also a hard one, water being found with certainty at only one point, Cooke’s Spring. I can have grain put at the stations between Tucson and Fort Yuma and at San Pedro Crossing, so that the command can come with but little difficulty and move light and quick. Should these suggestions meet the approval of the commanding general I respectfully request that I may be notified at an early moment, for grain is scarce in this country, and seven companies of cavalry need a large supply. For the crossing of the dry districts I can have water-tanks constructed, each capable of holding 600 gallons. Two of these will, I think, be sufficient. I have already directed the acting assistant quartermaster to have a large amount of grain on hand by the 1st of April.

Trusting these suggestions may prove satisfactory, and hoping soon to have a reply, I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., January 13, 1863.

Capt. JOHN MULLAN, Second if. S. Arty., late in Charge of Walla Walla and Fort Benton Mil. Road Expedition, Washington City, D. C.:

SIR: It is represented to me that there is great danger of Indian difficulties in the Bitter Root Valley. A large number of whites are settling in that country and on each side of the Rocky Mountains at Deer Lodge, Big Hole, Beaver Head, &c. The gold mines found there are the attraction, and large tracts of arable land. Four hundred emigrant wagons came to Walla Walla last fall, which, after traveling through the South Pass, turned north above Fort Hall, recrossed the Rocky Mountains to Big Hole Prairie, thence crossed them again to Deer Lodge Prairie, and getting on your road proceeded by that route to Walla Walla. They commend the route highly. Chief Justice Hewitt, of Washington Territory, whom I saw, was of the number. Some of those emigrants stopped in that region. It is evident the whites are determined to mine and settle there. I met Mr. Q. C. A. Brooks, from the Bitter Root Valley, who strongly urges the necessity of troops in that country. I inclose herewith an extract* from a Walla Walla Statesman, which gives his statement in full. By the eleventh article of the Flathead treaty, ratified 18th of April, 1859, it is provided that there shall be no settlements in the Bitter Root Valley above Lo-La Fork until the President decides whether he will set apart that region {p.286} as a reservation for the Flatheads. Some emigrants are settling there, causing much discontent among the Flatheads. You are, no doubt, well informed as to the merits of that question. I suppose that the reservation should be assigned by proclamation of the President to those Indians who have been so friendly and so faithful. If it is so set apart, the duty of removing the intruders will be still more urgent and may possibly require the aid of the military. Finally, a recent letter from the Indian agent at Jocko, the Flathead Indian Agency, uses similar language. He says the rush of whites to the gold mines must inevitably lead to collisions. He states (which is new to me) that he is afraid that the mountains of the Jocko Indian Reservation will be overrun with gold-seekers, causing a repetition of scenes in the Nez Percé country. From your long service in that country you are best able to judge of its necessities, and if you were here I should request your report on the subject; but as you are not accessible the best thing I can do is to write you this letter and request you to take the matter into mature consideration, and if you deem a military post essential to preserve the peace on that frontier, it will be well for you to make known to the War Department your views. You have my permission to exhibit this letter as inviting you thus to submit your views. But troops for this purpose should be sent next spring from Missouri or Iowa, and should be supplied from Fort Benton. I shall have as much as I can do to get troops for the establishment of a military post at or near Fort Boisé, the importance of which I have urged in the strongest terms upon the War Department through General George Wright, commanding the department, who indorsed in a favorable manner my recommendations.

Settlements have been made all the way to Boisé and rich mines discovered on that river. The Snake Indians should be soundly punished and the emigration of that route protected. I have established a military post at Fort Lapwai, near the Nez Percé Agency. Great disaffection exists in a portion of that tribe, requiring serious attention in the spring. In May the commissioners meet there to form a treaty with the Nez Percés asking them to yield the gold mining region of their reservation to the whites. A body of troops should attend that treaty. Thus you will perceive that it seems quite out of my power to get troops on this coast to do these things and also occupy the Bitter Root country. The post should probably be composed of four or five companies, part of infantry and part of cavalry. I suppose it should be located in Deer Lodge Prairie, that point being central, but you are the best judge as to its location. It should, I suppose, march from Fort Leavenworth by way of Fort Laramie to Deer Lodge Prairie, the route examined by Lieutenant Raynolds, of Topographical Engineers. It should be supplied from Fort Benton. To that post abundant and liberal supplies for one year should be shipped from Saint Louis by the steamers which go to Fort Benton every spring. The troops should not be in my district, but should belong to the same department as the troops at Forts Laramie and Benton, and this should be explicitly set forth in orders. Deer Lodge, being west of the Rocky Mountains, is in my district. Two or more companies of infantry should probably be stationed also at Fort Benton, the base of this line. They should go by steamer. It would be improper to separate the troops in that country from their base, and therefore they should be in the same department, Saint Louis being the ultimate base. An assistant quartermaster should leave Saint Louis with the supplies for Fort Benton. The most careful and elaborate estimates of all kinds of supplies-quartermaster’s stores. {p.287} tools, and clothing-should be made, securing enough to last for one year. Such is my programme. I do not know whether it would suit you to be a candidate to command such an expedition. If you wish it I am certain from the energy you have heretofore shown that you would do the work well. If you should obtain it you will have my best wishes and, so far as practicable, my hearty co-operation. I am aware that these expeditions will be expensive, and knowing what a heavy load the war imposes upon our finances I have hesitated. I have waited long before sending this letter, but the time has come for the Government to take this step which will aid in placing a chain of posts and settlements across the continent and must essentially assist in protecting this coast in case of foreign war. The homestead act, the gold mines, and the completion of your road all serve the way and lead to a fulfillment of the sagacious views of Thomas Jefferson in 1804. The Government must do this or it will be far behind the people. If any act of Congress is necessary I have no doubt Colonel Wallace, Delegate from Washington Territory, will aid you in procuring it. This step will conform to the policy of the President as announced in his annual message, in which he says:

The immense mineral resources of these Territories ought to be developed as rapidly as possible. Every step in that direction would have a tendency to improve the resources of Government and to diminish the burdens of the people. It is worthy of your serious consideration whether some extraordinary measure to promote that end cannot be adopted.

I am, with high respect, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

* Not found.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 13.}

WAR DEPT., ADJT. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 14, 1863.

The district of Western Arizona is hereby assigned to the Department of New Mexico.

By order of the Secretary of War:

B. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., January 14, 1863.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

The Secretary of War authorizes the establishment of military posts at Fort Boisé and Klamath Lake, if you deem it necessary.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., January 14, 1863. (Received 9.15 a.m. 15th.)

Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

French consul desires me to prevent shipment of contraband goods to Mexico. Shall I comply? If yes, what articles deemed contraband?

IRA P. RANKIN, Collector.

{p.288}

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, January 16, 1863.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

COLONEL: During a twenty days’ scout by Captain Flynn with Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commenced on the 16th of December last, three Indians were killed, one of them supposed to be a scout; the other two were killed in a skirmish by a small detachment of five men. Our scouting thus far during the present winter has produced no other result.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 16, 1863.

Col. GEORGE W. BOWIE, Fifth Infty. Cal. Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Southern California, Camp Drum, near New San Pedro, Cal.:

SIR: The great need for re-enforcement at Tucson makes it necessary that the companies of your regiment at Camp Drum should be thrown forward as rapidly as possible. On the arrival of these companies at Fort Yuma, those at the latter post will proceed without delay to Tucson. The officers of your regiment on leave will be directed to join their respective companies.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Mesilla, Ariz., January 16, 1863.

Don JUAN ROBINSON, Guaymas, Mexico:

MY DEAR SIR: I have had the honor to receive your note dated October 27, 1862, stating that public stores for the use of troops under my command would probably leave San Francisco, Cal., for Libertad, Sonora, touching at Guaymas on the voyage up, about the 15th of November, 1862. In case they left at that date they are doubtless now at Libertad, and I have directed that a train of, say, thirty wagons shall proceed at once to Tucson, and if on arrival at that point it shall be ascertained that the supplies are at Libertad, then the train will proceed to that point on an experimental trip, when all the elements of the route, the sources of supply as regards forage, &c., will be fairly tested. Pray express my thanks to Governor Pesqueira for his kindness in offering us transit through Sonora. I have recently given orders in relation to the establishment of a post in the Pinos Altos country; one of these orders is herewith inclosed. Should the mineral resources of that place prove to be as great as anticipated, Libertad must be the post whence supplies must be received and where much bullion and copper will eventually be shipped. I feel deeply anxious to see the riches of this country brought to light. I have great faith in their existence and I fully believe that what may tend to the prosperity and advancement of New Mexico and Arizona will be of great {p.289} benefit to Sonora. Therefore I may claim to ask of Governor Pesqueira and of yourself to unite with me in all matters looking to such beneficial results. I shall be happy to hear from you frequently. My address is Santa Fé, N. Mex.

I am, my dear sir, very truly, yours,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 16, 1863.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

GENERAL: The department commander has received authority from the Secretary of War to establish military posts at Fort Boisé and Klamath Lake. Should you deem the establishment of both or either of these posts necessary the general desires you to make the necessary arrangements for that purpose. Your views are requested.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT WRIGHT, CAL., January 19, 1863.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

SIR: I deem it my duty to make the following statement for the information of the general commanding the department in relation to Indian affairs in this valley. There is nothing done, nor is there any appearance of anything being done, for the support of the Indians for the present year. To all appearances their condition will be much more piteous than it is now, and that would seem almost impossible. Up to this time there is only sixty acres of wheat put in, and that in a field badly protected. The fences are not such as will keep stock from destroying the crop. I consider that it would be a gross neglect of duty in me not to report the entire want of zeal and gross mismanagement of Indian affairs on the Nome Cult Indian Reservation under the present supervisor, and the management will not be better unless he is removed. The supervisor seems to be determined to ruin the reservation under his charge. His assistant, Mr. Robinson, was engaged erecting and putting fences in a proper state to protect the crop, but the supervisor interfered and forbade him to make fencing until he was ordered so to do by him, and that order was not given until the weather rendered all attempts at improving the fence quite impossible. This man Robinson has used his best endeavors to put in a crop and to protect it. He would no doubt have accomplished both objects had he been permitted. Instead of giving intelligent direction to Mr. Robinson’s efforts or assisting him in carrying out his plans, Mr. Short (the Supervisor) exerts himself to hinder, embarrass, and delay the work Mr. Robinson is engaged in. Frequently to my knowledge the supervisor has ordered the Indians working with and under Mr. Robinson away, to work on some small and entirely useless matter, and this for no other reason or purpose but to prevent Mr. Robinson from doing any {p.290} work that would in any way benefit the Indians hereafter. Mr. Robinson was turned out of doors a few days ago by the supervisor for declining to feed the Indians after his hard day’s work in the field. This is very hard, unmanly treatment of the only man on the reservation that does anything or seems to know that they have any duty to perform. It is held to be the duty of the supervisor to feed the Indians. This feeding consists in giving the Indians their daily rations, which is from two to three ears of corn to each Indian, big and little. All this can be accomplished in one hour or less. If prompt and vigorous measures are not at once taken to stop this dangerous and wicked trifling on the part of the supervisor, very little if any crop will be harvested this year, and the consequences are easily foretold. The pangs of hunger will make the Indians desperate and dangerous. A bloody conflict will ensue, resulting of course in the extermination of the poor being seeking to satisfy an empty stomach. Round Valley is better adapted by location, soil, and extent for a large Indian reservation than any place I have seen in California. To enter the valley from any direction it is necessary to cross high mountains and Eel River, and at the present season this stream is impassable. The valley contains, as surveyed, 25,000 acres of as fine land as can be found in the State. Were the whole valley taken for a reservation, the settlers’ claims (their improvements) bought, and they removed with their stock, a capable, energetic man placed in charge, thousands of Indians could be maintained in peace and plenty, where a few hundreds are now barely subsisted at the daily risk of outrages being committed. Whites and Indians cannot and will not live in peace and quietness so near and so much together as they are in this valley, and the sooner either party is removed the better. The citizens are very quiet and orderly, in fact they have been so since my arrival in the valley. If I have considered it my special duty to report the utter neglect of duty in an officer of another department of the Government, I have had ample grounds on which to base such report.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 19, 1863.

His Excellency WILLIAM PICKERING, Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:

GOVERNOR: I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of your letter of the 29th ultimo. Intimately acquainted as I am with the wants of the Territory of Washington, as well as those of the adjoining State of Oregon, I have within the last six months repeatedly urged the establishment of a large military post on the Snake River, and the adoption of such other prudential measures as may be necessary for the protection of emigrants from the East, and I am happy to say to Your Excellency that I have just received a telegraphic dispatch from the War Department authorizing a post at Fort Boisé and also at Klamath Lake should it be deemed necessary. Estimates to meet the expense of these new posts have been forwarded long since to Washington and I doubt not will be embraced in the Army appropriation bill. I have directed General Alvord to complete the organization of the Oregon cavalry regiment by raising six additional companies, which, with the {p.291} force already in that district, will be ample for the service required. I have had a conversation with your friend, Doctor Henry, and was highly gratified with the zeal he manifests, not only for your Territory, but for the whole Union, and it would afford me great pleasure if I could render him the assistance you speak of. But I have no authority to send a messenger to Washington and no fund at my disposal out of which I can make an expenditure of that kind. I have no doubt that the presence of Doctor Henry in Washington will be of great benefit to Washington Territory, and I should think that the Department would not hesitate about paying the necessary expenses of the journey on your representations. In conclusion I beg to assure Your Excellency that I shall ever retain a lively interest in the welfare of the people of Washington Territory and State of Oregon. For six long years my home was among those hardy pioneers, engaged most of the time in battling our savage foes. I left them at peace, prosperous and happy, and I pray they may continue so.

With high consideration, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, January 20, 1863.

General WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

Secretary of War gives authority to raise four companies native cavalry in Los Angeles district.

THOMAS M. VINCENT, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 21, 1863.

His Excellency LELAND STANFORD, Governor of the State of California, Sacramento, Cal.:

SIR: After a careful consideration of the Indian difficulties in the District of Humboldt, comprising the northwestern counties of this State, and deeming it for the best interest of the Government that volunteer troops raised within the district should be employed against the hostile Indians, I have, by virtue of authority vested in me by the War Department, respectfully to request that Your Excellency may be pleased to organize within said district four companies of infantry, to be mustered into the service of the United States. My design is to retain these companies in service only so long as our difficulties in the district may render necessary. Should Your Excellency respond favorably to this request I will designate an officer of the Regular Army to muster in the companies at such points as may be convenient for their organization. Each company will consist of 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 1 second lieutenant, 4 sergeants, 8 corporals, 2 musicians, and 64 to 82 privates.

Very respectfully, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.292}

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STATE OF CALIFORNIA, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Sacramento, January 22, 1863.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific:

GENERAL: Your favor of the 21st instant is at hand. It will afford me much gratification to co-operate with you in the raising and organizing of the four companies referred to for service in the districts where Indian hostilities are threatened.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

LELAND STANFORD, Governor.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 22, 1863.

Messrs. WILLIAM G. POINDEXTER and other citizens of El Dorado City, Cal.:

GENTLEMEN: Your petition requesting the establishment of troops in the mining region on the Colorado River has been submitted to the general commanding the department. It is impossible at this time for the general to afford that protection he so much desires to give the settlers on the Colorado. At present there are no troops disposable for this purpose, and if there were the season is not suited for a movement in the direction indicated in your letter. When matters become settled on the Colorado the general will probably establish a military post in the vicinity of the settlements. He cannot, however, protect the various parties prospecting over so vast an extent of country.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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STATE OF CALIFORNIA, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, January 25, 1863.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE WRIGHT, U. S. Army, Commanding Department of the Pacific:

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 23d instant, inclosing a dispatch of W. Scott Ketchum, brigadier-general and assistant adjutant-general, ordering the mustering into the service of the United States of four companies of cavalry, to be raised in this State, for service in the contingent of the State of Massachusetts. The proceedings under and by force of which these troops are to be raised are clearly irregular, and in violation of the rights of this State. I know of no authority by which the Governor of Massachusetts can raise volunteers in California, either through the orders of the War Department, or the inconsiderate and officious action of citizens of this State. For reasons that follow I do not feel bound to interfere in the case alluded to at this time, if at any, to prohibit recruiting for the four companies proposed to be raised, yet I must protest against its being accepted as a precedent to bind the authorities of this State in the future. While I am more than willing to discharge every obligation that is incumbent upon me in obeying requisitions for troops properly made, I am not willing that my silence shall be construed into an obligation not to interfere with the raising of the said four companies for Massachusetts, as I may very likely do, should the {p.293} necessities of this State, or the action of her authorities at any time, in complying with the calls of the General Government, seem to require it.

The considerations that move me at this time not to interfere with the raising of these companies are, in brief, the heavy burdens that have been borne by our loyal sister States in sustaining the Government, and in fighting in a sacred and common cause battles that are ours as well as theirs; and the heretofore comparative exemption of California from calls upon her loyalty and patriotism, and, further, because an opportunity is offered to Californians to seal their loyalty and devotion to their country and to constitutional liberty by offering their bosoms as a bulwark against the surging tides of this unholy rebellion. And I am anxious that in the future our people may have, in common with the people of other States, their glorious traditions of sacrifices made in behalf of the Union and of gallant efforts to save and perpetuate it.

The great heart of California beats responsive to the mighty throbs that are convulsing the loyal States, and she feels it her duty to do all she can to stay the fratricidal hand that is raised to divide and destroy the nation. It is to be desired that she should be recorded upon the page of history that will reveal the glowing deeds of patriotism and sacrifice now being enacted, and that her people may mingle in the great events that are passing in our country’s midst, that there may be created a chain of bright and glorious memories to bind the East and the West in bonds of union and fraternity under a common and perpetual Government. Thus, as a citizen of the United States, with sympathies that embrace every portion of our nationality, and anxious to do all in my power to preserve and strengthen that nationality, I would not deny to the General Government one soldier, and would earnestly and cheerfully obey to the last extent her calls for aid, yet I do not conceive it to be my duty in any manner to permit the rights of the State to be invaded or disregarded without taking means as occasion may seem to require to guard those rights in the present and in the future.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

LELAND STANFORD, Governor.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, January 26, 1863.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the troops in this department, although widely dispersed, have preserved their discipline, and performed their duties generally, in a very creditable manner. We have been forced to devolve the duties of the quartermaster’s and commissary departments very frequently on subalterns of volunteer companies. Many of them have proved to be zealous, capable, and honest in the discharge of their duties; a few have proved recreant to their trust; but the Government has lost but little, as prompt measures were taken for the removal, and in most cases for the dismissal from the army, of the latter class. The vigilant guardianship exercised by my chiefs of disbursing departments is highly commendable. The condition of affairs on this coast is satisfactory. With the exception of Indian difficulties, the greatest quiet prevails throughout the length and breadth of the land. From the District of Oregon I have nothing {p.294} of importance to report. Under the instructions received from the War Department, arrangements are being made for the establishment of a post, at, or near Fort Boisé, on the Snake River. The administration of affairs in the district, by Brigadier-General Alvord, has been marked by zeal, ability, and devotion to the best interests of the Government.

The Indian difficulties in the District of Humboldt, I regret to report, still exist. During the past year Colonel Lippitt, of the Second Infantry California Volunteers, has been in command of the district with his entire regiment. The untiring zeal and activity of the colonel, his officers, and men are highly praiseworthy, but the fact is, I doubt munch whether we can ever have peace there until all the Indians are removed entirely out of the country; vast numbers have been collected by the troops and placed on the reservations, but it has been found impossible to keep them there. If the Indians in that district can be carried to a reservation in the southern section of the State, or, what would be still better, placed on some island and supported entirely, peace would be restored and money saved. The troops under Colonel Lippitt have been in the field and suffered many hardships and privations during the past eighteen months, and I shall withdraw the headquarters and active portion of the regiment early in the spring. The country is densely wooded, and presents many obstacles to the operations of troops unacquainted with the numerous trails; and after consultation with the members of the Legislature from that district, and also with His Excellency Governor Stanford, it was the unanimous opinion that the best interests of the Government would be subserved by organizing four companies of militia, composed of men residing in the districts and well acquainted with the country, for special service there. Believing this plan is the best that can be adopted, I have requested the Governor to organize the four companies, which with a like number of companies now in service will, after the withdrawal of Colonel Lippitt, constitute the active force in that quarter, to be under command of an intelligent officer, specially selected.

Hoping that my acts may be approved by the General-in-Chief and War Department, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 26, 1863.

Capt. THOMAS O. SELFRIDGE, U. S. Navy, Commanding Navy-Yard, Mare Island, Cal.:

CAPTAIN: The defenses to guard the city of San Francisco against the attacks of hostile steamers have received my most serious consideration. Under cover of the darkness or a fog I have but little doubt that a steamer might pass the two forts without serious injury; at least the chances are decidedly in her favor. Once within the harbor she can take a position beyond the reach of the guns on Alcatraz Island, and, of course, command the city. We must be prepared to meet such a state of affairs effectually, both by land and water. Have you any vessels at your disposal suitable for mounting heavy guns on; and if so, could they not be moored in front of the city? When I was in this city, a week since, I was waited on by several gentlemen, who expressed much anxiety on this subject, and 1 assured them that I would communicate with you and ask you to lay the matter before the {p.295} admiral commanding on this coast. I regret very much that we have not a ship of war in the harbor; with the Lancaster, or some other single ship with heavy guns, we should have no apprehensions that a rebel steamer would venture within the Gate.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 26, 1863.

Maj. JAMES F. CURTIS, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Camp Lincoln, near Crescent City, Cal.:

SIR: The department commander desires you to make such disposition of the force under your command as may best promote the object in view in establishing the post you now occupy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SAN FRANCISCO, January 27, 1863. (Received 5.10 p.m.)

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY:

Will the Department approve of my issuing small-arms to a limited extent to Governor of California to arm organized militia companies in certain localities, as indicated in my letter dated December 15?

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General.

[First indorsement.]

ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, February 3, 1863.

Respectfully submitted.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Second indorsement.]

WAR DEPARTMENT, April 10, 1863.

Referred to the General-in-Chief.

By order:

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

[Third indorsement.]

APRIL 13, 1863.

Not approved except in cases of extraordinary exigency, when the arms should be merely loaned, to be immediately returned when the exigency has passed.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

[Fourth indorsement.]

Opinion of General-in-Chief approved, and the Adjutant-General will advise General Wright accordingly.

By order of the Secretary of War:

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

{p.296}

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 28, 1863.

Capt. BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-General, Santa Fé:

I have the honor to report the following progress in compliance with that portion of General Orders, No. 1, 1863, that refers to a campaign against Mangus Colorado’s band of Gila Apaches. The duties assigned to the troops operating under the order named were deemed of sufficient importance to induce me to accompany the command in person and to remain with it as long as I thought I could be spared from the permanent headquarters of the district, Capt. Edmond D. Shirland, First Cavalry California Volunteers, was detached on the 14th instant with twenty men of his company, with orders to proceed at once in advance of the main body to find Mangus Colorado, known to be in the neighborhood of the Pinos Altos. Captain Shirland was to act according to his best judgment in either fighting the chief or getting him into his possession. He rejoined the command on the 18th instant at Fort McLane, bringing Mangus Colorado with him. Although the chief had to Captain Shirland the day previous claimed entire dominion over all the country usually ranged by his tribe, and complete authority over all its members, upon being confronted with one and being charged with the atrocities that they had committed, he protested his innocence and endeavored to evade the responsibility. He was made to understand that no such subterfuges would avail him, and that his expressed desire for peace was only instigated by fear of the chastisement which he saw was about to be inflicted upon him and his people. I determined at once that, although the circumstances under which he had voluntarily placed himself in my power would not permit the taking of his life as some retribution for his murders of our people, security for the future required that he never should have it again in his power to perpetrate such atrocities. He was told that the remainder of his days would be spent as a prisoner in the hands of the U. S. authorities; that his family would be permitted to join him, and that he and they would be well treated. He was also distinctly told that upon making any attempt to escape his life would be the immediate forfeit. On the following morning at 1 o’clock he was shot dead by the guard, and his death was immediately reported to me. I investigated the matter at once. A sergeant and three privates of Company A, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, became his guard at midnight. Within the Succeeding hour he made three efforts to escape, and was shot on the third attempt. I have thus dwelt at length upon this matter in order to show that even with a murderous Indian, whose life was clearly forfeited by all laws, either human or divine, wherever found, the good faith of the U. S. military authorities was in no way compromised. Mangus was to have returned to his tribe at an appointed time. His detention prevented this, and being apprehensive that his people would scatter, alarmed at his absence, I decided to pursue and punish them at once. The steps taken and their results are shown by the accompanying reports of Captains Shirland and McCleave, transmitted herewith.* Particular praise should be awarded to Captain Shirland and his command for the determination with which, despite of cold and hunger, they continued to seek the enemy for a much longer time and at greater distance than they went provided for, and the thorough execution of their work when they did finally track the Indians to {p.297} their rancheria is worthy of all commendation. The task of Captain McCleave and his men, though fully as well accomplished, was less arduous; yet I can not fail to be convinced that both he and they would have cheerfully and successfully encountered any difficulties that might have interposed between them and their object. I left the command at Fort McLane on the 23d instant actively preparing for a lengthened scout against the Indians toward the headwaters of the Gila River. The general commanding may rest assured that in the terms of his order the punishment of the Indians will be thorough and sharp, and that the commander of the force intrusted with the duty, Capt. William McCleave, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will not disappoint his expectations.

I am, captain, with due respect, your obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Reports not found, but see summary of operations under dates of January 17 and 19, Vol. XV, p. 228.

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SAN FRANCISCO, January 29, 1863.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, Washington, D. C.:

Can the District of Arizona be transferred to Department of New Mexico?

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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COMMANDANT’S OFFICE, NAVY-YARD, Mare Island, Cal., January 29, 1863.

Brigadier-General WRIGHT, Commanding Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Your communication of the 26th instant relating to the defenses of the city of San Francisco was received this morning. The necessity of being prepared to meet any aggression, come from what quarter it may, is highly important, but I have no control of any vessels of war beyond the limits of the yard. In cases of emergency I should not, however, hesitate to assume any responsibility necessary for the public welfare. The Independence is the only vessel suitable for mounting heavy guns at the yard and which would be effective as a floating battery, and she is now used as barracks for the marines. It would occupy some time with our means to put her in condition for service as a floating battery, and it is doubtful whether I could obtain a crew for her at San Francisco. The only steamer we have here is the Saginaw, undergoing repairs which will be completed in four or six weeks. I would suggest that the State of California or the city of San Francisco purchase a steamer, iron-clad, and arm her for harbor defenses. The Cyane, sailing ship, is on her way to this place, where she probably will arrive about the 20th of next month. On her arrival, if it is necessary, I will direct the commander to lie in the harbor of San Francisco prepared to co-operate with the fort against any attempt to enter the harbor by a rebel steamer. I shall send the admiral a copy of your letter and advise him of the necessity of keeping a man-of-war ready for immediate service in these waters.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. O. SELFRIDGE, Commandant.

{p.298}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 27.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 29, 1863.

...

4, Lieut. Col. Albemarle Cady, Seventh Infantry, is assigned to duty at these headquarters as acting inspector-general on the department staff.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 29, 1863.

Lieut. Col. T. A. COULT, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding, Tucson:

SIR: The general commanding the department has recommended to the War Department the transfer of Western Arizona to the Military Department of New Mexico. The general desires you, therefore, to obey such instructions as may be received from the military authorities in the latter department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SAN ANTONIO, January 29, 1863.

Major-General MAGRUDER, &c.:

GENERAL: I beg leave to ask your attention to the condition of affairs in New Mexico and Arizona. The Mexican population there are in a state of revolution against the Federal forces, and they naturally look to us for assistance. I would respectfully suggest that if Judge S. M. Baird, for fifteen years a resident of that country, and by far the most popular and influential man among the natives, was authorized to raise one or more regiments of Mexicans in New Mexico and Arizona, he could do so, and he could keep up the disaffection and stimulate the people to hold out against our enemies until such time as you could send a force to retake the country. I have conversed with Judge Baird and he is willing to undertake the raising of one regiment of citizens, composed of the men now resisting the U. S. authorities. The most influential citizens of that country would join Judge Baird, and with but little aid we could recapture the country again and hold it. I merely offer these hasty suggestions for your consideration, knowing that you will at once do what you deem best in the matter. Judge Baird is a gentleman of the highest character and standing, and would render far more service in that way than in the capacity of major of a battalion, the position he now fills.

With highest respect, I remain, general, your obedient servant,

JOHN R. BAYLOR.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE Washington, January 30, 1863.

Brig. Gen. G. WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

Western Arizona is transferred to New Mexico. General Orders, No. 13, of 14th instant.

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

{p.299}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 30, 1863.

Capt. WILLIAM A. WINDER, Third Artillery, U. S. Army, Comdg., Alcatraz Island, Harbor of San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: The general commanding the department instructs me to communicate confidentially his desire that the greatest vigilance should be enjoined on the officers and men; that the command should be instructed to assemble by day or night at their assigned posts prepared to act with promptness on any emergency. For this purpose the guns, implements, and ammunition should be arranged for instant use. The general desires you to inform the engineer officer in charge of your work of his wishes as above indicated and request his co-operation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 30, 1863.

Don JOSÉ MARIA URANGA, Prefect of El Paso:

ESTEEMED SIR: I have the honor to inform you that by direction of General James H. Carleton, commanding the Department of New Mexico, a vigorous warfare is being prosecuted by the U. S. troops against the various tribes of Apache Indians who infest the country lying east and west of the Rio Grande and north of the boundary of the Mexican territory. Such measures are being prosecuted for the chastisement of these Indians as must either result in their complete subjugation or in driving them to seek refuge upon Mexican soil. It will doubtless, therefore, be prudent on the part of the Governor of Chihuahua to adopt precautions against such an inroad, and I would, therefore, thank you to communicate this information to him. Were steps taken by him at the same time to punish the Indians that may seek refuge in his State, they would materially aid in ridding our frontiers of an enemy whose atrocities are without number. Do me the favor also to call His Excellency’s attention to the quite common report in existence here, whether based upon facts or not I am unprepared to say, that in various towns in Chihuahua: Janos particularly, the Apache Indians are courted and their ill-gotten booty finds a market and their necessities for ammunition are supplied through the cupidity of traders. This latter is a grave matter, and one which you cannot fail to see but induces to and invites a repetition of the crimes of the Indians. In my opinion, if such acts are committed it would be quite as just and effective to punish their perpetrators as to hold the Indians to account for the crimes which by this assistance only can be committed.

I have the honor to subscribe myself, your most obedient servant,

J. H. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 30, 1863.

His Excellency IGNACIO PESQUEIRA, Governor of the State of Sonora:

GOVERNOR: I have the honor to apprise you that by direction of General James H. Carleton, commanding the Department of New Mexico, a vigorous warfare is being prosecuted against the various tribes {p.300} of Apache Indians inhabiting the country bounded by the Rio Grande and Gila Rivers, the Mexican line, and the Santa Cruz and San Pedro valleys. Such measures are being taken to carry on this warfare as will either result in their subjugation or in forcing them to take refuge in Mexican territory. This is therefore communicated for your information, as it will no doubt be desirable to adopt proper measures on your part to provide against the atrocities liable to be committed by the Indians in case they are driven into your territory, while it is believed that an advantageous opportunity is now offered for your co-operation in their chastisement.

With sentiments of the highest respect, I am, Your Excellency’s most obedient servant,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 7.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, January 30, 1863.

I. Capt. Chauncey R. Wellman, First Cavalry California Volunteers, will march to-morrow toward Tucson in compliance with Department Special Orders, No. 4, taking Fort McLane in his route from the Miembres River to Cow Springs and delivering at that post the supplies placed in his charge.

...

By order of Brigadier-General West:

J. F. BENNETT, Second Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, January 31, 1863.

Brig. Gen. G. WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

Your plan of sending seven companies of cavalry to New Mexico is approved.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

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SACRAMENTO, CAL., January 31, 1863-2 p.m. (Received 11 p.m.)

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army:

Apprehensions entertained that enemy’s steamers may threaten harbor of San Francisco. Troops in forts on the alert. War steamers necessary to co-operate with forts in harbor. No Government vessels at San Francisco.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 31, 1863.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Inclosed herewith is a copy of a communication * addressed to my headquarters on the 19th instant by Capt. C. D. Douglas, {p.301} Second Infantry California Volunteers, commanding Fort Wright, Round Valley Indian Reservation, which is in Mendocino County, in the northwestern district of this State. Captain Douglas is an intelligent and observing officer, and his statement can be relied upon. The superintendent of Indian affairs for the northern district of this State has, I am informed, gone to Washington. He never communicated to me his design of going East, and I know nothing as to the arrangement he has made or proposes to make for the support of the Indians. It is certain that during the past year the Indians on the reservation have not been provided for, and I can look forward to no improvement under the present system.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See p. 289.

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SAN FRANCISCO, February 1, 1863.

General WRIGHT, Sacramento, Cal.:

Connor telegraphs severe battle with Indians on Bear River, Wash. Ter. Loss, 15 killed and 4 officers and 38 men wounded. Enemy’s loss very heavy. Destroyed their camp.

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[FEBRUARY 1, 1863.-For Carleton to Adjutant-General U. S. Army, transmitting Maj. David Fergusson’s report of survey of Port Lobos and Libertad, Gulf of California, &c., see Series III.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 2, 1863.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Camp Wright, Round Valley, Cal.:

SIR: The instructions emanating from this office directing martial law to be proclaimed over the Round Valley Indian Reservation are revoked by the general commanding the department, who directs that everything within the limits of the reservation will be restored to the condition existing prior to those instructions. The justice of the peace appointed by you having really no legal existence the appointment will be canceled, and the person removed will be permitted to exercise his functions.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., February 2, 1863.

Lieut. Col. R. E. DE RUSSY, Chief of Engineers, Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a letter* from General J. W. Ripley, chief of ordnance, dated the 22d of December, {p.302} 1862, stating that certain heavy ordnance will be sent to the mouth of the Columbia River. I trust that you have authority, or will have authority, without delay to commence the erection of the works needed to receive the said ordnance. It will be wise to make good use of the intermediate time which must necessarily elapse in such preparations.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

P. S.-I notice that the ordnance which it is decided to send is of the same amount and description recommended by General Totten in his letter to the Secretary of War, dated 27th of November, 1862.

* See p. 259.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, February 2, 1863.

Capt. EDWARD B. WILLIS, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg., Hart’s Mill:

CAPTAIN: As reports are current again that the Texans are coming, you must be on the alert. By all means endeavor to avoid their getting between you and San Elizario. As soon as you are satisfied that a sufficient number of the enemy are advancing to make a contest with them useless with your small command, if San Elizario is within your reach yet, push a detachment down there and destroy the confiscated buildings by mining and burning, and endeavor to get the citizens to destroy their property and buildings. Pursue the same course at Ysleta and Socorro. Lay the buildings on the Concordia branch in ruins. Do the same with those of Fort Bliss, and finally if you are compelled to evacuate Franklin and Hart’s Mill, you must neither leave public buildings nor property for the use of the enemy. Reports will be rife, and no doubt exaggerated as to the enemy’s numbers, at least by his advance party. Keep me apprised of the news.

I am, captain, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

J. R. WEST, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, February 3, 1863.

Brig. Gen. G. WRIGHT, San Francisco, Cal.:

The Secretary of War authorizes the completion of the Oregon cavalry regiment.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 30.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 3, 1863.

...

6. The District of Western Arizona having been transferred by the War Department to the Military Department of New Mexico, all estimates, reports, returns, &c., heretofore made to these headquarters will hereafter be sent to the headquarters Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant. General.

{p.303}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, February 4, 1863.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: We are experiencing extreme embarrassment throughout the whole department in consequence of the depreciation of U. S. Treasury notes. They are now worth less than 70 cents on the dollar, and our purchases and contracts have to be made conditionally. The money basis in this country is specie. There is no paper currency in circulation except that of the Government. The greatest economy has been used in all the disbursing departments, but owing to the dispersed condition of the troops and the long lines of transportation over this widespread department our expenses are necessarily heavy; and again, the large expenditure for raising and equipping the new regiments has to be met. Again, I beg leave to submit to the Department the hardship falling upon the officers and soldiers on this coast. Everything is enormously high, even when paid for in specie, and the notes can only be converted at a ruinous discount. I would most earnestly recommend that the payments in all the departments on this coast be made as far as practicable in coin. The best interest of the Government will be the result. I beg of you to submit this communication to the consideration of the General-in-Chief, whose intimate acquaintance with affairs on this coast will enable him to judge of the propriety of my recommendations.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 8.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Mesilla, February 4, 1863.

I. By the direction of the department commander, Company K, First Infantry California Volunteers, will take post at Fort Craig.

...

By order of Brig. Gen. J. R. West:

J. F. BENNETT, Second Lieut., First California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 59.}

WAR DEPT., ADJT. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, February 5, 1863.

...

14. Brig. Gen. James Shields, U. S. Volunteers, will report in person without delay to Brig. Gen. George Wright, commanding Department of the Pacific, for duty.

...

By order of the Secretary of War:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 5, 1863.

His Excellency LELAND STANFORD, Governor of the State of California, Sacramento, Cal.:

SIR: In view of the condition of affairs in the District of Humboldt, and the propriety of using all our means to bring the Indian war in {p.304} that district to speedy termination, I have the honor to request that Your Excellency may be pleased to call out six companies of infantry, to be commanded by a major, for special service in that quarter.

Very respectfully, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 33.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 6, 1863.

...

3. Lieut. Col. William Jones, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, is assigned to the command of Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal.

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., February 6, 1863.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have to recommend that the general commanding the department give me authority to cause either Fort Hoskins or Fort Yamhill to be abandoned in the spring in time to send Captain Seidenstriker’s company (D), First Washington Territory Infantry (now at the former post), into the field. I have directed an exploration to locate a wagon road from Fort Yamhill to the Siletz block-house to be made. It is believed that a far better route can thus be found than that from Fort Hoskins to the same point. It is also believed that it will be no longer and capable of being easily made a wagon road. It would require great labor and expense to convert the Siletz pack trail from Fort Hoskins into a wagon road. There is but one Indian agent between the two points, Fort Yamhill and the Siletz. Thus it appears to me probable that I shall desire to order the evacuation of Fort Hoskins. The superintendent of Indian affairs appeared to concur when I conversed with him on the subject the other day. I shall soon be able to write you in response to your letter of the 16th ultimo as to further arrangements necessary for the establishment of a post at Fort Boisé.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, February 7, 1863.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith letters addressed to me by G. M. Hanson, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs, Northern District of California, to wit: October 9, 1862; October 10, 1862 (three inclosures); November 3, 1862 (two inclosures); November 11, 1862; December {p.305} 10,1862 (one inclosure). Also letters from Capt. C. D. Douglas, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commanding Fort Wright, Round Valley Indian Reservation, Mendocino County, to wit: December 12, 1862; December 23, 1862, with copy of the investigation of Indian affairs.*

After mature consideration of the state of affairs on the Round Valley Reservation, as reported by the superintendent and his supervisor, I came to the conclusion that the only course left me to protect the Indians and preserve the public property from utter destruction was to declare martial law and remove all intruders from the reservation. Accordingly on the 15th of October I sent instructions to the officer in command of the District of Humboldt to station a company of troops on the reservation and declare martial law, and when specially called upon by the superintendent or his agent, to remove intruders.

Although I was led to believe that the acts of the settlers in Round Valley had been of the most atrocious character, such, in fact, as to entitle them to very little consideration, yet, in view of the lateness of the season and the inclement weather, I instructed the commander at Round Valley to act with humanity and prudence, as I would not, except in extreme cases, remove settlers with their families until spring. Soon, however, I began to receive petitions from the settlers in Round Valley, averring their innocence of the charges made against them by the superintendent of Indian affairs, and asking for a full investigation. Justice to the settlers, as well as to the United States, demanded a careful investigation of the charges, and accordingly I directed Captain Douglas to procure all the evidence possible, both from the employés of the Government and the settlers, and to make to me a special report on the subject. The investigation was made by Captain Douglas on the 18th and 19th of December, and is contained in the printed inclosure accompanying his communication of the 23d of December. The summing up of Captain Douglas, based upon the facts elicited from the witnesses, is clear, comprehensive, and conclusive. The charges against the settlers were not proven. The evidence taken and the report of Captain Douglas exhibit a state of affairs on the reservation which requires the attention of the proper Department. I have revoked my orders declaring martial law in the Round Valley and restored everything to its original status.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* See pp. 161, 162, 201, 219, 248, 250, 261.

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PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, Brigadier-General Wright, of the U. S. Army, commanding the Department of the Pacific, has called upon me for a battalion of six Companies of troops (infantry) for special service against the Indians in the Humboldt District, in this State, to serve until discharged by him:

Now, therefore, I, Leland Stanford, Governor of the State of California and commander-in-chief of the militia thereof do call upon the citizens of the frontier counties of Humboldt, Mendocino, Trinity, Klamath, Siskiyou, and Del Norte, of this State, as many as shall be necessary to fill up the foregoing requisition, to organize themselves {p.306} into companies, to be mustered into the service of the United States as hereby required. The requisite officers for this force will be commissioned by the Governor.

Done at Sacramento, Cal., this 7th day of February, in the year of our Lord 1863.

LELAND STANFORD, Governor.

Attest:

WM. H. WEEKS, Secretary of State.

By

A. A. H. TUTTLE, Deputy.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Sacramento, February 7, 1863.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 28.}

HEADQUARTERS, Camp Drum, February 7, 1863.

In pursuance of orders from headquarters District of Southern California, Lieut. Col. Harvey Lee has taken command of said district. Capt. A. W. Cullum, of the Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, will take temporary command of this garrison.

By order:

HARVEY LEE, Lieutenant-Colonel Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., February 7, 1863.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: In reference to so much of your letter of the 16th ultimo as refers to the establishment of a military post near Klamath Lake, I desire to remind you that the Klamath Lake, Rogue River, and Umpqua Valleys are not in my district. General Orders, No. 10, of the 22d of November, 1860, from the Headquarters of the Army, give the District of Oregon the same limits as those of the former Department of Oregon. The latter are established per War Department General Orders, No. 10, of the 13th of September, 1858. I apprehend that it will be very difficult to raise even half the six additional companies of First Oregon Cavalry. Thus I will have no troops to spare for Klamath Lake. They should come from California. I shall, as soon as practicable, make the report you require on the subject of the necessity of a post there, having written letters to persons acquainted with that region who will give me the information.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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FORT WRIGHT CAL., February 8, 1863.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific:

SIR: I have the honor to report for the information of the general commanding the department that the band of Indians known as the {p.307} Wylackees has killed a large number of horses and cattle on the settlements of this valley in the last month. They killed eight or nine head of horses, the property of Mr. Owens, a few days ago, and I have seen myself a number of cattle in the valley wounded by their arrows. Messrs. Owens and Eberlee came to me a few days ago and reported that the Indians had killed the above number of horses. I sent one of my sergeants with them to investigate the matter, and he reports that he saw the remains of what he supposed to be eight or nine horses; he also reports that he followed the Indians’ trail from where they killed the horses to within a short distance of Eel River, and he thinks there were about forty Indians in the band. I have just been informed by Colonel Henley that five or six of the settlers followed this band of Wylackees last week, and he believes that a few of the band were killed. He did not inform me of the names of the settlers that went out. I request, therefore, to be instructed as to my duty in this matter, whether these men that killed the Indians should be arrested or let alone. I do not consider that I have any power to send out any troops from this post to capture, kill, or in any way punish these Indians, as I was not sent here for that purpose. But these Indians should be punished, as they are, and according to all reports always were, bad Indians.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 35.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 9, 1863.

...

3. Capt. R. S. Williamson, U. S. Topographical Engineers, having reported at these headquarters agreeably to instructions from the War Department, is assigned to duty as chief of his corps on the department staff from the 7th instant.

...

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 9, 1863.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF OREGON, Salem, Oreg.:

SIR: Having received authority from the War Department to complete the organization of the Oregon regiment of cavalry, I have the honor to request that Your Excellency may be pleased to have raised such number of companies and appoint such officers as may be necessary. Brigadier-General Alvord, the commander of the District of Oregon, will communicate with Your Excellency, and afford every facility in his power for a speedy completion of the regiment.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.308}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 36.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., February 10, 1863.

...

5. The headquarters of the Sixth Regiment of California Volunteer Infantry will be established in this city. The companies of this regiment will be mustered into service by Maj. Thomas F. Wright, under the superintendence of the colonel of the regiment (Col. H. M. Black).

By order of Brigadier-General Wright:

RICHD. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, STATE OF OREGON, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Salem, February 10, 1863.

Brig. Gen. BENJAMIN ALVORD, Commanding District of Oregon:

GENERAL: Thus far the recruiting business progresses slowly, most especially in Southern Oregon. The complaint from that quarter is that the soldiers at Camp Baker have not as yet been paid off, and it is anticipated that when they are it will be in the legal-tender currency, thus reducing the pay of a private to a very small sum. Another complaint from the same quarter is that the Governor in his proclamation failed to mention the protection of the people of Southern Oregon from Indian depredations. There is another complaint which seems universal, that the old recruiting service has not yet been paid; then there is a certain class of people that are throwing every obstacle in the way of those inclined to enlist. Is there not some way that these obstacles can be overcome? First, that good pay will be insured to the soldier; second, that it will be made promptly; third, that protection will be furnished to Southern Oregon. Then, is there no way to punish those who are throwing obstacles in the way of those inclined to enlist?

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

CYRUS A. REED, Adjutant-General Oregon.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., February 10, 1863.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit, for the information of the general commanding the department, a report on the subject of the establishment of a post at Fort Boisé and an expedition against the Snake Indians agreeably to your instructions of the 16th ultimo. Those instructions say that I am authorized to make arrangements for the establishment of that post if I deem it necessary. My views, as set forth in full in my dispatch of the 14th of October, as to the importance of such a post, remain unchanged. Everything I predicted as to the rush of miners to the gold fields in that quarter has been more than fulfilled. Being lower than the mountainous region around Florence, many have left the latter for the Boisé region, where it is estimated 2,000 persons are now wintering. I recommend, as before, that the post should consist of five companies-three of infantry and two of cavalry, the latter, perhaps, returning to Fort Walla Walla for the next {p.309} winter. The best site, it is said, will be some forty miles east of the old fort up the Boisé River, where wood, water, grass, and cultivable land can be found. The season this winter is so mild (three weeks or a month earlier, perhaps, than a year ago) that grass will permit the starting of the command from The Dalles in all probability by the 8th of April. If other arrangements permit I shall recommend that date. The state of the transportation will decide. But I deem it also important that an expedition against the Snake Indians shall be made to strike them in their haunts 120 miles east of Fort Boisé, near the Camas Prairie, north of Salmon Falls. All accounts agree that they made that a stronghold last summer, having in their possession large bands of mules and horses (mostly the former) stolen from the Overland Stage Company and other parties. The capture of these animals I would make an object, and it would form one of the signal punishments of these robbers. I should hope they might fight and give some opportunity to inflict a severe chastisement. I would therefore like to send to Fort Boisé seven companies, four of infantry and three of cavalry. Two companies of infantry to be left behind to commence the building of the post and the remaining five to take the field. The expedition should keep on to Fort Hall to the north side of Snake River and leave word with the ferryman, eight miles above that place, that the emigration had better keep over that road to Fort Boisé, it being the shortest, with least sand, best wood, grass, and water.

It is expected Capt. Medorem Crawford, assistant quartermaster, will be ordered to return east to bring out another escort to emigrants. If so, I would arrange for him to come over that road. I should also hope (as I said in my letter of the 14th of October) that you will instruct the commanding officer at Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, to send an expedition to a point beyond the South Pass to protect the emigrants as far at least as Fort Hall, or until it meets the command from Fort Boisé. The troops I send out against the Snakes, after finishing that undertaking, for which they will have time before the emigration reaches them, should remain on the emigrant road until the other troops shall meet them. Those intended to return to Fort Walla Walla should reach there about the 31st of October. Some Nez Percé allies can in all probability be induced to accompany the expedition, who would materially assist in finding the enemy, and especially in finding their bands of stolen mules. This programme would protect the emigration, chastise the Indians (if fortunate enough to meet them), and protect the miners also, who are all within forty miles of the above-mentioned site for the fort. To get the troops is the trouble. The seven companies would be obtained as follows: Leaving one company at each of the posts of Forts Vancouver, Steilacoom, Dalles, and Walla Walla, Captain Seidenstriker’s Company (D) of First Washington Territory Infantry, from Fort Hoskins (evacuated as proposed in my letter to you of the 6th instant); Captain Barry’s (G), from Fort Steilacoom; Captain O’Regan’s (I), from Fort Vancouver; Captain Dowling’s (H), now at Fort Walla Walla. All these belong to the First Washington Territory Infantry; also Captain Harris’ company (A), First Oregon Cavalry, now at Fort Dalles, and two companies of same regiment from Fort Walla Walla. On the 10th of May the commissioners to negotiate the treaty with the Nez Percés meet them at a grand council of that tribe to assemble at the Lapwai Agency. The above programme will leave but one company of cavalry to re-enforce Fort Lapwai during that council, whereas I should wish to send at least two companies. It would leave but one company of infantry at Fort Walla Walla. In other words, there would be no {p.310} reserve, as at least one company should remain as a guard at that post. The commanding officer at Fort Colville makes urgent requests for a company of cavalry, and I would furnish it if possible. It is possible the disaffection in the Nez Percé country may result in war. The old men may not be able to control the young men, and if that tribe heretofore so faithful, should revolt, all the surrounding tribes, always unfriendly, would no doubt be infected, and war starting among the