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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 50, P. I, Ch. LXII.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

{p.1}

CHAPTER LXII.
OPERATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST.*
JANUARY 1, 1861-JUNE 30, 1865.
PART I.
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REPORTS, ETC.

* The operations reported in this volume were carried on in that portion of the territory of the United States lying west of the Rocky Mountains, including so much of the Territory of Utah as lay west of the one hundred and seventeenth meridian of west longitude and so much of the Territory of New Mexico as lay west of the one hundred and tenth meridian of west longitude. This area composed the Departments of California and Oregon. The Department of California was created by General Orders, No. 10, War Department, Adjutant-Generals Office, of September 13, 1858, and included the territory west of the Rocky Mountains south of Oregon, except so much of Utah as lay east of the one hundred and seventeenth meridian of west longitude, and of New Mexico as lay east of the one hundred and tenth meridian of west longitude. It also included the Rogue River and Umpqua Districts in Southwestern Oregon. It was commanded on January 1, 1861, by Lieut. Col. Benjamin L. Beall, First U. S. Dragoons, who had assumed command, by seniority of rank, on the death of Bvt. Brig. Gen. Newman S. Clarke, colonel Sixth U. S. Infantry, which occurred on October 17, 1860. It was merged into the Department of the Pacific on January 15, 1861. The Department of Oregon was created by General Orders, No. 10, War Department, Adjutant-Generals Office, September 13, 1858, and was composed of the Territories of Washington and Oregon, except the Rogue River and Umpqua Districts. It was commanded on December 31, 1860, by Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, under assignment dated June 8, 1860. It was merged into the Department of the Pacific on January 15, 1861.

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.*

Jan.15, 1861.–The Departments of California and Oregon merged into the Department of the Pacific.
Col. Albert Sidney Johnston, Second U. S. Cavalry, brevet brigadier-general, U. S. Army, assumes command of the Department of the Pacific.
16-May 18, 1861.–Operations in the vicinity of Fort Humboldt, Cal.
Feb.5-17, 1861.–Scouts from Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., and Fort Dalles, Oreg., to the Umatilla River and to Willow and Butter Creeks, Oreg., with skirmishes (8th and 10th) on the Columbia River.
Mar.18, 1861.–Affair on the Columbia River, near the Kootenay River, Wash. Ter.
23, 1861.–Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, U. S. Army, assigned to command the Department of the Pacific. {p.2}
Apr.l4-15, 1861.–Skirmishes on Van Dusen’s Creek, near Mad River, Cal.
5, 1861.–Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, U. S. Army, assumes command of the Department of the Pacific, relieving Col. Albert Sidney Johnston, Second U. S. Cavalry, brevet brigadier-general, U. S. Army.
May23-June 17, 1861.–Operations on the Mad and Eel Rivers, Cal., with skirmishes (May 23) near Larrabee’s Ranch, (May 26) en Eel River, (May 28) on the South Fork of Eel River, (May 30) on Keatuck Creek, (June 4) opposite Bell Spring on the Eel River, (June 2 and 8) near Larrabee’s house, (June 14 and 16) on the South Fork of Eel River, and (June 17) near Kettenshaw.
July21, 1861.–Skirmish on the South Fork of Eel River, Cal.
Aug.3-12, 1861.–Scout from Fort Crook to Round Valley, Cal., with skirmish (5th) in the Upper Pitt River Valley.
8-9, 1861.–Attack on emigrant train, near the Great Salt Lake, Utah Ter.
15-22, 1861.–Expedition from Fort Crook to the Pitt River, Cal., with skirmish (19th) near Kellogg’s Lake, Cal.
26, 1861.–Col. Benjamin L. Beall, First U. S. Dragoons, assigned to command the District of Oregon.
Sept.7, 1861.–Skirmish near the Santa Aña Cañon, Cal.
13, 1861.–Col. Benjamin L. Beall, First U. S. Dragoons, assumes command of the District of Oregon.
14, 1861.–Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, assigned to command all troops serving in Southern California.
25, 1861.–The District of Southern California created, comprising the counties of San Luis Obispo, Buena Vista, Tulare, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego, and Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, assigned to its command.
25-Oct 5, 1861.–Expedition from San Bernardino to the Temecula Ranch and Oak Grove, Cal.
Oct.4, 1861.–Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, assumes command of the District of Southern California.
11, 1861.–Lieut. Col. Albemarle Cady, Seventh U. S. Infantry, assigned to command the District of Oregon.
14, 1861.–Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, transfers command of District of Southern California to Col. James H. Carleton, First California Infantry.
20, 1861.–Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, U. S. Army, relinquishes command of the Department of the Pacific to Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry.
23, 1861.–Lieut. Col. Albemarle Cady, Seventh U. S. Infantry, relieves Col. Benjamin L. Beall, First U. S. Cavalry, in command of the District of Oregon.
26, 1861.–Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, assumes command of the Department of the Pacific.
Nov.18, 1861.–Col. James H. Carleton, First California Infantry, relieved from command of the District of Southern California.
19, 1861.–Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, formally assigned to command the Department of the Pacific.
20-29, 1861.–Pursuit and capture of the Showalter Party at Warner’s Ranch in the San José Valley, Cal.
Dec.12, 1861.–District of Humboldt created, to consist of the counties of Sonoma, Napa, Mendocino, Trinity, Humboldt, Klamath, and Del Norte, in Northern California, and Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry, assigned to its command. {p.3}
Jan.9, 1862.–Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry, assumes command of the Humboldt Military District.
Feb.5, 1862.–Col. James H. Carleton, First California Infantry, resumes command of the District of Southern California.
Mar.19-Apr 28, 1862.–Expedition from Camp Latham to Owen’s River, Cal., with skirmish (April 9) near Bishop’s Creek, in the Owen’s River Valley.
22-Aug 31, 1862.–Operations in the Humboldt Military District, Cal.
Apr.10, 1862.–Col. Ferris Forman, Fourth California Infantry, assumes command of the District of Southern California.
13-Sept. 20, 1862.–Expedition from Southern California, through Arizona, to Northwestern Texas and New Mexico.
18, 1862.–Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry, assigned to command the District of Oregon.
May5, 1862.–Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry, relieves Lieut. Col. Albemarle Cady, Seventh U. S. Infantry, in command of the District of Oregon.
15, 1862.–Expedition from California to Arizona and New Mexico, organized as the Column from California, Col. James H. Carleton, First California Infantry, commanding.
Col. James H. Carleton, First California Infantry, relinquishes command of the District of Southern California.
17, 1862.–Col. George W. Bowie, Fifth California Infantry, assumes command of the District of Southern California.
June 11-Oct 8, 1862.–Expedition from Camp Latham to Owen’s River, Cal., with skirmish (June 24) at Owen’s Lake.
16-Oct 30, 1862.–Emigrant Road expedition from Omaha, Nebr. Ter., to Portland, Oreg.
23, 1862.–Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, assigned to command the District of Oregon.
July7, 1862.–Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, assumes command of the District of Oregon.
7, 1862-Oct 6, 1863.–Operations in the District of Oregon.
Aug.6, 1862.–Col. P. Edward Connor, Third California Infantry, assumes command of the district of Utah.
9-22, 1862.–Expedition from Fort Walla Walla to the Grande Ronde Prairie, Wash. Ter., with affair (14th) at the Grande Ronde Prairie.
19-Oct 11, 1862.–Expedition against the Snake Indians in Idaho.
26, 1862.–Col. James H. Carleton, First California Infantry, assigned to command the Department of New Mexico.
30, 1862.–The District of Arizona constituted to comprise all the territory from Fort Thorn, N. Mex., along the north bank of the Rio Grande River to Fort Quitman, Tex.
Sept.5, 1862.–Maj. David Fergusson, First California Cavalry, relieved from command of the District of Western Arizona.
Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth California Infantry, assigned to command of the District of Western Arizona.
Col. Joseph R. West, First California Infantry, assumes command of the District of Arizona.
8, 1862.–Skirmish on Redwood Creek, Cal.{p.4}
Sept.18,1862.–Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton, U. S. Army, relieves Brig. Gen. Edward R. S. Canby, U. S. Army in command of the Department of New Mexico.
21,1862.–Affair at the San Pedro Crossing, Ariz. Ter.
Affair on the Yreka Road, near Fort Crook, Cal.
30-Oct 29, 1862.–Expedition from Fort Ruby, Nev. Ter., to Camp Douglas, Utah Ter ,with affairs (Oct. 11 and 15) on the Humboldt River, Nev. Ter.
Oct.21,1862.–Skirmish near Simmons’ Ranch, near Hydesville, Cal.
Nov.3-29, 1862.–Scouts from Fort Crook, Cal., and Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter., to Honey Lake Valley, Cal.
20-27,1862.–Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Cache Valley, Utah Ter., with skirmish (23d) in the Cache Valley.
22-27, 1862.–Expedition from Fort Ruby, Nev. Ter., to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
Jan.14, 1863.–Western Arizona transferred to the Department of New Mexico.
29, 1863.–Engagement on the Bear River; Utah Ter.
Feb.7, 1863.–Lieut. Col. Harvey Lee, Fourth California Infantry, assumes command of the District of Southern California.
Mar.10-July 10, 1863.–Operations in The Humboldt Military District, Cal.
26-Apr 3, 1863.–Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Cedar Mountains, Utah Ter., with skirmish (April 1) at Cedar Fort.
28, 1863.–Col. Ferris Forman, Fourth California Infantry, assigned to command the District of Southern California.
Apr.2-6, 1863.–Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Spanish Fork, Utah Ter., with action (4th) at the Spanish Fork Cañon.
7-11, 1863.–Expedition from Fort Wright to Williams’ Valley, Cal., with skirmish (9th) in Williams’ Valley.
10, 1863.–Col. Ferris Forman, Fourth California Infantry, assumes command of the District of Southern California.
11-20, 1863.–Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Spanish Fork Cañon, Utah Ter., with skirmish (12th) at Pleasant Grove, and action (15th) at Spanish Fork Cañon.
12-24, 1863.–Expedition from Camp Babbitt to Keysville, Cal.
24-May 26, 1863.–Operations in Owen’s River and adjacent valleys, Cal.
25, 1863.–Skirmish near Fort Bowie, Ariz. Ter.
May4-Oct 26, 1863.–Expedition to the Snake Indian Country, Idaho Ter.
5-30, 1863.–Expedition from Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., to Soda Springs, on the Bear River, Idaho Ter.
June19, 1863.–Lieut. Col. James F. Curtis, Fourth California Infantry, assigned to command the District of Southern California, relieving Col. Ferris Forman, Fourth California Infantry.
20, 1863.–Skirmish near Government Springs, Utah Ter.
23, 1863.–Affair at Cañon Station, Nev. Ter.
July13, 1863.–Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion of Mountaineers, California Volunteers, relieves Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry, in command of the Humboldt Military District.
20-26, 1863.–Operations in Round Valley, Cal.
Aug.20, 1863.–The District of Utah declared to include the Territory of Utah, Camp Ruby, Nev. Ter., and the new post at Soda Springs, Idaho Ter.
22, 1863.–Affair at San Pedro Crossing, Ariz. Ter.
22-Sept 20, 1863.–Expedition from Fort Lapwai, Idaho Ter., to The Meadows.
27, 1863.–Affair at Fort Bowie, Ariz. Ter.{p.5}
Sept.3-Dec 31, 1863.–Operations in the Humboldt Military District, Cal.
8-9, 1863.–Skirmishes in the Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz. Ter.
Nov.4, 1863.–Skirmish in the Pinal Mountains on the Gila River, Ariz. Ter.
Jan.1-28, 1864.–Operations in the Humboldt Military District, Cal.
2, 1864.–Occupation of Santa Catalina Island, Cal.
Feb.1-June 30, 1864.–Operations in the Humboldt Military District, Cal.
6, 1864.–Col. Henry M. Black, Sixth California Infantry, assigned to command the District of Humboldt.
16-23, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Walla Walla to Snake River, Wash. Ter.
Mar.24-Apr 16, 1864.–Expedition from Camp Lincoln, near Canyon City, to Harney Valley, Oreg., with skirmishes.
Apr.20-Oct 26, 1864.–Expeditions from Fort Dalles, Oreg., and Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., to Southeastern Oregon, with skirmishes.
21-May 12, 1864.–Expedition from the Siletz River Block-House to Coos Bay, Oreg.
May9-June 22, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Crittenden, Utah Ter., to Fort Mojave, Ariz. Ter.
16-Aug 2, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Craig, N. Mex., to Fort Goodwin, Ariz Ter.
25-July 13, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Wingate, N. Mex., to the Gila and San Carlos Rivers, Ariz. Ter., with skirmishes (June 7 and 8) on the San Carlos River.
June8-Aug 9, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Churchill to the Humboldt River, Nev. Ter.
24, 1864.–Attack on wagon train on the John Day’s Road, near Fort Klamath, Oreg.
July1, 1864.–Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, assigned to command the District of California.
Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell, U. S. Army, assumes command of the Department of the Pacific.
20-Aug 17, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Boisé to Boonville, Idaho Ter.
Aug.8-12, 1864.–Scout from Camp Anderson to Bald Mountain, Cal.
27-Oct 5, 1864.–Expedition from Fort Boisé to Salmon Falls, Idaho Ter., with skirmishes.
Sept.1-29, 1864.–Scout from Camp Grant to the North Fork of the Eel River, Cal.
1-Dec 3, 1864.–Operations in the Trinity River Valley, Cal.
Jan.1-Nov 30, 1865.–Operations on the Canyon City Road, Oreg., with skirmishes.
20, 1865.–Territory of Arizona re-annexed to Department of the Pacific.
Feb.1-20, 1865.–Operations about Fort Boisé, Idaho Ter., with skirmish (15th) near the Bruneau Valley.
17, 1865.–Skirmish at Fort Buchanan, Ariz. Ter.
The Territory of Utah and that part of Nebraska Territory lying west of the twenty-seventh degree of longitude added to the Department of the Missouri.
20,1865.–Brig. Gen. John S. Mason, U. S. Army, assigned to command the District of Arizona.
Mar.3, 1865.–Territory of Idaho attached to the District of Oregon.
7,1865.–Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, relieved from command of the District of Oregon.
12-19, 1865.–Expeditions from Fort Churchill to Pyramid and Walker’s Lakes, Nev., with skirmish (14th) at Mud Lake and affair (16th) near Walker’s Lake, Nev.{p.6}
Mar.14, 1865.–Limits of District of Oregon extended to include the entire State of Oregon.
23, 1865.–Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, relinquishes command of the District of Oregon.
Col. Reuben F. Maury, First Oregon Cavalry, assumes command of the District of Oregon.
Apr.5-18, 1865.–Expedition from Camp Bidwell to Antelope Creek, Cal.
May3-June 15, 1865.–Expeditions from Fort Churchill to Carson Lake and Truckee and Humboldt Rivers, Nev.
25-June 15, 1865.–Expedition from Fort Ruby to the Humboldt Valley, Nev., with skirmish (May 29) near Austin, Nev.
June13-26, 1865.–Expedition from Dun Glen to Fairbanks Station, Nev.
26-July 6, 1865.–Expedition from Fort Bowie to the Gila River, Ariz. Ter., with skirmishes (July 3) at Cottonwood Creek and (4th) at Cavalry Cañon, Ariz. Ter.
27, 1865.–Military Division of the Pacific created, to consist of the Departments of California and the Columbia.
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, U. S. Army, assigned to command the Military Division of the Pacific.
Department of California created, to consist of the States of California and Nevada and the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona.
Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell, U. S. Army, assigned to command the Department of California.
Department of the Columbia created, to consist of the State of Oregon and the Territories of Washington and Idaho.
Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, assigned to command the Department of the Columbia.
July2-13, 1865.–Expedition from Camp Lyon, Idaho Ter., to the Malheur River, Oreg., with skirmish (9th).
10-21, 1865.–Expedition from Fort Bowie to Maricopa Wells, Ariz. Ter.
17, 1865.–Skirmish on the Owyhee River, Idaho Ter.
Sept.23, 1865.–Skirmish in the Harney Lake Valley, Oreg.

* Of some of the minor conflicts noted in this summary no circumstantial reports are on file.

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JANUARY 16-MAY 18, 1861.– Operations in the vicinity of Fort Humboldt, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Capt. Charles S. Lovell, Sixth U. S. Infantry.
No. 2.–Lieut. Daniel D. Lynn, Sixth U. S. Infantry.
No. 3.–Lieut. Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Capt. Charles S. Lovell, Sixth U. S. Infantry.

FORT HUMBOLDT, CAL., March 23, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt last evening of your letter of the 6th instant, and to state for the information of the commanding general that I have had a command of thirty men, under {p.7} Lieutenant Lynn, operating against the Indians in the Eel River country since the middle of January last. In his letter to me dated Camp Armstrong, South Fork of Eel River, February 9, 1861, speaking of the Indians, Lieutenant Lynn says:

They have no principal man exercising any control except on the field of battle. They avoid combat and run on all occasions. Having no chief or principal man, it is impossible to treat with them. Being scattered over a wide area, and but few in any one locality, it is impossible to cover one’s self with glory in fighting them. I have already many times wished they were braver, so as to give us at least the ghost of a chance for the display of our chivalrous qualities. In place of this, being most always on the alert, with the eye of the eagle and the ken of a sparrow-hawk, they discover their foes, give the war whoop, and run. They, suspecting, as I suppose, our arrival, committed a few depredations and fled to the Bald Hills and other tribes. Just here or in this vicinity there may possibly be a hostile straggling Indian here and there, but they are not numerous, nor resident long in a place. I have endeavored with scrupulous exactitude to carry out literally your instructions. I have modeled my orders upon them, and every scouting or hunting party has been enjoined to respect them. A scouting party has been out almost every day. Already the whole country for many miles around, in all directions, has been quite thoroughly scoured, but few trophies and no Indians have been taken.

...

In regard to the number and character of the citizens and their losses in cattle, &c., he says:

It is my conviction that there are about a dozen altogether, and that they are renegades from the States, vagabonds from society, escaped convicts from justice, and outlaws forced to leave their homes and seek a livelihood in parts unknown. They are clothed like the best clad of the natives, and you would mistake them for natives did you not know them. They indulge in the most extravagant style of conversation; yea, so extravagant that truth is almost out of the pale of their thoughts. On my arrival they had many hard stories to tell of the depredations committed by the Indians and wrongs unredressed received from them, with no provocation, according to them, on the part of the white men. They told me, also, where I could find several rancherias. I thought I would put their knowledge to the test. Their cattle and horses, which had grazed in the mountains and mountain gorges weeks and months unseen and unheard of, were collected and losses found much less-yea, very much less, perhaps two-thirds less-than reckoned or anticipated. I let two volunteer detachments, guided by them, proceed to two of their rancherias. Both expeditions were complete failures. No rancherias were found. One of the citizens, mistaking another citizen-both of the same party-for an Indian, fired upon him and killed him, but not instantly; died the following night about 10 o’clock. The other rancherias they had told of could not be found either. They were so ashamed of their ignorance of the Indians and their rancherias that they would not present themselves.

...

Whenever they do anything or see anything they magnify it a hundredfold, and on their return boast of their fast running and of their wounding so many Diggers. ’Tis a little strange that in firing on so many Indians they never kill any, or that we never have the pleasure of seeing some of their marvelous exploits.

The latter part of February I heard that the Indians had attacked and burnt the house of Mr. Larrabee (in his absence), situated on Van Dusen’s Fork of the Eel River, and killed the cook, a white woman. Accordingly I directed Lieutenant Lynn to proceed with his detachment to and endeavor to punish the Indians in that vicinity. The result is not yet known. This attack cannot be wondered at when it is known that about a year ago it was reported, and I believe never contradicted, that Mr. Hagan, living with and a partner of Mr. Larrabee, had an Indian called Yo-keel-la-bah tied to a tree and shot in cold blood. He had been in the habit of visiting the house in a friendly manner, and always expressed himself friendly disposed toward the whites. He was of great service to me in that vicinity during the summer and fall of 1859.

The mules composing our pack train have been worked very hard for the last year. Many of them are almost completely broken down and {p.8} must have rest or will die. To supply Fort Gaston and the detachments in the field will involve the necessity of dividing the train and the employment of two or three additional packers, if we can get them, which is extremely doubtful unless the acting assistant quartermaster is furnished with funds to pay them promptly every month or two. The country is a very hard one to operate in-indeed, the hardest I ever served in, both upon men and animals. The mountains are precipitous and broken; the divides so imperfectly defined that any one but a good woodsman is liable to get lost in a march of a few hours, particularly if in hot pursuit of Indians. Each separate party ought, therefore, to be furnished with a good guide.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. S. LOVELL, Captain, Sixth Infantry, Commanding Post.

Maj. W. W. MACKALL Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Daniel D. Lynn, Sixth U. S. Infantry.

FORT HUMBOLDT, CAL., March 28, 1861.

SIR: In conformity with recent verbal instructions from you I have the honor to enter upon a somewhat detailed account of the campaign from the South Fork of Eel River to its termination. But, firstly, permit me to state that I do not consider it out of place to submit a statement of the origin of the South Fork difficulties.

Origin of the South Fork difficulties.-The only reliable and satisfactory account of these difficulties and their origin that I have yet received is one from Mr. Bruce, a partner of Mr. Armstrong, of the Valley of the South Fork. I regret that I am unable to give all the particulars. It appears that Mr. Ross, widely known as a trafficker with Indians, with one or more persons, was going up the South Fork between Mr. Armstrong’s place and that of Messrs. Sproul, and overtaken by a small party of rather bold Indians. The Indians did not run, but slowly proceeded toward the white men, but Mr. Ross, either fearing that the Indians were dangerous, or thinking they were “too fast,” fired on and, I think, killed one. The Sproul boys appearing and taking sides with Ross and escorting him to their home, led the Indians to think that the Sprouls shared Mr. Ross’ sentiments, and were their enemies-a very rational conclusion, especially when it is added that the boys then sheltered and protected him, so that the Indians, keenly alive to their wrongs, at the first good opportunity thought they would clean out the boys. The boys had killed a bear and were dressing it when the Indians attacked them. The sequel you know; both boys were nearly killed. The white man’s side of the story I presume you have heard. Yet, notwithstanding this sad warning, those Sprouls shelter, at every visit, even now, the same desperate character who was their guest on that sad occasion. If the past has anything to do with the future they ought to take warning and eschew all such dangerous hospitality. In addition to the above, white men at the South Fork had whipped and raped Indian women. For further particulars I can be consulted personally at any moment.

{p.9}

Are the buckskin gentry pioneers of civilization?-Let us see. As this appears to be the proper connection in which to answer this question, I will discuss it now. The term “buckskin gentry” is a more comprehensive one than buckskin hunters, and embraces all who hunt for a living-all who have a few ideas about agriculture and grazing and herding of stock, but who hunt at intervals; all who are brought into contact with Indians, to the extent of employing and forcibly obtaining Indian servants, and cohabiting with squaws, and all who, leading the life of an Indian, wander from place to place with no definite object. Such a life it will readily be seen, on the slightest reflection or by the slightest experience, is anything but refining. At the South Fork the same Jones who shot Mr. Wright, in partnership with Mr. McFarland cultivated some ground and raised a piece of corn, but went away and did not gather it that season. A pair of oxen ate some of it, but that same miserable buckskin clan that I found at the South Fork on my arrival appeared at the time in question, saying that they were out of everything and on the point of starvation. The settlers proper very hospitably shared with them, but they were not satisfied. They called a council of war, but instead of counseling the destruction of the Digger race, as they had uniformly done hitherto, they resolved on the destruction of the corn-field. The entire field was taken. Neither McFarland nor Jones were there to defend their claims or even to enter a protest, yet these same buckskin outlaws were those to tell me that the Indians had taken McFarland’s corn-field, and that the white men had given no provocation. The above question is accordingly answered in the negative.

Scouting.-The scouting party sent out to Spruce Grove under charge of Corporal Heron from the camp at the South Fork remained there till the last practicable moment, and only joined the command after the latter had passed Spruce Grove on its way to Larrabee’s. The corporal’s party succeeded in capturing an Indian, but by the prisoner’s general conduct I was fully convinced that he did not belong to the hostile tribe at the South Fork, and on his rendering valuable services at Main Eel River I released him. Corporal Heron was quite confident of success at Spruce Grove had time permitted him to make use of the prisoner’s services in finding rancherias. At Larrabee’s the scouting was resumed. Determined to strike the Indians a blow if they could be found, I sent out three parties the same day in as many different directions. One started out in the direction of Van Dusen’s Creek, proceeding down it; another started out to the left of the trail with orders to proceed to strike a point low down on the Van Dusen and go up it till its intersection with the trail. The third, composed of sixteen men under Corporal Heron, had three days’ rations. It relieved the camp of all its disposable men. This party struck across toward the Van Dusen, but high up, and proceeded over in the direction of Mad River, with orders to go wherever success was probable and to join the command at Iaqua Ranch. This vast field had been crossed by a parcel of hunters, now resident at the Thousand Acre Field, a few days before. It was this which prevented success. Corporal Heron reported on his return that there were no very recent Indian signs and that there was not an Indian in twenty miles of Iaqua Ranch. From Iaqua Ranch three scouting parties were sent out. One, under Sergeant Wiedemer, proceeded to Yager Creek Settlement to scout the South and Middle Yager Valleys, and the Red Woods near by. This party espied four Indians, one squaw and three bucks, gathering clover apparently, but they were too distant to be fired on. The party approached nearer, but {p.10} the Indians had already taken warning. Another party under Simon Daysey proceeded down the North Yager and into the Red Woods in that quarter. The third, largest, fourteen men strong, and most important, under Corporal Heron, with five days’ rations, crossed Mad River from Iaqua Ranch and proceeded up that river while Indian signs rendered success probable and then struck across toward Pilot Creek in the direction of Hay Fork Valley. They did not reach Pilot Creek, but turned to the left and northward, scoured a wide field, and returned by descending Mad River. They were gone five days and a half. The time allotted was so limited that scouting had to be done as the command moved from point to point or not at all. From the camp near Kneeland’s Prairie but one party was sent out. This was under charge of Sergeant Wiedemer. The sergeant on his return reported no Indians and no traces of any. The day after Corporal Heron’s party united with the main command at Kneeland’s Prairie it stormed and continued up to the 27th, two days after the command reached the garrison, so that all further scouting after his return to that point was at an end.

I will now proceed to advert to a few incidents of campaigning, quite noticeable on our return, before passing to the contrast to which your instructions invite me.

Game.-Between Spruce Grove and Wilburn’s place, on Eel River, and especially between main Eel River and Larrabee’s Creek, game, particularly deer, is quite plenty, owing mainly to the fact, I suppose, that buckskin hunters, killing deer in contravention of the game laws and for their skins, have not yet, to any great extent, infested that region. Coyotes are quite plenty in the mountains to the south of Larrabee’s Valley.

Friendly Indians.-A party of these, and belonging to it the prisoner mentioned above, was seen at main Eel River. Their tokens of friendship, and not fleeing from us at our approach, as the guilty most always do, convinced me that they had no hand in the South Fork depredations, and I gave orders not to fire on them. A party of squaws and children was seen gathering clover on the side of a lofty spur to the left of the trail between Eel River and Larrabee’s Creek. Only one ran away. Quite a number first and last were seen whose abode was with white men and their services at their control.

Larrabee’s Valley.-This is nothing but a basin in the mountains. In corroboration of this, limbs are found on the ground in the valley, having been broken off by the snow from the trees growing there. Another reason is the slight difference of level between the basin and adjoining mountains. In the summer time the basin is, I expect, a very pleasant locality. Its high level would indicate it cool and refreshing. Scenery on every side picturesque. Respecting its agricultural qualities, it is, I should think, quite fertile and admirably adapted for the cultivation of oats. Here in this apparently lovely valley lived a man about whose qualities I feel myself impelled to speak. I visited the premises on the morning after arriving in the valley. In this one exceptional instance I found truth had been told. I was very much surprised, because I had hitherto found it much rarer than gold. I found everything just as chronicled in the Humboldt Times. I had no conversation with Mr. Larrabee. I do not know that I ever saw the man. I heard no man speak in his favor, or even intimate one redeeming trait in his character. The universal cry was against him. At the Thousand Acre Field and Iaqua Ranch even the woman who was shot and burned to death was condemned for living with such a man. Of most enormities of which he stands accused you are aware. An accomplice and actor {p.11} in the massacre at Indian Island and South Beach; the murderer of Yo-keel-labah; recently engaged in killing unoffending Indians, his party, according to their own story, having killed eighteen at one time (eight bucks and ten squaws and children), and now at work imbruing his hands in the blood of slaughtered innocence, I do not think Mr. Larrabee can be too emphatically condemned. He certainly richly merited his recent losses.

Summer and winter campaigning-the contrast.-The surface of the campaigning country is very uneven and exceedingly irregular-here somewhat gradual, there suddenly precipitous; here mountainous, there a deep, impassable gulch; here a branch, there a deep, windy, untraversed chasm or cañon. In the Bald Mountain region lofty peaks, rising much above the ordinary Bald Mountain height, are seen at convenient intervals for watch-towers. At the approach of an enemy Indian spies on these lofty summits, with commendable vigilance and admirable keenness of vision, give the alarm and flee, so that by the time you are looking for them they are lost to view and, perhaps, many miles away. On the western side of the Bald Hills lies a very dense forest, impenetrable in many places, and extending to the Pacific Ocean, familiarly known as the Red Woods, though this appellation has a more limited significance with those who most frequently use it. To the east lies a wide expanse, alternately diversified with dense side-hill forests and bald ridges, stretching for miles away till lost in the dizziness of distance. To the south the Bald Hills terminate in two principal ranges of mountains, covered in the winter season with snow. Northward they sink away into the great Red Wood forest. With this brief survey before us, it will readily be seen how difficult it must be to campaign in such a country successfully or otherwise. The remarks thus far touching campaigning are alike applicable to summer and winter. But, then, is there no difference? Let us see. In the summer the days being much longer and sun rising much earlier, a much earlier start, and consequently a munch earlier camp, may be had by both men and train. Another very material consideration is the much greater certainty of progress in going from point to point. Watercourses low, and many perhaps dried up; little or no snow on the mountains to prevent progress. In the summer time there is usually but little rain to make it muddy and disagreeable. Nature herself in the springtime and summer, clad in the freshness of perennial verdure, wears a most pleasing aspect-a hope-inspiring sight and a solace to man desponding success; but in winter how different the scene, how striking the contrast. In the more elevated regions the impress of death is frequently visible. The little life stirring, all exotic, foreign to the soil that principally, if not entirely, nourishes its existence. Rivers high and swollen, snow on the mountains, melting, together with rain falling, making it muddy, slippery, cold, and disagreeable; piercing winds from long and deep cañons, driving a cold rain with them, only to chill you through, all combine to make one dislike the sport altogether. Winter is the season of storms. When they do come they usually last some time.

Defense of officers in the field.-I embrace this opportunity to express my perfect willingness and desire to defend my brother officers and companions in arms right straight through against the taunts, sneers, and slurs of hewgagism, whose principal business is iniquity, and whose loftiest ammunition calumniation; against the floating rottenness of filthy tatters; against the surplus filth and scum of outraged society; against the fleeting and shadowy fun of wholesale lying and cracking jokes at the expense of innocence.

{p.12}

Personal.-Touching the matter of contrasting campaigning in summer and winter, I have been fully alive, and have felt myself unequal to the magnitude of the task. For any further explanations you may desire I can be consulted personally at any time in your convenience.

I have the honor to remain, with many assurances, your friend,

D. D. LYNN, Second Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry.

Capt. CHARLES S. LOVELL, U. S. Army, Sixth Infantry, Commanding Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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No. 3.

Report of Lieut. Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

CAMP NEAR THE HEAD OF LARRABEE CREEK, May 9, 1861.

CAPTAIN: In compliance with instructions from department headquarters dated March 6, 1861, I have the honor to submit the following report:

Since my report of the 19th ultimo I have attacked two ranches and killed fifteen Indians. The entire country is mountainous, well timbered, watered, and furnishes sufficient grass all the year for large herds of beef cattle and horses; indeed, it is one of the finest mountain grazing countries I have ever seen. I cannot at this time report correctly upon the number of inhabitants, though they are considerable, at least enough to expect protection, and are located over a country of more than fifty miles. In consequence of the serious depredations of the Indians many of the inhabitants have deserted their homes, and been compelled to drive their cattle to the more thickly settled portions of the country, though since some of the Indians have been chastised they are returning and feel more secure in their persons and property. The best position for a post is, in my opinion, on Eel River, near the head of Larrabee Creek, about sixty-five miles southeast from Fort Humboldt. It should be built immediately, and garrisoned by at least one full company, with a sufficient number of mules and riding saddles to mount a party large enough (say thirty) to follow rapidly and chastise all Indians that may commit depredations within fifty miles of it. This I believe will soon put a stop to all depredations and give ample security to the inhabitants and their property. Without a post but little can be accomplished and proper protection is almost impossible. The roads will be good for pack animals during the dry season, and the facilities for building good; that is, for small dry houses. The Indians are always informed that they are punished for committing depredations on the citizens and their property, and that they will be followed and severely chastised until they desist and give some reliable pledge of permitting them to remain and follow their avocations unmolested. As I have no means of subsisting the women and children found in the different ranches, of course they are not detained as prisoners, and lose no time in informing other hostile Indians of my acts. This gives many ranches an opportunity of escaping for the time.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. B. COLLINS, First Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry, Commanding Detachment.

Capt. CHARLES S. LOVELL, Commanding Fort Humboldt, Cal.

{p.13}

FEBRUARY 5-17, 1861.–Scouts from Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., and Fort Dalles, Oreg., to the Umatilla River and to Willow and Butter Creeks, Oreg., with skirmishes (8th and 10th) on the Columbia River.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Maj. Enoch Steen, First U. S. Dragoons.
No. 2.–Bvt. Maj. William N. Grier, First U. S. Dragoons.
No. 3.–Lieut. Marcus A. Reno, First U. S. Dragoons.
No. 4.–Capt. Joseph H. Whittlesey, First U. S. Dragoons.

No. 1.

Report of Maj. Enoch Steen, First U. S. Dragoons.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., February 18, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor to forward, for the information of the general commanding the department, the accompanying reports. I dispatched Major Grier upon receiving the first reliable information of the depredations on Umatilla, Willow, and Butter Creeks, and soon after learning that there were more disturbances at Old Fort Walla Walla I sent a detachment, under Lieutenant Reno, in that direction. Of the five Indians of whom Major Grier was in pursuit, two were apprehended and promptly hung by Lieutenant Reno. The others are now probably with Smoke Hollow, near Priest’s Rapids. It is unfortunate that the major did not persist, having them almost within his grasp. Homely, the chief at Old Fort Walla Walla, promises to give information of their return to this vicinity, and will assist with his people in capturing them. I will also keep a close watch upon the actions of disaffected Indians and take immediate steps to put down any disturbances.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

E. STEEN, Major, First Dragoons, Commanding.

Maj. W. W. MACKALL, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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No. 2.

Report of Bvt. Maj. William N. Grier, First U. S. Dragoons.

FORT WALLA WALLA, WASH. TER., February 14, 1861.

SIR: For the information of the commanding officer I have the honor to make the following report of a march made by my company pursuant to Orders, No. 5, dated headquarters Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., February 4, 1861:

Pursuant to the above-named order I marched from this post on the 5th instant with forty men of my company. On the evening of the 6th was joined at my camp on the Upper Umatilla by the Indian agent (Mr. Abbott), an interpreter, and two Indian guides, who were said to know the precise position of the lodge occupied by the Indians who had been robbing in the white settlements.

Next day marched to the Lower Umatilla Crossing, and, after resting and feeding my horses, left the teams in care of ten men (to follow on next day) and marched with thirty men to the banks of the Columbia near the mouth of Umatilla River. Reached that point after dark. As it was totally impracticable to get the horses across the Columbia, {p.14} I left them on the bank of the river in charge of thirteen men, and by means of two very leaky skiffs managed to get seventeen men across the river by 11 o’clock at night; then proceeded on foot through the rain and darkness, over rocks and hills, desirous to-reach the point supposed to be occupied by the Indians before daylight. After marching ten to twelve miles reached the place (about an hour before day) where these Indians were known to have been a day or two before. Made the necessary disposition for surrounding them at break of day. On closing in upon that point, with great disappointment discovered that the occupants had fled, on warning given them (as I afterward learned) by a Walla Walla Indian. Our guides, who were mounted, then moved up the river in search of them, and returned with information that they were in camp some six miles higher up on the Columbia. I then moved up with my weary and foot-sore detachment, the last two miles compelled to move in full view of the Indians, who took the alarm and mounted their horses to make their escape up the river. Just before coming into the range of view from the lodge I put four of my men on the ponies of our guides, and sent them on a circuitous route behind the hills, so as to get onto the river-bank above the lodge. They succeeded in doing so before my men on foot could get up, and met five Indians mounted endeavoring to escape; fired on them, killing one of their horses. The Indians then dismounted and ascended the mountain, the soldiers firing upon them, but without effect. The detachment on foot arrived too late-after the Indians had got out of reach. Captured six or seven horses and two saddles. On one of the saddles found a pair of saddle-bags containing a pocket-book and other articles said to have been stolen from a Mr. Grover, one of the settlers on Butter Creek or Willow Creek. The captured property was taken charge of by Mr. Abbott with a view to return it to the owners when called for. I then returned, and succeeded in recrossing the Columbia and joined my camp soon after dark on same day. Next day (the 9th) returned to Lower Umatilla Crossing, at the same time sent a message to the occupants of some fifteen to twenty lodges scattered along the right bank of the Columbia between the mouth of Umatilla River and Willow Creek. These Indians were directed to move at once lo their reserves, and next morning proceeded to do so, a portion of them moving toward the Simcoe Reservation, where they belonged, and the others crossing to this side of the Columbia to come to the Umatilla Reservation. I then returned with my command, reaching this post to-day. Total distance traveled, about 180 miles.

Very respectfully,

WM. N. GRIER, Brevet Major, Captain, First Dragoon.

Lieut. J. WHEELER, Jr., Post Adjutant, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.

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No. 3.

Report of Lieut. Marcus A. Reno, First U. S. Dragoons.

FORT WALLA WALLA, February 14, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in obedience to instructions I left this post February 9, 1861, with Company E, First Dragoons, and proceeded to the Columbia River, encamping near the place where the Indians of whom I was in pursuit had been last seen. Immediately {p.15} upon my arrival I sent out scouts to discover, if possible, any clue which would enable me to capture them. About 9 o’clock that night I received information that they were some miles below my camp on the river. I started with a small party and, proceeding rapidly, succeeded in surprising their camp. I found but two of the Indians who had been committing depredations in that vicinity. After a short but severe struggle, in which but my first sergeant, Private Moran, and myself were engaged for a short time, I succeeded in securing them and bringing them to my camp. They were immediately recognized as desperate characters, having been punished in the guard-house and whipped by Colonel Wright. Early next morning and in presence of the whole tribe with whom they had been living I had them hung, telling their tribe at the same time that any future harboring of such murderers and thieves would be interpreted as hostility to the whites, and punished accordingly. I have particularly to recommend the zeal and activity of Lieutenant Kellogg, First Sergt. Daniel Coleman, and Private Moran, of Company E, First Dragoons.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. RENO, Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons, Commanding Troop E.

Lieut. J. WHEELER, Jr., Adjutant, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.

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No. 4.

Report of Capt. Joseph H. Whittlesey, First U. S. Dragoons.

FORT DALLES, GREG., February 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report, for the information of the major commanding, that in conformity with his orders and instructions of the 9th I left this post on the 10th instant with twenty-eight of my company, suitably rationed and equipped. Crossed to the north bank of the Columbia and proceeded up the river for the purpose of “finding and chastising the Indians who had recently committed depredations upon the property of settlers on the Umatilla River, Willow Creek, and Butter Creek,” &c. Having learned from the whites on the route and from friendly Indians that the depredations had been committed by a party of seven Indians whose names and nationality are as follows-Hal-eese, Cul-pas, How-deu-doo, Lask Chuen (Umatillas), and Nuck-ea-pal-a-te, Wee-lo-lacum, and Why-ame (supposed to be Walla Wallas)-and that Hal-eese and Cul-pas were on the same side of the river on which I was moving, and that the first was among the Indians at the mouth of Nowaway Creek, near the foot of Long Island, I made a night march with twenty men to surround and surprise the village and capture him at daylight on the morning of the 14th instant. On my arrival, however, I found that the villagers had fled the night before, abandoning their houses and property. Notwithstanding this I soon placed myself in communication with them by means of friendly Indians who accompanied me, and demanded the surrender of any of the offenders who might be with them. Alarmed as they were by the proximity of a detachment of dragoons a little above, on the other side of the Columbia from Fort Walla Walla, and the presence of those of my party, they readily agreed to this and soon delivered to me Hal-eese. The next morning they informed me where Cul-pas could be found, and sent three men to accompany my guide, Cris Gilson, and two Rock {p.16} River Indians, in making the capture, which was accomplished by the party at a point near the junction of the Naches and Yakima Rivers, with the aid of the Yakimas. The prisoner was brought in to me two days afterward. We also received reliable information of the capture of three others of the band by troops from Walla Walla in the Umatilla country, and that the remaining two had probably taken refuge among the Nez Perces. Nothing more being left for me to do, I sent information of what I had learned and accomplished to the commanding officer of Fort Walla Walla and to the agent of the Umatillas, and returned with my two prisoners to this post, where I arrived this morning. I am happy to state that it is my conviction, based upon the opinion of Judge Humason and Mr. Fairchild, of this place, who accompanied me as volunteers, and of Mr. Sykes and Mr. Gilson, my guides and interpreters, that all the Indians in this region are well affected toward the whites, and that not the slightest danger of an outbreak this summer exists. The prompt show of force from this post and from Fort Walla Walla, so happily and spontaneously combined, though in the present disposition of the Indians not requisite for the preservation of general friendly relations, will have an excellent effect in providing our ability and promptness to punish the evil-disposed. Two horses, two rifles, a saddle, &c., of the stolen property are in my hands. My prisoners say that of the fourteen horses they stole ten broke away from them and escaped, and that they had no aid or connivance of others except of the seven above named. I received valuable counsel and assistance from the citizens who accompanied me, and the exploit of Cris Gilson, who with five friendly Indians captured Cul-pas and after a ride of nearly 200 miles without rest brought him in security to me, is worthy of high commendation.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. H. WHITTLESEY, Captain, First Dragoons, Commanding Company H.

Lieut. H. C. HODGES, Fourth Infantry, Post Adjutant.

[Indorsement.]

FORT DALLES, ORES., February 17, 1861.

Respectfully forwarded.

Section 26 of an act approved June 30, 1834, requires the offenders to be “transported to the Territory or judicial district having jurisdiction.” But not knowing where to send the prisoners I ask for instructions from the district commander. The witnesses are: Capt. Joseph H. Whittlesey, First Dragoons; Mr. Sykes, Mr. Christopher Gilson, and Judge O. Humason, of Dalles City, Greg.

W. SCOTT KETCHUM, Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding Post.

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MARCH 18, 1861.–Affair on the Columbia River near the Kootenay River, Wash. Ter.

Reports of Bvt. Maj. Pinkney Lugenbeel, Ninth U. S. Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Colville, Wash. Ter., March 31, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report for your information that a drunken row occurred on the 18th instant between some miners, eleven in number, and some Lake Indians, nine in number, on the Columbia River, {p.17} immediately above the forty-ninth parallel, which resulted in the death of two miners, two severely and two slightly wounded. Four Indians were killed and one wounded. The remaining whites and Indians both retreated, the Indians to the mouth of the Kootenay, and the miners to the opposite side of the river from the fight, both parties being very much frightened. I immediately sent Captain Archer with a detachment of sixty men from his company (I, Ninth Infantry) to the scene of action for the purpose of quieting the miners and Indians, and ascertaining the facts in the case. The detachment has not yet returned, but Bvt. Second Lieut. S. S. Marsh Ninth Infantry, who accompanied Captain Archer, returned this morning and reports everything quiet. I anticipate no difficulty in settling this affair, but I regret to say that similar occurrences may take place at any time, so long as liquor is introduced into the Indian country, and Indian testimony will not be taken to convict whisky dealers of selling liquor to Indians. From all I can learn, the whites brought on the fight by crossing over the Columbia River for the purpose, as they expressed it, of “rushing the Indian village.”

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

PINKNEY LUGENBEEL, Brevet Major, Captain, Ninth infantry, Commanding.

Capt. JAMES A. HARDIE, U. S. Army, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Oregon District, Headquarters Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Colville, Wash. Ter., April 14, 1861.

SIR: Captain Archer returned with his command on the 6th instant from the mouth of the Pend d’Oreille River. He reports that peace has been restored between the Indians and miners. I do not think hostilities will be resumed unless the Indians of the tribe who are now hunting on the Upper Columbia should succeed in getting liquor from the miners and settlers when they return. Lieutenant Marsh, Ninth Infantry, in command of a detachment of twenty-one men, leaves to-morrow for Lake Osoyoos to act as an escort to the Northwest Boundary Survey. This detachment will be in the field until the end of July. When the supply trains commence running I will send another detachment to the crossing of the Spokane River. The Indians appear quiet, but liquor is abundant, and numbers of bad white men infest this whole country.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

PINKNEY LUGENBEEL, Brevet Major, Captain, Ninth Infantry, Commanding.

Capt. J. A. HARDIE, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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APRIL 14-15, 1861.– Skirmishes on Van Dusen’s Creek, near Mad River, Cal.

Report of Lieut. Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

CAMP AT NEIL’S RANCH, Van Dusen’s Creek, April 15, 1861.

CAPTAIN: Private Casey, of your company, was badly wounded this morning in an engagement with the Indians near Mad River, about {p.18} twenty miles from here. He was shot with an arrow about two inches below the right shoulder-blade and near the backbone. I pulled the arrow out, but the stone head was so deeply imbedded that it broke short off, and of course yet remains in him. He was carried from the ranch, where the fight took place, to where he now is, on a litter, complaining of suffering much pain, and is really so bad that I could not move him here. Will you please send medical attendance for him. I had a fight with the Indians yesterday not far from where I again attacked them this morning, and killed between 15 and 20; to-day 5 were killed and 3 wounded. The Indians are very troublesome and almost constantly killing stock. I will report more fully the first opportunity.

Very respectfully, and in haste, your obedient servant,

JOS. B. COLLINS, First Lieut. Fourth Infty., Comdg. Detach. Co. B, Sixth U. S. Infty.

Capt. CHARLES S. LOVELL, Commanding Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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MAY 23-JUNE 17, 1861.– Operations on the Mad and Eel Rivers, Cal., with skirmishes (May 23) near Larrabee’s Ranch, (May 26) on Eel River, (May 28) on the South Fork of Eel River, (May 30) on Keatuck Creek, (June 4) opposite Bell Spring on the Eel River, (June 2 and 8) near Larrabee’s house, (June 14 and 16) on the South Fork of Eel River, and (June 17) near Kettenshaw.-

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Lieut. Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.
No. 2.–Lieut. James P. Martin, Seventh U. S. Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Lieut. Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

FORT HUMBOLDT, CAL., July 5, 1861.

Maj. D. C. BUELL, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith reports received from Lieutenants Collins and Martin, commanding detachments in the field.

Copies of your letters of May 22 and June 14 [13] were sent to those officers for their guidance in the treatment to be pursued toward the Indians in future.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. S. LOVELL, Captain, Sixth Infantry, Commanding.

CAMP ON LARRABEE’S CREEK, CAL., June 18, 1861.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report, embracing my operations against hostile Indians since May 9, 1861, on Mad and Eel Rivers and their tributaries:

May 23, attacked an Indian rancheria between the head of Larrabee’s Creek and Main Eel River, and killed 10 of their number. May 26, attacked a rancheria about twelves miles from and farther up the river than the one attacked on the 23d instant, and killed 4 Indians. May 30, attacked a very large rancheria near Keatuck Creek; killed 25 Indians and wounded 10. At this place the Indians fought with more determination than upon any former occasion. Packer John Steward {p.19} was shot through the middle finger with an arrow, which fortunately struck the stock of his rifle, preventing a serious if not fatal wound. Twelve bows and quivers with a large number of arrows were taken on this rancheria. June 2, attacked a rancheria about five miles from Larrabee’s house; killed 20 Indians. June 8, attacked a rancheria bout three miles south of Larrabee’s house; killed 4 and wounded 1. June 16, attacked a rancheria near Kettenshaw Valley; killed 4 Indians. Corporal Larrabee, of the volunteers, wounded in the left arm by an arrow. This rancheria was occupied by Las-sic’s band, probably the most desperate and troublesome Indians in the mountains. They have frequently been engaged in murdering whites, burning houses, and killing horses and cattle. I regret so few of them were killed, but they were constantly on the alert and could only be caught by following them day and night, the troops carrying their provisions and blankets on their backs. The attack was made near noon, and as be Indians were prepared for it, many of them escaped through the almost impassable bushes. June 17, attacked a rancheria on the trail leading from Kettenshaw to Round Valley; killed 6 Indians, only 1 escaped. In this rancheria there was found over 200 pounds of pork; hogs recently killed by the Indians. The number of Indians reported killed and wounded in the several engagements were, of course, all males, competent to bear arms. Percussion caps, bullets, and parts of fire-arms have been found in their possession. The Indians in the vicinity of every neighborhood between Mad and Eel Rivers, where depredations have been committed for the last four or five months, have been severely chastised, and nearly all of them driven from the settlements. In no instance have Indians been punished who were supposed to be innocent. The volunteers have rendered very efficient service in the manner in which they are associated with the regular troops, and their retention until the expiration of their term of service is important and judicious. No troops could have done better than the detachment from our company, and I take great pleasure in saying that both regulars and volunteers, cheerfully and without a murmur, bore the fatigues, night marches, and deprivations incident to pursuing, finding, and chastising hostile Indians. But little more remains to be done by the resent command; probably it will be sufficient after the term of service of the volunteers expires, July 17, to remain where we now are and keep all Indians from the settlements. In my opinion the establishment of a military post is the only mode of affording reliable security to the citizens and their property.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. B. COLLINS, First Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

Capt. CHARLES S. LOVELL, Sixth Infantry, Commanding Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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No. 2.

Report of Lieut. James P. Martin, Seventh U. S. Infantry.

CAMP NEAR SPRUCE GROVE, June 27, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this command up to this date, viz:

On the 24th of May a party of thirteen men (seven enlisted men and six volunteers) left this camp on a scout. On the 28th, at 11 a.m., they came upon a rancheria on the South Fork of Eel River about one mile {p.20} above its mouth. The Indians were attacked and 8 killed, 1 squaw accidently wounded. Of those killed 1 is known to have killed a white maim.

June 1, fourteen men (seven enlisted and seven volunteers) left camp. At daylight on the 4th a party of Indians were discovered on Eel River about opposite Bell Spring. They were attacked and 16 killed and 1 wounded. I regret to state that among the number killed were three squaws, but owing to the hour of the attack it was impossible to distinguish male from female. These Indians are supposed to be those who killed stock belonging to Messrs. Fleming and Wilburn. June 10, nineteen men (one officer, eleven enlisted men, six volunteers, and one interpreter) left on a scout of fifteen days. On the same day (the 10th) we were joined by a party of five hunters, who volunteered their services for the trip. On the night of the 14th we discovered what was supposed to be two Indian fires in opposite directions; the party was divided into two of ten each, four being left in charge of the animals. One of the parties was taken command of by myself. We found after marching more than half the night that we were mistaken in seeing a fire. We continued our march, and at daylight came upon and attacked a rancheria containing four Indians, two men and two women. The men were killed, and one of the squaws being mistaken for a male was slightly wounded. The second party did not succeed in finding any Indians. Whilst we were encamped on the 16th four Indians were found lurking about our camp and were killed as spies. On the 18th I left the party on account of sickness and returned to camp. One Indian was shot by the party before its return; he was running from them at the time he was killed. June 13, a party of seven men (three enlisted, one volunteer, one hunter, and one Indian) were sent out. After marching for thirty-six hours without seeing any signs of Indians, the party divided, one volunteer and one enlisted man taking charge of the animals to return to camp. The second party (two enlisted men, hunter, and one Indian) returned by a different route on foot. On the 14th, at 10 a.m., they came upon and attacked a rancheria, killing 7 and wounding 1. The rancheria was on a gulch emptying into the South Fork of Eel River about fifteen miles above its mouth. These Indians were found in the immediate vicinity of places where stock had been killed. June 15, three men (one volunteer and two enlisted) were sent out as scouts. About 9 p.m. they discovered a ranch, and dispatched one of their number to camp for more men. Eight enlisted men were sent to their aid, reaching them about daylight, when an attack was made and 2 killed and 3 wounded. One boy was slightly wounded. A squaw in this ranch at the time of the attack having been seen afterward says that 10 of their number were killed. These Indians were found in the same place, and supposed to be part of the same tribe as were those killed by the party which left camp on the 13th. The country over which the operations of this command have to be conducted is very rough, in many places almost impassable and very favorable for the secretion of Indians who commit depredations. They keep no fires burning at night, and in daylight so arrange them as to make as little smoke as possible. I do not know positively what depredations, if any, have been committed by the Indians killed by this command. I have no means of finding out whether those that we may come upon are guilty or innocent; no communication can be held with them. Circumstantial evidence goes to show that they are all guilty. My instructions are to consider all who run on approaching them as hostile, and to fire upon them. In {p.21} every case where any have been killed they ran at the first sight of the men. Sickness has prevented my making this report at any earlier date.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. P. MARTIN, Second Lieutenant, Seventh Infantry, Commanding Detachment.

Capt. C. S. LOVELL, Sixth Infantry, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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JULY 21, 1861.– Skirmish on the South Fork of Eel River, Cal.

Report of Lieut. James P. Martin, Seventh U. S. Infantry.

CAMP ON THE MATTOLE RIVER, July 25, 1861.

SIR: Your letter of the 12th instant has been received. I have the honor to report that a party, consisting of one officer, two volunteer guides, one interpreter, and two enlisted men, left my camp July 20, 1861, for the purpose of prospecting a route to Shelter Cove. When about twenty-five miles above the mouth of the South Fork of Eel River, and immediately on the river, the party came upon and attacked a rancheria containing about forty Indians. Twelve of the number were killed, among whom, unfortunately, were two women; the latter were killed through mistake. I do not know positively that these Indians belong to the tribe at Shelter Cove, but I am satisfied that they had committed depredations on the property of white people, because evidence to that effect was discovered before they were fired upon. One Indian that was captured says that two of the number killed were Shelter Cove Indians. I believe that the Indians in this part of the country are immediately connected with the Shelter Coves, and are perhaps as much concerned in killing stock on the coast as the Shelter Coves themselves According to their own statement they help the latter to eat the cattle that are killed, and the Indian above referred to as having been captured stated once that they had assisted in killing white men on the coast, but afterward contradicted this statement. One story is as liable to be true as the other. The country over which the operations of this command have now to be conducted presents more difficulties than any yet operated in, and the greater portion of it is, I think, almost, if not entirely, impassable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. P. MARTIN, Second Lieut., Seventh Infty., Comdg. Detach. Co. D, Sixth Infty.

Capt. C. S. LOVELL, Sixth Infantry, Commanding Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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AUGUST 3-12, 1861.– Scout from Fort Crook to Round Valley, Cal., with skirmish (5th) in the Upper Pitt River Valley.

Report of Lieut. John Feilner, First U. S. Dragoons.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Crook, Cal., August 18, 1861.

Capt. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Herewith inclosed I have the honor to forward Lieutenant Feilner’s report of a scout after Indians. On account of having lost {p.22} some provisions by the mules falling in while crossing Pitt River, Lieutenant Feilner had to return sooner than he desired, and before he had an opportunity of punishing the Indians and hunting up all the cattle, about 350 head out of 850 being all he could find alive, while out. I did, therefore, order him out again, with two non-commissioned officers and twenty-seven privates of Company F, First Dragoons, on the 15th instant, with instructions to collect all the cattle he could find belonging to the drovers, and to punish the Indians known to have been engaged in the murder and theft.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. H. KELLOGG, Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons, Commanding.

FORT CROOK, CAL., August 13, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in accordance with Post Order No. 19, I left Fort Crook, Cal., on the 3d instant with one non-commissioned officer, one bugler, and twelve men of Company F, First Dragoons, Mr. Pugh, and one Indian as guide, for the purpose of examining the country northeast of this valley, and of ascertaining the truth of rumor of an attack by Indians on a party of citizens out prospecting. We had marched about eight or nine miles from the post when we met two men who had survived a fight which took place on the 1st instant, in a valley near the head of Pitt River, about eighty miles from here, between a party of nineteen cattle-drovers on their way from Oregon to Washoe, with about 850 head of cattle, and a party of Indians, variously estimated, numbering from 150 to 500. Two of those cattle-drivers, Mr. Bailey and Mr. Evans, the principal owners of the cattle, were killed, and three others wounded. The party made for the fort, leaving the cattle and wagons behind them. Believing the force I started with insufficient, I sent back after more men and encamped at Ralf’s Crossing, on Pitt River, distant from the fort twelve miles. The same afternoon Sergeant Moore and six men joined me. August 4, we started about 4 a.m., eight citizens of the party who lost the cattle along. Crossed the mountains to Big or Round Valley. After marching about thirty-five miles we stopped on Pitt River to wait for three of the men who were with the pack animals, and who lost our trail coming across the mountains. They did not come up until late, consequently we had to remain here all night. August 5, marched along the river up Pitt River Cañon (about ten miles long); found fifty-two head of cattle, and proceeded about eight miles into what I should call Upper Pitt River Valley, where we saw Indians driving cattle toward the river about two miles ahead. Took after them; killed 1 and wounded 3 others. Some ran for the tulles and swamps, others for the timber, up the side of a mountain studded with rocks and brush, where it was impossible to find them. The whole command, including Mr. Pugh, the guide, behaved very courageously and soldierlike, especially James Rathburn, private of Company F, First Dragoons. I received two slight arrow wounds, one in the right arm and one in the breast, but was lucky enough to kill the Indian. Several head of cattle had been killed and the beef hung up on the trees to dry. We destroyed all the meat we could find, and then went to where the drovers’ wagons had been burned by the Indians, and from there two miles farther, where the fight between the citizens and Indians took place. There we found the bodies of Mr. Bailey and Mr. Evans, both entirely naked and terribly mutilated. We buried the bodies and {p.23} encamped in the valley for the night. Including the run after the Indians, we traveled over sixty miles to-day.

August 6, there being some cattle scattered all over the valley, I sent small escorts with the owners to collect them together, after which we proceeded with them (176 head) toward Round or Big Valley. On the way one of the citizens accidentally shot one of our horses. August 7, believing the cattle and citizens out of danger, and also believing that the various Indian tribes all around here had been engaged in this affair, and that each had made off to the interior of the mountains with his share of the spoils, I concluded to take a northeast direction, and wherever I would come across an Indian trail with cattle tracks to follow it up. About noon I came to a very pretty little valley, with water and grass, suitable for a camp. Here we halted, and having seen several cattle and Indian tracks, I sent several scouts out, who returned toward evening without success. Bugler Arnold having been sick all along, I sent him back to the post this morning with the citizens. August 8, marched southeast. About 10 a.m. struck an Indian trail; followed up northeast for about two miles; came on a very large Indian rancheria, which seemed to have been abandoned about one day since, and temporarily arranged for about 150 Indians. We kept on up the mountains; crossed, and came toward evening to a small valley, where we found near a deserted Indian rancheria fifteen head of cattle. We also found a large cattle trail. It being late we had to camp. August 9, took up the cattle and Indian trail (eastern direction); followed it through the mountains for eight or nine miles; took a northeast direction; passed a lake, where the Indians with cattle must have camped. Followed on the trail over a very rocky country; came on the edge of the mountain overlooking a very large valley, on the South Fork of Pitt River. Saw some cattle at a distance and a number of Indians scattering in all directions. Got in the valley and made for their rancheria, at the mouth of a cañon. Here the Indians sent off their women and children, and about 100 warriors paraded. The rocky country compelled us to dismount and attack them on foot, but before we came within shot distance, all of them ran up the cañon. Our pursuit was fruitless. Here I found over fifty head of cattle killed and the beef hung up to dry. I burned all I could find belonging to the Indians. Here we encamped.

August 10, having over 100 head of cattle, it was impossible for me to follow the Indians-more so as we were out of provisions-therefore I struck for home. On the way home I found about fifty head of cattle more. Camped on Pitt River. August 11, followed the Pitt River down and encamped at the mouth of Pitt River Cañon. August 12, citizens and cattle being out of danger, I started ahead and arrived at sunset at the post. On the way I found in the Big Valley all the grass on fire-also the mountains dividing the Big Valley from Fall River Valley also a house burned down at Ralf’s Crossing, on Pitt River. Since my arrival I learn that one of the men who got wounded died; also four horses, which fully proves that the arrows were poisoned.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN FEILNER, Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons, U. S. Army.

Second Lieut. J. H. KELLOGG, First Dragoons, Commanding Fort Crook, Cal.

{p.24}

AUGUST 8-9, 1861.– Attack on Emigrant Train near the Great Salt Lake, Utah, Ter.

Report of Lieut. Eugene M. Baker, First U. S. Dragoons.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter., September 10, 1861.

Capt. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of Lieut. E. M. Baker, First Dragoons, who was detached from this post on the 6th of September, 1861, for the purpose of meeting and relieving a party of emigrants who were robbed by the Indians this side of Salt Lake. According to the statement of Mr. S. M. Harriman, in charge of the train, to me, the train consisted of 74 persons, 11 wagons, 89 head of work cattle, 5 horses, and 2 mules, which was the total number of the party when attacked. The total number brought into this post was 54, viz, 22 men, 13 women, and 19 children. The train was attacked on the night of the 8th of August, and abandoned on the morning of the 9th of August, 1861. Almost daily emigrant trains are passing in want of provisions, and I have issued such quantities necessary to carry them to the settlements, and for which I would ask the approval of the general commanding the department.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. A. H. BLAKE, Lieutenant-Colonel First Dragoons, Commanding Post.

FORT CHURCHILL, NEV. TER, September 10, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to state that in compliance with orders dated headquarters Fort Churchill, September 6, 1861, I proceeded with a detachment, consisting of one non-commissioned officer and ten men, and a wagon containing provisions, for the purpose of assisting such emigrants as were absolutely in need of it. I found about thirty miles from this post (on the Carson River) a party of emigrants, about fifty in number, who had been attacked and robbed of everything (except what they had on their backs) about sixty-five miles northeast of Salt Lake. They stated that the party who attacked them were Indians, commanded by white men. They were attacked on the night of the 8th of August, and lost all their animals on the night of the 9th. They had since walked the whole distance to the Carson River, receiving such assistance from other trains as they were able to give them. I distributed 400 pounds of flour, 300 pounds of pork, 26 pounds of rice, 44 pounds sugar, 60 pounds coffee, and 1 quart of salt, which, with the assistance received from the citizens of Virginia and Carson Cities will be sufficient to last them until they reach their destination. The women and children belonging to the party were brought to this post, and have since gone on to Carson and Virginia.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. M. BAKER, Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons.

Lieut. Col. G. A. H. BLAKE.

{p.25}

AUGUST 15-22, 1861.– Expedition from Fort Crook to the Pitt River, Cal., with skirmish (19th) near Kellogg’s Lake, Cal.

Report of Lieut. John Feilner, First U. S. Dragoons.

FORT CROOK, CAL., August 25, 1861.

Capt. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to inclose Lieutenant Feilner’s report. As I have but twenty-eight horses now in the company altogether, it is impossible to do anything with these Indians this fall. In case that I get horses to fill up company complement, I will go over with the company when the first snow falls.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. H. KELLOGG, Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons, Commanding.

FORT CROOK, CAL., August 23, 1861.

SIR: In compliance with Post Order, No.-, headquarters Fort Crook, Cal., August 14, 1861, I left this post August 15, 1861, with two non-commissioned officers and twenty-seven men of Company F, First Dragoons, and Mr. Pugh as guide, in a northeast direction to retake the cattle taken by the various Indian tribes east and north of this post, and punish those Indians. The first day, August 15, I marched into Big or Round Valley and encamped on the eastern side, on Sage Hen Creek. Thirty miles; plenty of wood, grass, and water. August 16, marched east. About noon I saw several Indian spies to the right and left on the mountains. I sent two parties in pursuit. The mountains being very rocky and brushy, the Indians easily kept out of shot range and escaped. We encamped in Mercer’s Valley, east side. This valley is well watered by a number of springs, forming a considerable creek, which takes, after leaving the valley on the northwest side, an almost westerly course, emptying into Sage Hen Creek, then into Pitt River, in Big or Round Valley, Twenty-five miles. August 1-7, started in a northeast direction, across the mountains; found all along abundance of grass, wood, and water (springs), and plenty signs of Indians. About 11 a.m. came in sight of a large valley extending northwest to southeast. On the west side, by a spring and plenty of grass, we found tracks of about fifteen head of cattle; also ponies’ tracks. Taking a north-northeast course toward the South Fork of Pitt River, we tracked them until evening, when we lost them in the rocky country. The valley last spoken of is poorly supplied with water and grass. We encamped on South Fork of Pitt River. Thirty miles; plenty of wood, water, and grass.

August 18, found cattle trail again; also another where about 200 head must have passed. Followed in a southeast direction across the mountains, and came, after about three hours’ travel, to a little flat with plenty of grass and a little spring. Here we found that the Indians had camped and butchered about twenty-five head of cattle. About forty or fifty horses must have been in camp at this place, and it seems that the beef was taken away on pack animals in different directions, some toward Willow Creek, emptying in Susan River; some toward Smoke Creek, emptying into Lower Mud Lake. About twenty head of cattle were driven by about twenty or twenty-five horsemen toward the {p.26} head of McNemany River. Without doubt they were Pah-Ute Indians-the more so as I had learned by Indians before I started that the Upper Pitt River Valley Indians had given to the Pah-Utes ten squaws and a reasonable share of cattle to allow them to go to their country, and if necessary to protect them. Here the cattle having been driven in every direction forward and backward, it took us several hours to find the right direction. Taking northeast again to the head of South Fork of Pitt River, about 3 p.m. we saw about fifteen Indians crossing said creek two miles distant. We pursued them in two parties. Seeing us in pursuit, they fired signal shots, their camp being then about one mile farther of. The nature of the country did not allow us to pursue them in a direct course, and we had to travel at least six miles before we came to their now deserted camp. Here we found a large quantity of beef hung up on the trees to dry; also a large quantity of Indian clothing, &c. Judging by the size of the camp, there must have been over 300 persons. I left here one part of the command to burn the rancheria, &c. The other part of the command I divided into two parties and pursued the Indians, but we all returned after sunset without success, and encamped on the head of the South Fork of Pitt River, ten miles farther up from the camp of yesterday. Traveled over sixty miles to-day.

August 19, we followed the Indian trail in a northwest direction for about eight miles, when we came to a little lake (Kellogg’s Lake) about half a mile square. Here the scattered tracks took toward the Basaltic Desert, but finding still cattle tracks in a northwest direction we followed, and came after six miles’ travel to a large valley watered by a creek coming from east and by another from north, both joining on the west side and forming a large-size stream. This ought to be called the South Fork of Pitt River. It joins the so-called South Fork after leaving this valley, taking a west course for about six or eight miles through a rough and steep cañon. Toward evening we came in sight of another rancheria on a high bluff. These Indians I understand were Goose Lake Indians. These Indians, acquainted with the country, knowing their almost perfect safety, awaited our approach within a mile, being separated by the creek and steep bluffs. I fired at them at a distance from 800 to 1,000 yards, and can say with certainty that several of the Indians got wounded. Two Indians answered the firing, and I must say directed their shots well. Several balls fell amongst us. We had to remove the horses. Half of the command I had sent through the brush and rocks to get on the opposite side and rear of the Indians, the only place to approach them; but the Indians found this movement out in time and ran off. Pursuit on horseback was impossible, and on foot we were left far behind. The sun was setting and further pursuit impossible-the more so as the whole command for the last few days was day and night engaged in the most fatiguing marches. We encamped on this creek on the southeast side of a large valley. Marched about sixty miles. Having collected forty-two head of cattle, and seeing that it was impossible at present to get at the Indians, they being constantly on their guard, I started, August 20, homeward. Crossed the mountains between Pitt River and South Fork of Pitt River; thirty miles. August 21, marched down Pitt River and encamped on the north side of Big or Round Valley; twenty-five miles. August 22, arrived at this post; thirty-two miles. As far as I could learn, those two tribes of Indians that I came across were the Upper Pitt River Valley and Goose Lake Indians. The nature of the country where those Indians are at present requires several large parties to {p.27} punish them. The most of the cattle are killed, finding almost on every tree on top of the mountains beef hung up to dry. The forty-two head of cattle collected I turned over to one of the cattle owners.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN FEILNER, Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons, U. S. Army.

Lieut. J. H. KELLOGG, First Dragoons, Commanding Fort Crook, Cal.

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SEPTEMBER 25-OCTOBER 5, 1861.– Expedition from San Bernardino to the Temecula Ranch and Oak Grove, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Maj. W. Scott Ketchum, Fourth U. S. Infantry.
No. 2.–Lieut. Thomas E. Turner, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Maj. W. Scott Ketchum, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS, Camp near San Bernardino, Cal., October 7, 1861.

SIR: The attention of the general commanding the department is respectfully called to such portions of the inclosed report as embrace the names of Morgan, Grooms, Greenwade, and Cline, secessionists, Cable, a Union man; also that portion relating to Jack Hays. Morgan, at Temecula, Knight of the Golden Circle, and secessionist, states that eight men were detailed from an organization of 300 men to seize the arms sent to Los Angeles for the Union men, or home guards, but some of the men backed out, consequently the arms were not seized. Had the arms been seized my camp was to have been attacked. Ferguson, said to be a lieutenant in Kelly’s band, gave Morgan this information. This confirms the report made to me by the Union men prior to the election. I understand that a law has been passed to prevent conspiracies and to punish conspirators, but I have received nothing of the kind, on, in fact, anything official from the War Department since General Orders, No. 43, of this year, or any general order from Army Headquarters since General Orders, No. 11, 1861. I judge from the map inclosed that Cable’s, or its vicinity, would be a good station for troops to look after and capture secessionists, if accompanied by a U. S. marshal and some authority for the capture. There should be a large command of foot and horsemen somewhere between the desert and this place with full powers to act. Supplies could be furnished from New San Diego, which should have a sufficient force to escort the trains containing supplies, defend, the depot, and operate toward Lower California. I have been told that there is a wagon road from Temecula, via San Luis Rey, to San Diego; distance about sixty-five or seventy miles. There is another wagon road from San Diego to Warner’s ranch, distance about the same as above, but as it crosses the San Pasqual Mountain, it is difficult to travel in wet weather. The San Pasqual Mountain is very high, and the road on the west side very narrow, very steep, and much washed or full of gullies. From what I {p.28} can learn, the road between Temecula and San Diego is much better than the other.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM, Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Thomas E. Turner, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

CAMP NEAR SAN BERNARDINO, CAL., October 5, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor herewith to submit the following report of my expedition to Temecula Ranch:

On the 25th of September, 1861, I left this camp at about 7.30 a.m. in command of Company D, Fourth Regiment of Infantry. We crossed the Santa Aña River about nine miles from here, and after marching a distance of twelve miles over a barren, rocky wagon road without water, arrived in camp at a place called Coyote Hole. The water at this camp is very bad and scarce. There is plenty of shade at this place, but no grass. On the 26th of September we left Coyote Hole at 3 a.m., and marched at least thirty miles to Willow Springs without water, save what remained in holes from the rain. The road has been during this day nearly level and very hard, through an immense valley. At Willow Springs we found a small spring of good water about 100 yards down the ravine, but no shade or grass. We arrived here at about 4 p.m. On the 27th of September we left Willow Springs at 2 a.m., and after marching about six miles over a level plain we crossed through a mountain pass, and striking Temecula Valley, we encamped at Temecula Ranch at about 9.30 a.m. We found during this march water at intervals of five miles. The distance marched was fifteen miles. We encamped on the banks of a small lake, where we found plenty of shade, a good spring of water, and a fine bathing place. Wood is found in abundance at a distance of two or three miles from this camp, but at other places along the road so far we have depended mostly upon the sagebrush. Beef can be purchased here for about 3 cents per pound, barley for 1 3/4 cents per pound, hay $25 per ton, lumber $40 per 1,000 feet, and beans for 3 cents per pound. A portion of the San Luis Rey Indians occupy this ranch, and have a number of small farms under cultivation. They were very friendly disposed toward us, and offered 500 warriors in case their services might be needed. John Magee and his assistant (a Mr. Morgan) are the only whites living at this place. Magee is a strong Republican and Morgan a secessionist. They keep a small store in rear of the lake. Lieut. M. T. Can reached here this day at about 4 p.m. with a company of the First Dragoons. September 28, we left Temecula at 11 a.m., with the dragoons in advance, and after traveling through a rocky cañon for sixteen miles we encamped at Tajeowanda at about 5 p.m. The water at this camp is bad, and both wood and water scarce. This place is in a small valley, and inhabited by two white men engaged in farming.

September 29, we left Tajeowanda at midnight, and after marching with the greatest caution through a mountain pass we encamped at Oak Grove; distance ten miles. We arrived here at early daylight and {p.29} found a pleasant shady camp with plenty of wood and good water. There is a tavern kept here by a Mr. Cable. This man told me privately that he was for the Union, but was afraid on account of his lonely position to let it be known, and that as soon as he could he should leave this part of the country, as he did not consider himself safe; that parties of armed men were constantly passing through Oak Grove, and that the property of Union men was in great danger. From private reasons I am pretty well satisfied that Mr. Cable is a man to be relied upon. I met here also Mr. Reed, of the Overland Mail, who informed me that Lieutenants Bryant and Foster arrived at Fort Yuma in safety, the men marching at times through mud and water nearly waist deep. We left this place at about 3 p.m., having received an order from Capt. J. W. Davidson, First Dragoons, to return immediately to Temecula. Lieutenant Carr went on later in the day toward Warner’s ranch in expectation of meeting the wagon train from Fort Yuma. We reached Tajeowanda in two hours and twenty minutes and encamped there. September 30, left camp at 5 a.m. Encamped at Temecula at 12 m. I here met Captain Davidson with his dragoons, who gave me an order to return to San Bernardino, allowing us a day’s rest. I learned to-day from Mr. Morgan that he (Morgan) was a Knight of the Golden Circle. He said he did not think that there were many of the order in this part of the country, and that he expected Col. Jack Hays through here some time in October with a number of men, and that if he had any money he should join them and go to Texas. I asked if they would cause trouble as they went through. He said not unless they were molested. I then asked if he really thought there would be a difficulty here. He said he was satisfied that there would he in a short time. Morgan was very anxious for me to join the South, and I think he doubts my loyalty. He showed the badge of the order on his breast, a gold ring with a Saint Andrew’s cross in the center. Another man, a noted secessionist, by name of Grooms, remarked in the presence of Captain Davidson and others, that when the taxes came to be collected it was human nature, and there would be trouble in this State. I also learned here that a party of twenty or thirty armed men had passed this road on to the desert, but had branched off at New River, and other small parties had followed them. This report I heard from several persons, and some seemed to think there was a possibility of Fort Yuma being attacked. A detachment of dragoons met the wagons at Carriso all safe. In the neighborhood of Temecula there are the San Diego Indians, about 1,800 souls; the San Luis Rey Indians, about 2,000; the Agua Caliente, about 400, and the Coahuila Indians, about 2,000. I understand they offer all the assistance in their power. They number about 1,000 warriors and are poorly armed, but would make excellent scouts. When we left, Ramon Carrillo had the Coahuila Indians hunting the mountains as spies without pay. The Indian express can cross the desert in twenty hours. Grass can be found a short distance from the Temecula Ranch. Mr. Cable reported to me that some of Bryant’s men are disloyal, and have threatened to kill Bryant the first one in case of a disturbance. This report has been confirmed in different places along the road. I consulted with Captain Davidson in regard to this matter, and consider it best to report it.

October 1, I received an express from Captain Davidson at 10 a.m. to join him at Cline’s ranch the next day, as he had received important news. At 12 midnight I left Temecula. October 2, joined Captain Davidson at 4 a.m. at Cline’s ranch. We found here, after marching six miles, good water, but wood and shade scarce. The grazing is fair, {p.30} but belongs to Mr. Cline. I do not consider that Mr. Cline can be trusted. October 3, left Cline’s at 6 a.m., and after marching twenty-six miles over a rough, hilly road arrived at Temescal about 6 p.m. At Temescal there is good water, wood, and some grass. October 4, left Temescal about 6.30 a.m.; marched three miles to Greenwade’s; halted for half an hour. Mr. Greenwade is a rank secessionist. There is plenty of wood and water at this place, and I think a better camp than Temescal. From Greenwade’s we marched about one mile, and then taking the right-hand road, crossed a level plain of about nineteen miles to Mr. Rubidore’s ranch, where we found wood and water plenty and some little grass. We reached Rubidore’s about 6 p.m. There is no water on the road from Greenwade’s for nearly twenty miles. October 5, left Rubidore’s at 6 a.m.; in an hour’s rapid march crossed the Santa Aña River. Marched about thirteen miles to this place, where we arrived at 11.30 a.m. Please find inclosed a rough sketch* of our march; also one of Temecula Ranch, which may be useful for future reference.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOMAS E. TURNER, Second Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry, Commanding Company D.

Maj. W. S. KETCHUM, Comdg. Fourth Regt. of Infty., Camp near San Bernardino, Cal

* See p. 31.

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NOVEMBER 20-29, 1861.– Pursuit and Capture of the Showalter Party at Warner’s Ranch in the San José Valley, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Pacific.
No. 2.–Maj. Edwin A. Rigg, First California Infantry.
No. 3.–Capt. Henry A. Greene, First California Infantry.
No. 4.–Lieut. Chauncey R. Wellman, First California Cavalry.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Pacific.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., December 10, 1861.

GENERAL: For several weeks past small parties have been organizing in the Southern District of this State, with the avowed purpose of proceeding to Texas to aid the rebels. To enable me to frustrate their designs I have seized all the boats and ferries on the Colorado River, and have them strongly guarded. I have re-enforced Fort Yuma with two more companies, one of infantry and one of cavalry; also with two 12-pounder brass cannon. Major Rigg, First California Volunteer Infantry, commanding U. S. troops near Warner’s ranch, on the border of the desert between that place and Fort Yuma, has arrested a man by the name of Showalter, a notorious secessionist, and his party of seventeen men. I have ordered the whole party to be taken to Fort Yuma and held securely guarded until further orders. I have given positive orders that no person shall be permitted to pass beyond Yuma or cross {p.31} {p.32} the Colorado River without may special permit; also that all persons approaching the frontier of the State shall be arrested and held in confinement, unless satisfactory evidence is produced of their fidelity to the Union. The time has arrived when individual rights must give way, and I shall not hesitate to adopt the most stringent measures to crush any attempt at rebellion within this department. I will not permit our Government and institutions to be assailed by word or deed without promptly suppressing it by the strong aim of power, feeling assured that I shall be sustained by my Government and receive the cordial support of every patriotic citizen on this coast.

Hoping that what I have done or propose to do may be approved by the General-in-Chief and Secretary of War, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

[Indorsement.]

ADJUTANT-GENERAL:

Please inform General Wright that his course is fully approved.

GEO. B. MCCLELLAN, Major-General.

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No. 2.

Reports of Maj. Edwin A. Rigg, First California Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles, Cal., December 3, 1861.

Colonel CARLETON, First Infantry California Volunteers, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to forward herewith copies of two letters received to-night from Major Rigg, from which you will see that the major has captured Showalter and his entire party. Major Fergusson goes out to Camp Wright in the morning without waiting for the train. The moment that Major Rigg’s detailed account of the affair reaches me I will send to you and to headquarters an official account of it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

CAMP WRIGHT, Oak Grove, November 30, 1861.

LIEUTENANT: I have written to Colonel Carleton informing him of the capture by my command of Showalter’s party, consisting of eighteen men, all well armed. I have them now prisoners at this camp. They were taken on a trail leading from Temecula to San José Valley, at John Winter’s ranch. I will forward to him a detailed account of the whole affair by an express to-morrow. I will have them all examined by that time. They were taken at daylight on the morning of the 29th. If Colonel Carleton has left for San Francisco you had better telegraph {p.33} to him. I did expect to leave here for Yuma, but would like to hear what disposition to make of them before I leave, unless Major Fergusson should come up.

Yours, truly,

EDWIN A. RIGG, Major First Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Camp Wright.

First Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, First Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

CAMP WRIGHT, Oak Grove, San Diego County, Southern California, November 30, 1861.

COLONEL: I take advantage of Senior Sepulva, Ramon Carrillo’s brother-in-law, to inform you of the capture of the Showalter party, Showalter with them. The party consists of sixteen men, each man armed with a rifle and pair of revolvers. They gave us a hard chase, but we finally captured them. They parleyed, but finally concluded not to resist, although against the advice of Showalter. The names of the parties are: T. A. Wilson, Tennessee; W. Woods, Missouri; Charles Benbrook, Kentucky; William Sands, Tennessee; T. L. Roberts, South Carolina; R. II. Ward, Mississippi; T. W. Woods, Virginia; J. M. Sampson, Kentucky; S. A. Rogers, Tennessee; J. Lawrence, Arkansas; William Edwards, Arkansas; Levi Rogers, Alabama; Henry Crowell, Pennsylvania; William Turner, Georgia; Dan Showalter, Pennsylvania; A. King, Tennessee. I took two of the party on the 27th near this post, viz, E. B. Sumner, F. N. Chum. They were the advance party. Eighteen in all. I am now examining them, and will send you by express that will leave here to-night some time full particulars. They now regret that they did not resist. If they had they would have given us a hard fight. There is no doubt but every one of them is a rank secessionist, and are on their way to lend aid and comfort to the enemy. I would like to know as soon as possible what to do with them. They have pack-mules and are well fitted out, and a desperate set of men. I will send you, as I have stated, a full account of all the facts by an express that will leave to-night, or perhaps not until the morning. I am under great obligations to Francisco O’Campo for my success. It is reported that some eighty-one more are getting ready and on the road. I will keep a good watch for them.

Very respectfully,

EDWIN A. RIGG, Major First Infantry, Commanding Camp Wright.

P. S.-They were captured at daylight on the morning of the 29th at John Winter’s ranch, near San José Valley.

E. A. R.

Col. JAMES H. CARLETON, First Infantry California Volunteers, Los Angeles, Cal.

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HDQRS. DETACH. FIRST INFANTRY CALIFORNIA VOLS., Camp Wright, Oak Grove Station, San Diego County, Southern California, December 4, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report to you that on the morning of the 27th of November, 4 a.m., Mr. Cable handed me a note which he had {p.34} received from E. M. Morgan, at Temecula, requesting him to hand an inclosed letter to E. B. Sumner, who had arrived at this place with Mr. J. J. Warner, a copy of which I inclose. Sumner had not arrived with Mr. Warner here. He and his companion had stopped at the Dutchman’s. I sent out early to look after Sumner and companion, and they were reported coming in at 10 a.m. As soon as they arrived here I had them arrested. The letter to E. B. Sumner gave me good reason to suppose that he and the man traveling with him were the advance of a party that I have been looking for. After the arrest of Sumner and the man with him, I ordered Lieutenant Wellman, with his detachment of cavalry, to proceed to Temecula and arrest and examine the party of eighteen alluded to in the letter to Sumner. On his arrival there, as per instructions from me, the party had moved on, taking a trail from Temecula to avoid our camp. Lieutenant Wellman, however, discovered the trail they had taken and followed it up, sending aim express to me. I ordered Capt. H. A. Greene, of Company G, to proceed with his company to the Valley of San José and there detach twenty men, under command of Lieutenant Smith, of Company G, to look after the valley-several trails come down into this valley-and to take the balance of his command and go on to Santa Isabel (O’Campo’s). At the same time I sent a note to Mr. O’Campo to send an express through on the trail to Temecula. At 12 midnight he sent me an express that they were at Mr. Winter’s, on the trail, and as soon as they moved in the morning I would be informed of the direction they took. At daylight on the morning of the 29th the Indians reported them on the move to San José Valley. I immediately sent off Lieutenant Vestal, with twenty men from Company D, to close another trail that came out in the valley, but at about 11 a.m. Lieutenant Wellman reported to me the capture of the whole party at daylight in the morning. His report I inclose to you, and would beg leave to say that to the industry of Lieutenant Wellman and men are we indebted for our prisoners. There are nineteen in all. I have examined them all, and send copies of their statements to you; also the oath of allegiance I administered to them. I have had no particular form of oath, and drew one to suit myself. I could find nothing about them that would go to show what they really are. Their ostensible destination is Sonora. I had concluded to discharge them, and informed them that I would, but Lieutenant Wellman has just returned from another scout. His report you will please find inclosed, as well as a diagram* of the trails branching off from the main trail. You will perceive that there are many of them. He intercepted many letters, copies of which, or rather the originals, I send you, which, in my opinion clearly proves that a regular organization exists, and that this party, with a few exceptions, is in it. I think there are a few of them who are honest in going to Sonora for mining purposes, but that they have been drawn into this organization. From the fact that the men who are all bound for Sonora are Southern men is suspicious, for where good mines are good miners will go without respect to section. Under the circumstances I have concluded to hold them prisoners until directed to release them by my superior officer. You will see that Showalter only desired to get over the line, and then if interrupted or interfered with to make the best fight they could. You will also find our late comptroller of State, or rather Mr. Brooks, who will vacate the office, is as deep in the mire as they are in the mud. Colonel West sent on two men with Lieutenant {p.35} Hunter to take the ambulance back which he sent through with Mrs. Dryer, and directed me to send it back on the 3d; that he had written to you to have an express meet it here. I will leave this morning at 7 o’clock on my way to Yuma, and, as directed, leave the command to next in rank. I wish Major Fergusson were here. I have stirred up a hornet’s nest, and hear of releasing the prisoners by force if not otherwise released. This is of little consequence. They cannot release them, and if I could be here would hope they would attempt it. I had Morgan arrested. He gave the cavalry also a long chase. I would respectfully suggest to the colonel that at least one full company of cavalry should be here. It is twenty miles or more to Temecula from here, and to take the trail from there to either outlet it counts up fifty miles around, and no barley or hay on the route. Grass is good and plenty, but the cavalry have no time to turn out their horses. I cannot close this without testifying to Lieutenant Wellman’s merits as an officer, and to the good behavior of his men. He is fast earning the name of the fox hound. He has had two long scouts, and in both instances fulfilled his errand. I will leave here at 7 a.m., leaving Camp Wright commanded by Captain Gorley, Company D, First Regiment California Volunteers. The prisoners I have instructed him to hold until he receives orders from yourself or Colonel West. I will endeavor to replace Colonel West with credit, and unless odds are much against us I think we will give a good account of our stewardship.

Trusting that my acts will meet with your approbation, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWIN A. RIGG, Major First Infantry.

Col. JAMES H. CARLETON, Commanding First California Volunteers, Los Angeles, Cal.

* See p. 45.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

TEMECULA, CAL., November 27, 1861. (Received 4 a.m.)

Mr. CABLE:

DEAR SIR: You will please deliver the inclosed letter to Mr. Sumner, the gentleman that came to your place with Mr. Warner, and tell him to hurry up, and oblige,

Yours, truly,

E. M. MORGAN.

P. S.-Please deliver immediately at any expense.

[Sub-inclosure.]

TEMECULA, CAL., December 30,* 1861.

FRIEND SUMNER: We arrived here this evening and were sorry to find you gone, for various reasons. I have hired a man to go after you, and I want you to start back as soon as he gets to where you are, and also bring Mr. Chum with you, and look sharp that he don’t play you some trick. He is a bad man for us, and we want him back as soon as possible. There are eighteen of us here. Say nothing to him about what I have written, but tell him we want men, and we are going another road. I have no time to write more.

Yours, truly,

T. A. WILSON.

* Evidently mis-dated, but so in copy on file.

{p.36}

[Inclosure No. 2.]

I. T. A. Wilson says:

I was elected foreman of the party traveling with me for the purpose of selecting camping places and the like; any further than this I have no control over them; designed going to Sonora and spending a portion of the winter, and then proceeding to my home in Tennessee; have an aged mother living in Tennessee, whom I wish to see; have no intention of taking up arms against the Federal Government; perfectly willing to take the oath of allegiance. Served eighteen months in the U. S. Army in Mexico; will never take arms against the Government of the United States; am not acquainted with all the men belonging to the party; a portion of them I never saw until they joined the party at El Monte; did not know that Showalter was coming until I saw him at the Monte; had no preconcerted arrangements to meet Showalter or any other party; am twenty-nine years of age.

T. A. WILSON.

Lieut. C. R. Wellman states that Wilson did not object to coming to camp; said he was perfectly willing to be examined, and to take the oath of allegiance, but would abide the decision of the party; did not see any impropriety in their being required to undergo an examination.

I certify that the above is correct.

C. R. WELLMAN, Second Lieutenant, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

II. William Woods says:

I am from Clay County, Mo.; have lived for the last three years in Los Angeles County, Cal; came to California in 1850; have lived the most of the time in Sierra and Plumas Counties, except the time that I lived in Los Angeles; lived in Sierra County from 1852 to 1854. Was engaged in mining; lived with a man by the name of Carpenter in Los Angeles; left Los Angeles alone; joined the party at El Monte; knew a portion of the party were at El Monte when I left Los Angeles; my sympathies have heretofore been with the South, having been horn there; if I were in Missouri and obliged to take sides it is hard to say which side I would take; have no objections to taking the oath of allegiance; am thirty years of age.

WM. WOODS.

III. Charles Benbrook says:

Am from Simpson County, Ky.; left Mariposa County on the 26th day of October, 1861; lived in Mariposa County since August, 1850, when Sands and myself left Mariposa together; left Mariposa with the intention of spending the winter in Los Angeles; when I got to Los Angeles I found a party was forming to go to Sonora, Mexico, and joined it; was acquainted with Wilson before I started; he had left Mariposa some time before I left; had no idea of meeting Wilson on the trip; I left Kentucky when I was a boy; came to California in 1849 from Texas; do not like to take the oath of allegiance if it can be avoided; have never held the doctrine that any State has a right to secede; will never take arms against the Government of the United States under any circumstances.

CHARLES BENBROOK.

IV. William Sands says:

I am from Mariposa; came to California in 1849; lived ten years in Calaveras County; I was born in Wilson County, Tenn.; came to California from Memphis, Tenn.; Charles Benbrook left Mariposa with me; we started to go to Sonora, Mexico; were going to Sonora to better our condition; my sympathies are with my people; if I were in Tennessee I can’t say which side I would take in the present war; do not think that one State alone has any right to secede; am willing to take the oath of allegiance; am forty years of age.

WILLIAM (his x mark) SANDS.

V. T. L. Roberts says:

I was born in Fairfield, S. C.; left there when a boy; came to California in 1860; came from Placer County to this place, via Los Angeles; stopped in Los Angeles about four months; went to San Francisco with the intention of taking the steamer for Guaymas Mexico; waited two weeks for the steamer, and finally concluded to go through by land; was going with the intention of going into business if the country suited me; had not made up my mind whether I would return to San Francisco or to my native State, In case Sonora did not suit me; my sympathies are with the people of the South, but would not like to see them break up the Government; {p.37} am sincerely opposed to taking up arms against the Government; am also opposed to taking up arms against my own people; do not like to take the oath of allegiance because I might thereby be compelled to take up arms against my own people; will, however, take it if it is required; am thirty years of age.

T. L. ROBERTS.

VI. R. H. Ward says:

I am from Jackson, Miss.; came to California in 1852; for the first ten months In California I lived in Santa Barbara; then lived in Tuolumne till 1856; since that time I have lived in Merced County; a man by the name of Holland started with me from Merced; Holland has gone on overland to the Atlantic States; was acquainted with Benbrook and Hamilton before starting from Merced; when I started it was my intention to go to Arkansas; when I got to Los Angeles I gave up the notion of going to Arkansas, and was about starting back to Merced when I heard of this party forming to go to Sonora, and made up my mind to go with it; thought of staying in Sonora a year or two, and then either returning to California or to Arkansas; was not fully determined to which State; I am conditionally a Union man; I do not believe in the right of any State to secede; all my sympathies are with the people of the South; all my people are in the South; am perfectly willing to take the oath of allegiance; never thought of taking up arms against the Federal Government; I consider the seceded States as a portion of the United States; am twenty-seven years old.

R. H. WARD.

VII. T. W. Woods says:

I am from Bedford County, Va.; have been in California since July, 1852; came from Missouri to this State; I left Placer County with the intention of going to Sonora, Mexico; T. L. Roberts and a man by the name of Southwick started with me; had heard a good deal of Sonora as being a good country for mining; thought of prospecting for mines; I am a Union man, and always have been; don’t believe any State has a right to secede; am perfectly willing to take the oath of allegiance.

T. W. (his x mark) WOODS.

VIII. J. M. Sampson says:

I was born in Louisville, Ky.; came to this State in 1850; lived in Placer and El Dorado Counties a considerable portion of the time since I have been in this State; lived in Mariposa County three years; started to go to Mexico by water; heard of a party forming to go by land and joined it; I am a Union man; have no objection to taking the oath of allegiance; am thirty-five years old.

J. M. SAMPSON.

IX. S. A. Rogers says:

I am from Warren County, Tenn.; came to California in 1854; came from Alabama to this State; have resided in Sacramento County since I have been in this State; left Sacramento with the intention of going to Sonora, Mexico; my brother, who is now here, started with me; I was engaged in gardening in Sacramento County; knew of no party forming at the time I started from Sacramento; had no definite object in view in case Sonora did not suit me; wanted to go to the Atlantic States as soon as the present difficulty was settled; I am not an unconditional Union man; am willing to take the oath of allegiance; my object in leaving the country was to avoid having anything to do with the present troubles.

S. A. ROGERS.

X. William Edwards says:

I am from Arkansas; came to California in 1854; have resided principally in Mariposa County until within the last two years, which time I have resided in Mono and Carson Valleys; came from Mono to this place in company with J. Lawrence; left Mono with the intention of spending the winter in Los Angeles, and then returning to Mono; met some acquaintances at Los Angeles who were going to Sonora, Mexico, and concluded to go with then; expected no difficulty in getting to Sonora, unless it should be with Indians; was going to Sonora prospecting, and if I found nothing there that suited me to return to California; have mining claims at Mono; my people are residing in Arkansas; am a Union man; do not believe in the right of secession; am willing to take the oath of allegiance; am twenty-two years old.

WILLIAM EDWARDS.

XI. James Lawrence says:

I am from Washington County, Ark.; came to California in 1853; am twenty-three years of age; came to California when I was fourteen years old; have resided most of the time in Mariposa County; am a miner by occupation; came from Mono to this {p.38} place; left Mono with the intention of going to the Bear Valley mines, in California; afterward concluded to go to Sonora, Mexico; left Mono in company with William Edwards; knew of no party forming to go south when I started; met Showalter at Los Angeles; he induced me to go to Sonora; was going for the purpose of prospecting; my relatives reside in Arkansas; did not expect to have any difficulty in getting out of California; Wilson was elected captain of the party; intended crossing the Colorado at Fort Yuma; I am a Union man; believe that the present Administration has done right in all things pertaining to the present war with the South; am twenty-three years old.

JAMES LAWRENCE.

XII. Levi Rogers says:

I am from the State of Alabama; came to California in 1858; have lived in Sacramento County all the time I have been in the State; am a brother of S. A. Rogers, who is with the party; left Sacramento County alone; met my brother at Visalia; left Sacramento with the intention of going to Sonora; had thought of going to Alabama to see my folks; expected to have no difficulty in going to Alabama and returning when I pleased; am willing to serve the Government of the United States if necessary; am a Union man; do not believe in the doctrine of secession; am willing to take the oath of allegiance; saw a man at Temecula named Morgan, who, I think, told our party that we would probably be arrested if we followed the road; am twenty-five years of age.

LEVI ROGERS.

XIII. Henry Crowell says:

I am from Erie County, Pa.; left there in 1849; went to Illinois; came to California in 1551; have lived most of the time in Mariposa County; am a miner by occupation; started to go to Sonora or Arizona; my object was to prospect for mines; started in company with a man by the name of Gilbert, who is now in Mariposa, and Dan Showalter, who is now here with this party; have mining claims in Mono, to which I intend returning after going to Sonora; I am a constitutional Union man, and believe the Constitution is all Union; am willing to take the oath of allegiance; Ritchie and Morgan at Temecula recommended our party to take the trail to Santa Isabel to strike the overland route at Carriso Creek; seemed to take a good deal of interest in the matter; am twenty-four years of age.

HENRY CROWELL.

XIV. William Turner says:

I was born in Cass County, Ga.; came from Arkansas to California in 1849; have lived in Amador County ever since; am a miner by occupation; left Amador with the intention of spending the winter in Los Angeles; when I got to Los Angeles I heard of a party forming at El Monte to go to Sonora, Mexico; I concluded to join it and bought my horse at El Monte; am a Union man; Willing to take the oath of allegiance; am twenty-two years of age.

WM. TURNER.

XV. A. King says:

I am from Carroll County, Tern.; came from Texas to California in 1854; have been in Oregon part of the time since 1854; am a laborer; have lived in Mariposa the most of the time for the last two years, driving team the most of the time for Colonel Frémont; came from Mono here; left Mono alone; came from Mariposa in company with Wilson and Sumner; thought of going to Texas when I left Mariposa; at the Monte I gave up the idea of going to Texas, and joined the party to go to Sonora; am a Union man; was going to Texas to visit my relatives; intended going through to Texas from Sonora if I could get through; Wilson intended going through to Texas, and Sumner to North Carolina; am willing to take the oath of allegiance; am thirty-five years old.

A KING.

XVI. Dan. Showalter says:

I was born in Greene County, Pa.; came to California in 1852; have lived the greater portion of the time in Mariposa County; my occupation is that of a miner; started for Sonora from Virginia City about one month since; intended going to some mines in Los Alamos, Sonora, and if an opportunity offered, to go through to Texas or Missouri, if I did not like Sonora; had no organized party whatever; started from Virginia City in company with a man by the name of Gilbert; was joined by Crowell at Aurora; Gilbert stopped at Mariposa; taking the trail from Temecula was very much against my wish; a majority of the party were in favor of it, and I acceded to it; am perfectly willing to take the oath of allegiance; am thirty years of age.

DAN. SHOWALTER.

{p.39}

XVII. Statement of William Hamilton:

I am an American citizen; was born near Lexington, Ky.; am fifty-one years of age; left Kentucky when twelve years old; went to Saint Louis, Mo.; resided there eighteen months, then went to Santa Fe, N. Mex.; went from there to the city-of Mexico; resided in Mexico till October, 1845; went from Mexico to Pensacola; thence to New Orleans; thence to Corpus Christi; thence to Point Isabel, where I joined Captain Walker’s company, and served in General Taylor’s army for three months; I then followed the army as contractor and interpreter to the close of the war between the United States and Mexico; resided in the frontier of Mexico till 1850; came from there to California, where I arrived in July or August in the same year went to Fort Tejon in April or May, 1855; had a contract there for making adobes for the Government; resided there till October or November of the same year; went from there to Stockton; worked there awhile at my trade (gunsmithing); resided in the neighborhood of Stockton and Mariposa until about two years ago, when I went to Mono, Cal., where I have resided until about the 1st of October of the present year; came from Mono via Fort Tejon on my way to Fort Yuma; when I left Mono I designed going to Los Angeles to work at my trade; at Los Angeles I heard of a party forming to go to Texas; thought of joining it, but abandoned the idea before leaving Los Angeles.

WILLIAM HAMILTON.

XVIII. B. B. Sumner says:

I am from Perquimans County, N. C.; am thirty-four years old; came to California in 1849; am a miner by occupation; have lived in Mariposa the greater portion of the time in California; knew Showalter in Mariposa; started with Wilson and King; left them at El Monte; at El Monte a man by the name of Morgan came to our camp and said he had heard that our party was going to Texas; Wilson told him that the party was about returning, and had given up the idea of going to Texas Morgan said that he was going to Texas, and would go alone if he could get no one to go with him; Morgan resides at Temecula; was on my way back from San Bernardino when I met Chum, who told me he was going through to Texas; concluded to go with him; it was my intention to go to North Carolina; am not acquainted in Texas; have always been a Union man; have no idea of taking up arms against the Government of the United States; am willing to take the oath of allegiance.

E. B. SUMNER.

XIX. F. N. Chum says:

I am from Texas; was born in Choctaw County, Miss.; left Mississippi when quite young; am thirty years of age; came to California in 1856 from Arkansas; considered Texas my home; am a laborer by occupation; lived in Tuolumne County mostly; my last residence was in Los Angeles; lived there with a man known as little Jack Watson; my object in going to Texas was to see an aged mother, whom I am anxious to see once more; had no intention of taking up arms against the Government of the United States; consider myself a good and loyal citizen of the United States; am perfectly willing to take the oath of allegiance.

F. N. CHUM.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

I, ___ ___, do solemnly swear that I will bear true allegiance to the Government of the United States; that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies and opposers whatsoever, and that I will support, maintain, and defend the supremacy of the Constitution of the United States, and all laws of Congress made in pursuance thereof, and that I will in all things well and faithfully discharge the duties of a citizen of the United States to the best of my ability. So help me God.

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 1st day of December, 1861. Camp Wright, Oak Grove Station, San Diego County, Southern California.

___ ___.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles, Cal., December 7, 1861.

The above is a true copy of the oath administered by Maj. E. A. Rigg, First Infantry California Volunteers, and by Lieut. J. P. Hargrave, {p.40} First Infantry California Volunteers, post adjutant at Camp Wright, to the men composing the party with pan. Showalter. It was sworn and subscribed to by the following-named persons: T. A. Wilson, William Woods, C. Benbrook, William Sands, T. L. Roberts, R. H. Ward, T. W. Woods J. M. Sampson, S. A. Rogers, William Edwards, James Lawrence, William Turner, A. King, Levi Rogers, Henry Crowell, Dan. Showalter, William Hamilton, E. B. Sumner, F. N. Chum.

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure No. 4.]

TEMECULA, CAL., November 80, 1861.

FRIEND WILD: Times have changed so that I feel it will be impossible for me to get to my friends in the East, and therefore have half resolved to stay in the God-forsaken country, provided I can get a situation in a place where I will be satisfied. Now I think that if I could get a place with Jeagers, at the Colorado River, I might be contented for a few years. When you go out I wish you would speak to Jeagers or some one out at the river in my behalf. I will be satisfied with any agreement that you may make, so I am well paid. I hear nothing of interest from the States.

Yours, truly,

E. M. MORGAN.

P. S.-I would write more, but I am afraid that I might spin off on a subject that would not be acceptable to some people, provided this did not reach you in safety.

Yours, &c.,

E. M. M.

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TEMECULA, SAN DIEGO COUNTY, November 26, 1861.

FRIEND FRANK: For the last chance I drop you a few lines, that you may know we are on the road at last, and are now within forty miles of Warner’s ranch. We will leave the road at this place to avoid the troops at that place, as they are aware that we are coming and are looking for us, and the chances are that we would have some trouble with them. We will have to cross the Colorado in Sonora to avoid Fort Yuma. Perhaps the chances are tough, though I think we will make it. It is quite different to what I thought it was when I wrote you before. There are nineteen of us in company, and all in good spirits. There are eleven of them that you know, though I don’t think it policy to do so at this time. Give my respects to all the boys; so good-by once more. I will write again if I have a chance.

Yours, respectfully,

C. BENBROOK.

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TEMECULA. {November ?, 1861.}

ALLISON AND POWELL:

DEAR FRIENDS: After waiting at Los Angeles and getting no word from you I thought it best to leave, as the boys were getting very impatient. We expected to have from 50 to 100 men but we number only twenty as yet. Still we expect a party of twenty men from San {p.41} Bernardino to overtake us. If you get ready to come soon communicate with Sam. Brooks at Sacramento. My kind regards to all the boys. Why did not Gilbert come? We will cross the Colorado at Gonzales’ Ferry, in Sonora, about thirty miles below the fort. No one can pass that point now without submitting to be searched or taking the oath.

Your friend,

SHOWALTER.

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TEMECULA, November 25, 1861.

FRIEND COULTER: We arrived here this evening, all in good health and spirits. Our animals are in good condition. I have three good ones, and have no fears of getting through. We will be compelled to cross the Colorado south of Fort Yuma about thirty miles, on the Sonora side, in order to avoid trouble. After that, if they annoy us, we will make the best fight we can. Remember me to Mrs. Coulter and all friends, and especially to Gifford and Nether Wood.

Truly, your friend,

DAN. SHOWALTER.

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TEMECULA, 100 MILES SOUTH OF LOS ANGELES, November 26, 1861.

G. H. CRENSHAW, Esq.:

DEAR FRIEND: We reached here this evening, all well, and I have only time to say good by. Write to Scott and Montre at Aurora for me. I have not time. Baker is well and sends his kind wishes. We will cross the Colorado in about six days, but will be compelled to cross on the Mexican side in order to avoid trouble at Fort Yuma. Remember me kindly to all the boys.

Truly, your friend,

DAN. S.

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TEMECULA, 100 MILES SOUTH OF LOS ANGELES, November 26, 1861.

Hon. SAMUEL BROOKS:

MY DEAR FRIEND: I received your letter at Los Angeles, but was very busy. I forgot to reply. We left Los Angeles four days ago, and will reach the Colorado in about six more. We will be compelled to cross the river about thirty miles below Fort Yuma on the Sonora side, as no one can pass that point without submitting to a search. This, of course, would not suit me. If you should come this road during the winter, come to Los Angeles by water and get your outfit there. Your animals will then be fresh and ready for a start. Remember me kindly to all friends.

Very truly, your friend,

“ON THE WAY.”

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TEMECULA, November 26, 1861.

DEAR BROTHER: Our party arrived at this place at sundown tonight, which is about 100 miles from Los Angeles. We had quite a pleasant trip after we got started. We are now within about fifty miles of Warner’s ranch, where there are about 200 troops stationed and about {p.42} thirty dragoons. We will leave here in the morning by way of a trail to avoid the stationed troops. We expect to cross the Colorado below the fort in order to avoid the stationed troops at Fort Yuma. I have nothing more of interest to write. Woods is well and in our party. He came down from San Francisco by stage. We expect some difficulty in getting across the river. I have received no letters from you since the answer to mine sent you by Woods. Give my compliments to my friend O. Will write as soon as convenient.

Yours, brotherly,

T. L. ROBERTS.

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No. 3.

Report of Capt. Henry A. Greene, First California Infantry.

[NOVEMBER 30, 1861.]

MAJOR: My command, with detachment from Company F, of ten men, First Infantry Regiment California Volunteers, left Oak Grove Station November 28, 1861, at 1.30 p.m., in accordance with instructions from Maj. E. A. Rigg, commanding Camp Wright and Oak Grove, in San Diego County, Cal., and proceeded to the Indian village (Village of the Cross), where I detached Second Lieut. W. B. Smith, of Company G, First Infantry Regiment California Volunteers, with twenty-three men, to guard the pass entering San José Valley from Pala. I then proceeded with the residue of my command (thirty-four rank and file) on the trail leading to O’Campo’s ranch, or Santa Isabel, where I arrived with twenty-six men at 1 a.m. the 29th of November, 1861. On my arrival at Santa Isabel scouts were sent to learn the movements of the enemy. At 12 m. the scouts returned, informing me of the capture of the enemy. Upon receiving this news I immediately sent a dispatch to Maj. E. A. Rigg, informing him also of the capture, whereupon I received a message from Maj. E. A. Rigg informing me to return to camp at Oak Grove Station. I immediately retraced my steps, arriving at Oak Grove Station on the 30th day of November, 1861.

I have the honor to submit the above report to your consideration.

HENRY A. GREENE, Capt., Comdg. Company G, First Infantry California Volunteers.

Maj. EDWIN A. RIGG, Commanding First Infantry Regiment California Volunteers.

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No. 4.

Reports of Lieut. Chauncey R. Wellman, First California Cavalry.

HEADQUARTERS, Camp Wright, November 22, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor to present you with a report of a detachment of cavalry on patrol duty, under my command, pursuant to special orders from the headquarters at Camp Wright, dated November 19, 1861:

I left Camp Wright at 8 a.m. November 20, 1861, and proceeded to Santa Isabel; was delayed about one hour at Buena Vista looking for Francisco O’Campo, two miles from here. I with my detachment arrived at Santa Isabel at 11 a.m. I immediately proceeded to examine a trail leading from that place to Temecula and the {p.43} rest of the country. I returned about 1.30 p.m., and encamped at O’Campo’s ranch. At 6.30 p.m. O’Campo came home. I immediately, or as soon as possible, sent a servant (a Spaniard) on the trail leading from that place to Temecula, with the instructions that you turned over to me. He started at 7 p.m. November 20, and returned on the 21st, at 6.30 p.m., and reported of having seen no party or parties of men either on the trail or at Temecula; also having made inquiries, but did not hear of any party or parties of men approaching. He reports the trail being rough, hilly, and very bad for traveling. The trail passes through several small villages, which are as follows: From Santa Isabel to Mesa de Stata, 3 miles; to Mesa Grande, 6 miles; to La Joya, 9 miles; to La Pioche, 1 1/2 miles; to Posteau, 1 mile; to Pauma, 8 miles; to Pala, 12 miles; to Temecula, 8 miles; whole distance 48 miles. There is also a trail leading from Buena Vista (two miles from here), and passes over the mountains to San José, on the Los Angeles road. The Temecula trail crosses it at La Mesa Grande (some three miles from Buena Vista); there is also another trail which leads from Santa Isabel to San Felipe; it is a pretty good road for horses (but impassable for wagons); examined it for about five miles; there is considerable travel on it. At 1 p.m. November 21 sent out a party of three men on the San Diego road. They returned at 4.30 p.m., and reported no persons seen on the road for twelve miles. They saw a Spaniard (well known to Mr. O’Campo, who says that he is a Union man) who says that he left Los Angeles on the 18th of November, but did not see or hear of any party or parties of men going south, and that it was quiet as usual along the road. There is an Indian village on the San Diego road, about thirty-one miles from Camp Wright, called San Pasqual. It is near the junction of the San Pedro and San Diego roads. From this village there is a trail that leads to Viecito, and another trail about three or four miles this side of the village (San Pasqual) that goes to San Felipe. Left camp at Santa Isabel 6.30 a.m., and arrived at Camp Wright at 8.30 a.m. November 22, 1861.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. R. WELLMAN, Second Lieut., First Cavalry California Vols., Comdg. Detachment.

Maj. E. A. RIGG, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP WRIGHT, Oak Grove Station, November 30, 1861.

MAJOR: Pursuant to special orders, dated November 27, 1861, I proceeded in search of a party of men at Temecula, going toward the Colorado. Arriving at the Dutchman’s, Geftrareus, I met a man by the name of Hamilton, who said that he (Hamilton) was in search of a man (he not knowing his name) that had taken his horse-that the said man was with another called Sumner. I searched him. I found nothing on him, with the exception of a slip of paper that I gave you last night. After I examined him (Hamilton) I proceeded to Temecula, and arrived there at 11 p.m. November 27. I made inquiries of the party in question, but could get no other information than that a party of sixteen men had been there on the night of the 26th, and had left for parts unknown on the morning of the 27th, at 10 o’clock. On the morning of the 28th I took their trail, via Temecula, within about one-quarter of a mile of Mr. Winter’s ranch. About 8.30 p.m. I camped there for the night without water or flange. Early on the morning of the 29th I {p.44} discovered the party that I went in search of. They were encamped at John Winter’s ranch. I saddled up and proceeded with my detachment to their camp, and proceeded to question them as to their business, destination, and purpose, to which I received the following reply:

That their destination was Sonora, Mexico; that their mission was peaceable, and the reason of their taking that route was to avoid any unpleasant difficulty with the troops of the Government. I then asked them it they would go with me peaceably to Oak Grove, and there undergo an examination. The most of them appeared willing. There were two or three that demurred. Showalter was one of them. He (Showalter) said he did not see why they could not be allowed to proceed quietly, as other parties had, and as for himself he should say no decidedly, and he would take the consequences, but finally said that he would abide by the decision of the company. The company wanted that I should pledge my word that if there was nothing-no evidence of treason or disloyalty-against them that they would or should be released and be allowed to go about their business, to which I assented. At about 9 a.m. proceeded en route for Oak Grove Station, by the way of Buera Vista, Drycke’s ranch, and La Puerta. At La Puebla los Indians I was joined by Lieutenant Vestal with a detachment of Company D, First Regiment California Volunteer Infantry (with a detachment of twenty men), and finally arrived at camp at Oak Grove at 6 p.m. November 29, 1861. I forgot to state that I sent to you at Warner’s ranch word that I would move on slowly toward Oak Grove, and to send me more assistance, and to meet me at the Indian village, which you did.

Recapitulation: Started from camp at Oak Grove at 3.30 p.m. November 27. Arrested Hamilton at Geftrareus’ at 6 p.m. Arrived at Temecula at 11.30. Left Temecula about 8 a.m. November 28. Arrived near Winter’s ranch at 8.30 p.m. Arrested the party in question the following morning. Started the party from Winter’s at 8 or 9 a.m. November 29. Lieutenant Vestal overtook me about 3 p.m. November 29. Arrived at Camp Wright November 29 at 6 p.m.

Very respectfully, I am, your obedient servant,

C. R. WELLMAN, Second Lieut., First Cavalry California Vols., Comdg. Detachment.

Maj. E. A. RIGG, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. at Camp Wright.

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CAMP WRIGHT, December 3, 1861.

MAJOR: Pursuant to special orders from headquarters-at Camp Wright, dated December 1, 1861, I left camp at 11 p.m. December 1, 1861, en route for Temecula, with eight men of my detachment and proceeded to the above-named place; arrived at Temecula about one hour before daylight December 2. At daylight I made a thorough but fruitless search for the parties in question. The men, two in number, that were encamped at Temecula had left their camping place and had gone back to San Bernardino. This was the statement of Mr. Ritchie, of Temecula. The man Morgan that was at Temecula had gone to San Luis Mission, and, en learning that, I followed after him, leaving Temecula at 9 a.m. December 2, and arrived at the Mission of San Luis about 6 p.m. Having found Mr. Morgan at Mr. Tibbetts’ ranch (near San Luis), I arrested him and started on the morning of the 3d of December for Camp Wright, bringing the prisoner along with me; {p.45} arrived at Camp Wright at 9.45 p.m. December 3, 1861. While I was at Temecula I secured a number of letters of a suspicious character, the same I turned over to you.

Recapitulation: I left Camp Wright on the 1st day of December, 1861, at 11 p.m.; arrived at Temecula December 2 at 5 a.m.-delayed for four hours in a fruitless search for two men that had been encamped near that place; started at 2 a.m. same day for San Luis Mission, on the San Diego road; arrived at Tibbetts’ ranch, near the Mission, at or about sundown same day; left San Luis for Camp Wright at 2 a.m. on the 3d of December; came by the way of San Luis Rey Mission to Temecula. Arrived at Temecula at 2.45; fed the horses and proceeded to Camp Wright, arriving there at 9.45. The road is very good most of the way. Distance traveled from Oak Grove to Temecula, 25 miles; from Temecula to San Luis Mission, by the San Diego road, 26 miles; from San Luis to Temecula, by San Luis Rey, 35 miles, making the distance traveled 111 miles.

Your obedient servant,

C. R. WELLMAN, Second Lieutenant, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

Maj. L. A. RIGG, First Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Camp Wright.

{p.46}

MARCH 19-APRIL 28, 1862.–Expedition from Camp Latham to Owen’s River, Cal., with skirmish (April 9) near Bishop’s Creek, in the Owen’s River Valley.

Report of Lieut. Col. George S. Evans, Second California Cavalry.

CAMP LATHAM, April 29, 1862.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco:

MAJOR: Inclosed I have the honor to forward a report of my expedition to Owen’s River, pursuant to Special Orders, No. 7, issued by Col. George W. Bowie, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers.

Hoping that my action in the premises may meet the approbation of the general commanding the Department of the Pacific, I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

CAMP LATHAM, April 29, 1862.

MAJOR: In pursuance of Special Orders, No. 7, a copy of which is hereto annexed, I have the honor to forward through you to the general commanding the Department of the Pacific the following report:

I started from Los Angeles on the 19th day of March, 1862, and arrived at Owen’s Lake on the 2d day of April, a distance, as laid down by the map of the country, made by Captain Davidson, of the U. S. Army, at 302 miles. On the 4th day of April I reached Putnam’s Store, or what is known now as The Fort, situated on Pine Creek, forty-three unless above Owen’s Lake. Here I found some twelve or fifteen men and some women and children, and learned, for the first time, something of the real condition of affairs in the valley and of the difficulties with the Indians. I found that the settlers had for some considerable time been threatened by the Indians, and been hemmed in at The Fort, so called; that the Indians had collected together several hundred warriors, and had threatened to kill every white man in the valley; that they claimed that the country east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and particularly Owen’s River Valley, belonged to them, and said that no white luau should live there; that they had killed two men that were known of one by the name of Taylor and one known as Yank, and had burned every house and everything in the shape of improvements in the lower part of the valley. I also learned that some time about the 20th of March there had been a fight at the Lone Pine between twenty white men, under command of Captain Anderson, of Aurora, and about forty Indians, in which engagement 11 Indians were killed and 3 white men wounded; that since that time some assistance had arrived from Visalia and Aurora, and that some sixty men had started up two days before my arrival at The Fort to give the Indians battle. I immediately prepared to move on to their assistance. I left Captain Winne with seven men in charge of wagons and to assist in protecting The Fort; took twelve of my best mules, packed them, and started up the valley on the morning of April 5.

On the 6th at about 9 a.m., I met the citizen soldiers retreating back for The Fort. I stopped them and we camped together at what is known as Big Pine Creek, about thirty miles above The Fort. Here we found and buried the bodies of two men a Mr. Talman and a Mr. Hanson, who had been killed by the Indians apparently some two weeks previous when on the way down from Aurora. I learned from the citizen soldiers that they had come upon the Indians the day before, about {p.47} twenty miles above; had given them battle and got badly whipped; that the Indians, numbering some 400 or 500, a great many of them with good fire-arms, had come out of the cañons and mountain ravines and charged them, attempting to surround them, and had driven the whites back some two miles to a stich, which they took possession of and with the advantage of which they had managed to keep the Indians off until night, when under cover of the darkness they made good their retreat to where I met them, losing 3 men, 18 horses and mules, and all their provisions. After hearing this statement of facts I told Colonel Mayfield, who was in charge or command of the citizen soldiers, that I intended going on in the morning, and that if there were as many Indians as represented my force of thirty-three men would be a very small one to contend against them and would therefore like to have his men go with me. On the 7th, when I got ready to march, Colonel Mayfield reported to me with about forty men, the rest having declined returning. With this force I moved on, and when within eight miles of the battle-ground I saw moving objects some three miles off to my right. I immediately halted the command and sent Lieutenant French out with five men to reconnoiter and report the result. He soon returned and reported it to be Lieutenant Noble, of Company A, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, with fifty men from Fort Churchill on his way down to Putnam’s Store to the relief of the citizens. After halting until Lieutenant Noble’s command came up, I moved on to the battle-ground, which I reached about 3 p.m. Found no Indians. Moved on three miles to Bishop’s Pine Creek and camped for the night. I then sent down and had the bodies of the killed brought up and buried on the south bank of the creek.

April 8, I sent out scouts in three different parties of five each to look for the Indian trail. At about 1 p.m. I met one of the scouts, sent back by Lieutenant Oliver, who reported the Indians to be in force about twelve miles from there. I moved the command on briskly, and arrived on the ground where the Indians were supposed to be at 3 p.m., but found no Indians, they having scattered at our approach and took to the hills like partridges, and after riding two hours over the hills in a pitiless hail-storm, was compelled to go back into the valley to camp for the night without catching an Indian. April 9, left camp at sunup, and had traveled some three miles when I saw my scouts off to my left about entering a cañon. I immediately halted the command to await the result of their investigation, but had halted but a few moments when I heard the report of fire-arms. I immediately ordered Lieutenant French with twenty men to move up on a gallop, the rest of the command moving up at the same time at a more moderate gait until we met the scouts, who reported that they had been fired upon by the Indians; that Private Gillespie, of Company A, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, was killed, and Corporal Harris, of the same company and regiment, wounded. I then moved the men up to within 400 yards of the mouth of the cañon, dismounted, and prepared to fight on foot. Upon an examination of the ground or stronghold selected by the Indians, I was fearful that it would be an impossibility to dislodge them without the aid of a mountain howitzer, but still could not know the fact without making the attempt. In order to recover the body of Private Gillespie that had been left in the cañon where killed, and at the same time to determine by actual experiment the possibility or impossibility of ascending the mountain and getting at the Indians, it was necessary to get possession of the points covering the mouth of the cañon, so I ordered Lieutenant Noble and Lieutenant Oliver with forty men to ascend the point on the left, while I took Lieutenant French and forty men to the right, {p.48} leaving nearly forty men to guard the animals and the mouth of the cañon. After getting upon the first points, which had to be ascended under a brisk fire from an unseen enemy, I found that the Indians numbered from 500 to 700, had a great many good guns among them, and were in possession among the rocks clear up to the top of the tallest mountains, in places, too, that could scarcely be reached with ladders, and that there was no possible chance of getting to then, for, after pulling and tugging for an hour to get up to a ledge of rocks from which I could see the smoke of their rifles, when I reached it there was no Indian there, but I could see the smoke of his gun from a ledge still higher up, and so, after laboring industriously for two hours, climbing over almost impassable points, I saw that it would be madness and no less than murder to attempt to go any farther; that I could do nothing but get half of my men killed without as much as getting a fair shot at an Indian, and was necessarily compelled to order the men to fall back. In thus reconnoitering and recovering the body of Private Gillespie from the cañon, Colonel Mayfield was killed, and being a large, heavy man, weighing over 200 pounds, the men, after carrying him some 100 yards down the mountain, were compelled to leave his body or get more killed or wounded in bearing it off. After returning to the horses and trying for some time without avail to get the Indians out into the valley, I fell back to Bishop’s Creek and camped for the night.

April 10, being almost entirely out of provisions, having furnished flour, &c., to the citizens who were entirely out all through the valley, and being near 400 miles from Camp Latham, where I was expected to be by the 28th, I found that I must be retracing my steps and so intimated to the citizens, whereupon the settlers and stock owners waited upon me and claimed the protection of the Government for themselves and property. I explained to then my position; that I had no authority to leave any troops with them, and had no provisions for them to live upon if I had the authority, but that I would go with them to The Fort and there remain until they could get their cattle up and separate them; that those who wished to go to Aurora or Carson Valley could go under escort of Lieutenant Noble and his command and those who wished to go to Visalia or Los Angeles could go with me, which arrangement seemed to be satisfactory. I reached The Fort on the fifth of April and on the 13th moved down the river a few miles to good grass, leaving Lieutenant Noble and command at The Fort. On the 14th all the parties desiring to go south came up and I moved on. I reached Soldiers’ Wells, a few miles east of Walker’s Pass, on the 20th, nothing interesting occurring on the route except the Indians stealing a few of the citizens’ cattle. At this point we parted company, the citizens going in over the pass to Kern River, whilst I started to look out a new road or cut-off.

I left the Soldiers’ Wells at sunup on the 21st and traveled due south over a sagebrush and grease wood table land some sixteen miles, when I came to the head of a large open cañon running north and south, which I went down six miles and came to water and grass. From this point I still kept down the cañon three miles to its mouth, which came out into an open desert plain. Here I turned to the westward and traveled five miles to the old road, at the point where it starts into Kelso Cañon to go through on to Kern River, thus traveling in one day what it took me over four days to travel in going up by the way of Kern River and Walker’s Pass. This new route to Owen’s Lake shortens the road from Los Angeles, without doubt, seventy miles, and is much the best road and can be traveled at all seasons of the year.

{p.49}

I arrived at Camp Latham on the 28th of April, having been out forty-one days and traveled some 800 miles over, at this season of the year, one of the roughest countries to travel through that there is in California, encountering snow-storms, hail, rain, and windy, freezing weather alternately from the time that I reached Kern River in going up until I passed over, or rather through, the mountains on my return. From all the information that I could get and from what I know of my own knowledge, I am of the opinion that the Owen’s River Indians, together with detachments from the Tejon, Tulare, and Mono Indians, and some of the Piutes, have banded together, numbering not far from 800 to 1,000 warriors; that they have 100 or more good guns, and are determined to carry out their threat that no white man should live in the valley. As an earnest of their sincerity in making the threat they have burnt and destroyed every house and improvement of the whites from Walker’s Pass through to as far as I went (and that was to the extreme head of Owen’s River Valley and within fifty miles of Mono Lake); have killed nine white men that have been found and buried, and, I have no doubt, others that have not yet been found. They have killed at least 1,000 head of cattle, and have been drying the meat and preparing evidently for a long war, and to-day there is not a white soul left living in the valley. The mining interests of that section are too great for the whites to give it up tamely. Some two or three mills have already been erected, and the machinery was on the ground and upon the road for several more; and there are now stopped on Kern River, by reason of these Indian difficulties, perhaps not less than 100 people who were en route for the Coso and other mines in that section, with thousands of dollars’ worth of property, all awaiting the action of the Government in sending out troops and establishing a post in the valley for their protection. Again, the Owen’s River Valley is the great thoroughfare and only route, except to go around by Placerville, through which the growing trade and travel of this southern country must pass in and to the Esmeralda and Washoe districts, and upon which the people of Esmeralda are almost entirely dependent for their beef and other fresh meats. In consideration of these facts and in compliance with my instructions, I would most respectfully urge the necessity of a military post being established in the valley, and recommend Big Pine Creek as the most eligible location. Big Pine Creek is a large, bold stream of water making out of the eastern slope of the Sierras and emptying into Owen’s River on its western bank, furnishing fine water-power for machinery and running through one of the finest bodies of land that there is in the valley, where tons upon tons of hay could be cut in its season. Again, it is situated about the center of the valley, or rather is about midway between Walker’s Pass and Esmeralda, and is adjacent to good stone and timber for building purposes.

In conclusion I beg leave to say that the officers and men, both of the detachment from Fort Churchill and of the escort from Camp Latham, behaved with great coolness and bravery under fire, and bore the hardships of the trip, living on fresh beef alone as they did a portion of the time without a murmur, showing at all times a willingness to obey orders and do whatever was required to be done, either night or day, even to acting as mules and assisting in hauling the wagons when the worn-out, condemned mules (all I could get for the trip) could not. That is worthy of all praise.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

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MARCH 22-AUGUST 31, 1862.– Operations in the Humboldt Military District, Cal.

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Apr.4, 1862.–Affair at Table Bluff, Cal.
6, 1862.–Skirmish near Fort Anderson, Cal.
8, 1862.–Skirmish near Arcata, Cal.
26, 1862.–Skirmishes on the Eel River and near Fort Baker, Cal.
May7, 1862.–Skirmish at Croghan’s Ranch, Cal.
14, 1862.–Skirmish at Angel’s Ranch on the Mad River, Cal.
31, 1862.–Skirmish on the Eel River, near Van Dusen’s Creek, Cal.
June6-7, 1862.–Skirmishes at Daley’s Ferry and on the Mad River, near Arcata, Cal.
7, 1862.–Skirmish in the Mattole Valley, Cal.
8, 1862.–Skirmish at Fawn Prairie, near Liscombe’s Hill, Cal.
11, 1862.–Skirmish on the Mad River, Cal.
July2, 1862.–Attack on Cutterback’s house on Van Dusen’s Creek, Cal.
9, 1862.–Affair at the Weaverville Crossing of the Mad River, Cal.
28, 1862.–Attack on Whitney’s Ranch, near Fort Anderson, Cal.
29, 1862.–Skirmish near Albee’s Ranch, Cal.
30, 1862.–Affair at Miller’s Ranch, near Elk Camp, Cal.
Aug.6, 1862.–Skirmish near Fort Gaston, Cal.
21, 1862.–Skirmish at Light Prairie, near Arcata, Cal.
23, 1862.–Affair on Little River, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry, commanding the Humboldt District.
No. 2.–Lieut. Col. James N. Olney, Second California Infantry.
No. 3.–Capt. Charles D. Douglas, Second California Infantry.
No. 4.–Lieut. Henry Flynn, Second California Infantry.
No. 5.–Lieut. Charles G. Hubbard, Second California Infantry.
No. 6.–Lieut. Parish B. Johnson, Second California Infantry.
No. 7.–Capt. Thomas E. Ketcham, Third California Infantry.
No. 8.–Lieut. John F. Staples, Third California Infantry.
No. 9.–Lieut. Joseph Anderson, Third California Infantry.
No. 10.–Lieut. John D. Myers, Third California Infantry.
No. 11.–Capt. David B. Akey, Second California Cavalry.
No. 12.–Corpl. Charles H. Eaton, Second California Cavalry.

No. 1.

Reports of Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry, commanding the Humboldt District.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, April 1, 1862.

MAJOR: On the evening of the 25th of March an express arrived from Arcata reporting that the settlement at Angel’s ranch, a place about twelve miles from Arcata, had been attacked on the 22d, 23d, 24th, and 25th ultimo by Indians, the settlers shot or driven away, their stock killed, and their houses and improvements burnt to the ground. I immediately ordered Captain Akey’s, Captain Douglas’, and Captain Heffernan’s commands to concentrate at Angel’s ranch, but in order that the three commands might arrive there at the same time, without {p.51} which there was no chance of driving the Indians in, Captain Akey was directed not to leave till the 27th. The next evening (the 26th) another express arrived with the news that the long-settled and valuable ranch known as Bates’, seven or eight miles from Arcata, on the principal thoroughfare to Fort Gaston, and the entire country to the north and east, had been attacked that same day by a band of thirty Indians, who killed Bates, fired a shower of bullets after the women and children, who had scattered into the woods on seeing their approach, destroyed his stock, and then burnt his house and outbuildings to the ground. As Bates’ was on the direct route from this post to Angel’s ranch, and as, from the information received, these Indians had moved in that direction, there was no reason for any change in the dispositions already taken, by which the troops were to concentrate at Angel’s ranch at the earliest possible moment. The next morning (the 27th) I accompanied Captain Akey’s detachment from this post to the scene of the outrages at Angel’s ranch, passing by Bates’. Captains Akey’s and Heffernan’s commands arrived there at the precise moment designated. Captain Douglas arrived there an hour afterward, having been delayed by following up an Indian trail for some distance, but which he finally lost. After their arrival the three commands went on a scout in the neighboring woods, crossing them in different directions. But in the meantime a violent snow-storm had covered up all tracks that might have existed, and they returned to camp without having found any Indians or any Indian sign.

On the 30th I returned with Captain Akey’s command to this post, directing the two other companies to proceed to their posts by circuitous routes and to follow up any Indian trails they might find. This they have done, but without success. At or near Angel’s ranch, at Patrick’s, and at Zehender’s the Indians obtained, in all, five guns, at Bates’ seven, some of-which were very superior fire-arms. I have sent instructions to Captain Johns, at Fort Gaston, to inform me at once, by express, of any positive indications of the Hoopa Indians preparing to take part in these hostilities, and if the case, in his opinion, should urgently require it, to telegraph directly to your headquarters, by Weaverville, as this would save a delay of four days. I have also prepared a dispatch to Captain Stuart, at Fort Ter-Waw, to keep a strict watch upon the Klamath Indians and to report to me at once any hostile indications on their part. His dispatch I have not yet sent, as it is reported to be very doubtful whether an express can get through by land, owing to the state of the trail, and the steamer being daily expected here, by which I can send it more surely and at a trifling expense. If the Hoopa Indians should rise they will, no doubt, carry with them the Klamath Indians, their close allies. These tribes are said to be but one degree below our Eastern Indians in warlike qualities, but a very small proportion of them are believed to have fire-arms. What their numbers may be it is impossible to say, estimates vary so much. Captain Johns supposes that the Indians in Hoopa Valley and its immediate neighborhood could turn out 800 warriors in forty-eight hours. Of course, if these Indians should rise I should require large re-enforcements. It would be well to send a few artillery soldiers with them to handle the two mountain howitzers, one of which is at this post, the other at Fort Gaston. Night before last the Indians burnt Cooper’s flour mills, near Hydesville. They had pillaged them the week before, and had previously killed two of the Cooper brothers. As Hydesville is a small, scattered village, remote from military protection, with, no {p.52} doubt, a considerable quantity of ammunition kept for sale in its stores and other inviting booty, I should not be surprised to hear of its being attacked by the Indians at any time. Captain Akey leaves to-morrow morning with his company to go in that direction. If the Klamath and Hoopa Indians remain quiet, and if the other Indians now making war upon us, after their fashion, should not band together in large numbers (which they have seldom or never done), three more companies will be probably all I shall need; but as I believe this number to be indispensable to guard the inhabitants against more extensive eruptions and massacres, which there is now some reason to fear, as well as to secure the troops against any chance of repulse, I have the honor to request that a re-enforcement to this extent may be sent as early as practicable. One of the three companies now asked for is needed to furnish escorts and guard the communications between this post, Captain Douglas’, on Redwood Creek, and Fort Gaston, this being, moreover, the only route of travel and trade between the bay and the northern mines, as also to Weaverville, since the direct trail to that place has been abandoned from fear of the Indians. Another company will be needed at Fort Humboldt as a garrison and to furnish the strong guards that will be necessary for the security of the Indian prisoners, as Captain Akey’s company will be constantly engaged in scouting. A third company would be posted near Hydesville for the protection of that place and of the settlements around it, as well as of the communications with Mendocino and the southern country. If a fourth company should be sent it would be very useful as a reserve, to be encamped, say, near Arcata, from which place it could readily be thrown to any point where more force might be needed; but if it is intended to obtain, by the operations against the Indians, any decisive results, a much larger re-enforcement would be necessary. To show this, it need only be observed that the region of country over which the present hostilities extend consists of some 2,000 square miles, three-fourths of which are covered with dense forests of timber and chaparral, almost impenetrable to white men, but excellent hiding places for the Indians, and that no great number of them can be expected to be found but by simultaneous scouting in numerous, though small, detachments over a large extent of country. Of the seven companies now in this district only four are available for operations in this county, for Captain Moore’s, at Fort Bragg, cannot be taken away from Mendocino, Captain Johns’, at Fort Gaston, is too small (forty-five men) to spare any for the field, besides being needed at Hoopa Valley, and Captain Stuart’s, at Fort Ter-Waw, besides being inaccessible to us for the want of a practicable route, cannot safely be called away from that post so long as the intentions of the Klamath Indians remain in doubt. It being a matter of the greatest importance, I may be excused for again repeating my assurance that if the Indians now to be captured are sent to any reservation in this part of the State they will be sure to return again immediately to their present haunts, and the whole work will have to be done over again. Would it be possible to obtain, by telegraph to Washington, authority from the Indian Bureau to send them to the Tejon Reservation? On being ordered on the recent expedition, Captain Akey reported that he was short of ammunition; that he had sent his requisition for 10,000 carbine cartridges last January to department headquarters (as he believes), but that it had not been answered. As the infantry cartridges do not fit the carbines, I was compelled to order the purchase of some gunpowder to enable him to have some made up {p.53} before his departure. I respectfully request that a supply may be forwarded to him without delay.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second California Vol. Infantry, Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant. General, Department of the Pacific.

P. S.-If any other companies of volunteers are sent here it is very important that I should be furnished with an official list, showing the relative rank of the officers, including those already in the district, especially of the company commanders.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, April 7, 1862.

MAJOR: The post of Captain Douglas (Second Infantry California Volunteers) is on the right bank of Redwood Creek, a mile or less below Minor’s, and close to the trail which is the great thoroughfare from the bay to the north and east. For several miles around the mountain ridge instead (as is usual) of approaching close to the stream and then shelving abruptly down its deep side, shaggy with firs, here draws back its crest to considerable distance, and comes stretching gradually downward to the river side in rather gentle slopes of open pasture land. A small creek skirted with timber falls into the river just above Minor’s. Yesterday morning at 5 o’clock a pack train was attacked by six Indians on the open ground a mile from the post. The packers immediately fled, uninjured, so far as is known. The firing being heard at the post, Captain Douglas promptly and silently got his command under arms. He had but a few men in camp, some thirty being out on a scout with Lieutenant Flynn, and eleven being detached to Liscombe’s Hill by my orders. Sending five men under Lieutenant Johnson to scour the timber skirting the creek near Minor’s, and taking seven men along with him, he made directly for the train, guided by two of the packers who had fled toward his post, and whom he met on the way. On arriving he found the Indians had been pillaging it, and were then burning up what they could not carry away. Owing to the fog and to the feebleness of the daylight, he came upon them unawares. At the volley they received, one of the six fell dead and two were wounded. They fled at once, closely pursued, but one of them turned and fired at Captain Douglas, piercing with the ball a glove which the captain held in his hand. Captain Douglas replied with his revolver, and the Indian fell wounded, but was finally able to get away with the rest. Lieutenant Johnson saw about twenty Indians. Sergeant Hoalton (Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers), who brought the captain’s dispatch, reports that Lieutenant Johnson’s party received some fifteen or twenty shots in the timber, but that none of our men were hurt. It is not improbable that this band was intended to attack Minor’s, which was close by. If so, that place was saved by Captain Douglas’ presence of mind. At 8 a.m., when his dispatch was written, the captain was about to leave in pursuit, but could not go very far, having to leave a guard for his camp and for Minor’s. Being anxious to follow up this band at once, he sent to me for twenty or thirty men. Captain Akey having left on a fifteen days’ scout with all the men that can be spared from this post, I have {p.54} none to send him. The Indian that was killed had with him a U. S. minie rifle and plenty of balls. He was recognized as a Hoopa Indian by Captain Douglas’ hospital steward (Brown), who had been stationed for a long time at Fort Gaston. I have directed Brown’s affidavit to be taken and sent to me forthwith. No steamer having arrived, I have this morning sent my dispatch to Fort Ter-Waw by a special messenger, who expects to deliver it in three days.

On the 4th instant, at Table Bluff (a point in the bay within sight of this post), three or four Indians attacked the house of a settler, who escaped with his family though fired at, and plundered it. The same day Painter’s ranch, a mile and a half off the trail, between Arcata and Fort Lyon, was attacked and burnt by a band of Indians in full view of our pack train, then on its way to Fort Lyon with an escort of two or three soldiers. On the arrival of the train Captain Heffernan immediately sent a detachment thither, of twenty-one men, under Lieutenant Hubbard, which has not yet been heard from.

April 8, 1 p.m. News has just arrived that our train with supplies for Captain Heffernan’s post was this morning attacked by Indians about eight miles from Arcata. The packers were fired upon, and eight or ten of the mules are believed to be cut off. In my letter of the 1st instant I spoke of only three companies as being indispensable. It is now my duty to state that in my opinion as many more ought to be sent with the least possible delay as can well be spared. It is evident that escorts must be everywhere considerably strengthened, and detachments sent to guard, so far as possible, every exposed settlement. Acting Commissary of Subsistence Swasey reports that he has no supplies on hand for any additional force. There is no ammunition on hand beyond what is needed by the companies to which it has been issued. The great want is transportation. This want has caused all our delays so far (coupled with the state of the routes), and the more troops we have here the more it will be felt. No other conveyance than by mules is possible in this country. The rates of hiring them will increase in compound proportion to the increase of our need of them. Forty mules are urgently needed at the three new posts to transport the supplies of the scouting parties. Great delays will be caused as heretofore by seeking up owners of mules, making contracts with them, and then bringing the mules in to the point where needed. Celerity will be the first requisite in these operations against the Indians. I would suggest whether it would not be as economical to purchase at once a sufficient number, even if they have to be sold after the war is over at a sacrifice.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, June 5, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: For the information of the War Department, I have the honor to transmit herewith a report received from Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the District {p.55} of Humboldt. The activity and zeal exhibited by Colonel Lippitt and the troops under his command is highly commendable, and promises a speedy termination of the Indian disturbances in that quarter.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, May 20, 1862.

MAJOR: The following is a summary of my operations against the Indians in my district since my last dispatch in April last:

On the 6th of April Captain Ketcham, with a scouting party of Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, found near Yager Creek the rancheria of the Indians that had previously robbed Cooper’s Mills of 2,500 pounds of flour. The Indians had just fled, leaving some 700 pounds of the flour, together with belting from the mills, mill files, baskets, bullets, lead, shot pouches, bullet molds, &c., all which articles were burnt, there being no means of packing them. On the 10th of April a detachment of five men of Company E, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, stationed near Cooper’s Mills, on Yager Creek, re-enforced by four or five citizens, went in pursuit of a band of some forty Indians that had robbed the mills of some 3,300 pounds of flour the night before. After a very difficult march to the northward of ten miles they came upon a rancheria, where they found the flour, which, having no means of packing, they destroyed, together with the lodges and their contents. No Indians were seen as they had all fled on the approach of the party. During a scout of Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commenced April 2 by Lieutenant Flynn, three Indians near Trinidad, going toward the mouth of Redwood Creek, where it was reported there was a band of some 200 hostile Indians, were captured by him, to prevent their giving the band notice of his approach. After being fully warned of the consequences of their attempting to escape, they suddenly broke and ran in the same direction they were going when taken. Lieutenant Flynn, who had no one with him but the guide, instantly fired at them with his pistol. One was killed on the spot; the two others escaped, one of them with a bullet through his head.

On the 27th of April Captain Ketcham, of Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, returned to Fort Baker from a scout to the southward of Van Dusen’s Fork with twenty-four Indian prisoners, all women and children except two young bucks. In attacking the rancheria four Indians were killed, including a squaw shot by mistake. During the scout Captain Ketcham came upon a rancheria which had been fortified by piles of logs around it, but which the Indians had deserted.

On the same day Lieutenant Staples, with a detachment of the same company, came upon a large band of Indians by surprise (having previously managed to kill their scout or sentinel without giving the alarm), killed 15 of them and took 40 prisoners, three of whom he left behind, being unable to travel. On the 7th of May, instant, Captain Ketcham reported eleven Indians as having come in at Fort Baker, eight bucks and three squaws. He sent out two of them as runners to bring in as many more as possible, assuring them (under my instructions to that effect) of protection. On the 14th of May, instant, Captain Ketcham reported the return of ten men sent out by him as an escort to such Indians as could be found by the runners willing to come in, with 19 {p.56} bucks, 24 squaws, and 16 children, making the total number of Indian prisoners at Fort Baker 88. These when they arrive at this post, with the prisoners already here, will make the total number of Indian prisoners about 170. On the 7th of May, instant, Lieutenant Flynn, with a detachment of twenty men of Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, then on a scout near Mad River, a few miles below Fort Lyon, received a volley from a band of Indians in ambush. None of the men were injured except the citizen guide, who was shot through both thighs. The troops rushed in pursuit into the timber, which was almost impenetrable from the dense undergrowth and chaparral with which all the forests in the country are filled, but were not able to see a single Indian, although they heard guns snapped in every direction around them (the caps having no doubt been spoilt by the then recent rain).

On the 14th of May, instant, on Mad River, near Angel’s ranch, Lieutenant Flynn, then having fifteen men with him, “started at daybreak” (I copy from his report) “and found a ranch of Indians about 7 a.m. They saw me about fifteen minutes before I arrived at their ranch. They crossed the river on their fish dam, and then cut it away, so that I could not follow them over the river. They fought me about one hour. I killed six of them. None of my men received a wound. The Indians retreated up the hill. I then destroyed all their provisions, beds, clothing, &c. All my men behaved admirably throughout the engagement. I found a quantity of powder and gun-caps. There were about 150 Indians in this band, and it was useless for me to follow them with fifteen men. This is the tribe that murdered Mr. Bates, as I found some of his papers in their ranch.” Lieutenant Flynn then returned to Fort Anderson, when Captain Douglas immediately left, with his whole command (Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers) in quest of the band with which Lieutenant Flynn had skirmished. It is not yet known whether he has found them. On the 15th of May, instant, Captain Heffernan, Company K, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commanding at Fort Lyon, returned from a scout in which he had destroyed five rancherias from which the Indians had fled before he arrived, and killed 1 Indian and wounded 2 others, being the only ones seen during the scout. The two wounded escaped, leaving behind a powder-horn, which proved to belong to one of the men murdered by the Indians on Bremen’s ranch last November. These are all the results actually obtained thus far, although the troops have been and are still constantly and actively engaged in scouting in every direction, through deep snows and pathless and almost impenetrable forests, choked with undergrowth and brambles, and over a country consisting entirely of lofty mountain ridges so steep as to render traveling always laborious and often dangerous. Escorts and expresses have been for some time suspended. Nearly all the men of Captain A key’s company have been called in as witnesses for the prisoners before the court-martial.

The want of mules has caused the only interruption to active operations. In order that one-half of the effective men of every company may be always in the field, there should be not less than sixteen mules constantly at the disposal of each company. The country is so difficult that the men are compelled to pack their blankets and everything except their arms. About twenty-five mules have already been purchased by Regimental Quartermaster Swasey. I recommend that he be authorized to buy seventy-five more as soon as practicable. I am convinced it would be a great saving to the Government, and at the same time {p.57} make our operations more effective, as great delays are constantly occurring in collecting together a sufficient number of hired mules when they are wanted, thus causing a great loss of time. I am cutting a trail from Fort Humboldt direct to the crossing of Yager Creek. By the existing route the distance is twenty-five miles; by the trail, when completed, it will not exceed fifteen, thus reducing the distance from this post to Fort Baker ten miles, besides opening a path through fifteen miles of dense forest hitherto unexplored by white men, but known to be the haunt of many of those Indians who have committed some of the late outrages. Elk Camp is a settlement between Redwood Creek and Klamath River, fifteen miles northwest of Fort Anderson. The Indians have recently made their appearance there and are killing their cattle. The settlers are much alarmed and have sent in for protection, and until it can be afforded have sent their families to Arcata. I have directed Captain Stuart, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commanding at Fort Ter-Waw, to send a detachment there of twenty men with an officer, and also to cut a trail direct to that point from Fort Ter-Waw, the distance being about twenty miles. When this is completed it will open a short and sure line of communication between Fort Ter-Waw and the posts to the south of the Klamath, which is urgently needed. Company E, Second Infantry California Volunteers, just arrived, garrison this post. Company A, of same regiment, I am mortified to say, arrived here in a state of entire disorganization, owing solely to the continued drunkenness and misconduct of its commander, Capt. Charles W. Smith, whom I have placed in arrest. Charges against him will go down by this steamer, but his character and-habits are such as to render him unfit to remain one day longer in the service, and I recommend that he be immediately discharged from it. I have sent his company to Yager Creek Crossing, under the command of First Lieutenant Flynn, of Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, a very reliable young officer, who is as cool and resolute as he is active and zealous.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, June 10, 1862.

MAJOR: To make the record of military events complete to this date, I have the honor to report what has transpired since my arrival here day before yesterday.

On the 8th instant, at G p.m., McConaha’s pack train of thirteen mules, returning empty from Elk Camp, was suddenly surrounded at Fawn Prairie, a piece of open ground seven miles above Liscombe’s Hill, by a band of some fifty Indians, all armed. The train had an escort of three men from the detachment at Liscombe’s Hill. They returned the Indians’ fire, but the odds being too great, were compelled to retreat as speedily as possible, and the whole train was therefore captured. The detachment of twenty men from Fort Gaston at Liscombe’s Hill had been reduced by the calls made upon it during the events of the last two days to only five men, barely sufficient for a camp guard, so that no pursuit could be made from that post. I could furnish no troops {p.58} from this post, having scarcely enough to guard the prisoners here, but I sent an order to Fort Gaston to re-enforce Liscombe’s Hill with twenty more men. All the private trains for the northern mines are now awaiting at Arcata the arrival of that detachment in order to obtain escorts. Yesterday afternoon some Indians appeared near the Eel River House, three miles this side of Hydesville, and twenty miles from the post, but in an opposite direction from the scene of the present hostilities, and shot a settler there named Necce; whether fatally or not is not yet known. The settlers there are alarmed, and have just sent to me for troops. I shall send a detachment there the moment there is any number of men returned from the field. Before going to San Francisco, I had sent Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers date Captain Smith’s), to take post at Yager Creek, just beyond Hydesville, for the protection of that neighborhood as well as other purposes, but the urgent call from Mattole Valley had induced Colonel Olney to send fifteen men of that company thither, and the sudden outbreak on Mad River on the 7th instant made it necessary, in his opinion, to order the remainder of the company to proceed in that direction. I am every moment expecting the return of some of the troops from the field, or at least a report of their whereabouts. If I hear nothing from them by to-morrow morning, I shall send out in quest of them and direct the immediate return of a sufficient force to protect Arcata, which is in an exposed situation, and therefore in some danger of being attacked. The whole number of Indian prisoners now at this post is 257. Exclusive of the garrisons at Fort Bragg and Fort Ter-Waw, which are virtually out of reach, the whole number of effective men for garrison and field duty in this district is at present about 400, while the field of operations extends over about 2,700 square miles of the most difficult country on the face of the globe. The numerous settlements to be protected are scattered over a zone embracing about 2,000 square miles. I am doing the best I can with the materials I have, whatever opinion the people here may have upon the subject. Under existing circumstances the general commanding the department will no doubt approve of my delaying for the present to send a company to Round Valley, in Mendocino County. I shall do so as soon as the settlements around the bay are in comparative security. The detachment at Elk Camp from Fort Ter-Waw, the garrison of which is ordered to Smith’s River, will be relieved by another from Fort Gaston. I inclose a requisition from Captain Gibbs, Second Infantry California Volunteers, commanding Company E, for 10,000 rounds of ball cartridge. I hope it will be answered without delay, as Captain Gibbs has but 200 rounds on hand. A portion of it I can have divided with other companies that may be in want.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, June 25, 1862.

MAJOR: By the official report* of Lieutenant Myers, Third California Volunteer Infantry, received June 12, I find that the three soldiers {p.59} of the Second California Volunteer Infantry who formed the escort of the train attacked and captured by some fifty Indians at Fawn Prairie, instead of retreating at once kept up a fire on the Indians from a log hut for about half an hour. A concentrated fire upon the hut, which was penetrated by the bullets, obliged them to retire. On the 31st of May Lieutenant Staples, Third California Volunteer Infantry, in a scout on Eel River, surprised a party of twenty or thirty Indians, attacked and routed them, killing 1 buck and capturing 12 squaws and children. The Indians were armed and returned the soldiers’ fire. On the 10th of June the same officer returned to Fort Baker from a scout in which he had captured thirty-seven Indians. I have full reports from all the detachments ordered out by Lieutenant-Colonel Olney before my return here. They all show the most active and zealous exertions on the part of both officers and men in quest of the Indians, but, as was to be expected, made without success, as the Indians on committing an outrage invariably scatter in every direction, not over any trails by which they maybe tracked, but through the dense timber and chaparral. Captain Ketcham, Third California Volunteer Infantry, discovered a small rancheria, which he attacked, killing one Indian. The men had so much difficulty in penetrating through the brush that the rest had plenty of time to escape. The zeal and exertions of Captain Douglas, Second California Volunteer Infantry, cannot be too highly praised. He is now ill of a fever caused by fatigue and exposure and disappointment in not finding the Indians.

On the 6th [7th] of June Lieutenant Hubbard, Second California Volunteer Infantry, in a scout with twelve men and seven citizens in Mattole Valley, about seventy miles from this post, attacked a party of Indians, killed or mortally wounded 6, and took 6 prisoners; the rest escaped. Two of the killed were recognized as among the worst and most dangerous Indians in that section of country, and one of the prisoners (a boy only twelve years old) was identified as having stolen some arms and ammunition some time before. Lieutenant Hubbard very properly, in my opinion, spared the boy’s life, but he reports that he has great difficulty to prevent his being shot down in his own camp, a reward of $100 being offered for his scalp. Among those Indians now at this post who came in voluntarily and delivered themselves up on my pledge of protection is a Bear River Indian named Bob, who it now appears killed a white man in October last. On examining into the case I find that it was in self-defense against a party of white Indian killers who had attacked him. But apart from this, deeming it both wrong and highly impolitic to take his life under the circumstances, I have directed him to be simply kept in a cell until he can be sent away, the partner of the man killed assuring me that he is a dangerous Indian, and that his life would not be safe unless he were closely guarded. I have now over 300 Indian prisoners at this post and some thirty-five soldiers in confinement awaiting, some their trials, others their sentences. The guard-house is full, and so weakly built that several prisoners have already broken through it and escaped in spite of all the precautions taken. Additional means of securing prisoners are absolutely necessary according to the post commander’s official report to me. He asks for twenty pairs of handcuffs and ten balls and chains. As none can be bought or properly made here, I respectfully refer his request to department headquarters. Continued scouting through brambles and brush has left a large number of the men without pants. Some twenty-five or thirty of Company F, Second California Volunteer Infantry, for example, are reported to be so entirely destitute as to make it impossible for them to leave the {p.60} camp, however urgently their services may be needed. As Regimental Quartermaster Swasey has none on hand, I shall direct him to purchase, if possible, such a number as is absolutely needed, trusting that a supply will be sent here from below at the earliest possible moment. A further supply of shoes will also be needed very soon, they being rapidly used up by men in the field.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second California Vol. Infantry, Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

P. S.-After having waited for the steamer for a long time in vain, Lieutenant Hanna sent down the court-martial records in the cases yesterday completed yesterday by mail.

* See June 11, p 83.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, [July 12, 1862].

MAJOR: About two weeks since Loball’s ranch and the mail station on the Van Dusen River were attacked and destroyed by Indians. A detachment of Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, then stationed on Yager Creek, a few miles distant, went immediately in pursuit, but returned in a few days without having succeeded in finding them. A few days since a band of ten Indians attacked and robbed the house of one Cutterback, about two miles from Cooper’s Mills, where there is a small detachment of the Second Cavalry California Volunteers, which on being informed of it hurried to the spot; but the Indians had escaped before their arrival and our men were not able to find them. Mrs. Cutterback was slightly wounded in the side by a rifle-ball. In all these attacks the Indians found fire-arms and ammunition, which was probably their chief object. Night before last four citizens were attacked by a party of Indians in ambush on Mad River eight miles beyond Fort Baker. One of them was killed. Another, who was wounded, crawled into the woods and has not yet been heard of. The other two escaped. One of them carried the news to Fort Baker, where I doubt not Captain Ketcham promptly took such measures as the occasion required. On the 2d of July Lieutenant Gonnisson, of Company E, Second Infantry California Volunteers, returned from a scout with thirty-five Indian prisoners. A few days since Sergeant Wyatt with a detachment of Company K, Second Infantry California Volunteers, stationed at Camp Olney, on Mattole River, returned to camp from a scout in which he had killed 1 Indian and took 7 prisoners. The number of Indians now confirmed at this post is 365. Several have died, probably owing to the close confinement, to which they are unaccustomed. Owing to the freshet it was impossible for the troops to get to their camps in the interior until the 20th of March. As some indication of the activity they have displayed since that time, I beg leave to state that the number of reports of scouts already received is forty-three, and that most of them were scouts of fifteen days each. In consequence of Captain Akey’s former requisitions for ammunition not having been answered, I have been compelled in one or two instances to authorize the purchase of powder and lead when his men had to be sent into the field. I inclose a fresh requisition from him. I am happy to state that the discipline of Company {p.61} A, Second Infantry California Volunteers (formerly Captain Smith’s), is now completely restored. That company under its new commander (Captain Flynn) has relieved Company K, at Fort Lyon. First Lieutenant Hubbard, of Company K (now here as witness before the court-martial, is stationed at Camp Olney, on the Mattole River, about forty miles south of this place, with a detachment of his own company. I am uniting the scattered detachments of that company and sending them to that station, where a full company is urgently needed, the settlements in Mattole Valley being quite numerous and the Indians there being in great numbers and roving about in large bands. I am now satisfied that all that Company K wants is a good commanding officer, and I intend to give Lieutenant Hubbard ample opportunity to show whether he can become one. Captain Heffernan is still at Fort Lyon in attendance upon his sick wife. I am about to direct him to turn over his company property to Lieutenant Hubbard. A full statement of the matters charged against him as going to show his unfitness for command will be sent down by me per next steamer, unless, in the meantime he should tender his resignation, which I do not expect he will do.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 4, 1862.

MAJOR: Minor’s is on the north side of Redwood Creek, on the trail from Arcata to Fort Gaston. Descending the river toward the ocean from Minor’s to Fort Anderson, Captain Douglas’ post, it is one mile; thence to Whitney’s ranch four miles; thence to Albee’s, four miles, and thence to Elk Camp, seven miles. Neil’s and Williams’ are between Albee’s and Elk Camp. Some time since a detachment of twenty men was sent from Fort Gaston to Elk Camp, where it relieved a detachment of Captain Stuart’s company ordered to Smith’s River. Eight of these were detached to Albee’s, where they erected a stockade defense. At Whitney’s ranch, four miles above Albee’s, on the 28th of July, Mr. Whitney had with him two hired men, an Indian boy and Corporal Kennedy and two men of Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, whom Captain Douglas had been obliged to leave behind, they having given out from fatigue during a scout. One of the hired men having been fired at by an Indian early in the forenoon, he was sent down to Albee’s to report the fact. After he left a large band of Indians suddenly surrounded the settlement, killed Mitchell, the other hired man, and Private Campbell, of Company F, and mortally wounded Mr. Whitney himself, who died the next morning. The Indians took from Whitney and Mitchell their two guns and a revolver. Corporal Kennedy, with Private Lee and the Indian boy, bravely held the house (oil which fifty bullet holes were afterward counted), continuing to return the Indians’ fire till their departure, which was sudden, being caused, apparently, by the approach of Captain Douglas with a detachment, not, however, till they had burnt the barn, which was near the house. What loss was sustained by the Indians is not known, as they always carry away their dead and wounded when practicable. Mr. {p.62} Whitney told Captain Douglas before he died that there were 300 of them, all well armed, and Corporal Kennedy’s and Private Lee’s statements are to the same effect, but the number is probably much exaggerated. Captain Douglas had arrived that forenoon at Albee’s, four miles below, with a detachment of twenty men that was with him on a scout. The men were much fatigued, having just completed a long and hard march through bogs and streams. On arriving Captain Douglas, being informed of the appearance of the Indians at Whitney’s, immediately double-quicked his detachment to that place, the last part of the route on the run. The Indians had retired before his arrival, taking a direction that would lead them to Albee’s. The captain therefore immediately sent back Lieutenant Noyes with ten men to Albee’s to re-enforce that small post. His remaining ten men were too much exhausted to pursue the Indians. The next day Privates Osgood and Robey, of Captain Akey’s company, two of our express riders, were fired upon by Indians in ambush about two miles below Albee’s. They received some fifteen shots in all. At the first fire Osgood was shot through the body and Robey’s horse was wounded, but not seriously. Robey exchanged fire with an Indian close to him, but without injury to either. They managed to get through to Albee’s, thence to Fort Anderson, where Osgood now is. He is expected to recover. The next day a band of about forty Indians attacked Neil’s ranch, on Redwood Creek, between Albee’s and Elk Camp, wounding a man named Miller, then living there with a squaw wife, and killing his squaw and child, Miller making good his escape. They also burnt Williams’ place adjoining. On the first report coming in of these outrages I sent orders to the nearest posts to re-enforce Captain Douglas and cooperate with him as he might require, of which the captain was notified. He has availed himself of these orders, and is actively and zealously engaged in the pursuit of the Indians, and in affording such protection as he can to the settlements on Redwood Creek. Last year a party of white Indian killers attacked an Indian ranch. The Indians defended themselves. In the fight an Indian called Bob, whose brother had just been shot dead, killed one of the white assailants named Parker. This Bob was one of the Indians who have come in voluntarily and surrendered themselves, relying on my promise of protection. Parker’s friends have obtained a warrant against him for murder, and the sheriff has been here to execute it. I refused to give him up on the ground of his being a prisoner of war.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 10, 1862.

MAJOR: Major Curtis arrived here on the 7th instant with Companies B and C, Second Infantry California Volunteers. Company D had been landed at Fort Bragg. The steamer that carries this will undoubtedly take down Captain Moore’s company of Third Infantry California Volunteers, stationed there, as they have long been ready to embark. Fort Baker is at such a distance that it will require eight days to bring {p.63} Captain Ketcham’s company here. It will be ready to embark in the next steamer, as will also Captain Johns’ company. The latter company would have been ready by thins steamer but for the recent attacks by the Indians on the settlements near Redwood Creek, which made it impossible to call in the detachment of twenty men of that company at Elk Camp under Lieutenant Anderson, as I had intended to do. The three companies from the north arrived here much reduced. Company C has only sixty men, having lost thirty by desertion on the march from Fort Colville, Company D lost forty men in the same way, having only forty left. Company B numbers fifty-nine, including a detachment of nineteen men left at Umpqua, and expected here in the next steamer. Lieutenant Staples, Third Infantry California Volunteers, has returned from his pursuit of the five men under sentence who had deserted, as reported in my last letter. He succeeded in finding and bringing back three of them, Kelly, Smithy, and Brennan. Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, left here for Red Bluff on the 5th instant. They would have left on the 4th but the mule train did not arrive here till the evening of that day. Lieutenant Daley is in command. Unfortunately, a few days before, Captain Akey had a personal difficulty with a citizen at Eureka, who most grossly insulted him, the result of which was that the captain was bound over in the sum of $1,500 to appear and answer for an assault before the court of sessions here on the second Monday of this month. Proceedings have been taken within a day or two by which his appearance is postponed to the second Monday of October next. Captain Akey will therefore proceed by this steamer to join his company by the way of San Francisco, and will probably arrive at Red Bluff before his company reaches there. Of course, in order to save his bondsmen and his honor, Captain Akey will be obliged to appear before the court here on the second Monday of October, even if line should have to resign in order to do so. I trust that the convenience of the service will allow such arrangements to be made, as will enable him to fulfill his obligation. Instead of twelve surplus saddles, Captain Akey found he had only five to turn over. Seven more will be absolutely necessary for express purposes. No citizen can now be hired to carry dispatches at any price unless we furnish him an escort, and if we must send an escort, we may as well send it without the citizen and save the expense. Our need of regular expresses is so urgent that I shall probably have to order the purchase of seven more saddles without waiting to hear from below. On the 4th instant Lieutenant Fairfield returned here with a detachment of Company K, Second Infantry California Volunteers, and forty Indian prisoners, most of them bucks. The whole number of Indians now at this post is 462. At Fort Baker, where twelve more warriors of Las-Sic’s band have just come in, 212; total, 674. On the night of the 6th instant a party of about thirty Indians attacked a Mr. Dumphreys on the trail four miles from Fort Gaston. A shower of bullets pierced his clothes, his saddle, and his mule. He escaped through the dense undergrowth to Fort Gaston. Colonel Olney immediately sent out small detachments in every direction, some scouring the woods while others were lying in ambush. They returned the next day, having found only the tracks of the Indians, which they traced into the thicket, where they were lost. Lieutenant Swasey having been verbally informed by you that a leave of fifteen days to my adjutant, Lieutenant Hanna, would be approved by the department commander, he goes down by my permission on this steamer, without waiting for {p.64} the reply to his written application, as his services can be better spared for the next fifteen days than at any other time.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

P. S.-Lieutenant Hanna has leave till the steamer of September 5.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, August 31, 1862.

COLONEL: In the afternoon of the 15th instant I received information of a band of Indians having taken possession of a timbered point of land on the coast about forty-five miles from this post and about twelve above Trinidad, where they had attacked parties of travelers, and where they were supposed to intend to remain in order to cut off all communication with the settlements above. I immediately repaired to Camp Curtis, two miles beyond Arcata; took with me Captain Schmidt’s company (B, Second California Volunteer Infantry) and proceeded with it the same evening to Trinidad, where we arrived at daybreak. The people of Trinidad were much alarmed; were expecting an attack every hour; had placed all their women and children in a brick stone, and a loaded cannon in the main street. All the domestic Indians in the place were at once put on an island and watched, to prevent their giving information of our march. We lay by at Trinidad the whole of that day, and at dark commenced our march for the point where the Indians were stated to be. The night was pitchy dark, and as the march wins conducted in the most perfect silence, there was nothing to betray our approach. At daybreak we arrived on the beach about one mile below the destined point. I made the men lie down behind the trunk of an enormous tree that was lying on the beach, and proceeded onward with a guide, a packer, and Lieutenant Campbell, with a citizen overcoat thrown over him. If the Indians had fired on us we should have retreated in such a manner as to draw them into the ambush prepared. We passed by the timbered point a third of a mile or more, but no Indians made their appearance. The command was them ordered up, and was employed for some time in examining the timber and the brush between the beach and Redwood Camp, a ranch three miles inland, which the Indians had attacked and burnt some three days before, and whither, it was supposed, the band had now gone, from the direction of a few fresh tracks we found on the beach. One-half of the command under Captain Schmidt was sent round to the same point by another trail. We camped that day at Redwood Camp to allow the men to get some sleep. In the afternoon three Indian scouts came within a few hundred yards of the camp to reconnoiter. On their being seen and reported by the sentry, Lieutenant Campbell was hastily dispatched with ten men to capture them. On being pursued the Indians scattered and ran into the forest in different directions. Captain Schmidt and Lieutenant Campbell, each with a detachment deployed as skirmishers dashed into the woods after them, while I posted myself with the remaining nine men as a reserve in a central {p.65} position, whence I could see the whole ground, keeping the men concealed in the brush. After an exhausting chase through undergrowth and chaparral almost impenetrable the detachments were obliged to return without having succeeded in finding the Indians or their tracks. We remained at Redwood Camp the whole of the next day, when a detachment was sent out and scoured the country around in every direction, but no Indian, or sign of one, was to be seen. The following day we marched to Elk Camp, on the other side of Redwood Creek, where Lieutenant Anderson had been lately posted with twelve men, which place, from a report made by him as he was on the point of evacuating it, there was some reason to believe was now in possession of the Indians. On approaching the spot such dispositions were made as would have insured the capture of the whole band if they had only been there; but again, as before, no Indian or Indian sign was to be seen. The next day we marched to Whitney’s, on Redwood Creek (the place of the recent attack), passing by Albee’s, where, also, we had supposed we should find the Indians in possession. The next day we crossed the Redwood and marched to Bates’, near Mad River, by the way of Elk Prairie trail, said to be frequently crossed by Indians, but neither at any of these places, nor on our return to Arcata the following day, had we the good fortune to find any Indians or any Indian sign.

The distance marched by the troops on this seven days’ scout was eighty miles, fully equal to 140 miles over ordinary roads. I cannot too highly praise the good order, silent marching, and discipline of Captain Schmidt’s command during the entire scout. I regret to report that Private Kershaw was accidentally killed during the first night march. He belonged to the rear guard of eight men who had been obliged to scatter in order to pick their way over a swamp. Shortly afterward he was advancing from a piece of brush to rejoin his detachment. It was quite dark, and the sergeant in command, after challenging him three times without a reply, supposing him to be an Indian, fired and shot him dead on the spot. On the 20th instant (two days before my return from the scout) an Indian trail was accidentally discovered by some citizens who were in pursuit of two white men. Following it they were led near a camp of some twenty-five Indians, bucks and squaws included. They returned to Arcata, organized a party of eighteen citizens, which, accompanied by Lieutenant Anderson and twelve men of Company D, Third California Volunteer Infantry, and Lieutenant Johnson with five men of Company F, Second California Volunteer Infantry, that happened to be at Arcata on duty, came up with the band at daylight. The citizens, Lieutenant Anderson’s party, and Lieutenant Johnson’s, were in separate detachments, and posted themselves so as to cut off the Indians’ retreat. In the short skirmish that ensued six Indians were said to have been killed; two of these are reported by Lieutenant Johnson to have been killed by his detachment, which also wounded three others. From Lieutenant Anderson I have had no report. One of the citizens was killed. “Five guns,” Lieutenant Johnson reports, “were captured; also 2 bows and a lot of arrows. One of the guns was a Yager, captured by us last spring from the Indians and retaken by the Indians when Whitney’s place was burned.”

On the 22d instant Lieutenant Campbell was sent by Captain Schmidt, with eleven men of Company B, Second California Volunteer Infantry, to accompany a party of citizens from Arcata, who had started to find a band of Indians said to be encamped somewhere on Little River, using as a guide a squaw who had escaped from one of the settlements recently {p.66} attacked. On arriving at the point where the squaw had last seen them no Indians were to be found and no tracks could be discovered. After consultation the two parties separated, Lieutenant Campbell, with nine of his men and two of the citizens, proceeding down the river to its mouth, whence they returned to camp without finding any Indian sign; the remainder of the citizens, together with three soldiers (including Private Bacon, of Company I, Second California Volunteer Infantry, one of the two wounded in the attack on Daley’s Ferry), went up the river. This latter party, after a few hours, came upon an Indian trail, which they followed up till it brought them to within 200 yards of the band, whose proximity was discovered by the barking of a dog. As soon as there was light enough to see they attacked them, killing, it is said, some twenty-two bucks and unintentionally five or six squaws. Among them was a white man, who was either killed or wounded, but who was dragged away by the Indians and has not been since seen. Some seven rifles were taken and other articles of property, all of which have been since identified as having belonged to settlements which had been previously attacked and plundered. Lieutenant Johnson, in relation to the first skirmish, and the citizens in relation to the last one, speak of the behavior of the soldiers in the highest terms of praise. From the slowness, uncertainty, and expense of the communications I have deemed it advisable to place the troops to the north of Redwood Creek, under the immediate command of Lieutenant-Colonel Olney, who is stationed at Fort Gaston. Under previous verbal instructions from me Lieutenant-Colonel Olney has succeeded in making an arrangement with the Hoopa chiefs to furnish us Indian guides to enable us to find the hostile Indians. I had been endeavoring to accomplish this before Colonel Olney’s arrival there, but without success, owing to the limited authority of the three principal chiefs. Colonel Olney has managed to induce the seventeen sub-chiefs to consent to the arrangement, which many of them were before unwilling to do. These sub-chiefs were all present at the making of the treaty, a copy of which I have the honor to inclose, as also that portion of Lieutenant-Colonel Olney’s letter which relates to it. If these guides are furnished us agreeably to the treaty, I consider it the most important step that has been taken toward the completion of the war, the only difficulty we have had being to know where to find the Indians. The number of Indian prisoners now at this post is 724; the number at Fort Baker is about 100, among others the chief, Say-Winne, with some of his band. There has been lately unusual sickness among the Indians here, and some deaths have occurred, caused, according to Brigade Surgeon Egbert’s official report, by the want of a vegetable diet, to which they are mostly accustomed. Doctor Egbert reports that to check it potatoes and salt will have to be issued to them, in addition to the rations of flour and meat, and that beans are not at present a suitable diet for them. I have taken the responsibility of ordering accordingly. I trust that my action in this will be approved, as well as in directing the purchase of two mules over and above the 100 I had express authority for. The last lot of eight, containing some riding mules, much needed for express purposes, being bought at remarkably reasonable terms, and the owner refusing to sell less than the entire lot. In my previous letters I have spoken of Captain Ketcham and Lieutenant Staples, of Company A, Third California Volunteer Infantry, in terms of praise. It would be unjust to Second Lieutenant Ustick, of the same company, to omit to say that we all consider him one of the most soldier-like, energetic, and efficient of all our volunteer officers, {p.67} and one who, with a little experience, would prove an invaluable acquisition to the regular service.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second California Vol. Infantry, Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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No. 2.

Reports of Lieut. Col. James N. Olney, Second California Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, June 8, 1862.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on the 6th instant, at 4 p.m., the house or hotel at Daley’s Ferry, on Mad River, about five miles from Arcata, and on the most constantly traveled trail, was attacked by a band of Indians, some fifty or sixty in number, all well armed with rifles and shotguns. There were but two soldiers stationed there, as the owner deemed it hardly necessary to have any guard so near to town, and on a public highway. The Indians opened the attack by a volley from the brush. Private Bacon was wounded in the groin at the first fire, but he and his comrade, Private Wyatt, rushed to the house and commenced firing from the windows. Daley also ran to the house, but leaving his family behind, he seized his rifle and fled to his boat in the river. Our soldiers, thus left alone, directed the women and children to endeavor to reach the boat, and they would remain and keep the Indians at bay. The family were successful in making good their escape to the boat, when our men, keeping up their fire, retired slowly, both being now wounded and faint from the loss of blood. Wyatt only was able to reach the boat. Bacon concealed himself behind a log in the brush, and from that position saw and counted twenty-seven Indians who entered the house, pillaged and set it on fire. The party in the boat were immediately fired upon by about twenty Indians on the opposite bank. An old lady (Mrs. Dausken), mother of Mrs. Daley, was struck by three balls and killed. Mrs. Daley was wounded in the arm, and Private Wyatt was again wounded, and in the arm under the shoulder, the ball grazing his breast, he being in the act of firing. His first wound was in the groin, and similar to that of Bacon. They were then forced to put back to the shore, escaping into the brush. Mrs. Daley struggling along with two children at last fell from exhaustion, upon which her husband cowardly abandoned her, throwing his infant that was in his arms into the bushes and making for Arcata. Some Indians came up to Mrs. Daley, robbed her of her rings and purse, and said they would not “kill white squaw.” The brave woman made another effort and walked some distance Then taking off some of her clothing wrapped it around the two eldest (two and three years old), hid them in the bushes and kept on, carrying her infant in her arms, one of which was torn open from the elbow to the wrist by a rifle bullet. She was rescued at last by people from Arcata who came out for the purpose, and who by her directions found the children calmly sleeping at about 2 a.m. Our wounded men were also found, and are now in the hospital at this post, their wounds, though severe, not proving {p.68} dangerous. A hired man is missing and supposed to be killed, and the Indians carried off a nephew of Mrs. Daley, about five years old. I beg leave most respectfully to bring to the notice of the general commanding Private Joseph N. Bacon, Company I, and Private Henry H. Wyatt, Company H, Second Infantry California Volunteers, for admirable coolness and bravery under the most trying circumstances. I omitted to mention that the soldiers finding themselves disabled put their arms out of the reach of the Indians, one hiding his musket in the brush the other throwing his piece into the stream.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieut. Col. Second Infty. Cal. Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant. General, San Francisco.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, June 8, 1862.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on the 26th ultimo I ordered a detachment from Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers (stationed near Hydesville), across Eel River to Eagle Prairie, in pursuit of Indians committing depredations in that locality, firing upon settlers and robbing the house of one Hazeltine of arms and ammunition. After a four days’ scout the detachment returned unsuccessful, the character of the country rendering it almost impossible to track the Indians. On the 29th ultimo I was called upon by a deputation from Mattole Valley, about fifty miles south of this post and near the coast, urgently requesting, in the name of some sixty families, mostly women and children (the men having gone to the mines), that a force should be sent for their protection, the Indians having commenced their depredations, killing cattle and robbing ranches. Another messenger arrived the same day stating that a party of settlers had been fired upon, and bringing two petitions for aid, numerously signed, one from Mattole Valley and one from Kushka, eight miles south of Mattole, where a large number of cattle are ranging, of which the savages had killed over 100 head the few days previous. Of the limited force at my disposal I could only spare fifteen men of Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, who were immediately dispatched under command of Lieutenant Hubbard. Up to this date no report has been received from this detachment.* There is no doubt a larger force is required in that important part of the district, but under present circumstances it is utterly impossible to send more troops to that point. On the 30th ultimo I received a request for an escort to bring in forty-nine Indians whom some citizens of Mattole had secured and who were on the way to this post. A small detachment of cavalry was dispatched at once, and three days since they were brought in safely. They are mostly squaws and children. There is one chief among them, and five or six other bucks. There are now en route to this post from Fort Baker 110 Indians of the Eel River tribe, captured at various times by Captain Ketcham’s command, Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, who have been very zealous and successful in inducing the Indians to come in. In this he has been efficiently aided by Lieutenant Staples of the same company. Upon the arrival here of this party there will be at this post nearly 300 Indian prisoners.

{p.69}

I have also the honor to report that on the 6th instant, at midnight, I received a dispatch from Arcata, eighteen miles north of this post, that the house or hotel at Daley’s Ferry, on Mad River, five miles from Arcata, had been attacked at 4 o’clock that p.m., and that Mrs. Daley and two children and two of our soldiers were killed. Within thirty minutes Lieutenant Davis with a detachment of twelve men of Company E, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, were on the march for the ferry.

On the 7th instant, at noon, information reached me to the effect that Lieutenant Davis’ command was engaged in fighting a large well-armed band on Mad River, three miles only from the town of Arcata, and required re-enforcements I immediately ordered all the available force at this post to march, and twenty men of Company E, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, under Captain Akey, and twenty men of Company E, Second Infantry California Volunteers, under Adjutant Hanna, started at once for the scene of action. This force I myself accompanied. Upon arriving at Arcata I learned that the Indians having left Daley’s Ferry had passed down the river about two miles, and were in the act of burning a house when Lieutenant Davis’ detachment arrived. Firing commenced between the parties from opposite sides of the stream, here about 400 yards wide; the Indians, some fifty of them well armed and stationed upon a high bluff, thus having the advantage in position. After a half hour’s fight the cavalry dashed across the river and the Indians broke and fled, Lieutenant Davis following in pursuit. Finding we were too late for the fight, I ordered forward the detachments to co-operate with Lieutenant Davis and then returned to this post, my duties here precluding a lengthened absence. On the same day I issued and forwarded orders for detachments from Companies A, F, and K, Second Infantry California Volunteers, and Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, to move immediately from their different posts, so directing their march as to cut off if possible the retreat of the Indians to the mountains. Captain Douglas, Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, a most efficient officer, was ordered to take command of the various detachments in the field, and I hope will be successful in exterminating this formidable band, said to number over 100, and who it is believed have been the principal actors in most of the recent outrages in the central portion of this district. Up to this date nothing definite has been heard from the expedition, except a few penciled lines from Captain Douglas, stating he believed he had cut off their retreat. The chances, however, are against success. The familiarity of the Indians with all practicable outlets, and the exceeding difficulty, only to be appreciated by personal experience, of troops operating in these dense forests, render it probable they will escape. I beg respectfully to refer the general commanding to my communication of this same date, containing the particulars of the affair at Daley’s Ferry. I beg respectfully to report that the limited number of troops at this post renders it impossible to detail a sufficient guard (in addition to that required over the many general prisoners in the very weak guard-house) to safely keep the large body of Indians now here and constantly accumulating. This fact, together with the frequent complaints from the Indians that white men, soldiers, and others, were nightly having intercourse with the squaws (a knowledge of which prevented many Indians at large from coming in), rendered it in my judgment necessary to take measures to suppress this evil, and at the same time secure the safe custody of the Indian prisoners. Accordingly I ordered the construction of a circular corral, {p.70} now completed, eighty feet in diameter and ten feet high, to be built of two-inch plank twelve feet in length, standing upright, and two feet in the ground. The cost will not probably exceed $150, and the plank will be perfectly available for other purposes in the future. I trust my action in this matter may be approved by the general commanding, as it seemed absolutely required in view of the facts above stated, and of the facility with which all these Indians, collected at so much expense by the Government, could at any hour of the night break for the dense forest 100 yards distant, and in five minutes thereafter be beyond pursuit.

I have the honor to remain, your most obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieut. Col. Second Infty. Cal. Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant. General, San Francisco.

* But see Hubbard’s report, June 20, p. 78.

No. 3.

Reports of Capt. Charles D. Douglas, Second California Infantry.

FORT ANDERSON, April 6, 1862-8 a.m.

SIR: I have just got into camp after returning from an Indian fight which took place about one mile from this post, on the hills east of us. About 5 o’clock this morning the sergeant of the guard reported to me of six shots being fired upon the mountain east of camp. I had the camp under arms without beat of drum in five minutes, and sent Lieutenant Johnson with five men up to Minor’s, with orders to turn to the left above Minor’s and follow up the creek that joins the main creek at that point. I took seven men with me up the mountain. After leaving camp two packers came to meet me. They told me that the Indians fired on them, and were then burning their train. I took them as guides and started for their camp. When I came in sight I saw five or six men around the fire, but could not make out whether they were Indians or whites, as the fog was so very heavy, and daylight not being very strong as yet. I watched them a little around their fire and found out they were Indians. Just as they saw us I fired on them, wounding 2 and killing I. They then broke and ran, myself and men after them. They got into the woods, when one of them turned and took a good aim at me when I was giving orders to my men. His ball passed through my glove. I had the right-hand glove in my left, and through this glove the ball went, nearly hitting Sergeant Hoalton, a few steps behind me. I fired at him. He fell wounded, but got away. The sergeant found where he left some blood, but we could not find him. They burned the train and carried away a great amount, though they had to abandon their packs. They threw Government tobacco and all kinds of stuff away, as we were too close to allow them to pack anything with them. The Indian that was killed had a U. S. minie rifle and plenty of balls. I am unable to follow them far from here, as I must have force enough to protect this post and Minor’s. I have but ten men able to do duty; the rest are sick. I think more force should be here. If I had twenty men able to march after them I would surely get every one of the band. Mr. Johnson saw about twenty Indians, and to follow them up with five or six men would be folly. I will, however, go as far as possible to-day. I would be glad to see a party of thirty or twenty men here, if possible, {p.71} to-morrow night, as we should not allow this band any time to rest, but follow them all the time until they are killed, every man of them.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Commanding Fort Anderson.

Colonel LIPPITT, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

These are Hoopa Indians, so the hospital steward tells me. He knows by the one killed.

Excuse haste, as I am going out.

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FORT ANDERSON, July 29, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I left this post on the 24th instant, with twenty men, to scout for Indians from this post to near Elk Camp. I have faithfully scouted the country lying between Fort Anderson and Elk Camp, and from Redwood Creek to Pine Creek; thence to Tully Creek down to where the line passes dividing the Redwood Indians from the Hoopa Indians, but without seeing any Indian or any new sign. This morning about daylight I sent Lieutenant Noyes round by the Elk Camp trail to Albee’s, taking the men with me up Redwood Creek to that point. I followed the bed of the creek, scouting along both banks when that could be done. I had a very hard march indeed on account of so much water being in the creek this far down. I got to Albee’s about 12 m. without finding any sign on the creek later than what Captain Flynn saw when he was there in April. On my arrival at Albee’s a man met me there from Whitney’s, three miles above. This man informed me that when he was just leaving Whitney’s an Indian came out from the woods near the house and fired at him. He (white man) rode off without waiting for the second shot. I forthwith ordered my men forward on double-quick, and from that to a run. When I arrived at Whitney’s I found his barn burned, himself mortally wounded, his hired man dead, and also one of my company, Private Campbell, dead. The Indians were nowhere to be seen, and my men were so much run down, they being in the water all day, that it was impossible for me to follow the Indians, and being so many of them I was afraid they would attack Albee’s; indeed, judging by the road they left Whitney’s, they were heading so as to come out above Albee’s house, and the eight men there would not be able to protect the family against 300 well-armed Indians. I ordered Lieutenant Noyes and ten men to post themselves in the house until further orders. I left ten men and a sergeant at Whitney’s to remain until Mr. Whitney either dies or is moved by his friends. I have my hospital steward attending him at present. I have brought Private Campbell’s body to this post for interment. There were six men at Whitney’s during the attack, of which three were men of my company left there by me, as they were sick. Corporal Kennedy and Private Lee, Mr. Whitney, and an Indian boy they had there state that there were no less than 300 Indians around the house. Corporal Kennedy and Private Lee deserve much praise, for it is owing to their conduct that there are any of them alive at all. They kept the house and fired on the Indians from the upper part of the house. Had Mr. Whitney and the others taken the corporal’s advice there would have been no deaths, I am certain, which was, after the first fire, to keep in the house. The Indians kept quiet some half an hour after they fired the first shot, and Whitney thought {p.72} they had left, so himself and his hired man, Mitchell, went out to the field to work, and both of them were shot. Private Campbell went out also against the corporal’s orders, and was killed ere he got five steps from the door. I have just heard from Hoopa that a certain Indian there said this band intends burning all the houses and killing all the men on Redwood Creek this week. I have my company in so many places that I have no force to scout with at present. In fact, I do not see that scouting parties can do any good in the field so long as we have good summer weather, but they can protect the few families now left as well as the trails for travelers. I will wait further orders here.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

First Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Adjutant Second infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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No. 4.

Report of Lieut. Henry Flynn, Second California Infantry.

FORT ANDERSON, May 15, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report to you the return of the detachment under my command which left this post on the 1st instant for the purpose of scouting for Indians. I left Fort Anderson on the 1st of this month with twenty men and fifteen days’ provisions. I sent my pack train direct to Long Prairie, and taking my men I proceeded up Redwood Creek about seven miles above this place. I then crossed the creek and searched some very suspicious cañons, which lie between the creek and Bald Mountain, but could not find any signs of Indians. I camped at Long Prairie this night. The second day I scouted the country in this vicinity. The third day I went down the North Fork of Mad River and encamped on a prairie that runs down to the river from Liscombe’s Hill. The fourth day I scouted in this vicinity. The fifth day I proceeded down the North Fork to the trail that leads to Angel’s ranch from Bates’ ranch. Remained here until dark, and then went to Croghan’s ranch. Sixth day I divided my command in small parties, and scouted in all directions for trails, as I had good reasons to believe that there were Indians about here. Seventh day I continued the search. I returned to the ranch at 3 o’clock with a few men that were with me, and while my men were eating their dinner a band of Indians crawled up within fifty yards of us and fired a volley at myself and the guide, wounding the guide very badly. The Indians being in the timber, it was impossible to see them. I rushed into the timber after them, but they retreated at a double-quick. I continued the search the 8th and 9th. The tenth day I found some fresh signs at the mouth of Maple Creek, on Mad River, about three miles from Fort Lyon. The eleventh day returned to Croghan’s ranch. The twelfth day put four days’ rations in our haversacks and returned to Mad River. Continued on down the river, finding an occasional ranch that had been vacated but a short time. The thirteenth day continued on down the river. The fourteenth day I started at daybreak and found a ranch of Indians about 7 a.m. They saw me about fifteen minutes before I arrived at their {p.73} ranch. They crossed the river on their fish dam, and then cut it away, so that I could not follow them over the river. They fought me about one hour. I killed six of them. None of my men received a wound. The Indians retreated up the hill. I then destroyed all their provisions, beds, clothing, &c. All my men behaved admirably throughout the engagement. I found a quantity of powder and gun-caps. There were about 150 Indians in this band, and it was useless for me to follow them with fifteen men. This is the tribe that murdered Mr. Bates, as I found some of his papers in their ranch.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully,

H. FLYNN, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Commanding Fort.

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No. 5.

Report of Lieut. Charles G. Hubbard, Second California Infantry.

UPPER MATTOLE, Camp Olney, June 20, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in pursuance of Special Orders, No. 65, with a detachment of fifteen men from Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, I marched from Camp Swasey on the 31st day of May, and arrived at my present camp on Mattole River on the 5th day of June, 1862, stopping one day in Lower Mattole for rest, and to ascertain the most eligible position for me to operate from in order to fully carry out the scope and intentions of the order above referred to, and the letter of instructions accompanying the same. My present camp was selected by me after due consultation with those appearing to me to be best acquainted with this valley, and, from careful examination and extended scouts, I am satisfied that my present location is the very best that could have been selected for the present, being convenient to Kushka and the coast, Lower Mattole, and the country on Bull Creek, South Fork of Eel River, and Eel River. The day after my arrival at this camp, I started with twelve men of my command and seven citizens, with ten days’ rations, to scout and pursue the band of Indians who have heretofore been committing most of the depredations in this neighborhood, and on the 7th of June, about 7.30 p.m., with a portion of the command, were successful in discovering and attacking a ranch of Indians on a small branch of the Mattole River, about twenty miles southerly from camp, and in an almost inaccessible cañon, the ranch containing about twenty Indians, large and small, killing 4 Indians, and mortally wounding 1 buck and 1 squaw, and taking prisoners 3 squaws, 2 children, and 1 boy about twelve years of age, the balance escaping in the darkness. Unfortunately they were discovered too late in the day to capture the largest portion of the band, some ten bucks and as many squaws having left for Eel River a few hours before; among those killed being an Indian named Joe, the murderer of Mr. Wise, who was killed last fall in this valley, taking from his person a Colt revolver, recognized as the property of one of the citizens of this valley, and another of the killed, an Indian named Jim, who was a leader in the robberies of Messrs. Porter’s and Aldrich’s houses, and described as one of the most vicious characters of the gang of Indian thieves who infest this valley; the boy now {p.74} a prisoner being the one who robbed Mr. Brizentine a short time ago of two guns and two pistols, ammunition, &c., he having been domesticated up to that time, a reward of $100 is offered for his scalp, and it is only by the closest attention that I can prevent his being shot down even in camp-killing, mortally wounding, and capturing all the bucks in the ranch at the time, and all of them having been active participants in the robberies lately committed; finding also in their ranch a coat and other property, including a Government overcoat and an ax, recognized as the property of Messrs. Porter, Aldrich, and others, and discovering also in another ranch (deserted) a double-barreled shotgun which had been hind by the Indians. Mr. Langdon’s house, and also the house of Mr. West, in Lower Mattole, it is reported, have been robbed merely of guns, everything else being untouched. If it is so, it is by a roving band of some five or six Indians, who are now doing most of the damage in this immediate vicinity, and looking for arms and ammunition; but their known and outspoken sympathy for the Indians leads me to believe that the public charges against them that they are furnishing arms, ammunition, and subsistence to the Indians may, to a certain extent, be true, and that the Indians, if they obtained their guns, did it by collusion with them. At any rate, I shall believe such to be the case until I have more positive information to the contrary. So far as I can ascertain, all the Indians in this portion of the country are hostile; in fact, will ever be so, so long as there are no active and vigorous steps taken to put an end to cold-blooded murder, kidnaping, and treachery. These are in my opinion the sole causes of all these difficulties with the Indians, more especially in this portion of the country and on Eel River. Cold-blooded Indian killing being considered honorable, shooting Indians and murdering even squaws and children that have been domesticated for months and years, without a moment’s warning, and with as little compunction as they would rid themselves of a dog, and, as I am informed, one man did, beating his own child’s brains out against a tree and killing the squaw, its mother, for no other reason than that he had no means else of disposing of them, and to keep them from falling into other persons’ hands. Human life is of no value in this valley, and law seems only to be respected so far as it is backed by visible force. It is well known that kidnaping is extensively practiced by a gang who live in the neighboring mountains, but the difficulty is to obtain absolute and positive proof, so as to insure a conviction under the statute of this State, which, as if not sufficient of itself as a crime, is coupled with other barbarities, murder, rape, &c., which no pen can do justice to. If the Indians are hostile they will always be so until some stringent measures are taken to protect them, and to wipe out the perpetrators of these most horrible crimes against humanity. With such examples before them going unpunished what guaranties from the Government can they depend upon?

I send to Fort Humboldt seven Indians, among them a young Indian girl, taken by me from one supposed to be an Indian stealer, she being found by him, as he says, wandering in the mountains. She was stolen by the Indians from Mr. Langdon when his house was robbed. I have also with me a squaw and child, taken from Mr. Pritchard, an old man living near my camp with his wife and two young daughters, he keeping the squaw and being, as he has generally and publicly held out, the father of the child. The squaw, however, was taken by me on suspicion of furnishing information, arms, and ammunition to the Indians, she having also been in the mountains under suspicious circumstances for a number of days and against my positive instructions to Mr. {p.75} Pritchard. Explicit instructions for my guidance in such cases would greatly assist me and settle questions which are becoming rather embarrassing to me. As a general thing I am pleased to say the citizens of Upper Mattole have rendered me all the assistance in their power, accompanying me on each scout, acting as faithful and efficient guides, furnishing me with such transportation as they had. Messrs. Tewksberry, Brown, Pritchard, Lafferty, Mann, and others, being constantly with me and furnishing me with useful information, and it is now suggested by them that with the two Indian guides now at Fort Humboldt, named Joe and Charley, who acted as guides for the citizens last fall, we would be very likely to be successful in getting in many of the Indians voluntarily. With ample assurances reaching the Indians in such a way as to claim their confidence, I believe much can be done, and it is believed that with those two Indians much could be accomplished. The detachment from Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, now with me, I cannot but speak of in the highest terms of praise for their promptness, obedience, energy, and endurance; in fact, exhibiting thus far every soldierly quality, and under many trying circumstances for beginners, bearing up without murmur and with great cheerfulness, I have no fault to find and believe that there can be no better men in the regiment. This section is, in my opinion, the finest field in the whole district for operations against the Indians, and which can be most successfully carried out from this direction, but in order to do so, a detachment should always be kept in the field of at least fifteen men. Plenty of occupation can be found for a whole company, with which the Indians, if not captured en masse, would be so hemmed in as either to be picked up in detail by Captain Ketcham, Lieutenant Staples, or the command from this direction, surrender at discretion, or be driven unto the sea; escape would be impossible. If driven in from the coast by different detachments from the coast at the same time (as can easily be done) and met from the Eel River direction by other detachments, the nature of the country is such that in my opinion immense success would be inevitable, and this is based upon personal acquaintance and examination of the country, both on Eel River and on the coast. This valley and its vicinity has always been the back door to let the Indians out from Eel River when hard pressed from that direction; but with so small a command and scarcity of transportation scouts as a matter of necessity are both in time and number limited, and of doubtful success. I would call attention to the necessity of prompt and early supply of rations, which should be so arranged as to arrive at least ten days before the previous supply is supposed to be exhausted, in order to provide against contingencies, such as having prisoners to provide for, as 1 have had from the 7th of this month, cutting our rations down to such an extent that we are now without a pound of flour, coffee-in fact, everything except rice. I would also call attention to the fact that there are no means of communication with Fort Humboldt, except by the trains arriving here with provisions, or by chance some citizen. One express per week would be a vast accommodation, so that communication could be had with headquarters if necessary.

I remain, your most obedient servant,

CHARLES G. HUBBARD, First Lieut., Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Detachment.

Col. FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

{p.76}

No. 6.

Report of Lieut. Parish B. Johnson, Second California Infantry.

FORT ANDERSON, August 23, 1862.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Humboldt Military District:

SIR: I have the honor to herewith transmit the official report of Second Lieut. P. B. Johnson, Second Infantry California Volunteers, of a skirmish with Indians on Light Prairie, August 21, 1862.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

FORT ANDERSON, CAL., August 23, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that while on detached service with my pack train at Arcata, Cal., on the evening of the 20th instant, the citizens informed me that the camp of a band of Indians had been discovered about six miles from town on what is known as Light Prairie, and that a company of the citizens proposed to attack them at daylight. I immediately volunteered my services with Sergeant Tuttle and Privates Ensign, Shepherd, Stewart, and Weaver, and our guide, Sam Overlander, to operate in conjunction with the militia under the command of George W. Ousley. At 11.30 o’clock we started from town. The expedition consisted of thirty citizens, twelve men of Company D, Third Infantry California Volunteers, under charge of Lieutenant Anderson, and myself and command. About daylight we separated into four parties and proceeded to surround the Indian camp. Myself and men were stationed about 250 yards from the camp. When it became light enough to see the sights on our guns the party of citizens, called the attacking party, numbering eighteen men, with double-barreled shotguns, commenced firing. The Indians, who were packing up their things, broke and ran down the prairie across the line of sight of my men. My men and self fired and ran after them. The Indians only fired once or twice in return. The engagement lasted about thirty minutes, and I am happy to state that my men killed or wounded every Indian that attempted to run past them. One of the citizens-James Brock, our former guide, an honest, brave, and good man-was shot through the heart while engaged in a scuffle with an Indian, the powder from the revolver burning his flesh. Of Indians it is reported that six were killed. I saw two killed by my own men, and saw their bodies in the afternoon. Five guns were captured; also two bows and a lot of arrows. One of the guns was a Yager, captured by us last spring from the Indians, and retaken by the Indians when Whitney’s place was burned. The Indian camp was a new and temporary one-a provision camp. They had killed a large steer the day before and were drying the beef. The Indians did not number to exceed, at the very largest estimate, twenty-five bucks and squaws. The camp was located on a small spring stream in the edge of the prairie, which is covered with a high and dense growth of fern.

During the afternoon of the same day I returned with a party of citizens to the prairie and found evidence to lead us to the belief that the Indians had returned during our absence and carried off all the wounded and dead save two. One of the citizens says he recognized the language of the Indians as that of Mad River. Mr. Ousley says that he heard the Hoopa language while spying out their camp the evening before.

{p.77}

I cannot speak too highly of the coolness, gallantry, and daring of the five men of Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, with me on that morning.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. B. JOHNSON, Lieutenant, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Anderson, Cal.

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No. 7.

Reports of Capt. Thomas B. Ketcham, Third California Infantry.

FORT BAKER, CAL., April 14, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the morning of April 3, 1862, I left the post with thirty enlisted men for a scout against the Indians. Having received information from Mr. Reed through Faulkner, the Government packer, that there was a band of Indians in the Redwoods near his (Reed’s) ranch, I directed my march to a secluded point on what is known as Abbott’s ranch, between the North Fork of the Yager and another small stream which empties into it from the east, and about three miles north of Reed’s ranch, behind a high mountain. From thence I sent out a small scouting party in charge of the guide for the purpose of tracing the Indians if possible. The scout was out all day and returned in the evening, reporting an abundance of old signs, ten deserted rancherias, but no sign less than a week old. At an early hour on the morning of the 6th, left camp with twenty-five men of the command, determined to thoroughly examine the Redwoods in the neighborhood of the Main and South Yager Creeks the men carrying their rations in their haversacks. At 7 a.m. crossed over to the west bank of the Yager, and after marching about four miles discovered fresh Indian tracks coming toward us. We followed the trail and found that the Indians had crossed the Yager about half a mile below the mouth of the South Yager Not seeing any tracks of squaws or children, I concluded that it would be well to try and take their camp, and then meet the Indians on their way back and surprise them. We then took up the march for their camp, which we discovered about one mile distant, but entirely deserted. The ground around the camp was covered with tracks, big and little, giving evidence that a large band had been encamped there but the day before. We felled a tree across the Yager and passed over with the intention to cut them off if possible. After marching about two miles through the brush and timber struck the trail going east. We followed it up across the South Yager and up and along the mountain side, in many places so steep that the men could scarcely maintain their footing, until we came to a small prairie, where I halted the men for a few moments to allow them to take breath. The guide had scarcely stepped out of the timber before he was observed by a squaw, who ran to give the alarm. We endeavored to intercept her, but without success. The majority of the men, with myself, pushed on as fast as we possibly could, but did not get a glimpse of an Indian with the exception of the squaw, and of her all that was seen was her head and basket, and that but for a moment. The guide with a number of the men pursued down the mountain side to the creek, whilst a number of the men with myself deployed forward in pursuit, but without success. They fled, leaving everything behind them that could embarrass their flight. There were 17 parts of sacks {p.78} of flour with the brand of Cooper’s Mills, with quite a quantity of empty sacks, 5 mill files, a piece of belting, 40 or 50 pistol bullets, some lead, a powder flask, bullet pouch, 2 bullet molds, fish nets, spear heads, some deer skins, and some 13 large baskets, besides small ones which I did not count, the most of which property I destroyed, not being able to carry it away. It was very mortifying to me that they should elude my grasp, but upon an examination of the ground it was easily accounted for. The Indians were sitting down about 250 yards from where we entered the open ground, whilst they had their spies in such positions that it was almost impossible for any enemy unacquainted with the ground to get a shot at them. From their number (from fifty to sixty) and the stories that were told by citizens about the Indians desiring to fight the white men, I was led to the belief that we should get a fight. We encamped that night at some old rancherias about a quarter of a mile in the timber to the east of the open ground. In the morning we again endeavored to obtain some trace of the Indians by which we could follow them up, but in vain. We then took up our march in a northerly direction over the ridge, through heavy redwood timber and thick brush, without being able to see any more sign than a place by a large redwood where an Indian family had slept some months since. We traveled about four miles and reached our camp. The day following camp was broken up. The command marched over to the Weaverville and Eel River trail, passing through a thousand-acre field, and camped at Ross’ ranch, on the trail, about one mile above Large’s. April 9, camped at Reed’s ranch. April 10, scouted through the timber on the south side of South Yager, down to where the Indians had crossed on the 6th, then took a southerly course, coming out on the Weaverville trail about three miles to the west of Reed’s, arriving in camp about 5 p.m. No Indian sign whatever, except that made on the 6th. From Reed’s we proceeded to Grizzly Gulch. Scouted through there without seeing any fresh sign. From Grizzly Gulch marched to the Middle Fork of the Yager. Scouted over some fifteen miles of the neighborhood to the eastward and northward without being able to discover any Indians or Indian sign in the vicinity. On the morning of the 13th took up the march for Fort Baker, arriving there at 5 p.m.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Capt., Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Baker Dist.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt.

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FORT BAKER, CAL., April 27, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report my return to the post this afternoon from a successful scout. We have killed 3 Indians and 1 squaw (who was mistaken for a buck), and have 24 prisoners, big and little, amongst them two boys, respectively sixteen and eighteen years of age, who were found secreted after the firing ceased, and were without weapons. If it meet the views of the colonel commanding, I would respectfully request that their lives be spared, as it will be likely to have a tendency to induce others to surrender. I will forward a more detailed account in the course of a day or two.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Baker.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

{p.79}

FORT BAKER, CAL., April 28, 1862.

SIR: In pursuance of orders received from district headquarters a detachment of twenty-five enlisted men of Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, under the command of Captain Ketcham, left the post on the afternoon of the 23d instant in pursuit of a band of Indians who had been killing cattle in the neighborhood of the McEntee Crossing, on the Van Dusen River. The detachment made camp near the edge of the Redwood, about three miles below the crossing at 10 p.m. On the following morning found the Indian trail leading into the Redwoods; traced the trail across the Van Dusen, up the mountain side until dark, when we encamped. On the 25th instant followed the trace over the mountain, across the mail trail toward the mouth of Larrabee Creek. About 3 p.m. discovered a large ranch which had been fortified by felling trees around it, but the Indians had deserted the ranch two or three days previously. We finally succeeded in finding the trail about dark, when we encamped. At daybreak of the 26th had the men up, and after breakfast started upon the trail, coming upon the Indians about 9 a.m. encamped in a deep ravine near Eel River. There were 3 Indians and 1 squaw killed, 2 boys, 11 squaws, and 11 children prisoners, two bucks and one squaw escaping. On our march homeward in the afternoon discovered fresh Indian tracks crossing the mail trail toward the Van Dusen. Detached ten men from the command, leaving fifteen to guard the prisoners to McEntee’s Crossing. Followed the trace to the Van Dusen, where we lost it. Not being able to regain the trace, started for camp at McEntee’s Crossing, which we reached at 9 p.m., on our way finding the ranch which had been reported by Mr. Gray. The ranch had been deserted some days. The detachment with the prisoners arrived at Fort Baker the afternoon of the 27th instant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Baker.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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FORT BAKER, CAL., May 14, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report the return of the detachment of ten men sent out from this post on the morning of May 11, 1862. They brought with them fifty-nine Indians besides the three runners sent out with the command, to wit, nineteen bucks, twenty-four squaws, and sixteen children, making in all eighty-eight now at the post. The detachment was sent out under orders to proceed to some eligible spot near Larrabee Creek and Eel River, and from thence to send out runners and collect as many Indians as possible and bring them to the post. They were to remain out six days, but if they could accomplish the object which I had in view in less than the six days, to return as soon as that object was accomplished. At 10 a.m. May 13 the detachment camped near Eel River and immediately sent out runners in different directions. The runners returned to camp early this morning, bringing with them the Indians above mentioned. The runners report that the rest of the Indians had run off. The most of them had gone up South Fork of Eel River, having been scared by a large number of soldiers (Lieutenant Hubbard’s command, I presume), who were near the mouth of Larrabee Creek, The runners could not be induced to go out again {p.80} for fear the soldiers would shoot them, and also stated that the Indians could not be found for several days. Under these circumstances the camp was broken up and the detachment, with the prisoners, returned to this post. I am very much disappointed with the result obtained, for I had good reason to expect at least 150 Indians to be brought to the post. I would respectfully represent to the colonel commanding that since Lieutenant Hubbard has been sent into my district it is no more than just to me that I should at least be informed of his movements. His scout upon Eel River at the present time will, I think, be found to be productive of more evil than benefit. The Indians upon Eel River generally have been desirous to come in, but were afraid to trust the whites, In pursuance of instructions, I have promised them protection, and many of them were waiting for me to send over some soldiers to protect them on the way to the post, when they say that seeing soldiers that they knew were not mine, they took to flight with the exception of the few above mentioned. There are eight of the bucks who came in today who have squaws and children at the fort, and are very anxious about them. I have promised them that the whites shall not interfere with their squaws, and that they can go down to the fort in a few days. I desire to know if the colonel commanding desires to have Las-Sic’s band called in, or whether I shall pursue him. I have been informed that the Indians are very troublesome around Kneeland’s Prairie. Will I be justified in sending an expedition there? I am satisfied that my plan of employing Indian runners will be found to be of great utility, both in calling Indians in and in hunting those who do not come in. I have seen enough of trailing Indians to convince mine that an Indian can follow a trail when a white man would be completely at fault.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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FORT HUMBOLDT, CAL., June 23, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in obedience to Special Orders, No. 65, headquarters Humboldt Military District, I crossed Mad River in command of thirty men of Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, and thoroughly scouted the country from the mouth of Pilot Creek to within two miles and a half of Fort Lyon and from the summit of the mountain to Mad River. On the fifth day out we captured two young boys and forced them to lead us to their ranch. We found that the ranch had been deserted the day previous. Took the trail from the ranch; marched until dark, when I discovered an Indian fire on the opposite side of the river. As soon as the moon rose the men were put in motion, marched until daybreak, when we crossed the river, attacked the ranch, killed one Indian, and two got away. The brush around the ranch was so thick that it was with great difficulty that the men forced their way through and greatly facilitated the escape of the Indians. During the attack upon the ranch one of the Indian boys made his escape. We afterward succeeded in finding the trail of the entire band of Indians about five miles from Fort Lyon and tracked them across the river without being able to overtake them. {p.81} Having been informed by Captain Heffernan that my detachment had been ordered back to Fort Baker and my provisions being nearly out, we marched back to Fort Baker, arriving there at 5 p.m. on the ninth day from the time that the command left Fort Baker. We experienced very unfavorable weather for some days during the scout.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Detachment.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mu. Dist., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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FORT BAKER, CAL., July 11, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that two citizens residing in the neighborhood of the fort (Messrs. Lyle and Gray) came to the post yesterday morning and informed me that a party of citizens had been attacked by Indians the previous evening while encamped on the Weaverville trail near the crossing of Mad River, and one person killed-Mr. Lyons, of Eel River, and Mr. Olmstead, of Eureka, badly wounded. I started for the scene of attack with fifteen men, leaving five men to follow with the mule train, for the purpose of rendering whatever assistance it was in my power to render. We arrived near Mad River about 2.30 p.m., and found Mr. Olmstead upon the trail with a number of citizens who had already arrived and rendered such assistance as they could under the circumstances. Mr. Olmstead had been shot through the thigh and one shot had lodged in his hip, and he was suffering severely. I directed a detail of the men to bear him to Yager Creek Settlement (Doctor Phelps, of Hydesville, had already been sent for). I then proceeded to the camp and there saw the body of Mr. Lyons lying near where the camp-fire had been. Mr. Lyons had been shot through the face and body. The Indians after killing him had stripped him entirely naked, cut his throat, and taken out his heart; his right hand was also burned off. The body of Mr. Lyons was wrapped in blankets and put upon a mule by the citizens, for the purpose of being delivered to his friends for burial. It appears that the party, consisting of Messrs. Olmstead, Adams, Grounds, and Lyons, with an Indian boy, were on the way to Weaverville with cattle, and had encamped near the trail and were engaged in cooking their supper when the Indians, having crawled up a ravine leading from the river, opened fire upon the whites at a distance of about fifty yards, firing some 100 shots, with the result before stated. Mr. Olmstead, wounded as he was, succeeded in making his escape to a pile of driftwood in the river, to which place he was pursued by five or six Indians, but fortunately Mr. Olmstead succeeded in securing a position from which with his six-shooter he was enabled to kill one Indian and drive the rest off. Mr. Grounds succeeded in screening himself amongst the rocks until midnight, when he made his way toward Yager Creek Settlement. Mr. Adams arrived at Yager Creek Settlement about daylight yesterday morning and gave the information to the settlers there. The Indians also killed three horses, two on this side of the river and one on the east side, which was cut up and carried off with them (the horse on the east bank of the river). Mr. Hoagland, who came from Hay Fork yesterday, saw the trail of the Indians where they had come down from the mountain and had gone back toward the head of Grouse Creek. {p.82} Judging from the number of the Indians and the manner in which they are armed, and the direction from which they came, I am satisfied that it is the same band that committed the outrage at Daley’s Ferry a short time since. I have been informed that the band, after making the attack upon Daley’s Ferry, went to the headwaters of Mad River, and I presume that they now are on their way back to the Redwoods. The Indians captured two revolvers-one six-shooter and one seven-shooter. Mr. Olmstead being a very heavy man, I found it necessary to detail three reliefs of four men each to carry him to the settlement. I could not, therefore, attempt to pursue the Indians, even had I the time to do so.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Vols., Commanding Post.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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Report of the operations of Company A, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Capt. Thomas B. Ketcham, in the field, &c., during the month of July, 1862.

FORT BAKER, CAL., August 1, 1862.

July 1, 1862, Captain Ketcham left the post with fifteen enlisted men on a scout against the Indians in the Redwoods, near Reed’s ranch. Sergeant Jones with a detachment of nine men left the post the same day under orders to proceed to Kettenshaw and endeavor to call in on capture Las Sic and his band of Indians. July 4, Captain Ketcham having thoroughly scouted in the neighborhood of the South Yager Creek, and down to the junction with the main Yager about two miles, when, finding Indian signs proceeding up the creek, followed up the tracks for nearly two days, when, losing the trail and not being able to recover it, struck for Thousand-Acre Field, from thence to the post. July 5, Sergeant Jones with detachment of nine men returned to the post; did not succeed in finding any Indians. July 10, two citizens (Messrs. Gray and Lyle) came to the post and stated that a party of four citizens who were on their way to Weaverville with a band of cattle had been attacked at their camp on the trail near the Upper Crossing of Mad River by Indians on the previous evening, and that one citizen had been killed (Mr. Lyons) and another badly wounded (Mr. Olmstead), the two others making their escape to the Yager Creek Settlement. I ordered a detail of twenty men to be made, and marched (accompanied by Messrs. Gray and Lyle as guides) for the Upper Crossing of Mad River. Owing to the dense fog upon the mountains we were forced to follow the trail all the way, by which we were detained upward of two hours. A short distance from the camp where the citizens had been attacked we met a number of citizens who had arrived before us, having Mr. Olmstead in charge. Mr. Olmstead had two bullets in his right thigh and was suffering severely. His friends not being able to convey him to a place of safety, twelve men of the detachment were detailed for that purpose. I then proceeded to the camping place of the citizens, and there saw the body of Mr. Lyons lying near to where the fire had been, one bullet through his chest, another through his face, his throat cut, his heart taken out, and his right hand burned off to the wrist. The body had been stripped by the Indians. Two {p.83} horses were also lying near, having been killed at the same time. The camp was situated on the west bank of Mad River, a bout one-quarter of a mile from the river, on an open space nearly surrounded by small bushes. About fifty yards to the south there is a small gulch running down to the river. The Indians, it is said to the number of about forty, crossed from the Fort Lyon District, came up the gulch, and being concealed by the brush growing upon its banks, fired upon the citizens while they were preparing supper, killing and wounding as before stated. Five of the Indians pursued Mr. Olmstead, who succeeded in making his escape after killing one of the Indians with his revolver. The Indians then recrossed the river, taking the Weaverville trail to the top of the mountain, and from thence struck off toward the head of Grouse Creek.

July 11, Corporal McHirron, with the detachment detailed to carry Mr. Olmstead to Yager Creek Settlement, returned to the post. July 15, Sergeant Jones with detachment of fourteen men, the guide and interpreter and two Indian runners, left the post under orders to march to the South Fork of Eel River; from thence to Fort Seward; from thence to Kettenshaw, and from thence back to the post, and to capture and call in as many Indians as possible, and to endeavor to surprise Say-Winne’s band and punish them severely. July 24, Sergeant Jones with detachment, &c., returned to the post, having succeeded in capturing and calling in 112 Indians (36 grown males, 50 squaws, and 26 children). Between the 20th and 31st days of July there were 44 Indians (amongst them the chief Las-Sic) brought to the post by citizens. There are now at the post 55 warriors, 68 squaws, and 65 children, Lieut. J. F. Staples, with nineteen enlisted men of my company, has been stationed at the Eel River House in the district of Capt. D. B. Akey, Second Cavalry California Volunteers) since June 28, 1862. I have had no report from him for the month of July. In connection with the attack upon the citizens at the Upper Crossing of Mad River, I would respectfully state that there are two bands of very hostile Indians within striking distance of Fort Baker. One ranging in the Redwoods, near Reed’s ranch, and south to Eel River; another ranging in the mountains and gulches on the east side of Mad River, between Fort Lyon and the Eel River and Weaverville trail. Owing to the nature of the country, and the fact of their being constantly upon the alert, it is almost impossible for one body of soldiers to succeed in getting near enough to attack them. To capture or destroy these Indians it will be found necessary that four detachments (of fifteen or twenty men each) should be put in motion against them at about the same time. Whilst two parties are driving them, the other two parties would be so placed as to intercept their retreat. The points to be occupied will very readily suggest themselves to an officer acquainted with the country. To carry out this plan with success it will be necessary (if the exigencies of the service will permit) that the officer in command at Fort Baker should have control of at least one company, and authority to order the troops at Fort Lyon to co-operate with the troops from Fort Baker when necessary, and to provide guides when needed for each detachment.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Baker.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

{p.84}

No. 8.

Report of Lieut. John F. Staples, Third California Infantry.

FORT BAKER, CAL., June 2, 1862.

CAPTAIN: Pursuant to Post Orders, No. 22, I left this post on the morning of the 29th of May with a detachment of twenty men on a scout for Indians. Traveled eight miles to the head of Yager Creek and camped for the night. May 30, left camp at 6 o’clock. Followed the Hydesville trail to Reed’s ranch; thence in a southwesterly direction to the Van Dusen, at a point known as the Van Dusen Mail Station. Camped for the night.

May 31, crossed the Van Dusen. Traveled in a southwest course to Eel River; thence up the river one mile. Discovered a party of from twenty-to thirty Indians, who were also traveling up the river. They saw us first as we were coming into a small prairie. We were close to them before they discovered us. I immediately attacked and routed them, killing 1 buck and capturing 12 squaws and children. They had several guns, but I am unable to say how many. They fired several shots at us from the brush. One shot struck Corporal Collins’ cap-box, passing through it, and lodging against his belt-plate, doing him no serious harm. Returned to the mail station and camped for the night.

June 1, returned via Reed’s ranch to McEntee’s Crossing of the Van Dusen.

June 2, arrived at Fort Baker at 11.30 o’clock with twelve prisoners, having been absent four days and a half.

J. F. STAPLES, First Lieutenant, Third Infantry California Volunteers.

Capt. THOMAS E. KETCHAM, Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Fort Baker, Cal.

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No. 9.

Report of Lieut. Joseph Anderson, Third California Infantry.

ELK CAMP, July 31, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to inform you that we had a visit from the Indians in this vicinity yesterday about 6.30 o’clock. They shot Mr. Miller in the thigh, killed his squaw and child about one year old. Miller, after being shot, made good his escape to Mr. Saunders’ house, about three miles from where the Indians made their attack; also his boy, about nine years old. As soon as I got the news I had my party divided and sent part of them to Mr. Saunders’ house, and had Miller, his boy, and Mr. Saunders, who is helpless at present, moved to this camp, which was then about 9 o’clock at night. After getting them all together, with Mr. Morton’s family, I made the best disposition I possibly could with the small command I had for the night. I am to-day preparing for another attack, and assisting Mr. Morton to have his family moved to Trinidad; also, Miller and Mr. Saunders, as both of them require medical attendance. I received orders last night from Captain Douglas to proceed with what available force I had and scout from this camp along Redwood Creek to Albee’s, and if I discovered any Indian signs to let him know. The force I have here is not sufficient to protect this place, and if I divide it I know Indians, who are now encamped about Coyote Camp, will come back and destroy what houses remain standing here. These are Mr. Saunders’, Mr. McConaha’s, and Mr. Morton’s, which {p.85} are worth several thousand dollars with their crops, all of which will be destroyed by dividing the party. I therefore take the responsibility of stopping here contrary to Captain Douglas’ orders, as I think I could accomplish nothing by scouting with the party that I could take from this command, as I am positive there is a large party of Indians between here and Albee’s. The four men of Company D, Third Infantry, which brought the order from Captain Douglas, passed two camps, one where the military express rider was shot, with fourteen Indians they saw sitting at a camp-fire, and the other camp a little above where Miller was shot. The number there they could not tell, but by the noise they made at the time they passed, they judged there must have been some thirty or forty Indians. They traveled-all night and got here about 3.30 o’clock this morning. The Indians burned Mr. Miller’s house and Mr. Williams’; also, shot Miller’s horse and destroyed everything about the place. As soon as I have Miller, Saunders, and Mr. Morton’s family started for Trinidad I am going to see what other damage they have done. I am only rationed up to the 4th of August. I hope that a train may arrive here before that time. If they have not started I would advise them to come by Trinidad to this camp. I hope the colonel commanding will approve of my course of action in keeping the small force I have here together and not complying with the order I have received from Captain Douglas; I would comply, however, with Captain Douglas’ order, but I find that the men are not very well satisfied to stop here after I divide the party and leave then. I have reason to believe they would not stop here after me to afford any protection to this place, and for that reason I have thought better to keep this party together and acquaint the colonel commanding of the course I have taken. The party of this command now at Albee’s will have to get supplies from Fort Anderson. I cannot procure an animal to pack them any provisions from here.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ANDERSON, First Lieut., Third Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Elk Camp.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Humboldt Military District.

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No. 10.

Report of Lieut. John D. Myers, Third California Infantry.

LISCOMBE’S HILL, CAL., June 11, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report, for the information of the colonel commanding, that a party of men-one corporal and two privates from my detachment-escorting Government stores to Elk Camp, transported by McConaha’s pack train, was, on their return from that station on the 9th [8th] (Sunday), while encamped at Fawn Prairie, were attacked by a party of about fifty Indians, who kept up a continual fire on a log cabin where the men were for protection for about half an hour, and the balls came through the cabin so fast that the men were forced to leave. The Indians have got their blankets and overcoats, and if it had not been dark would, from their numbers, have, no doubt, got the men. I think from the number and the way that they came that they are the same party that committed those depredations on Mad River on that same morning. The men think that they destroyed all belonging {p.86} to the train, as they fired into the mules before they fired at the cabin. The prairie is four miles from Fort Anderson and eight miles from this hill. The men will want blankets and overcoats.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN D. MYERS, Second Lieut., Third Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Detachment.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, Jr., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Humboldt Military District.

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No. 11.

Report of Capt. David B. Akey, Second California Cavalry.

FORT HUMBOLDT, CAL., April 12, 1862.

COLONEL: As directed by you I left Fort Humboldt Thursday, April 3, with a detachment of my company, consisting of three noncommissioned officers and twenty-eight men, in pursuit of Indians. Left a detachment of one corporal and three men at the Eel River House, it having been reported to me that an attack was threatened at Figglebaum’s Store. Encamped at Cooper’s Mills Friday, 12 m. Found the mills robbed of from 2,000 to 2,500 pounds of flour, and belts, ropes, and all movable machinery cut up or destroyed. Mills had been fired in three places, but had died out. Saturday morning, April 5, started on the trail of the Indians, with two non-commissioned officers and twenty-three men. From the signs supposed to be between twenty and thirty Indians. Marched in a westerly direction; country heavily timbered; undergrowth almost impassable. Marched a distance of fourteen miles. No fresh sign of Indians. Encamped near a small prairie, twelve miles from Cooper’s Mills. Same night sent two men back after mules with provisions. Weather clear, elevation above Cooper’s Mills about 500 feet, distance from Iaqua Ranch about two miles. Sunday morning, April 6, at daylight, sent out four scouts-two in the direction of Fort Baker, and two in a northeasterly direction to strike Yager Creek above the junction of the streams putting into Yager near Kneeland’s Prairie and the Iaqua country. The scouts in the direction of Fort Baker reported at camp 4 p.m. Crossed Yager Creek five miles above the Fort Baker trail; distance traveled, twelve miles. Reports the country very rough and very heavy timber, no sign of Indians having crossed in that direction. Scouts in the direction of Kneeland’s Prairie reported at camp at sunset. Crossed the old trail of Indians two miles from camp; trail perhaps four or five days old. Three miles from camp crossed the trail of two Indians traveling in the direction of the Mad River country. Sign fresh, having passed the same day. Passed down to the Yager about one mile above the mouth of Booth’s Run. No other fresh sign discovered; distance traveled, thirteen miles. Monday morning, April 7, left camp at 5 a.m. with two non-commissioned officers and twenty-four men. Four inches of snow. Found fresh trail of two Indians as reported by scouts. Followed the trail about one mile; came in sight of two Indians, supposed to be spies; ordered the men to fire; both were killed. Here divided the detachment. Thirteen men under command of Sergeant Reynolds took a direct course for Yager Creek, directly opposite Iaqua Ranch; thirteen men mind Sergeant Helon, Captain Akey in command, passed down toward Yager Creek; {p.87} found four Indian ranches abandoned perhaps four or five days. Country very rough. Deep cañons and dense forests skirted Yager Creek a distance of three miles. No fresh Indian signs. Indians evidently on the alert, and moving in direction of Mad River. Arrived in camp 6 p.m.; men very much fatigued. Sergeant Reynolds reports half hour later; numerous trails of Indians, not fresh; but moving back discovered numerous abandoned ranches, a large number of Indians having evidently encamped in this vicinity during the winter. Tuesday morning, April 8, took a circuitous route for Cooper’s Mills, marching in a northwesterly direction; surprised a ranch of Indians 3 p.m. Showed no sign of aims having been in their possession; distance from Eel River settlements, two miles; number of Indians, fifteen, including men, women, and children. Two of said Indians were recognized by some of the citizens of Eel River as having been formerly in the employ of white men, and strong suspicions of having given information to the Indians who robbed Cooper’s Mills. I find the settlers of the Eel River Valley very much exasperated, and strongly recommend the removing of all Indians from Eel River Valley. Arrived with full detachment at Eel River House 12 m. April 9, Corporal Smart reports having captured nine Indians three miles from Eel River House. Indians apparently tame, but from every information are in communication with the hostile tribes. Corporal Smart reported to me of a ranch of Indians on the east side of Van Dusen’s River, distant from camp nine miles. Scout Sergeant Helon, with five men, reported at sunset with seven Indians captured at Eagle Prairie.

April 10, arrived at Fort Humboldt with full detachment. Men all well with the exception of one man, shot with carbine in the foot. Total number of Indians captured, 31 [42]-11 bucks, 13 squaws, and 18 children. I cannot speak too highly of the soldierly bearing of the men under my command.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. B. AKEY, Captain Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

Col. F. J. LIPPITT, Commanding Humboldt Military District.

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No. 12.

Report of Corpl. Charles H. Baton, Second California Cavalry.

COOPER’S MILLS, July 3, 1862.

SIR: There was an attack made yesterday about 5 p.m. by a band of Indians armed with rifles, about ten in number, upon the house of Mr. Cutterback, on the Van Dusen Creek, about two miles from this place. On the alarm being given I hastened to their relief as soon as possible with a part of the men under my command. The Indians on seeing us retreated to the woods with but little plunder, injuring no one seriously, Mrs. Cutterback receiving a slight wound from a rifle-ball. Night coming on we were not able to follow them far, therefore I returned to the mills.

Respectfully, &c.,

CHAS. H. EATON, Corporal, Company F, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

Col. F. J. LIPPITT, Commanding Humboldt Military District, at Fort Humboldt.

{p.88}

APRIL 13-SEPTEMBER 20, 1862.– Expedition from Southern California, through Arizona, to Northwestern Texas and New Mexico.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Pacific.
No. 2.–Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton, U. S. Army, commanding expedition.
No. 3.–Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First California Cavalry.
No. 4.–Capt. Thomas L. Roberts, First California Infantry.
No. 5.–Capt. John C. Cremony, Second California Cavalry.
No. 6.–Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth California Infantry, commanding Fort Bowie.
No. 7.–Surg. James M. McNulty, U. S. Army, acting medical inspector.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Pacific.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, August 13, 1862.

GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of a communication received at these headquarters from Brigadier-General Carleton, commanding “Column from California,” dated at Tucson, Ariz., July 22, 1862; also copies of the several communications from Lieut. Col. E. E. Eyre, commanding First Cavalry California Volunteers, dated at Fort Thorn, on the Rio Grande, on the 6th, 8th, and 14th of July, 1862; also copy of General Carleton’s Order, No. 10, issued at Tucson on the 17th of July. These documents will fully inform the Department of the movements of our forces in Arizona, and the accomplishment of all that I proposed to do in my communication addressed to you on the 9th of December, 1861. Much praise is due to Brigadier-General Carleton and the officers and men of his command for their indefatigable exertions and patient endurance of hardships while marching through a country intersected by numerous deserts where no water was to be found. Success has thus far attended all our movements. Colonel Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the troops on the Overland Mail Route, is now moving east from Fort Churchill with seven companies of his own regiment and three companies of the Second Cavalry under Colonel Sims. Quiet prevails in the District of Oregon.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

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No. 2.

Reports of Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton, U. S. Army, commanding expedition.

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Fort Barrett, Pima Villages, Ariz., May 25, 1862.

MAJOR: The advance guard of this column, under Lieut. Col. Joseph R. West, First California Volunteer Infantry, took possession of Tucson, {p.89} in this Territory, on the 20th instant, without firing a shot. All the secession troops who were in the Territory and all of the secessionists, so far as we can learn, have fled-the troops to the Rio Grande the citizens to Sonora. Our arrival is hailed with great joy by all the people who remain. We shall doubtless be able to get some forage, flour, and beef, and perhaps sugar, from Sonora; but of this I will write you in detail from Tucson in a few days. A rumor comes from the Rio Grande that Sibley has met with a serious reverse.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Commanding.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz, July 22, 1862.

MAJOR: In my letter to you, dated June 18, I informed you that I had sent Expressman John Jones, Sergeant Wheeling, of Company F, First California Volunteer Infantry, and a Mexican guide named Chavez, with communications for General Canby. These men started from Tucson on the evening of June 15. On the 18th they were attacked by a party of Apaches, and Sergeant Wheeling and the guide (Chavez) were killed, and Jones, almost by a miracle, succeeded in getting through the Indians, and after a hot pursuit on their part made out to reach the Rio Grande at a point known as Picacho, six miles above Mesilla. He was taken prisoner by the secessionists, who brought him before Colonel Steele (William Steele, late Second Dragoons), who examined him, took his dispatches, and threw him into jail. He managed, however, to get word to General Canby that he was there and that the Column from California was really coming-an achievement that was considered absolutely impracticable. However, as soon as Steele ascertained this matter as a fact, hurried preparations were made to abandon the country. Meantime General Canby had sent a large force to Fort Craig to move on Mesilla as soon as transportation could be provided. A strong reconnoitering force, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, left Tucson on June 21, and after a hard march arrived on the Rio Grande near Fort Thorn on July 4.

On the 5th this force occupied that work, it having been abandoned by the enemy. Here the colors were run up by the California troops. Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre was then re-enforced by a squadron of the Third U. S. Cavalry, and having constructed a raft and built a boat, was at the last advices about to cross the river to march on Fillmore and Fort Bliss, in Texas. Steele, meanwhile, had abandoned Mesilla and was making his way to Texas. The Mexican population was rising on every hand and were killing his men and running off his stock. It is said that Teel’s battery, C. S. Army, the one taken from Canby at Valverde, had been attacked some thirty miles below Fort Bliss and taken by the people, who had hovered around it to the number of 1,500. It was believed that neither Steele nor Teel would ever reach Texas. Sibley and Colonel Reily had fallen back on Texas in May, leaving Steele with what was considered force enough to hold Arizona. All this news came last night. It was brought by Captain McCleave, who had been exchanged for two lieutenants, one of whom was Steele’s {p.90} adjutant, who had been taken by Captain Fritz, First California Volunteer Cavalry. Captain Fritz went after Colonel Steele with a flag of truce to effect the exchange. He overtook Colonel Steele twenty miles below Fort Fillmore in full retreat.

As you have been informed, the uncommon drought of this summer had so dried up the country that it was impracticable to move a large force in the direction of the Rio Grande until the rains commenced falling. Usually this occurs by June 24, but this year there has been but little fall even yet. The column, however, has been taking the road by installments, commencing with Roberts’ company of infantry and Cremony’s cavalry, which was sent with 25,000 pounds of corn and thirty days’ rations for Eyre in case he was obliged to fall back to the Rio de Sauz, 128 miles from Tucson, starting on July 9. (See letter to Colonel West, marked A,* herewith inclosed.) I also inclose Colonel Eyre’s report,** dated at Fort Thorn, July 6, 1862. This officer deserves great credit for his enterprise. I trust the Governor will notice the conduct of himself and men. This report is marked B.** I also send a subsequent report of Colonel Eyre’s, dated July 8, 1862 (C***), and also one still later, dated July 11, 1862, marked D,* and still another, dated July 14,1862, marked E;**** also a letter from Colonel Chivington, marked F; * also a letter from General Canby, marked G* and letters* from General Canby to Colonel Chivington, dated June 9, 16, 18, 27, and July 1 and 4, 1862. I also inclose General Orders, Nos. 10 and 11, from these headquarters. The troops marched on the days specified. I shall leave this post to-morrow and move rapidly to the front. If a demonstration on Northwestern Texas will serve as a diversion in favor of forces landing on the coast that State will soon be ours. The country is still dry, but we shall do our best.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.

* Not found.

** See p. 120.

*** See p. 124.

**** See p. 126.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., July 17, 1862.

The Column from California will move to the Rio Grande in the following order:

I. On the 20th instant Col. Joseph R. West, First California Volunteer Infantry, with Companies B, C, and K of his regiment, and Company G, of the Fifth California Volunteer Infantry. This command at the Rio de Sauz will receive the addition of Company E, of West’s regiment, and Thompson’s mountain howitzers. Maj. Theodore A. Coult, of the Fifth California Volunteer Infantry is assigned to duty with this command. Colonel West will take 40,000 rounds of rifle-musket ammunition.

II. On the 21st instant a second command, consisting of Shinn’s light battery, Third U. S. Artillery, and Companies A, First, and B, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, will take up its line of march for the Rio Grande. This command will be supplied with all the artillery ammunition now here which pertains to Shinn’s battery and 17,000 rounds of ammunition for the rifle musket.

III. On the 23d instant a third command, under Lieut. Col. Edwin A. Rigg, consisting of Companies I, F, D, and H, First California {p.91} Volunteer Infantry, will start for the Rio Grande. This command will have 28,000 rounds of ammunition for the rifle musket.

IV. Each of these commands will be supplied with subsistence for thirty days, with at least two tents for each company and with a good supply of intrenching tools. Each command will also have one hospital tent complete and an ambulance for the sick and wounded, and will have a forge and material for shoeing horses and mules, and also a water tank and a good supply of water-kegs.

V. On the 31st instant a train of wagons laden with forty days’ supplies of subsistence for the whole command hereby ordered forward, with the following ammunition, viz, 40,000 rounds for the rifle musket, 30,000 rounds for the Sharps carbine, and 20,000 rounds for the navy-size Colt revolver, together with such other supplies of clothing, tents, tools, spare wagon timbers, leather, wagon grease, horseshoes, mule-shoes, horseshoe-nails, stationery, &c., as may be required, will leave Tucson for the Rio Grande, escorted by Companies A, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, and A, First California Volunteer Cavalry, each furnished with sixty days’ rations. This command will have an ambulance, forge, and water-tank, and such other articles as may be required to render it efficient.

VI. Company D, First California Volunteer Cavalry, will move from Tubac directly for the crossing of the San Pedro, where it will arrive on the 22d instant. From that point it will form the advance guard of the column, and habitually, unless otherwise ordered, will march one day in front of West’s command.

VII. Captain Cremony’s company (B, of the Second California Volunteer Cavalry) will march near the head of the column, to serve as flankers or as vedettes, as occasion may require.

VIII. The staff officers attached to these headquarters, except the chief commissary, will, until further orders, move with West’s command. Surgeon Prentiss, First California Volunteer Cavalry, will move with the second command, and Surgeon Wooster, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, will move with Rigg’s command.

IX. The chief quartermaster, chief commissary, and medical director are charged with giving the most perfect efficiency possible to all matters pertaining to the public service in their several departments, keeping in mind the fact that this column is presumed now to move forward prepared at all points to engage the enemy at any moment by night or by day. Let nothing be omitted or neglected which will give due effect to this idea, whether on the march or on the field of battle.

X. That every soldier may move forward with a light, free step, now that we approach the enemy, he will no longer be required to carry his knapsack.

XI. This is the time when every soldier in this column looks forward with a confident hope that he, too, will have the distinguished honor of striking a blow for the old Stars and Stripes; when he, too, feels in his heart that he is the champion of the holiest cause that has ever yet nerved the arm of a patriot. The general commanding the column desires that such a time shall be remembered by all, but more particularly by those who from their guilt have been so unfortunate as to be prisoners on such an occasion. He therefore orders that all soldiers under his command who may be now held in confinement shall be at once released.

By command of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.92}

[Inclosure No. 2.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., July 21, 1862.

I. All of the Territory of Arizona west of a meridian line running through what is known as Apache Pass, on the Butterfield Mail Route hence to Mesilla, will constitute a military district, to be known as the District of Western Arizona, the headquarters of which shall be Tucson, Ariz. Maj. David Fergusson, First California Volunteer Cavalry, is hereby placed in command of this district, as well as of the post and town of Tucson.

II. The duties which devolve upon Major Fergusson by this order are additional to those he is required to perform as chief commissary of this column. He is also empowered to make estimates of all funds necessary to be used in the quartermaster’s department and subsistence department, so far as the wants and necessities of those departments may be concerned, direct to the proper officers at the headquarters Department of the Pacific. Major Fergusson will disburse and direct the disbursement of these funds when received to the best interests of the public service, having reference first to having on hand an adequate supply of all articles of prime necessity, such as food and forage; likewise all that will insure mobility to the column by having its means of transportation always in as good order and good repair as practicable.

III. Great vigilance will be exercised by Major Fergusson to see that no successful attack is made on his trains within his district by secessionists or Indians. The troops in the district are to be kept in fighting condition, and the public animals and public stores so carefully guarded as to secure against loss by surprise or by depredation and secure against destruction by fire or by flood.

By command of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Ojo de la Vaca, Ariz., August 2, 1862.

GENERAL: General George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding the Department of the Pacific, recommended to the General-in-Chief that a force from California, to consist of a battery of four guns (Company A, U. S. Third Artillery), the First Regiment of Infantry California Volunteers, and five companies of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, should cross the Yuma and Colorado Deserts, and recapture the posts in Arizona and Southern New Mexico, then supposed to be in the hands of the rebels, and open the Southern Overland Mail Route. These recommendations or suggestions were approved by the General-in-Chief, and arrangements were set on foot to carry them into effect. But what with unprecedented floods in California and uncommon drought on the Yuma and Colorado Deserts, and other serious difficulties which had to be encountered, it has been quite impossible to bring forward the force above indicated in a fighting condition at an earlier date than the present. I was baffled in every effort I attempted to communicate with you. My first note, marked A, after many days came back to me, the messenger not being able to ascend the Salt {p.93} Fork of the Gila on account of high water. My second note, marked B, after several days was returned from Sonora, as the Mexican expressmen were too much afraid to encounter the dangers of the journey through Chihuahua to El Paso and so on to your headquarters. Of the three men whom I sent with my third notes, marked C and D, two were killed by the Apache Indians near the Chiricahua Mountains on the evening of the 18th of June last. The third, after a miraculous escape and a perilous ride, arrived on the Rio Grande at sunset on the evening of the 20th, 160 miles from where his companions were murdered. Here, in an exhausted, half-delirious state, he was captured by secessionists, and, together with his dispatches, taken to Colonel Steele, C. S. Army. On the 17th of June I directed Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, First Cavalry California Volunteers, with a small command from his regiment, to make a forced reconnaissance toward the Rio Grande.-He started from Tucson on this duty on the evening of June 21. (See my letter to him, marked E.)

On the 8th of July I directed some supplies to be forwarded half way to the Rio Grande, to provide for the emergency of Eyre’s being obliged to fall back. (See letter to Colonel West, marked F.) Roberts’ command, which acted as a guard to these supplies, had a fight with the Apache Indians at Apache Pass, in which he lost 2 killed and 2 wounded, but in which he succeeded in driving the Indians, as he reports, with a loss of 9 killed on their side. From June 7 until July 17 I was busily employed in repairing trains, in getting supplies up from Fort Yuma and from Sonora, and in regulating somewhat the affairs of Western Arizona. On the 17th July, without yet having heard from the Rio Grande, I made the order for the advance to that river. It is herewith inclosed, marked G.*

On the evening of the 21st of July, after the second detachment of the column had started from Tucson, I received your note of the 4th ultimo, together with copies of some orders and instructions to the commander of the Southern Military District, Department of New Mexico. I left Tucson on the 23d ultimo and arrived at this point on the 1st instant. I left 100 men at Apache Pass. (See General Orders, No. 12, marked H.**) Colonel West’s detachment will arrive here to-morrow; Captain Willis’ the next day; Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg’s on the 5th. I shall halt two or three days on the Miembres to recruit and let the column close up, and shall then proceed by the stage route to Mesilla.

I received your letter of the 9th of July day before yesterday. It was not the intention of General Wright to throw a command into your department which would embarrass you to keep it supplied. The troops from California were to draw nearly all their stores from Fort Yuma, to which point they are shipped from San Francisco. Some were to be bought in Sonora. My supply train, which leaves Tucson to-day, will have forty days’ rations for the whole command from the 20th instant. Even those rations of yours consumed by Eyre’s cavalry I had hoped to replace, learning to what straits you had been put for subsistence for your own command. I am happy to know that you have now such an abundance of stores, and should I fall short of anything, I will cheerfully avail myself of your authority to draw on your depot at Fort Craig for what I need. A train of about fifty wagons will ply between Fort Yuma and Tucson, starting from Tucson, say, the 12th instant, to accumulate and keep up a good supply at that point. {p.94} A contractor has given bonds to keep the Column from California supplied with fresh beef at nine cents a pound. Stores can be hauled by private trains from the port of Guaymas to Tucson for five cents a pound. This latter information may be of service to you. I have no subsistence funds here; the paper marked I** will exhibit the condition of those in the quartermaster’s department.

The paper marked K** will tell you of my means of transportation after the arrival of the train which leaves Tucson to-day, minus, say, three teams left at Fort Bowie, Apache Pass, Chiricahua Mountains. All my troops except one company of cavalry have pay due from February 28, 1862. It will be a great kindness to have them paid, if it can be done without inconvenience to the troops of your own department. I have no paymaster with me, and was not counting on the troops being paid by your paymaster. The men are sadly in want of small stores, tobacco, &c. We have no sutler, and of course, on the desert, the soldiers have exhausted what few necessaries they happened by chance to have. I have, say, 100 rounds of ammunition for small-arms per man, and can soon have more from Fort Yuma, and I have for the four pieces of artillery the ammunition named in a letter to Lieutenant Shinn, U. S. Third Artillery, marked L.** The men have only fatigue clothing and that somewhat worn, but I expect some up from Fort Yuma very soon. Can you spare any? Capt. Tredwell Moore, assistant quartermaster, is the only staff officer belonging to the army with me, and he will be relieved from duty in this column shortly after my arrival at Mesilla. I have with me two surgeons, one assistant and one acting assistant surgeon, all of the volunteer service. For the state of my medical supplies see Surgeon McNulty’s letter, marked M.** The strength of the command when it arrives at Mesilla will be approximately:

Field and staff25
Say of artillery (aggregate)73
Of infantry825
Of cavalry350
Total fighting force1,273
Of employés127
Total requiring subsistence1,400

I will send you an accurate field return as soon as the command under Captain McCleave reaches Mesilla. I inclose herewith a letter from Maj. Richard C. Drum, assistant adjutant-general, Department of the Pacific, marked N; also a copy of General Orders, No. 29, [1862], from the War Department, on the same sheet. I beg to be fully instructed by you in all measures wherein myself or the California Column can be of the most service. We have not crossed the continent thus far to split hairs, but with an earnest resolution to do our duty whatever be our geographical position; and so the marches of this column tend always toward the heart of the rebellion. The men will forget their toils and sufferings on the Great Desert in their hope ultimately to reach the enemy. In all this I am sure I but express the sentiments of General Wright. As the gallantry of the troops under your command has left us nothing to do on the Rio Grande, it would be a sad disappointment to those from California if they should be obliged to retrace their steps without feeling the enemy. I hope I do not ask too much when I inquire whether a force could not profitably be thrown {p.95} into Western Texas, where it is reported the Union men are only waiting for a little help to run up the old flag.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

Brig. Gen. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department of New Mexico.

* Inclosure G is a duplicate of General Orders, No. 10, p. 90.

** Omitted as of no present importance.

[Inclosure A.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Fort Yuma, Cal., May 3, 1862.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department of New Mexico:

COLONEL: Having no means of getting reliable information from you except by a special express, I send the bearer of this to you for that purpose. He will be able to tell you about this part of the country, and will bring to me any communication you may desire to write. I have a force of light battery (Company A, Third Artillery) of two 12-pounder howitzers and two 6-pounder guns, and fifteen companies of infantry and five companies of cavalry, California Volunteers, well armed and provided for, and the men are as fine material as any in the service. I can move on from Tucson or Fort Breckinridge as soon as I hear from you. I am ready and anxious to co-operate with you. If necessary I can be followed by still another regiment or more of infantry, to be sent by steam to the mouth of the Colorado. It will afford me pleasure to enter into any plan you may suggest, so my force can be of service to you and to the cause. Let me know your strength, your situation, your purposes; the strength, situation, and probable purposes of Sibley and his troops. Please send an escort with my messenger to get him safely through the Apaches.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

At the time this letter was written it was the intention of General Carleton to move forward to the Rio Grande five companies of the Fifth Infantry California Volunteers. Some of those companies are now serving in Western Arizona.

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure B.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862.

General B. R. S. CANBY, U. S. Army, Commanding U. S. Forces in New Mexico:

GENERAL: I had the honor to write you on the 3d ultimo from Fort Yuma, Cal., that I was on my way to Arizona, and desired to co-operate with you in driving the rebels from New Mexico. My messenger was unable to reach you via the Salinas Fork of the Gila on account of high water. I therefore dispatch another through Mexican territory. I am {p.96} ordered to recapture all the works in New Mexico which had been surrendered to rebels. This I shall proceed to do, starting from here as soon as the rains have filled the natural tanks, say early in July. What number of troops can find subsistence, say at twenty days’ notice, at Mesilla and Fort Bliss, in Texas? I can start from here with sixty days’ supply for one battery of artillery, one regiment of infantry, and five companies of cavalry. With this force I desire to co-operate with you. This will enable me to hold this country besides. I have placed Arizona under martial law, and shall continue it so until the civil officers come. I can bring more force if necessary. Let me know by the bearer your wishes, purposes, strength; the strength, position, and apparent purposes and condition of Sibley and his forces.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Inclosure C.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 15, 1862.

General E. R, S. CANEY Comdg. Department of New Mexico, Fort Craig, N. Tex.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that I have advanced thus far from California with a force of regulars and volunteers sufficient in numbers to occupy this Territory. I have assumed to represent the U. S. authority, and for the time being have placed the Territory under martial law. Inclosed herewith please find a proclamation to this effect. I send this to you by express, that you may not go to the expense of sending troops from your department to occupy Arizona. I congratulate you on your success against the Confederate forces under Sibley. If you can send an escort to the expressman who takes this I shall feel greatly obliged.

I am, general, respectfully,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Inclosure C.]

To all whom it may concern:

The Congress of the United States has set apart a portion of New Mexico and organized it into a Territory complete of itself. This is known as the Territory of Arizona. It comprises within its limits all the country eastward from the Colorado River, which is now occupied by the forces of the United States known as the Column from California; and as the flag of the United States shall be carried by this column still farther eastward, these limits will extend in that direction until they reach the farthest geographical boundary of this Territory. Now, in the present chaotic state in which Arizona is found to be, with no civil officers to administer the laws-indeed, with an utter absence of all civil authority-and with no security of life or property within its borders, it becomes the duty of the undersigned to represent the authority of the United States over the people of Arizona as well as over all those who compose or are connected with the Column from California. Thus, by virtue of his office as military commander of the U. S. forces now here, and to meet the fact that wherever within our boundaries our colors fly there the sovereign power of our country joust at once be acknowledged and law and order at once prevail, the undersigned, as a military governor, assumes control of this Territory {p.97} until such time as the President of the United States shall otherwise direct.

Thus also it is hereby declared that until civil officers shall be sent by the Government to organize the civil courts for the administration of justice the Territory of Arizona is hereby placed under martial law. Trials for capital offenses shall be held by a military commission, to be composed of not more than thirteen nor less than nine commissioned officers. The rules of evidence shall be those customary in practice under the common law. The trials shall be public and shall be trials of record, and the mode of procedure shall be strictly in accordance with that of courts-martial in the Army of the United States. Unless the public safety absolutely requires it, no execution shall follow conviction until the orders in the case by the President shall be known. Trials for minor offenses shall be held under the same rules, except that for these a commission of not more than five nor less than-three commissioned officers may sit and a vote of a majority determine the issue. In these cases the orders of the officer organizing the commission shall be final.

All matters in relation to rights in property and lands which may be in dispute shall be determined for the time being by a military commission, to be composed of not more than five nor less than three commissioned officers. Of course appeals from the decisions of such commissions can be taken to the civil courts when once the latter have been established. There are certain fundamental rules for the government of the people of this Territory which will be rigidly enforced:

I. No man who has arrived at lawful age shall be permitted to reside within this Territory who does not without delay subscribe to the oath of allegiance to the United States.

II. No words or acts calculated to impair that veneration which all good patriots should feel for our country and Government will be tolerated within this Territory or go unpunished if sufficient proof can be had of them.

III. No man who does not pursue some lawful calling or have some legitimate means of support shall be permitted to remain in the Territory.

Having no thought or motive in all this but the good of the people and aiming only to do right, the undersigned confidently hopes and expects in all he does to further these ends, to have the hearty co-operation of every good citizen and soldier in Arizona. All this is to go into effect from and after this date, and will continue in force, unless disapproved or modified by General George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding the Department of the Pacific, under whose orders the Column from California has taken the field.

Done at the headquarters Column from California, in Tucson, Ariz., this 8th day of June, A. D. 1862.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Major, Sixth U. S. Cavalry.

[Inclosure D.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 15, 1862.

Brig. Gen. E. R, S. CANBY , U. S. Army Comdg. Department of New Mexico, Fort Craig, N. Alex.:

GENERAL: I have forwarded by another express the originals of the notes numbered 2, which the bearer of this takes to you. My wagons {p.98} are so shrunk in coming over the desert that I am obliged to delay here until the 1st proximo, when from the rains having fallen I hope to be able to move to the Rio Grande. I hope I can count on getting meat and bread there. Mesilla is far removed from my source of supply. Pray advise me of all this. I am anxious to co-operate with you. My men are the finest material I have ever seen and anxious to strike a blow for the cause. Have you a plenty of rifled-musket ammunition? We can be on the Rio Grande in fifteen days from this post.

Respectfully, &c.,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Commanding.

P. S.-I am straining every point to get up supplies so as to leave July 1.

[Inclosure E.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 17, 1862.

Lieut. Col. EDWARD E. EYRE, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Present:

COLONEL: It is important that a forced reconnaissance be made in advance of the column front the Rio Grande, and you are selected for this delicate and at the same time hazardous duty. You will take with you for this purpose a squadron of your regiment to be composed of all the effective officers and men of Companies B and C now here. For transportation you will have three six-mule teams. Take six aparejos in the wagons for packing purposes when necessary. Take, say, four days’ pork, and dried beef and pemmican, and flour, coffee, sugar, salt, and vinegar for thirty days. Take 70 rounds of ammunition for the Sharps carbines per man, and 30 rounds per man of navy-revolver ammunition You should have at least 6 pickaxes and 12 long-handled shovels as intrenching tools Acting Assistant Surgeon Kittridge will accompany you. All other essentials of your outfit will readily suggest themselves to you. When you bear in mind that you are always to be ready to fight, with your horses in the best possible condition, all, and only all, you will want practically to fulfill these requirements will come to your mind. You go to watch the road in the direction of the enemy. If possible you will capture or drive in his pickets, and observe and report upon his situation, strength, movements, and apparent purposes. To do this successfully the greatest prudence, sagacity, forecast, and boldness are necessary. I hardly need assure you that I have the fullest confidence in your ability to carry the purpose of your reconnaissance to the most useful results. Avoid collision with the Indians. Of course you will report back to me all that it is necessary for me to know.

Wishing you success, I am, colonel, very sincerely, yours,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Inclosure F.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., July 8, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, First Infantry California Vols., Comdg. at Tucson, Ariz.:

COLONEL: You will order a sergeant and nine trusty infantry soldiers and three first-rate cavalry soldiers to the crossing of the San Pedro, to guard some forage which the quartermaster will send to that {p.99} point. You will order Roberts’ company, of the First Infantry California Volunteers, to the San Simon, en route to the Rio Grande, where they will make an intrenched camp, if possible near the mail station, and there await further orders. A train will accompany these troops with thirty days’ rations for Colonel Eyre’s command, commencing on its arrival at the San Simon, and thirty days’ for the troops who are to remain at the San Pedro. Each soldier will have 110 rounds of ammunition, and the party at the San Simon will have some intrenching tools and also some scythes. These troops are sent to guard these supplies until the column reaches them on its march to the Rio Grande. They also go to observe the road and to form a support to Colonel Eyre in case he falls back. You cannot be too minute in your instructions to them, having in view the furtherance of these ends. They are to have scouts all the time well to the front, unless menaced, say fifty or more miles; they are to keep me informed of movements in their vicinity of the enemy, and if attacked they are not to surrender on any terms. They are to be uncommonly watchful that Indians do not run off their stock, and at the same time are not to attack the Indians unless the latter are the aggressors.

I am, colonel, respectfully,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure N.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., May 30, 1862.

Col. JAMES H. CARLETON, First Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Column from California:

SIR: Inclosed I have the honor to transmit, by direction of the general commanding the department, General Orders, No. 29, from the War Department. It is probable that your command may enter the Department of New Mexico. You will nevertheless act under the orders of the general commanding the Department of the Pacific, and make your returns as usual to these headquarters.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Sub-inclosure.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 29.}

WAR DEPT., ADJT. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, March 22, 1862.

In the changes recently made in the boundaries of department commands it may happen that troops belonging to one department may either be in, or may unavoidably pass into, another. In such a case the troops so situated will continue under the command of the general under whose orders they may have been operating; but it is expected that they will be withdrawn as soon as the position they may occupy comes within the control of the proper commander of the department.

By order of the Secretary of War:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

[Indorsement.]

AUGUST 10, 1862.

Respectfully forwarded.

I have supposed that General Orders, No. 29, of 1862, applied to troops passing through, even temporarily within, the limits of a department {p.100} to which they did not belong, but it will be seen that General Wright has given it a more extended application. This is not immediately material, as no question of command or personal consideration will be allowed by me to interfere with the interests of the service. It is proper, however, that its status should be fixed by superior authority. If this force is to return to the Department of the Pacific, that fact will modify materially the recommendations made in my report of the 6th instant.

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HEADQUARTERS-COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 20, 1862.

COLONEL: I wrote to you on July 22, informing you of all the important events connected with the Column from California from June 18 to that date. I then inclosed copies of General Orders, Nos. 10 and 11, from these headquarters, which prescribed the manner in which the column should march across the desert from Tucson to the Rio Grande. I left Tucson myself on July 23; passed Colonel West, with most of the troops encamped on the San Pedro, on the 24th, and led the advance of the column from that point to Las Cruces, N. Mex., with one company of infantry and two of cavalry. From the hostile attitude of the Chiricahua Indians, I found it indispensably necessary to establish a post in what is known as Apache Pass. It is known as Fort Bowie, and garrisoned by 100 rank and file of the Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, and 13 rank and file of Company A, First California Volunteer Cavalry. This post commands the water in that pass. Around this water the Indians have been in the habit of lying in ambush and shooting troops and travelers as they came to drink. In this way they killed 3 of Lieutenant Colonel Eyre’s command, and in attempting to keep Captain Roberts’ First California Volunteer Infantry away from the spring a fight ensued, in which Captain Roberts had 2 men killed and 2 wounded. Captain Roberts reports that the Indians lost 10 killed. In this affair the men of Captain Roberts’ company are reported as behaving with great gallantry. Two miles beyond Apache Pass I found the remains of nine white men who had been murdered by the Indians They were a party traveling from the Pino Alto mines to California. One of them had been burned at the stake; we saw the charred bones and the burnt ends of the rope by which he had been tied. The remains of seven of these men were buried on that spot. From the Rio de Sauz to Ojo de la Vaca there was a great dearth of water. At the latter place I addressed a letter to General Canby, giving him all the elements going to make up the column the object of its march, and the wishes of General Wright. A copy of that letter is herewith inclosed, marked A.*

Having been informed that a large number of men, women, and children were in a destitute and starving condition at Pino Alto mines, forty-odd miles northeastward from the Ojo de la Vaca, I directed Colonel West to furnish them with some subsistence stores as a gratuity. (See letter of instructions to Colonel West, marked B, and Captain Shirland’s report on the starving condition of these people, marked C.) I arrived on the Rio Grande on August 7 at a point three miles above Fort Thorn, and immediately communicated with General Canby by letter, marked D. On August 9 I passed the Rio Grande at the San Diego Crossing, eighteen miles below Fort Thorn. The river was still very high and very rapid, but the men stripped off their clothes and {p.101} dragged the wagons through by main force; the baggage, subsistence stores, ammunition, &c., were crossed in two small, leaky boats. At this point we built a larger and better boat for the use of the detachments of the column still to come up. The head of the column arrived at Las Cruces on August 10. Here I found the advance guard under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, First California Volunteer Cavalry, strengthened by four companies of the Fifth U. S. Infantry, which had been sent down from Fort Craig. Two companies of regular cavalry had also been sent down to re-enforce Colonel Eyre; but these had been recalled and had started back to Fort Craig on August 9.

Unfortunately Colonel Eyre had been forbidden by Colonel Chivington and Colonel Howe to proceed in the direction of Texas below Las Cruces; otherwise I believe he would have captured the whole of Steele’s force of Confederate troops. (See his report** on this subject, marked E.) The energy, enterprise, and resources of Colonel Eyre, as exhibited in his rapid march from Tucson to the Rio Grande; his crossing of that river, and his unlooked-for presence directly upon the heels of the retreating rebels, cannot be too highly appreciated. He exhibited some of the finest qualities of a soldier, and had he not been fettered by orders from higher authority than himself, he would, without a doubt, have achieved advantages over the enemy creditable to himself and to the Column from California. But for his timely arrival on the Rio Grande, Las Cruces and Mesilla would have both been laid in ashes by the enemy. Hampered as he was by orders, he nevertheless managed to hoist the Stars and Stripes upon Fort Thorn, Fort Fillmore, Mesilla, and Fort Bliss, in Texas. On August 11 General Canby wrote me a very handsome letter, in which he liberally offered to furnish the column with all the supplies it might need, together with $30,000 subsistence funds. General Wright will be gratified to read it; it is marked F. It will be seen by that letter that the medical supplies and ordnance stores in the Department of New Mexico are so abundant as to preclude the necessity of any more of these stores being purchased or shipped in the Department of the Pacific for any of the troops east of Fort Yuma belonging to the Column from California. On August 11 General Canby sent to me another communication, in which he treats of the impracticability of an invasion of Texas from this direction, and in which he speaks of removing the regular troops from New Mexico and of receiving other re-enforcements from California. As the views it sits forth seem to be of great value, I submit it for the perusal of General Wright; it is marked G.

On August 12 General Canby wrote still another letter, in which he authorized me to use my own judgment in regard to the disposition of troops in Arizona and Southern New Mexico; it is marked H. My letter to General Canby, dated August 15, together with General Orders, Nos. 14 and 15, herewith inclosed, will inform General Wright of the distribution of the troops along the Rio Grande. These communications are marked I. On August 16 1 started with three companies of cavalry for Fort Bliss, in Texas. At the town of Franklin, opposite El Paso, I found a surgeon of the Confederate Army and twenty-five sick and disabled soldiers, whom I made prisoners of war by order of General Canby. I also found that a large amount of hospital stores and quartermaster’s property, which once had belonged to the United States, was in storerooms connected with the custom-house at El Paso, in Mexico. These stores I managed to recover; there were twelve wagon loads of them. I {p.102} sent them to the depot at Mesilla, which I had established. I then proceeded 100 miles farther down the valley of the Rio Grande into Texas. The object of my march was to restore confidence to the people. They had been taught by the Texans that we were coming among them as marauders and as robbers. When they found we treated them kindly and paid them a fair price for all the supplies we required they rejoiced to find, as they came under the old flag once more, that they could now have protection and will be treated justly. The abhorrence they expressed for the Confederate troops and of the rebellion convinced me that their loyalty to the United States is now beyond question.

On August 22 the troops of the Column from California hoisted the Stars and Stripes over Fort Quitman. This was done by Capt. John C. Cremony, with his company (B, Second California Volunteer Cavalry). On the same day Captain Shirland, First California Volunteer Cavalry, was directed to proceed to Fort Davis, 140 miles still farther into Texas, and hoisted the national colors over that post. (See General Orders, No. 16, marked K.) How well Captain Shirland performed this duty and how gallantly he and his men behaved in a fight with the Indians will be seen by his report, a copy of which is herewith inclosed, marked L. Captain Roberts’ company, which whipped the Indians in Apache Pass, is from Sacramento, Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, who led my advance guard to the Rio Grande and hoisted the colors over Forts Thorn, Fillmore, Bliss, and Mesilla, is from Sacramento, and so is Captain Shirland, who hoisted the Stars and Stripes 240 miles farther into the State of Texas, and also whipped the Indians in that neighborhood. This speaks nobly for the men from that city. I inclose a telegraphic communication from General Canby to the Adjutant-General of the Army, dated August 10, in which he requests that a regiment more of infantry and five companies of cavalry be sent into the Department of New Mexico from California, so as to relieve the regular troops now here; it is marked M. On August 21 I was instructed to arrange the affairs of the District of Arizona so as to turn over that district to the officer next in rank to myself, and to hold myself in readiness to repair to the headquarters Department of New Mexico. I also received Special Orders, No. 148, from the headquarters of that department, directing me to send an officer as bearer of dispatches to the commander of the Department of the Pacific. Copies of these documents are herewith inclosed, marked N.

On September 2 I received Special Orders, No. 153 (marked O), directing me to relieve Brigadier-General Canby in the command of the Department of New Mexico. Previous to this order I had published General Orders, No. 17, which posted a company of infantry at Franklin, Tex., and another one at Hart’s Mill, Tex. It is herewith inclosed, marked P. On September 1 I put the Texan prisoners of war whom I found at Franklin on their parole, and sent them on their way to San Antonio, Tex., escorted by Company D, First California Volunteer Cavalry. (See my letter to the commanding officer of the Confederate forces, San Antonio, Tex., marked Q) I then returned to Las Cruces, N. Mex., where I published General Orders, No. 20 (marked R), regulating the affairs of the District of Arizona and transferring the command of that district to Col. Joseph R. West, First California Volunteer Infantry. (I still retain the command of the Column from California, and shall cause all the reports which you require in your letter to me, dated at San Francisco, May 30, to be sent to the headquarters Department of the Pacific, until I am otherwise ordered by competent authority.) I then proceeded to Santa Fé, arriving here on the 16th instant.

{p.103}

General Canby relinquished the command of the Department of New Mexico on the 18th instant. (See General Orders, No. 83, marked S.) I assumed command of the department on the same day. (See General Orders, No. 84, marked T.) Some additional changes have been made of the troops pertaining to the Column from California, which are indicated in a letter to Colonel West, dated September 8 (marked U), and in another dated September 9 (marked V); also two others, dated September 14 (marked W and X, respectively). I inclose for your information three communications (marked Y).*** I also inclose a copy of an order directing Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First California Volunteer Cavalry, to bear these dispatches to the headquarters Department of the Pacific; it is marked Z.

These various communications will give General Wright a pretty good idea of the operations of the troops composing the Column from California from July 22, of this year, to the present time.

I find that the supply of provisions in this department is adequate to the wants of all the troops from California now serving here, and therefore respectfully recommend that no more subsistence stores be purchased for the Column from California until further advices on this subject. I propose to transport from Fort Yuma to Tucson during the cool weather of the fall and winter a large quantity of subsistence stores now in excess at the former post, so as to provide for the contingency of other troops being ordered to New Mexico from California; to provide for the troops already stationed in Arizona, and to form a magazine in case of any reverses here which may lead to the destruction of our present stores or oblige the California or other troops to retire toward the Pacific. When these supplies have been accumulated at Tucson by a train now employed for that purpose that train will be required for service in this department; meantime it can be used as transportation from Fort Yuma to the Rio Grande for any troops which General Wright may order from the Department of the Pacific into Arizona or New Mexico.

The Southern Overland Mail Route has been opened, and the military posts in Arizona, Southern New Mexico, and Northwestern Texas have been reoccupied by troops composing the Column from California. Thus far the instructions of the general commanding the Department of the Pacific have been carried out. It was no fault of the troops from California that the Confederate forces fled before them. It is but just to say that their having thus fled is mainly to be attributed to the gallantry of the troops under General Canby’s command. That they were hurried in their flight by the timely arrival of the advance guard of the Column from California, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, there cannot be a doubt. The march from the Pacific to the Rio Grande by the Column from California was not accomplished without immense toil and great hardships or without many privations and much suffering from heat and want of water. The amount of labor performed by Col. Joseph B. XV. est, the second in command, was immense and of the greatest practical importance. Much of our success was dependent on his energy, Perseverance, cheerfulness, and high soldierly qualities. I cannot too strongly recommend that this officer be promoted to the grade of brigadier-general of volunteers as a reward for these services, and particularly as he now commands the most important district in this department. I trust that General Wright will urge the necessity of this advancement of Colonel West, and set forth to the General-in-Chief his eminent fitness for the office of brigadier-general. This will promote {p.104} Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg, which will be a reward for his important services as commanding officer at Fort Yuma during the past winter and for his efficient labors in the column while crossing the Great Desert. I regard Colonel Rigg as one of the finest soldiers in the Column from California. Those who knew the troops from California as I knew them will consider this a high compliment.

Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First California Volunteer Cavalry, deserves a regiment. The zeal he has manifested in the discharge of his duties and the alacrity and cheerfulness he has always shown when called upon for any hazardous enterprise distinguished him as one eminently fitted for the profession of arms. If five companies more of cavalry are to be sent from California, as requested by General Canby, I trust they will be added to the five which now compose the First California Volunteer Cavalry, and that Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre will be commissioned as full colonel. The services of Major Coult, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, and of Major Fergusson, First California Volunteer Cavalry, and of Major McMullen, First California Volunteer Infantry, have been most arduous and are deserving of reward. The officers and men of the Second California Volunteer Cavalry and of the Fifth California Volunteer Infantry shared alike in all the privations and toil encountered by the First California Volunteer Infantry and the First California Volunteer Cavalry. As soldiers, in the highest acceptation of that word, they were equally subordinate, patient, energetic, and patriotic. If I should select the names of some of them to be rewarded for these high qualities, it would be an invidious distinction. Capt. John B. Shinn and First Lieut. Franklin Harwood, of the Third U. S. Artillery, for their incessant toil by might and by day to bring the battery of light artillery which is attached to the Column from California through the Yuma and Gila Deserts, should each receive the compliment of a brevet-Captain Shinn to be brevetted as major and First Lieutenant Harwood as captain. Unless these young men are rewarded by a compliment of this kind I shall always feel that the passage of a battery of light artillery, always in fighting condition, over such an inhospitable waste, in the midst of the heats of summer, is a matter of such trivial importance in the profession of arms as not to be worthy of notice. Theirs was the first battery that ever crossed the desert. I am sure that he who crosses the next one will be considered an accomplished soldier. I trust that General Wright will call the attention of the General-in-Chief to the credit which is eminently due these young gentlemen for their services in this column. I have already asked for promotion of my adjutant-general, Lieut. Benjamin C. Cutler; for my medical director, Surg. James M. McNulty, and for my regimental quartermaster, First Lieut. Lafayette Hammond, all of the First California Volunteer Infantry. Their merits are too well known at the headquarters Department of the Pacific to need any further words of commendation from myself.

In conclusion, I beg to thank General Wright for the confidence he always reposed in me. In carrying out his orders and instructions I have endeavored to do my best, yet, as it was a new and very extended field of operations, my judgment about what was best to be dome under emergencies as they arose was doubtless not always of the soundest character; yet I feel that General Wright has kindly overlooked all imperfections of this nature, and saved me the pain of many rebukes, which no doubt I have deserved. For this I feel very grateful. The march of the Column from California in the summer months across the Great Desert, in the driest season that has ever been known for thirty {p.105} years, is a military achievement creditable to the soldiers of the American Army; but it would not be just to attribute the success of this march to any ability on my part. That success was gained only by the high physical and moral energies of that peculiar class of officers and men who composed the Column from California. With any other troops I am sure I should have failed. I send you a set of colors which have been borne by this column. They were hoisted by Colonel West on Forts Breckinridge and Buchanan, and over Tucson, Ariz.; by Colonel Eyre over Forts Thorn and Fillmore, and over Mesilla, N. Mex., and over Fort Bliss, in Texas. They were hoisted by Captain Cremony over Fort Quitman, and by Captain Shirland over Fort Davis, in Texas; and thus again have those places been consecrated to our beloved country.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

JAMES H. CARLETON Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Lieut. Col. RICHARD C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.

* See Carleton’s report to Canby of August 2, p. 92.

** See p. 126.

*** Omitted.

[Inclosure B.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Miembres River, Ariz., August 6, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, First California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Camp:

COLONEL: I have been credibly informed that there are some twenty families of men, women, and children at the Pino Alto mines, some forty miles from this camp, who are nearly perishing for want of food, the Indians having robbed them of what they had, and the secessionists having captured and appropriated to themselves a train of supplies which was on the way some time since to their relief. You will send Capt. E. D. Shirland, First California Volunteer Cavalry, and Lieut. D. C. Vestal, First California Volunteer Infantry, with a sufficient escort of cavalry and infantry, to the Pino Alto mines with some provisions for these starving people. Send them 5 beeves, 600 pounds, more or less, of pemmican, 3,000 pounds of flour, and 1,500 pounds of panoche (Mexican sugar). These provisions will be given to the most needy. If it be not practicable to distribute them all at once, they will be left in the hands of some responsible man for this purpose, proper receipts being taken therefor. I instruct Captain Shirland particularly on these points, and direct him and Lieutenant Vestal to make a joint report on the number and sufferings of the people at Pino Alto, and whether they are strong enough to protect themselves from further harm from the Indians.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure C.]

CAMP ON RIO MIEMBRES, ARIZ., August 10, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, First California Volunteer Infantry:

COLONEL: Pursuant to instructions received on the 6th instant we left this place on that day for the Pino Alto mines, taking with us a quantity of provisions for distribution among the inhabitants of that {p.106} place, represented to be in a starving condition. We arrived there on the 7th, and called upon the principal men of the place to assist us in ascertaining the names, ages, business, condition, number, &c., of the inhabitants. We found about thirty Americans, French, Germans, &c.; two of the Germans with families. All the rest were Mexicans. Most of them were extremely poor and destitute, there being scarcely any ore at all in the mines. They had received some little assistance previous to our arrival, before which time they had been living on purslane and roots, and several had become insane from hunger.

...

Number of families in the mines, two-Mr. Schneider’s and Mr. Holtz’s; number of Mexican families living in the mines, about thirty, all extremely poor. All the people seemed to be loyally inclined, although several of them had belonged to the Arizona Rangers, a company formed for the purpose of fighting the Indians in the Territory. The Indians were represented as being extremely hostile and in the habit of committing depredations upon the settlers whenever they had anything to steal. At the time of our visit there were no Indians in the neighborhood, but every one thought that as soon as trains with supplies commenced their trips the Indians would begin to commit depredations. All were extremely anxious to have the Government extend to them sufficient protection and station at least one company in their neighborhood.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. SHIRLAND, Captain, First California Volunteer Cavalry.

[Inclosure D.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, CAMP ON THE RIO GRANDE, ARIZ. TER., Three and a half Miles above Fort Thorn, August 8, 1862.

Brig. Gen. E. R. S. CANBY, Comdg. Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé, N. Mex.:

GENERAL: Before arriving at Cooke’s Wells I learned that there was not any water to speak of between that point and El Picacho, on the Rio Grande, fifty-five miles from Cooke’s Wells and six miles above Mesilla. The Rio Grande had divided in the great flood and broken across the country so as to leave the town of Mesilla on an island difficult of access from the west, and that the facilities for grazing in the neighborhood of Mesilla were bad. This information decided me to strike the Rio Grande at or near Fort Thorn, a distance of not less than thirty-five miles nor more than forty from Cooke’s Wells, but destitute of water the whole way. I arrived here last evening with two companies of cavalry and one of infantry, having left Cooke’s Wells at 8 a.m. The other detachments-West’s, Willis’, and Rigg’s, a day apart-will reach this point, commencing with West’s, to-morrow evening. I leave to-day for the San Diego Crossing, at the foot of the Jornada, and I shall pass the Rio Grande at that point. I have this day written to Colonel Howe that if they have not already left Fort Craig to go up the river. The Colorado Volunteers can leave at once, agreeably with your Special Orders, No. 128, current series. I inclose for your information a copy of a note to Colonel West, First California Volunteer Infantry, in relation to sending some provisions to some destitute men, women, and children at the Pino Alto mines. If I have authority to occupy posts in the northwestern portion of Texas, i. e., Forts Bliss and Quitman, will you permit me to have my headquarters, {p.107} say, at Hart’s Mill, on the Rio Grande, some three miles above Fort Bliss?

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

NOTE.-My command did not use tents in crossing the desert. I had a few (two to a company) when I left Tucson, but thirteen of these were left to shelter the garrison at Fort Bowie, Apache Pass, Chiricahua Mountains. I have sent to Fort Yuma to have all the tents at that post repaired and sent on as soon as possible. Should I need them, can you lend me some? I left Tucson July 23; stopped one day at the Cienega de Sauz and four and a half at Ojo de la Vaca and arrived here on the 7th.

J. H. C.

[Inclosure F.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé N. Mex., August 11, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES H. CARLETON, Commanding Column from California, District of Arizona:

GENERAL: I have just received your interesting communication of the 2d instant and the accompanying papers.

The chief quartermaster, Lieutenant-Colonel Donaldson, has been instructed to send an additional supply of clothing to the depot at Fort Craig to meet your immediate wants. He will communicate with your chief quartermaster in relation to the wants of your command and the supplies that can be furnished from the depots under his charge. I have directed the chief commissary to place $30,000 subsistence funds in the hands of the commissary at Fort Craig, subject to your order. This course has been adopted in consequence of the insecurity of the mails below Fort Craig. He also will communicate with your commissary in relation to his branch of the service. The statement of your medical director has been referred to the medical director of the department, who will send to you such medical and hospital supplies as appear to be needed. The medical supplies and ordnance stores in the department will be largely in excess of the wants of the troops, and as both classes are liable to deterioration, it will be advisable to exhaust those on hand before drawing again from the East or the Pacific coast. If you have not already ordered these supplies from Fort Yuma, please make your requisitions upon the depots in this department.

The depot at Fort Craig will be subject to requisitions, and any supplies that are not there now will be sent there as soon as advised that you meed them. A part of the supplies will be late in reaching that point, having been detained by the commander of the Department of Kansas until he could provide an escort for them, and subsequently delayed by the unusual floods in Arkansas. I have heretofore recommended that all posts in Arizona west of the Rio Grande should be supplied by the way of the Gulf of California and Guaymas. From the information contained in your letter the cost of transportation from Guaymas to points on the Rio Grande below Fort Craig will be about the same as to the depot at Fort Union. One of the paymasters in this department has been ordered to the East for the purpose of renewing his bond and the commission of another has expired, leaving but one for the payments now in progress. Another is expected by the next mail from the East, and as soon after he arrives as possible arrangements will be made for the payment of your command. The wants of {p.108} your men in tobacco and sutler’s stores will be made known to the merchants in this city, who will no doubt be very glad of the opportunity of supplying them. General Wright has given a more extended application to War Department General Orders, No. 29, than I have understood it to warrant. That, however, is of no material consequence. We are here in the same cause and for a common purpose, and nothing shall be wanting on my part to insure the harmony of action which is essential to efficiency, and I feel assured from your character that I may count upon your co-operation in everything that has for its object the advancement of the honor and interest of our country. Please communicate with me freely, and be assured that whatever I can do, either officially or personally, to advance the interests or add to the comforts of your command will be done with the greatest pleasure.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure G.]

HEADQUARTERS-DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO Santa Fé, N. Mex., August 11, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES H. CARLETON, Commanding Column from California, District of Arizona:

GENERAL: At an early period of last year I reported that an invasion of Texas from New Mexico, although practicable, was not a practicable undertaking; the length of the march, the desert character of the country to be traversed, the scarcity of supplies on the route, the necessity of bringing from the Missouri River or from the Pacific coast every article of equipment and munition and much of the food, all conspired to make it an undertaking of great magnitude and of questionable value; and that the troops that would be required for the expedition could be more usefully employed at points that are not only near the sources of supply but near the points to be attacked. The same views appeared to have been entertained at the Headquarters of the Army, as before my report could have reached Washington I received instructions to withdraw first a part and afterward the whole of the regular force then in New Mexico. These last instructions were subsequently so modified as to direct the withdrawal of these troops “at such time and in such manner as would not expose the Territory to conquest or invasion before the volunteer troops of New Mexico are properly organized, armed, and posted.” At a later period I reported that it would be difficult, if not impracticable, to raise the additional force authorized for this Territory; nor do I think it desirable that it should be done if it is practicable to send one or two volunteer regiments from the East to replace the regular troops when they are withdrawn. The New Mexican Volunteers, unless supported by regular troops or by volunteers drawn from some other section of the country, cannot be relied on to resist invasion of the Territory if one is attempted.

When a force from the Department of the Mississippi was under orders for this department I received instructions from the Secretary of War to disband the New Mexican Volunteers whenever I thought proper. The force from the Department of the Mississippi was subsequently diverted from its destination, and soon after information was received that your command was on the march. I have coupled these changes with the instructions for the movement of the regular troops, and supposed that your command was intended for service in New Mexico. {p.109} Acting upon this supposition, I have reported that “the near approach of General Carleton’s force justifies the opinion that the regular troops may now be withdrawn, as originally intended, without detriment to the service,” and have already made some arrangements for the movement; but as there have been some material changes since these instructions were given, I do not intend to put any of the regular troops beyond the reach of recall until I receive further instructions. I have been thus particular, not only for the purpose of answering your question, but to indicate the policy and instructions under which I have been acting, and which I suppose will devolve upon you when the regular troops leave the country. In the arrangements that were made for the reoccupation of Arizona it was my intention to restore the sovereignty of the United States in its original integrity, post the troops so as to protect the inhabitants and guard against invasion, and, in addition, to occupy such points in Texas as could be reached without throwing the troops so employed beyond the reach of support. This has been directed in general terms in the instructions given to the commander of the Southern Military District, and who would also have been the commander of the expedition organized for that purpose. Copies of these instructions have already been furnished you. The retreat of the rebels and the approach of your command rendered it unnecessary to send this force below the Jornada, and, with the exception of the infantry battalion and the cavalry force with Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, it has been recalled. The detachments will also be recalled, but the movement will not be commenced until your arrangements are so far perfected that it can be done without inconvenience.

I do not think that an invasion of New Mexico will again be attempted by the Rio Grande; but if our troops in the Southwest should meet with any serious reverses, it may be by the Canadian or attempts may be made to interrupt our communications with the East. This last I have regarded as the most probable danger, and some time since requested the commander of the Department of Kansas to place a sufficient force on that line (within his department) to secure it. The renewal of the disturbances in Missouri has prevented this, and I am now putting some of the Colorado troops on the line. If there should be no change in the order for the removal of the regular troops a part of your command will probably be needed at and above Fort Craig. I have estimated the force required at that post and the Rio Grande as far as Fort Bliss at 2,000 men. I infer from your letter of May 3 that you can readily be re-enforced from California, and there is no doubt that troops can better be spared from that State than from any other quarter. I make these suggestions now for your consideration and will be pleased to hear from you in relation to them before any general movement of the regular troops takes place.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure H.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., August 12, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES H. CARLETON, Commanding Column from California, District of Arizona:

GENERAL: I have just received your communication of the 8th instant. It is my wish that you should exercise your own judgment both with regard to the distribution of your troops and the point at which your {p.110} headquarters will be established. My instructions to Colonel Chivington of June 22 and subsequent dates were predicated upon the supposition that he would meet with some resistance, and were more in detail than I should have considered necessary with an officer of more experience. In my letter of yesterday I gave the general tenor of my instructions, in order that you might use your discretion in carrying out the policy of the Government with reference to this department. Directions will be given to send tents to Fort Craig for the use of your command, and I trust that you will not hesitate in asking for anything that will add to the comfort of your command. If not already at Fort Craig, it will be sent there, and if not now in abundance, we will shame what we have, and renew our supplies when the trains come in. It will probably be necessary for a time to send your own transportation to Fort Craig for any supplies that you may need from that place.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure I.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Las Cruces, N. Mex., August 15, 1862.

Brig. Gen. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé, N. Mex.:

GENERAL: I wrote to you a letter from Ojo de la Vaca on the 2d instant advising you of the strength of the forces under my command then en route to the Rio Grande. Since then I have not received any letters from your headquarters advising me of the receipt of that communication. The inclosed general orders (Nos. 14 and 15, from these headquarters) will give you an idea of the force stationed at Mesilla. In Las Cruces there are four companies of the Fifth U. S. Infantry; at Fort Fillmore there are Shinn’s light battery, Third U. S. Artillery; Companies A and E, First California Volunteer Infantry; Company B, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, and Companies B and D, First California Volunteer Cavalry, and Company B, Second California Volunteer Cavalry. I placed all the cavalry and nearly all the quartermaster’s wagons and teams at Fort Fillmore on account of the good grazing in that vicinity and the abundance of mesquite beans now in that neighborhood, which for the present precludes the necessity of purchasing much forage. As there are sufficient quarters at La Mesilla for the four companies of the Fifth U. S. Infantry I shall establish them in that town, unless otherwise directed by yourself; at least for the present. The emulation which will naturally spring up between them and the volunteers, as to who shall best perform their duties, will, in my opinion, be of great service to both; besides, there is a fine building there, where the supplies-quartermaster’s and subsistence-can be kept free of expense, and the town of Mesilla is said to be a cooler and healthier locality than Las Cruces. Colonel Howe wrote to me desiring that I would send these four companies to Fort Craig, but this I do not feel authorized to do unless you order it. Mr. Woods the beef contractor, wrote me a note in relation to furnishing beef for my command. It is herewith inclosed,* together with my reply. I hope my decision in this case will meet with your approval. I have not yet learned officially whether Mr. Woods will or not supply beef for only the four companies of regulars; I have heard that he would not. To-morrow I leave for Fort Bliss, in Texas, with Companies B, of the First, and B, of the Second, California Volunteer Cavalry. Company {p.111} C, First California Volunteer Cavalry, is already at Hart’s Mill, as you had doubtless heard previous to my arrival. There are many matters of moment which require my attention, as I have heard, in the neighborhood of Fort Bliss.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

[Inclosure K.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 16.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, CAMP ON RIO GRANDE, Near Fort Quitman, Tex., August 22, 1862.

I. At 12 m. to-day Capt. John C. Cremony, with his company (B, of the Second California Volunteer Cavalry), will proceed to Fort Quitman and hoist over it the national colors, the old Stars and Stripes. By this act still another post comes under its rightful flag and once more becomes consecrated to the United States.

II. Capt. Edmond D. Shirland, First California Volunteer Cavalry, will proceed without delay, yet by easy marches, to Fort Davis, Tex., and hoist over that post the national colors. If Captain Shirland finds any sick or wounded soldiers there he will make them prisoners of war, but put them upon their parole and let them proceed without delay to Texas. If they are unable to travel, Captain Shirland will report to these headquarters by express what they need in the way of surgical or medical attention; what they need in the way of food or transportation, and all other essential facts connected with them which it may be necessary to have known to have them properly cared for. If the fort is abandoned, Captain Shirland will retrace his steps and report in person to these headquarters.

III. Twenty effective men will be ordered from Company B, First California Volunteer Cavalry, to report to Captain Shirland for detached service to Fort Davis, Tex.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure L.]

CAMP ON RIO GRANDE, September 2, 1862.

Lieut. BENJAMIN C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Franklin, Tex.:

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to state that, in pursuance of instructions received from General James H. Carleton, commanding Column from California, I left this camp at 3 p.m. August 23 en route to Fort Davis. Encamped at 8 o’clock the same evening, having marched fifteen miles. Started at daybreak of the 24th and arrived at Eagle Springs at 9.30 a.m., seventeen miles; found the springs filled with rubbish and carrion; by cleaning them out found water for men and animals. There being no grass in the vicinity, I left the springs at 4 p.m.; marched about five miles and made a dry camp; grass abundant and good. Started at daybreak and marched twenty miles to Van Horn’s Wells; found these wells entirely filled up; cleared out one of them, but found it impossible to obtain sufficient water for the men. Many of the horses being unfit to proceed farther, I thought it best to go on from here with twenty men and picked horses, taking the ambulance with me. Accordingly I directed Lieutenant Haden to retrace his steps to Eagle Springs with the remainder of the detachment, to clean out the springs thoroughly, and to {p.112} remain there eight days, unless he received other orders from me. If at the expiration of eight days I should not have returned or sent back an express, I directed him to return to the river and wait for me there two days and then proceed up the river and report to General Carleton. I left Van Horn’s Wells at about 4 p.m. and arrived at Dead Man’s Hole at about 2 a.m.; found sufficient water there for the animals, but not enough for a company; distance, thirty-five miles.

Started at 6.30 a.m. and arrived at Barrel Springs at 3 p.m., having halted on the road to graze the animals. Found water enough at these springs for one company. Remained here that night, and on the next afternoon sent forward Corporal Bartlett, with one private and the Mexican guide, to find out the condition of affairs at Fort Davis, distant eighteen miles. They returned about noon the next day, having performed their duty, in such a manner that if the fort had been occupied by the C. S. troops their (Corporal Bartlett and party) presence could not have been discovered. They reported the fort unoccupied, and I, thinking it best not to send back for the company on account of the scarcity of water, proceeded to the fort. I found it entirely deserted, but in one of the buildings of the Overland Mail Company I found the dead body of a man lying on the floor. He had been shot through the body with a bullet and had an arrow wound on the head and one on the arm. From the appearance of the room I think that it had been used by the Confederate troops as a hospital, and this man left there sick and afterward killed by the Indians. I had the body buried. The fort appears to have been garrisoned by the C. S. troops since their first appearance in the country by at least a portion of one company. It also seemed to have been used as a rendezvous for sick soldiers, bat they had all left with the last detachment for San Antonio.

The following is a description of the buildings at the fort: Five company quarters, about 80 by 25 feet; one story high; built of stone; thatched roof. Four of these buildings are in fair condition. The root; doors, and windows of one have been burned. One guard house, about 80 by 25 feet; building stone; roof, doors, and windows burned. One quartermaster’s store-house, about 100 by 20 feet, built of stone; roof, doors, and windows entirely destroyed; surrounded by several small buildings; use not known. One wooden or slab building, 30 by 16 feet; thatched roof; used as an adjutant’s office. One wooden building, 36 by 27 feet, with kitchen and several small outbuildings; supposed to have been the commanding officer’s quarters. On this building the flag was raised and kept up one day. One wooden building, 48 by 22 feet, with kitchen and outhouses attached; supposed to have been officers’ quarters. One wooden building, 22 by 12 feet, with one small outbuilding, 10 by 14 feet. One wooden building, 36 by 18 feet; one outbuilding, 14 by 12 feet; one slab building, 40 by 15 feet; one slab building, 50 by 14 feet; one slab building, 20 by 12 feet; one slab building, 20 by 12 feet; one slab building, 30 by 15 feet; one outhouse, 10 by 12 feet; seven small slab outhouses; one slab stable, 50 by 14 feet; one stone and mud house; three small slab buildings. These are estimated measurements, as I had no other means of doing. One Overland Mail station, consisting of house, storehouse, shop, stable, saddlery, granary, &c.; one adobe building, formerly used as a store. Many of the doors and windows have been destroyed. Some seem to have been hauled off; others burned. One wagon stands loaded with lumber. I have heard a report, in fact, that the entire fort was sold by the C. S. officers to some party at Del Norte, Mexico. Property consists of some iron in quartermaster’s store-house, some 100 horseshoes, two old citizen {p.113} wagons, several wagon and cart wheels, empty barrels, several chains, many hospital bedsteads, but all broken or in a dilapidated condition. I started from the fort on my return at daylight of the 30th and marched to Dead Man’s Hole; watered the animals, and made a dry camp in the prairie.

Left camp at 9 a.m. and marched about ten miles, when an Indian made his appearance with a white flag, followed by five others, all mounted. I tried to hold a talk with them, but they seemed unwilling to have anything to say, they being followed by twenty-five or thirty more mounted men, and still farther behind was a large party on foot, and it being evident that their only intention was to gain time and delay us until they could surround us, coming toward us in every direction, a large proportion of them mounted. Wishing to get rid of the footmen, I made a running fight of it, expecting the mounted men to follow, which they did for a short distance; but finding it too hot for them, they returned. They left 4 men dead on the field, 2 of them the leaders, respectively, of the mounted and foot men. I have good reason to believe that at least 20 were wounded. I had 2 men wounded, 1 slightly and 1 painfully, by a pistol-ball in the shoulder. I had also 1 horse wounded. I then came on to Eagle Springs, where I arrived at 11 p.m., watered all my animals, and found that Lieutenant Haden, with the remainder of the command, had left for the river several days before. Encamped for the remainder of the night, and on the next day proceeded to the river, arriving there about 5 p.m., and found Lieutenant Haden, with the remainder of the command, he stating that he could not find sufficient water at Eagle Springs for the use of the animals. I omitted in the foregoing report to state that about ten miles from Van Horn’s Wells I met two Mexicans coming this way. I arrested them and brought them to this camp, where 1 released them, and they went on up the river and will report to General Carleton in person.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. D. SHIRLAND, Captain Company C, First-California Volunteer Cavalry.

[Inclosure M.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, August 10, 1862.

To the ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Washington, D. C.:

General Carleton’s force in the Mesilla will be less by 700 men than is stated in my report of the 6th-He reports that he can be followed by another regiment of infantry or more. I recommend that one regiment of infantry and five companies of cavalry be ordered from California. The regular troops can be ready to leave as soon as the answer to my report of the 6th is received, or earlier if I find it safe to move them.

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General.

[Inclosure N.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., August 21, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES H. CARLETON, Commanding District of Arizona, Fort Bliss, Tex.:

GENERAL: The commanding general desires that you will arrange the affairs of your district so that the command may be turned over to {p.114} the officer next in rank as soon as practicable, and hold yourself in readiness to repair to the headquarters of the department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GURDEN CHAPIN, Captain, Seventh U. S. Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure O.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 153.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., August 26, 1862.

Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton, U. S. Army, will repair without delay to Santa Fé, for the purpose of relieving Brigadier-General Canby in the command of the Department of New Mexico.

By order of Brigadier-General Canby:

GURDEN CHAPIN, Captain, Seventh U. S. Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure P.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 17.}

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Franklin, Tex., August 27, 1862.

...

II. Captain Roberts’ company (E, First California Volunteer Infantry) and Captain Pishon’s company (D, First California Volunteer Cavalry) will be ordered by Colonel West to proceed without delay to Franklin, Tex., where Captain Roberts’ company will take post, and whence Cap tam Pishon’s company will march to Fort Stockton, in Texas, as a guard to some prisoners of the Confederate Army who are to be sent to Texas on parole. Each of these companies will be rationed from the depot at Mesilla to include the 30th proximo. Besides these rations Colonel West will send, escorted by Roberts’ company, 6,000 rations of subsistence stores from the Mesilla depot to Franklin, Tex.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure Q.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Franklin, Tex., September 1, 1862.

COMMANDER OF CONFEDERATE TROOPS, SAN ANTONIO, TEX.:

SIR: I found on my arrival here some twenty-odd sick and wounded soldiers of the C. S. Army, whom I was ordered by General Canby, commanding the Department of New Mexico, to make prisoners of war. These men, at their earnest solicitation, I sent to San Antonio on their parole. They have been furnished with rations of subsistence for forty days and with such medicines and hospital stores as were necessary for them on the road. I have also furnished two wagons for the transportation of those who are unable to walk, and I have sent an escort of one lieutenant and twenty-five rank and file of the First California Volunteer Cavalry to guard them from attack by Mexicans or Indians until a sufficient force from your army is met, to whom they may be transferred, or until they reach some point near San Antonio, where from thence onward they can travel with safety. From that point the Lieutenant is ordered to return with his party and all the means of transportation belonging to the United States with which he is intrusted for the use of his escort and benefit of these prisoners.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.115}

[Inclosure R.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 20.}

HEAD QUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Las Cruces, N. Mex., September 5, 1862.

I. Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth California Volunteer Infantry, will proceed without delay to Tucson, and relieve Maj. David Fergusson, First California Volunteer Cavalry, in the command of the District of Western Arizona.

II. Maj. David Fergusson, First California Volunteer Cavalry, is hereby relieved from duty as chief commissary of the Column from California and will immediately transfer all funds, property, records, &c., pertaining to the subsistence department to Capt. Nicholas S. Davis, First California Volunteer Infantry, who is hereby appointed acting chief commissary of the Column from California. Having done this, Major Fergusson will proceed, via Arivaca and Altar or Cubero, without delay, to a point at or near Lobos Bay, on the Gulf of California known as Libertad, and examine the intermediate country, with a view to the transportation of supplies. He will ascertain the resources of the country on this route; also the availability of Lobos Bay as a port where the military supplies destined for Arizona may be landed. Major Fergusson will then repair in person to the headquarters District of Arizona, and make a report of his examination of the Port Lobos route to the general commanding the Column from California. As soon thereafter as practicable Major Fergusson will assume command of his regiment, the First California Volunteer Cavalry.

III. Capt. Nicholas S. Davis, chief of transportation of the Column from California, will discharge all mechanics from Government employment at Tucson, except such as may be necessary to keep the train that plies to Fort Yuma in repairs. This train and any other quartermaster’s property in Western Arizona for which he is responsible may, if the exigencies of the service so require it, be transferred by Captain Davis to the depot quartermaster at Tucson. Captain Davis and Lieut. Lysander E. Hanson, First California Volunteer Infantry, with Mr. George C. Alexander, clerk to the chief commissary of the Column from California, will report by the first opportunity to the commander of the District of Arizona.

IV. Surg. John H. Prentiss, First California Volunteer Cavalry, will relieve Surgeon McNulty as medical purveyor of the District of Arizona, and will receipt for the medical supplies appertaining to the same.

V. Estimates for medical supplies and ammunition required at Fort Bowie and Tucson will be made upon the proper officers at the headquarters of the District of Arizona.

VI. Brigadier-General Carleton having been ordered to Santa Fé, to relieve Brigadier-General Canby, in the command of the Department of New Mexico, he hereby relinquishes the command of the District of Arizona to Col. Joseph R. West, First California Volunteer Infantry. Brigadier-General Carleton still retains the command of the Column from California, and his staff-Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. Benjamin C. Cutler, Surg. James M. McNulty, Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, chief quartermaster, and Lieut. Joseph F. Bennett, acting assistant adjutant-general-will accompany him to Santa Fé, starting to-day.

VII. The District of Arizona comprises the Territory of Arizona and that portion of New Mexico which lies south of an east and west line drawn through Fort Thorn and also Northwestern Texas. The executive powers assumed by Brigadier-General Carleton in his proclamation, {p.116} dated at Tucson, June 8, 1862, will, until further orders, be retained by that officer.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure S.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 83.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 18, 1862.

The undersigned hereby relinquishes the command of this department to Brig. Gen. J. H. Carleton, and is gratified in announcing as his successor an officer whose character, services, and experience in this country entitle him to the confidence of the people of New Mexico. In taking leave of the troops he has for some time had the honor to command he desires to leave with them the assurance of his high respect and admiration and his best wishes for their happiness and advancement.

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers.

[Inclosure T.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 84.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 18, 1862.

I. The undersigned hereby assumes command of the Department of New Mexico.

II. The following staff officers are announced: First Lieut. Ben. C. Cutler, First California Infantry, acting assistant adjutant-general; Maj. Henry D. Wallen, Seventh U. S. Infantry, acting inspector-general; Capt. A. W. Evans, Sixth U. S. Cavalry, acting assistant inspector-general; Capt. John C. McFerran, U. S. Army, chief quartermaster; Capt. A. F. Garrison, U. S. Volunteers, chief commissary of subsistence; Surg. E. I. Baily, U. S. Army, medical director. Surg. James M. McNulty, of the First California Volunteer Infantry, in addition to his duties as medical director of the Column from California, is assigned to duty as acting medical inspector of the Department of New Mexico, and will be governed in the performance of these duties by such instructions as he may receive from these headquarters. Maj. William J. Martin, U. S. Army, chief paymaster. Capt. William H. Rossell, Tenth U. S. Infantry, will continue to perform the duties of disbursing officer of the fund for collecting, drilling, and organizing volunteers. Capt. William R. Shoemaker, military store-keeper of ordnance, will perform the duties of chief of ordnance at Fort Union.

III. The orderly hours at department headquarters will be from 9 to 10 a.m. for chiefs of departments and officers on duty, and from 11 a.m. to 12 m. for citizens on business.

IV. All orders and instructions from headquarters Department of New Mexico, unless hereafter modified or repealed, will remain in full force; and particular attention is directed to department General Orders, No. 62, of July 7, 1862; its requirements will be strictly observed.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding Department.

{p.117}

[Inclosure U.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Jornada del Muerto, N. Mex., September 8, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, Commanding District of Arizona, Mesilla, Ariz.:

COLONEL: I met this morning some paroled prisoners of war. I have heard there are ninety-three of them. They are on their way to Texas. Surgeon Covey, of the C. S. Army, who goes with them, informs me that they have some arms belonging to the United States, with which to defend themselves en route to San Antonio. Give orders so that Lieutenant French, First California Cavalry, whom I sent toward Texas with other prisoners, may bring these arms and this transportation back, escorted by his men. I have not received one word of instruction in relation to these prisoners, and know nothing about them except what I gleaned from orders in Lieutenant Bennett’s possession and from what Surgeon Covey told me. Having these arms they will need no escort from you, and it will not be well to have our men and animals broken down without good cause. Keep them moving. Have no delays at Fillmore. Let them camp down near, but not at, the grazing camp. Do not let them delay at all at Franklin. If care is taken the brigands and others in El Paso will attempt to communicate with them and may be caught. Surgeon Covey should not know the full extent of our force now en route from California.

...

Be sure and have Wagon-Master Veck report at Peralta with fifteen wagons and the ambulance and team and driver which went below with me (Truett’s).

Assistant Wagon-Master Francis will be placed in charge of the train of twenty-five wagons which are to go to Tucson. No soldier teamster will go with that train, and no man who is mustered as teamster who does not drive a team; nor will any such men be permitted to remain with any train, whether in camp or on the road. All such men will at once be provided with teams, and a like number of soldiers be relieved from extra duty. I desire that you will see that this rule goes into effect at once. Should a teamster become sick in camp or on the road, his place will be supplied temporarily by a soldier. It follows, therefore, that there will not be a single man mustered as teamster who does not drive a team, nor will any extra man be allowed as a cook for the teamsters. They must cook for themselves. If you can swoop up other people about you who had better travel to Texas, now is a good opportunity to send them to that country.

You must discharge every civil employé whose services are not indispensably necessary.

Please make me a report of the amount of provisions you have on hand and the number of troops, &c., to be rationed, as soon as the Texans have gone.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

NOTE.-Ask Colonel Bowie to do me the favor to release and send to California a political prisoner named J. S. Bratton on his taking the oath of allegiance.

J. H. C.

{p.118}

[Inclosure V.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Fort Craig, Y. Mex., September 9, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, Commanding District of Arizona, Mesilla, Ariz.:

COLONEL: Captain Archer, commissary of subsistence at this post, informs me that he sent $5,000 subsistence funds to Lieutenant Baldwin at the time the Confederate prisoners went below a few days since. This must be transferred to your depot commissary or be disbursed under your direction. He informs me that he can send, on your estimate (dated September 1, 1862) for $19,986.66, $10,000 in drafts on the assistant treasurer in New York. The remainder will be sent to you as soon as Captain Garrison gives him further authority to make additional drafts. I have placed in his hands your estimates for stores, for expenditures, veterinary tools, and horse medicines, carpenters’ tools, stationery, miscellaneous tools, and for blank forms, and asked him to fill them as far as he can and send them on to me, to be completed at other depots when Veck comes up. The articles from Fort Craig will be sent down on the train which came up with me.

...

Your arrangement about sending Swilling as an expressman is a good one, and I have given Colonel Steen a memorandum of it, and will endeavor to have the time so fixed for other expressmen that there will be no delay in the transmittal of letters up and down the river. Please give Azbon C. Marcy, who took the oath of allegiance to Colonel Eyre, a free pass to California. I inclose herewith a list of the quartermaster’s property on hand at this post. I have asked Captain Archer to send one also of the subsistence stores, which will embrace many things received to-day.

...

Whatever you want to make your command efficient you shall have. Only bear in mind not to get a thing you do not need. I wish to accumulate but little of public stores below the Jornada.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure W.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, Albuquerque, Y. Mex., September 14, 1862.

First California Volunteer Infantry, Comdg. Dist. of Arizona:

COLONEL: By the same express which carries this letter you will receive an order from department headquarters directing you to send troops to Fort Craig to relieve the garrison now at that post. The general commanding directs that you send for this purpose Lieut. Col. Edwin A. Rigg, First California Volunteer Infantry, with about 200 rank and file, so selected as not to take from your command more than three companies. Captain Fritz, First California Volunteer Cavalry, will proceed to Tucson, as previously directed, with twenty-five wagons. If Wagon-Master Veck has not already started for Peralta with fifteen wagons, as directed, the general commanding orders that his train be increased to thirty-five wagons. If he has already started, send twenty {p.119} additional wagons when Colonel Rigg goes to Fort Craig. Wagon-Master Francis will go with Captain Fritz to Tucson, and Winston will remain with the rest of the wagons.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant. General.

[Inclosure X.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Albuquerque, N. Mex., September 14, 1862.

Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, Commanding District of Arizona, Mesilla, Ariz.:

COLONEL: It is presumed, from advices lately received from Maj. David Fergusson, First California Volunteer Cavalry, commanding District of Western Arizona, that about 1,000 head of cattle will shortly be at Tucson en route to the Rio Grande for the use of the Column from California. The general commanding directs that you give to the commanding officer at Tucson such detailed instructions as will insure the arrival in this valley of these cattle at an early day. After deducting a sufficient number for the use of the troops in the District of Western Arizona, the cattle should be sent forward in small herds, so that too many may not arrive at the watering places at any one time-say, one position with Greene’s company and another with Wellman’s cavalry, and so on.

The general commanding directs that you arrest one Manuel Barella, a brother of Anastacio Barella, of Mesilla, and send him up the country as far as Fort Craig.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Inclosure Z.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 36.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Santa Fé, N. Alex., September 17, 1862.

...

II. Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First California Volunteer Cavalry, will proceed without delay to San Francisco, Cal., as bearer of dispatches to the commander of the Department of the Pacific in accordance with Special Orders, No. 148, from headquarters Department of New Mexico, dated August 22, 1862. Having performed this duty, he will rejoin his regiment at the earliest practicable moment.

By order of Brigadier-General Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

ADDENDA.

[Jones’ statement, July 22, 1862.]

Started on the 15th. On the 16th went beyond Dragoon Spring about fifteen miles. On the 17th laid by in a cañon above Ewell’s Station. Remained all night. On the 18th laid over in a cañon six or seven miles [from] Apache Pass. That afternoon about 3.30 started out of cañon onto the plain. Had traveled about five miles when the Indians discovered us and raised a smoke. We were then on a road, and traveled fast to get out of the bush onto the plain, as Jones expected an attack. {p.120} About five miles from there crossed a trail leading from Sierra Blanca of eleven horsemen and seven footmen, Indians. About four miles farther the Indians jumped up from their hiding place in brush. Soon as they ran about a quarter of a mile in our rear, they mounted their horses and came on at a gallop. I got down and we all tied our animals, as we were not in a condition to flee, and then prepared to fight. The Indians came on at a furious rate. Three of our animals broke away, which divided the Indians; some went after them, leaving others on foot, except one on horseback. The Mexican fired the sergeant’s gun, but lost all the caps out of the breech. The Mexican was wounded in the hip. After he had mounted the mule we all mounted. The sergeant was thrown. We then tied our mules again. Then the mounted men came back and dismounted, and were crawling on us. I then told the sergeant our only chance was to mount and make a rush. The Mexican begged us not to leave him. We told him we could not save ourselves. We mounted up and started. The sergeant, I think, never got out from among the Indians. They followed after me on horseback yelling, saying, “Now let’s have a race.” “Mucha buena mula;” “Mucho bravo Americano.” I shot one in the side, shot another in the shoulder; six pursued until sundown. I lost nearly all my panole; lost $84 in cash. I struck Cow Spring about 11 a.m. on the 19th instant. I got water, and staid all day in the station. Had made arrangements to fight from chimney. Indians did not come. Started out after dark. I crossed the lower crossing of Miembres (no water). The C. S. Army had a picket there, which I passed. I went down to Cooke’s Spring, expecting I could reach the Rio Grande. I avoided the water and went on. On the morning of the 20th I reached the Rio Grande at sundown. I found a rancheria at Picacho, and was taken prisoner and taken [to] Mesilla.

–––

No. 3.

Reports of Lieut. Col. Edward B. Eyre, First California Cavalry.

HEADQUARTERS FORT BARRETT, Pima Villages, Ariz. Ter., May 14, 1862.

MAJOR: I have the honor to inform you of the death of Second Lieut. James Barrett, late of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, who was shot in a skirmish with a rebel picket at Picacho Pass, Ariz. Ter, (about thirty miles from Tucson), on the 15th of April, 1862. The only relative of the deceased is Mrs. Ellen Brady, who, when last heard from by deceased, four years ago, resided in Albany. N. Y.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. E. EYRE, Lieutenant-Colonel First Cavalry California Volunteers.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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HDQRS. FIRST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, Fort Thorn, Ariz., July 6, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: In compliance with orders received from the colonel commanding, dated June 17, 1862, I have the honor to make the following report:

June 21, left Tucson at 3 a.m. with Captain Fritz, Lieutenants Haden and Baldwin, First California Volunteer Cavalry, and 140 men; {p.121} marched thirty-five miles to Cienega de los Pinos, and encamped at 12.30 p.m.; water and grazing abundant. The road to-day is very good, with the exception of two or three hills. At a distance of about twenty-eight miles the road descends into the Cienega, then seven miles to water near the burned station, which stood on the hill to the right of the road. Course, southeast; thirty-five miles. June 22, left Cienega at 6 a.m.; marched over a high, rolling country, but good wagon road, and splendid grazing all the way for a distance of about twenty-two miles, when the road descends through a cañon for one mile, and then opens on the San Pedro Valley. Two miles farther the river is reached at the Overland Mail Station; strong bridge over the river; water and grass abundant; wood very scarce. Course, northeast; twenty-five miles. There found the name of Jones, the expressman. June 23, left camp at crossing of the San Pedro at 7.30 a.m. The road at once heaves the river and enters a valley about one mile wide and four miles long, when it terminates at the foot of the mesa, which is gained through a narrow cañon in which is a long but not very steep hill. The cañon is about one mile and a half, when the top of the mesa is reached; then about fourteen miles to Overland Mail Station at Dragoon Spring, at which place we arrived at 12.30 p.m. and encamped; found water sufficient, by digging, up the cañon two miles, the trail to which is difficult in some places to lead animals over. Course, northeast; nineteen miles and a halt; June 24, left Dragoon Spring at 10.30 a.m.; was detained in consequence of scarcity of water. Marched twenty-five miles over an excellent road to Ewell’s Station, arriving there at 5.30 p.m.; sent Captain Fritz and six men with spades to examine the spring in the mountain north of station. He had returned to station by the time the command arrived and reported only enough water for the men. Encamped at 6 p.m. Course, northeast; twenty-five miles. June 25, left Ewell’s Station at 1 a.m.; marched fifteen miles over a very hilly and in places a very rocky road to station in Apache Pass, and encamped at 6 a.m.; water scarce; no grass. Course, northeast; fifteen miles.

About 12 m.-I being engaged at the spring superintending the watering of animals, it being necessary to dip it with tin cups-four shots were heard in the vicinity of where the horses that had been watered were being grazed under a strong guard. Immediately thereafter it was reported that Indians were in sight and that the guard had fired to give the alarm. Almost immediately thereafter it was reported to me that the Indians were waving a white flag. I at once started for them, taking with me a white flag, and Mr. Newcomb as interpreter. At the end of about one hour I succeeded in getting sufficiently near one of them to be understood. I explained to him what I desired and asked for the chief. At this time at least 75 to 100 Indians were in sight, many of them mounted on good-looking horses and all of them armed with fire-arms, some with rifles and six-shooting pistols. Of the latter I observed a great number and occasionally single-barreled shotguns. When the chief came forward I told him we were Americans, and that our Great Captain lived at Washington; that we wished to be friends of the Apaches; that at present I was only traveling through their country, and desired he would not interfere with my men or animals; that a great captain was at Tucson with a large number of soldiers; that he wished to have a talk with all the Apache chiefs and to make peace with them and make them presents. He professed a great desire to be friendly with the Americans, and assured me that neither my men nor animals should be molested. He asked for tobacco and something to eat. I gave him all that could possibly be spared and we parted, {p.122} with a request on his part that I would meet him at the same place at sunset. On my return it was reported to me that three of the men were missing. A party of thirty were at once sent out in the vicinity of where the firing was heard, and after an hour’s search the bodies of the missing men were found stripped of all their clothing and two of them scalped. Each was shot through the chest with fire-arms and lanced through the neck. They were victims to their own imprudence, the entire command having been repeatedly warned by me not to wander from camp. It appears they had started, leading their horses from the spring where the watering was being done, over the ridge into another gulch, when they came on the Indians and were murdered. The Indians succeeded in getting one horse. When, the bodies of our murdered men were found instant pursuit of the Indians was made, some of whom were seen on a hill half a mile distant; but being unable to come up with them a return to camp was ordered, carrying in the dead bodies, which were buried, the entire command being present. The animals now being all watered, or as much as could be obtained for them, and there being very little grass in the pass, at 6 p.m. left camp; marched out and made a dry camp on the plain two miles beyond the cañon. Course, east by northeast; four miles.

At 11 p.m. a volley of six or eight shots was fired into camp, wounding Acting Assistant Surgeon Kittridge in the head and killing one horse at the picket-line. June 26, left Dry Camp, No. 1, at 3.30 a.m.; marched fifteen miles over an excellent road to San Simon Station, then turned square to the right and marched thirteen miles up the dry bed of the river to a large cienega and encamped at 2 p.m. Course, east, northeast, and southeast; twenty-eight miles. This is a splendid camping place-water and grass in the greatest abundance. The proper road to the cienega turns to the right from the stage road about six miles from Apache Pass and around the point of the mountain. It comes on the San Simon one mile below the water. At 12, midnight, camp was alarmed by a shot fired by one of the guard. On examination it was found to be a coyote, which he mistook in the dark for an Indian crawling through the scattered bushes, but which he instantly killed. This was a very hard day’s march on men and animals, being obliged to leave Dry Camp without breakfast owing to the scarcity of water, having but eight five-gallon kegs in which to carry water for the men, and not being able to get at the pass as much water as the animals required. June 27, laid over. June 28, left camp at Cienega of San Simon at 4 p.m.; marched five miles north-northeast to the pass in the mountains; road heavy. On arriving at the pass, found the road through it very good and the pass wide. Marched fifteen miles from San Simon, and made Dry Camp, No. 2, at 10.15 p.m. Course, north-northeast; fifteen miles. June 29, left Dry Camp at 4 a.m.; marched nine miles to Lightendorffer’s Well, in Round Mountain Cañon; good road; well on right of and close to the road. It is about eight feet square and seven feet deep; rock bottom. Halted at well one hour and obtained a very limited supply of water for my command. This is a tolerably good camping place for three companies of infantry. By care they could obtain sufficient water, which is good. Left Lightendorffer’s Well at 8 a.m.; marched twenty-two miles to Densmore’s Station (Soldier’s Farewell) and halted at 5 p.m. Discovered here a small sprung about two or three miles up the arroyo, north of station, and a hole of bad water 800 yards south of station. Left Densmore’s Station at 8 p.m.; marched fourteen miles to Cow Springs, and encamped at 12, midnight; water and grazing abundant. The road from the Cienega of San Simon {p.123} to this place is good for loaded teams, excepting four or five miles to the pass. Course, northeast; forty-six miles.

Soon after leaving Densmore’s Station found two men on the side of the road under rather suspicious circumstances; took three letters from them, one directed to the commander of Federal forces at Tucson or en route; put the men in charge of guard and brought them back. (Letters herewith inclosed, marked Nos. 1, 2, and 3.*) There discovered nime men encamped, who proved to be a party sent by Colonel Chivington, commanding Southern Military District of New Mexico, at Fort Craig, with a letter to Colonel Carleton, with verbal orders to deliver it to the commander of the advance of his column when met with, and return to Fort Craig. Read the communication, and returned Mr. Milligan and one of his party with the answer to Fort Craig at 3 p.m. on the 30th instant, at which place he would arrive on the evening of the 2d proximo. Letter of Colonel Chivington and my answer thereto herewith inclosed.* From Mr. Milligan I learned of the capture of Jones, the expressman, by the secessionists at the Picacho, near Mesilla, his two companions having been killed by Indians at Apache Pass and himself chased by them for a great many miles. This information was brought to Fort Craig by a friendly Mexican, who was present at the capture of Jones. June 30, laid over.

July 1. This morning a number of men were discovered by the lookout approaching from the direction of the Pino Alto gold mines; sent out a party and brought them into camp. They proved to be a party of thirty Mexican miners, returning to Sonora in consequence of the almost total absence of provisions at the mines; allowed them to proceed on their journey. Left Cow Springs at 8 a.m.; arrived at the Rio Miembres at 1 p.m. and encamped two miles above station; water and grazing abundant and of the best quality; road good. Course, northeast; sixteen miles. July 2, laid over. At 1 o’clock this morning one of the pickets discovered persons approaching camp. They were arrested and brought in-twelve men and two women, one a German, the others Mexicans. They also were from the mines en route for Mesilla. Ordered them confined, in order to secure the secrecy of my movements. At 9 a.m. sent out party of twenty men to examine Cooke’s Cañon, with orders to arrest, if possible, all persons they may meet with, and remain at Cooke’s Spring until the command came up. July 3, left Miembres River at 6.30 a.m.; marched twelve miles over a good road to Cooke’s Pass. From here to summit road hilly. A long, rocky, but not very steep, hill brings you to the top of the pass; from there the descent to the spring is good; distance from pass to spring six miles. Course, north-northeast and northeast; eighteen miles. There came up with the party sent in advance yesterday; they reported no person in sight and no fresh traces. July 4, left Cooke’s Spring at 6.30 a.m.; took Fort Thorn road, which keeps a north-northeast course, while the Mesilla road turns to the right immediately at the springs and bears east-northeast, passing the Overland Mail Station, which is seen on the till about half a mile distant. Marched thirteen miles to Mule Spring; good road. Here no water could be found even by digging, having sent a party in advance with spades for that purpose. Left Mule Spring at 12 in.; marched twenty-two miles to the Rio Grande, and encamped at 7 p.m. near Fort Thorn. Course, north-northeast and northeast; thirty-five miles. The road for about eight miles after leaving Mule Spring is very good, when it enters a rolling country, the hills becoming more and more abrupt for a distance of about six miles, when {p.124} it descends into a broad cañon, which is followed on a good road to the river. Immediately on making camp the national colors were raised amid the loud and continued cheers of the assembled command. This was the first time the Stars and Stripes floated on the Rio Grande below Fort Craig since the occupation of the country by the Confederate troops, and it being the anniversary of our National Independence, was not calculated to dampen the ardor of the command. We are now within thirty-five miles of the enemy, which the prisoners whom I have taken variously estimate from 200 to 800 strong. As soon as the horses have a little recruited (they being considerably reduced on a march of about 300 miles through a broiling sun and over a country utterly destitute of water for distances ranging from thirty-five to sixty miles) will reconnoiter his position and endeavor to ascertain his strength, which I have but little doubt of accomplishing, and in case line (hoes not greatly outnumber me will give him a fight. July 5, moved three miles down the river to and reoccupied Fort Thorn; three miles.

I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. E. EYRE, Lieut. Col., First California Volunteer Cavalry, Commanding.

Lieut. BENJAMIN C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California, Tucson, Ariz.

* Not found.

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HDQRS. FIRST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, Fort Thorn, Ariz., July 8, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report the reoccupation of Fort Thorn by the squadron of First California Volunteer Cavalry, under my command, on the evening of the 5th instant. Immediately thereafter the national colors were run up and the old flag once more floated over the garrison. On the morning of the 6th instant an express arrived from Fort Craig, with a communication from Colonel Chivington, First Colorado Volunteers, commanding Southern Military District of New Mexico, a copy of which is herewith inclosed.* He also sent a communication addressed to Colonel Steele, C. S. Army, empowering me to negotiate an exchange for Captain McCleave and the men who were made prisoners with him. Soon after the express from Colonel Chivington arrived a party of men were seen approaching from the direction of Mesilla. One of them proved to he Captain McCleave, on his way to Fort Craig, bringing with him a proposition from Colonel Steele for an exchange for Captain Gardner, C. S. Army. Having learned from the expressman just arrived that Captain Gardner died a few days since, I at once sent Captain Fritz, First California Volunteer Cavalry, to Fort Fillmore, with a request to Colonel Steele to name any other captain General Canby had made prisoner in exchange for Captain McCleave; also proposing an exchange for the men taken with him, as well as an exchange for our expressman (Jones) and a Mr. John Lemon, of Mesilla, who was extremely kind to Captain McCleave during his confinement, and who had horses ready saddled and hid out for Jones’ escape. He was ordered to be hung, and was taken to a tree for that purpose, but after hanging a Mr. Marshall, who was taken out with him, his execution was postponed. Captain Fritz will probably be back to-night, when I will at once send Captain McCleave with a party of twenty-five men through to Tucson. It is not safe for a less number to travel that road on account of the Indians, and even then with the utmost caution.

{p.125}

If it is the desire of the colonel commanding to keep open communication between Tucson and the Rio Grande I would respectfully recommend that a company of infantry be stationed at Dragoon Spring and two companies at the Apache Pass. That corps would be far more effective against the Indians in the rugged mountains at the points above named than cavalry; besides, horses could not be kept in flesh on the dry grass alone; they would be utterly useless in two weeks riding. At this season of the year sufficient water and of a good quality can be obtained for two companies of infantry at the foot of the mountain, four miles north of Ewell’s Station. The spring is prominently marked by a large, white spot on the mountain, which is directly over the water. The Rio Grande has been unusually high this summer, almost the entire bottom between Fort Craig and Mesilla being still overflowed. It is impossible at this time to approach Mesilla on the west side of the river, a mew channel having been washed out on that side of the town, through which the largest portion of the water flows; besides, the bottom for a long distance is overflowed, and, the soil being of a loose nature, animals mire down in attempting to get through it. This morning I sent Captain McCleave with a small party to examine the San Diego Crossing, eighteen miles below here, to ascertain if the river can be forded at that point. The moment a crossing can be effected it is my intention, unless otherwise ordered by General Canby, to move on Mesilla and reoccupy Forts Fillmore and Bliss. When that is done that portion of the proclamation of the colonel commanding will not only have been carried out, but the sacred soil of Texas will have been invaded. Captain McCleave reports Colonel Steele with the rear of Sibley’s brigade making hurried exertions to get away from Texas. He is pressing every team, both mule and oxen, he can find into service, compelling the owners (generally Mexicans) to take Confederate scrip in payment therefor. The same mode is resorted to by him in regard to provisions. Captain Howland, Third U. S. Cavalry, in advance of his squadron, has just arrived; his command (100 men) will probably be here this evening. His horses are in shocking condition. Should we come up with Colonel Steele and a mounted charge be made, it must be done by the squadron of my regiment. On the capture of Jones greatly increased exertions were made by Colonel Steele to get away. Mesilla was evacuated, and Captain McCleave, who was at the time on parole to the limits of the town, immediately confined under a strong guard. Mr. White, of the Pima Villages, has been released, and will probably be here with the return of Captain Fritz.

The horses are out grazing (under a strong guard) from daybreak until dark, then tied up to the picket-line, with as much grass as they can eat during the night. They are doing very well, but have not yet recovered from the effects of the very distressing march from Tucson here. Captain McCleave has just returned, and reports the road down the river almost impassable for loaded wagons and the river swimming at the crossing. July 9 [7?], sent Captain McCleave, with an escort and two wagons, to Fort Craig for supplies. The squadron of Third U. S. Cavalry (100 strong) arrived and gone into quarters at this post. Captain Fritz returned this evening, having effected an exchange for Captain McCleave and the others named in my communication to Colonel Steele, a copy* of which is herewith inclosed. Two lieutenants were given in exchange for Captain McCleave, as Colonel Steele affected to know of no captain of theirs for that purpose, although there are a {p.126} number. His real object was to exchange for officers of his own regiment only. About 6 o’clock this evening an express arrived from Captain McCleave, informing me of an attack on his party, as they were moving up the river, by the Navajoes, sixty or seventy strong; that he had made camp, but was being surrounded by them. I immediately sent Captain Howland, with Lieutenant Baldwin and forty men, to his relief. I forward herewith, for the information of the colonel commanding, all communications* received or written by me since my arrival on the Rio Grande.

I am, lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. E. EYRE, Lieutenant-Colonel First California Volunteer Cavalry, Comdg.

Lieut. BENJAMIN C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California, Tucson, Ariz.

* Not found.

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HDQRS. FIRST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, Fort Thorn, Ariz., July 14, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report the arrival here on yesterday of another express from General Canby, the second one alluded to in Colonel Chivington’s communication of the 7th instant.

...

I leave here to-morrow morning with my command for Mesilla. On examination found the road from here to Rough and Ready Station impracticable, and have determined to make a road to the San Diego Crossing, and then pass the river on a raft, which I am now having made for that purpose, and which will be floated down to the crossing. The road on the east side of the river from San Diego to Mesilla is good. It is my determination, unless otherwise ordered, to hoist the national colors over Mesilla and Forts Fillmore and Bliss before the end of the present month.

...

I neglected in my report of the march to this place to give the names of the men killed by the Indians at Apache Pass. Their names are Privates James F. Keith, Peter Maloney, and Albert Schmidt, of Company B, First California Volunteer Cavalry.

I am, lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. E. EYRE, Lieutenant-Colonel First California Volunteer Cavalry, Comdg.

Lieut. BENJAMIN C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California, Tucson, Ariz.

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HDQRS. FIRST CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, Las Cruces, Ariz, August 30, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: In compliance with verbal orders received from the general commanding the column, I have the honor to report that immediately after my arrival on the Rio Grande, July 4, I sent a scouting party down the river as far as the San Diego Crossing, for the double purpose of ascertaining if the enemy had pickets within that distance of my camp, and also whether the high stage of water in the river rendered it impracticable to move my command that far for the purpose of crossing, it being my intention to follow and, if possible, overtake the {p.127} retreating Texans under Colonel Steele. On their return they reported it impracticable to get to the crossing with wagons, but that the river was falling fast, and that in a short time-say one week-I would be able to accomplish my purpose of moving on Fort Fillmore, where a portion of the Texans were then quartered. I therefore determined to remain at Fort Thorn for a short time longer, to recruit the men and animals and to receive re-enforcements from Fort Craig, which I had asked for from Cow Springs, having sent an express from that point on June 28. On the 8th ultimo Captain Howland, Third U. S. Cavalry, with 100 men, arrived at Fort Thorn and reported to me for duty. I was now still more anxious to pursue the enemy, being confident of my ability to successfully cope with his disorganized and disheartened troops, although they outnumbered me more than two to one. On the morning of the 10th ultimo I received a communication from Colonel Chivington, commanding Southern Military District of New Mexico, of which the following is an extract:

You will do all you can to learn the enemy’s strength, position, and purpose, but General Canby does not design an advance from where you are until he can go in force. I am under orders to advance to Santa Barbara or thereabouts with sixteen companies of infantry and a battery of four 6-pounder guns and two 24-pounder howitzers and an additional cavalry force, to support the advance of General Carleton and to co-operate with the forces under him in the reoccupation of the valley of Mesilla.

Although this was not a positive order to remain where I was, yet it intimated too clearly the desire of the district commander to lead the advance on Mesilla and Fort Fillmore, that I felt exceedingly embarrassed as to whether I would be authorized in leaving Fort Thorn until the arrival there of Colonel Chivington; but on consultation with Captains Howland, Tilford, and Fritz I determined, unless more positively ordered, to remain, and to move down to the San Diego Crossing as soon as the water would permit. Accordingly, on the 13th ultimo, I sent Wagon-Master Black, with a party, to the crossing, to ascertain if it was yet practicable to get the train of thirteen wagons to that point. On his return the same day he reported favorably, and on the 15th ultimo I left with my command and arrived at the crossing on the 16th ultimo, a distance of eighteen miles. On the 17th ultimo I had succeeded in crossing successfully my command in a small boat, which I caused to be made for that purpose before leaving Fort Thorn. On the 19th ultimo I received from Lieut. F. Van Vliet, acting assistant adjutant-general, the following communication:

I am instructed by the colonel commanding the district to inform you that your troops will not cross the river until further orders.

This was from Colonel Howe’s acting assistant adjutant-general, he then being in command of the Southern Military District of New Mexico; but having crossed the river before its receipt, and having received supplies from Fort Craig, I determined to push on to Robledo or Doña Aña and there await his further orders, and so wrote him. But on my arrival at the latter place I found neither forage nor grazing for the animals, and pushed on to Las Cruces, where quarters were found for the command in unoccupied houses belonging to notorious secessionists. On my arrival at Las Cruces I at once made inquiry as to the whereabouts of the Texans, and learned from reliable authority that a portion of them were yet at Franklin, Tex.; that they were collecting at that point a large amount of Government property which had been by them secreted at different places on their march up the river, and that they designed selling it to a citizen of El Paso, Tex. This property I could undoubtedly have taken, and in all probability have captured {p.128} the Texans then at Franklin, had I at once pushed on to that point; but the strong intimation not to leave Fort Thorn which I received from Colonel Chivington, and the positive order not to cross the river which I received from Colonel Howe, and my letter to him that I would await his further orders at Las Cruces, compelled me to remain at the latter place. Indeed, by moving farther down the river I would have run counter to the expressed wishes of the district commanders of the Southern Military District of New Mexico, if not against their positive orders. On-the 28th ultimo I received a positive order from Colonel Howe not to leave Las Cruces until further orders. Subsequently, while accompanying the general commanding on his march to Fort Quitman I learned that Colonel Steele greatly feared he would be overtaken by the California troops, and in his hurried retreat bummed a number of his wagons and destroyed a large amount of ammunition. I also learned that so much were his men disheartened and so thoroughly disorganized, that had they been attacked by even a small force they would have at once surrendered. Certain it is an opportunity would have been given them to do so had it not been for the orders received from Fort Craig, for I should certainly have followed and as certainly overtaken them before they left the river at Fort Quitman.

I am, lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. E. EYRE, Lieutenant-Colonel First California Volunteer Cavalry.

Lieut. BENJAMIN C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California, Franklin, Tex.

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No. 4.

Reports of Capt. Thomas L. Roberts, First California Infantry.

SAN SIMON STATION, July 19, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: You will please to bring to the notice of the general commanding the following:

I have found the Apache Indians hostile, as will appear from my journal remitted this date. In both engagements we killed in all 9 that can be accounted for, but I am certain that we sent more of them to their long home. They attacked Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre’s command, as is evidenced by the graves. I suffered, altogether, the loss of 2 privates killed and 1 private and 1 teamster wounded. I deem it highly important that a force sufficient to hold the water and pass should be stationed there, otherwise every command will have to fight for the water, and, not knowing the ground, are almost certain to lose some lives. I would have remained there had my orders not been positive to proceed to this post. My excuse for not informing the general commanding at an earlier moment is this: I did not deem it safe to send a small party, and to insure the safety and success of the expedition I needed every man I had. I do not deem it safe to send the train with the entire of Captain Cremony’s command as an escort, consequently send twenty infantry in addition; as I have got the train safe here, I am determined to do my utmost to have it return safe, which escort will accompany it as far as the San Pedro, and will heave it discretionary with Captain Cremony, when he arrives there, as to whether it will be necessary for him to go farther. I would call the attention of the general commanding to the conduct of my entire command during the march, and in overcoming difficulties attending the same, Every one, both officers {p.129} and men, did their utmost to assist me, and seemed to have the success of our undertaking as much at heart as myself. For instance, in showing their endurance of hunger, fatigue, and thirst without murmuring. The night before leaving Dragoon Spring it rained in torrents. I never in my life experienced a harder rain-storm, which night the men got no sleep. It took all the next day to clean up their arms, digging water holes, and improving the natural water facilities. Starting at 5 p.m., we marched all night and until 12.30 p.m. the following day on one cup of coffee, a portion of the way through mud and water half knee-deep; had two fights with the Indians; drove them both times, and after getting another cup of coffee marched that night fifteen miles, and back the next morning without breakfast; not getting a meal until past noon of that day, then giving the Indians another fight for the water, and after getting possession stood guard until night, when relieved by the cavalry; that night putting the teamsters on guard around the camp. The next day skirmished over high mountains through the pass, and when we got through and out into the open country, called in my skirmishers, saying that all that could not walk might step to the front, and I would provide some place for them to ride. Of the entire company only two stepped to the front. I cannot make any distinctions without doing injustice to others, and can only give each and every one the highest praise. Very few of us had ever been under fire before, but I do not know of a case of flinching, and every one was obedient. The only trouble I had was to keep them from exposing themselves. Had Private Barr been as cautious as he was warned to be, he probably would not have lost his life.

I send the train by a different route in order to avoid Apache Pass, of which Captain Cremony has orders to give you a full account. I have had to detain the train one day longer than I would had it not been for the cavalry horses being so much reduced from want of forage and grass. They had nothing to eat for two days and nights before reaching here, and the grass is not first rate, but passable. I have endeavored to do my best both for animals and men, and hope that my course may meet with the approval of the general commanding. As to making a post at this point, it can be held during wet weather, but not when dry. I will throw up an intrenchment around the adobe as fast as possible. It will be slow, however, as my force is small, but we are doing our best. There is nothing here in the shape of timber but small mesquite, nor any nearer than the mountains, some fifteen miles distant on either side, and we will have to run big risks to get at it. The water is not fit for drinking or cooking-much worse than that at the Pimas-but we can make out if it continues to rain, of which there is a fair prospect. I am greatly indebted to Andrew Furlong, a teamster whom I took for a guide, giving one of my men in his place to drive. Be is desirous of being employed as guide, and wished me to bring him to the notice of the general commanding, who, if he desires, can question him and satisfy himself as to his knowledge of the road. He represents himself as an employé of the Overland Mail Company. He has given me correct information so far. I know nothing further of him than what I have seen of him on this march.

I am, lieutenant, respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. L. ROBERTS, Captain, First Infantry California Volunteers.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Tucson.

{p.130}

Journal of the march of a detachment of the Column from California, under the command of Thomas L. Roberts, captain Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers, consisting of Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers, 72 men; Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Capt. J. C. Cremony, 24 men; battery consisting of two prairie howitzers, First Lieut. W. A. Thompson, 20 men; detachment of Company H, First Infantry California Volunteers, First Lieut. A. B. MacGowan, 10 men; 22 teams, Jesse R. Allen, wagon master. Total, 126 men, 242 animals.

July 10.-Left Tucson 4.30 a.m.; road level and good, through low mesquite. Halted infantry and battery at 11.30 a.m.; sent train and cavalry ahead; found tank about half full of water; had sufficient for the command that remained; road continues good and slightly rolling until within about seven miles of camp; here road leaves mesa and descends to bed of stream down two hills, one quite steep and both rocky; balance of the road to camp for the most part through low ground; will be bad after much rain. After descending hills, road passes through narrow cañon; good cover for Indians; about four miles and three-[quarters] before coming to camp water-holes few yards to right of road, but bad; from one mile to one and a half before coming to camp passed ruins of adobe buildings left-hand side; camp on opposite side of first rise of ground alter passing adobe ruins; water excellent and in abundance; grass plenty, but coarse; do not think there is much substance in it; wood sufficient. Arrived at Cienega 6 p.m.; thirty miles.

July 12.-Left camp 1 a.m.; road continues through low ground between three and four miles; road rough and badly water-washed. The road through here will be bad after much rain. On entering cañon between barren hills, roads fork; keep to the left. Soon after entering cañon come to steep rocky hill with gradual ascent following for half a mile; road balance of way to San Pedro hard and smooth, over rolling country, where water and grass are plenty, but wood scarce.

July 13.-Filled both tanks and divided command, taking with me sixty infantry, the battery, and eight cavalry-three of the latter to express back to Captain Cremony, whom I left in command. Left the detachment of Company H, Lieutenant MacGowan commanding, and three cavalrymen, agreeably to orders. Left camp 1 a.m.; arrived at Dragoon Spring 8 a.m. Skirmished up cañon to find water, which I found from one-half to three-quarters of a mile. Found plenty for the command I had, but no more. Dispatched Sergeant Mitchell of the cavalry and four men to examine springs on another road, where I was informed there was plenty of water.

This night it rained very hard, and before Sergeant Mitchell returned expressed to Captain Cremony by the three cavalrymen remaining to move forward with the train and cattle. Sergeant Mitchell reports plenty of water at the place he went to examine, and close to the surface, similar to the Maricopa Wells. I immediately went to work improving the cañon for watering purposes, and although the following morning there was no water running in the cañon where the night before it was a perfect torrent, had plenty for all the animals of the entire command; going up the cañon will find several water holes; keep on until come to spring, which I covered over with brush house to keep it for drinking and cooking purposes. Still above this found a natural basin in rock, which I cleaned out, rendering it capable of holding from 600 to 800 gallons.

{p.131}

July 14.-Left camp 5 p.m., with same command and one tank, to make the forty miles to Apache Pass. Road descends into plain from five to six miles, good all seasons of the year; then for seven to eight miles road bad and about two miles of it across an alkali flat covered with water from two to four inches deep, which is very bad; after which some hard, level road, followed by succession of hills to Apache Pass Station, but hard-and gravelly, with portions graded; grass scarce, wood plenty, and water to be had by hard fighting.

July 15.-Arrived at Apache Pass Station 12.30 p.m. About half a mile from station the Apaches attacked the rear of my command, and, I am sorry to add, killed Private C. M. O’Brien, of Company G, First Infantry, attached to Thompson’s battery, who was one of the rear guard, and wounded Andrew Sawyer, teamster, in the thigh; not seriously, however. They, however, met with a warm reception, my men killing four of them. As soon as possible I formed as skirmishers, and after a sharp little contest drove them off, bringing everything in safe except as above stated. On going to the spring for water deployed skirmishers, supported by one of Lieutenant Thompson’s guns. Proceeding up the cañon cautiously, found the Indians posted high above us, from where they kept up a rattling fire upon us. Called my men out and divided them into two parties of skirmishers, sending them up the hills on either side of the cañon, shelling the high points ahead of them. The Indians seemed very loath to let me have water, and fought determinedly, but they found us too much for them; but they kept us from the water until after 4 p.m. In the first engagement for water they killed Private John Barr, of Company E, First Infantry California Volunteers. As soon as I could get water for the horses I dispatched Sergeant Mitchell and the cavalry with an express to Captain Cremony, informing him of the condition of things ahead, and that I would come to meet him as soon as I possibly could with a portion of my command; which party were also attacked, full particulars of which you will find in the report of Captain Cremony to me, herein inclosed.* As soon as I could get water enough for night and morning I withdrew my men, not having enough to hold both the camp and water and go to the relief of Captain Cremony, and as soon as they could get a cup of coffee I started with twenty-eight men and marched back fifteen miles, where I found the train parked and safe. We marched this on my canteen full of water, being all we had, but my men did it without a murmur.

July 16.-Started with train in the morning without breakfast, there being no wood to cook with. Before entering the pass made the following disposition of my force, viz: In front a line of skirmishers; dismounted the cavalry, excepting three, to assist the three men driving the cattle, and distributed then one to each wagon, the cattle immediately behind the train, and in the rear of all another line of skirmishers, and brought everything in sale. Had to repeat the performance of yesterday to obtain water, which I succeeded in doing without losing a man. Dug the spring out so as to increase its capacity fourfold; walled a portion of it and fixed everything as well as I could; put 200 gallons in tank for drinking and cooking, when commenced watering animals, which is rather slow work, as the spring runs but a small stream, and it was late in the night before all the animals were watered. Held the spring until ready to start the next day. Found the graves of privates of First Cavalry, viz, Albert Schmidt, James F. Keith, and Peter Maloney, killed by Apaches June 25, 1862.

{p.132}

July 17.-Left camp 8 a.m.; road passes through cañon about two miles most of the way very narrow between high mountains. About three miles from mouth of cañon found three bodies a short distance from the left-hand side of the road, and still farther to the left another body. They lay out on the plain away from all cover. Two had on Government shoes. Doctor McKee, the surgeon, decided them all to be Indians. Some distance farther on to the left of [road] found what appeared to have been a cavalry camp, undoubtedly that of Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre. Still farther on, close to the right of road, found a large blood stain on the ground and hair, apparently that of a white man, and at different places in this vicinity found the following-articles: Arrows, some broken, one iron-pointed; a pistol-holster, blood-stained, with the initials “N. W.” or “M. W.”; a clay pipe; also an Indian’s bag (blood-stained), containing smoking material and pipe. Road good and descending to San Simon. Found water in holes, being nothing but surface water, very muddy and bad for drinking and cooking; can find no other; have been from six to seven miles above.

THOS. L. ROBERTS, Captain Company B, First Infantry California Volunteers.

SAN SIMON STATION, July 19, 1862.

* See p. 132.

No. 5.

Reports of Capt. John C. Cremony, Second California Cavalry.

APACHE PASS, ARIZ. TER., July 16, 1862.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to inform you of the following circumstances:

On the 15th instant, while en route from Dragoon Spring to this place with a force of about fifty-four men in charge of the Government train of twenty-one wagons, under the care of Mr. Jesse R. Allen, wagon-master, and about 7.30 o’clock in the evening, when fourteen miles distant from the station in Apache Pass, I was met by Sergeant Mitchell and Privates Maynard, Keim, King, and Young, of Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, who informed me that you had been attacked by the Apaches in Apache Pass about noon of that day and that after a sharp conflict you had routed the savages, and also informing me that you would come out to meet me with an infantry force, so as to assure the security of the train. Not knowing how near I might be to the cañon in which your greatly superior force had been attacked, and being unwilling to subject the train and the men under my orders to a moonlight attack in the pass in which the savages would possess every advantage, I immediately corralled the train and held it in security and unmolested until joined by you about 11.30 o’clock of the same night. I regret to report the loss of 3 horses, 1 saddle, 1 bridle and saddle blanket, 1 nosebag, 1 currycomb and brush, 1 carbine sling, 1 haversack, and 1 pair of spurs, the horses being killed and the articles above specified being captured by the Apaches, who waylaid Sergeant Mitchell and his small party on their way back from the pass to the train. I am also pained to report that Private Jesse T. Maynard, of the same party, was severely wounded by a musket shot through the right forearm, near the elbow. The following verbal report of the attack on Sergeant Mitchell’s party has been made to me by him: He states that in obedience to your order he left Apache Pass on the afternoon of {p.133} the 15th instant, after you had routed the savages, accompanied by Privates Maynard, King, Young, Keim, and Teal, of Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, and then, when about four miles to the westward of the cañon, on his way to rejoin the train, his party was waylaid and attacked by about forty Apaches, who were in ambush among some mesquite trees and rocks between two swells of land. The horses of Privates Maynard and Keim were shot, and Maynard wounded by the fire. At this time Private John W. Teal was about 250 yards in the rear, leading his horse to rest him, and the savages were between Teal and his party. Finding the enemy too numerous to attack with the small and weakened force the sergeant retreated and arrived safely in camp with Privates Maynard, King, and Young, Private Keim’s horse having fallen in a dying condition about a mile distant and he having remained to secure his saddle, bridle, &c., which he did, and came up about twenty minutes later. There was every reason to fear that Private John W. Teal had fallen a victim to the savages, but it affords me pleasure to add that about 10.30 o’clock of the same might Private Teal arrived on foot unharmed, and bringing with him all his arms and ammunition. His report is as follows: Finding himself cut off from Sergeant Mitchell’s party he struck off by himself at a gallop down the valley which forms between the two swells of land already mentioned, and was closely pursued by fifteen savages, who fired repeatedly at him, shooting his horse through the heart. He immediately threw himself flat on the ground and defended himself with his carbine. The savages seemed disposed to close upon him, when he drew his pistol and fired one shot from it, when, discovering that he had a pistol and saber, they drew off and circled round him, firing at him and he returning their fire with his carbine. This unequal contest lasted for one hour and a half, when they gradually withdrew and he made good his retreat to the place were the train was encamped, arriving at the time above specified.

I have the honor to be, your obedient, humble servant,

JOHN C. CREMONY, Capt., Comdg. Company B, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

Capt. THOMAS L. ROBERTS, Comdg. Detachment from California Column, California Vols.

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SAN PEDRO STATION, July 22, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to inform you of my arrival at this post at 3 a.m. of this date in charge of the train which accompanied the command of Captain Roberts, First Infantry California Volunteers. The accompanying report* of that officer will explain the route over which we passed in going from Tucson, and the severe conflict had with the savages in Apache Pass, together with such other points of information as Captain Roberts may have possessed. Being fully impressed with the danger of attempting to take the train back through Apache Pass with my small command of thirty-nine men in the face of the fact that the Indians had not hesitated to attack and fight for six hours a command of 130, and knowing the value of the train, I returned by the road made by Capt. (now General) Charles P. Stone. This route is about ten miles longer than the one leading to Dragoon Spring and through Apache Pass; but in all other respects it is so greatly superior {p.134} that I am surprised the other should ever have been used. The first day I marched about thirty-three miles over a perfectly smooth and open country, with excellent road, and camped at a spot bearing north by west from the highest nubble on the Chiricahua Range, and where a side road puts out from the main one toward the above-mentioned range, leading to a fine green-looking cañon three miles distant from the main road, and which is reported to yield abundance of water; but my limited command, the broken-down condition of my horses, and the absence of any commissioned officer with whom to leave the train, as well as the fact that I was supplied with water from the tanks, induced me to refrain from exploring the cañon, especially after the savages inhabiting the range had given us so decided an example of their hostility. From the point above mentioned the road gradually circles the foothills over a fine open, rolling prairie, and from the extreme northern point of the foothills bears about west-southwest toward the two springs, where there is abundance of water and the best of pasture, distant from first camping place about twenty-four miles. From the two springs the road first runs west-southwest, until the foothills of the range in which Dragoon Spring is located are passed, when it trends nearly south for several miles, thence southwest until it meets the other road about fifteen miles beyond San Pedro Station, from which the two springs are about thirty-two miles distant. The whole of this route is over a clear open country, and the road excellent as well as the pasture. On the other road the grass at the cienega is coarse, rank sacaton, void of any nourishment; the same at the San Pedro; no grass at Dragoon Spring; none at the camp-ground, or near it, at Apache Pass, and but little and quite dry as well as inferior at San Simon. As Captain Roberts marched by day and the horses were obliged for safety to be tied to the picket-rope at night, and were entirely without grain, and almost altogether without grass, they are almost too weak to stand up, and I sincerely beg that the general would relieve me from road duty. I forwarded the dispatches and mail from San Simon by express. I am really so worn out and haggard that I beg you to excuse a more minute detail at this time.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. CREMONY, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

Lieut. BENJAMIN C. CUTLER, First Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

* See p. 128.

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No. 6.

Report of Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth California Infantry, commanding Fort Bowie.

HEADQUARTERS FORT BOWIE, Apache Pass, Ariz. Ter, August 9, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I avail myself of the kindness of Captain McCleave, First Cavalry California Volunteers, to send report of affairs at my post for the past week:

On Wednesday, August 6, at 2 p.m., Private McFarland, of Company G, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, was shot by the Apaches in a ravine about 600 yards from my camp. The man was engaged as stock herder, and at the time was alone and unarmed, in direct disobedience of positive orders to the contrary. A strict investigation {p.135} proved no one to blame but himself. His story of the affair is this:

That missing one cow from the herd he tracked her up the ravine, when, losing her trail, he was turning round to return, and an Indian stepped from behind a rock, about twenty feet from him, and fired. The ravine is deep, and this place entirely beyond view from the camp. He screamed and ran, two Indians pursuing some 200 yards, and scrambled up the bank in view of the camp and fell. At the first cry the garrison turned out, and a party reached the scene within a very few minutes after he fell, saving his scalp. He was shot through the right lung, but has been doing well since, and Doctor Wooster has high hopes of his speedy recovery. If the man gets well I shall not seriously regret the occurrence, as it has aroused the men from the state of false security into which, from the non-appearance of Indians, they were rapidly falling. Two parties, sent out immediately in different directions failed, to discover the villains.

On the morning of the 7th my cattle, eight in number, broke out of the corral and got away. The night being dark and stormy and the corral as strongly constructed as the small force I had and the materials at hand afforded, I could attach no blame to any one in the case either. Lieutenant Harrover with a party followed them in the morning on the road toward the Ojo de Los Plaños for a distance of seven or eight miles, but could not get sight of them. There being no Indian or horse tracks on the road or its sides I think they had no agency in the matter. Had the cavalry been there then I might have recovered them. However great-our chagrin on the occurrence of these misfortunes, I sincerely think no blame can lie against myself or the other officers for their happening. My orders are very strict and Captain Hinds and Mr. Harrover prompt and energetic in carrying out my instructions. I am happy to say further that the men, though fully conscious of their danger, and that in case of a defeat there is no retreat or hope of assistance, have ever exhibited a cheerful disposition to undertake all that is required of them. Up to to-day the service has been pretty hard on them. I have had but forty men for duty, and twenty-one is my detail for guard, so that some have been obliged to stand for two nights in succession. I am building, as defenses, out-works on four faces of the hill, but sufficiently near that either of them being attacked can be readily and safely re-enforced from the others. My breast-works are four feet and a half high and built of large stone, three feet wide on the bottom and from eighteen inches to two feet on top. They are very substantial and will afford ample protection against all kinds of small-arms. I have one already completed eighty feet in length, covering the rear of my position, and another, over 100 feet long, nearly done. The latter protects my most exposed flank. If this post is to be permanent, I respectfully request that the commanding general will order some lumber sent from Mesilla by an early returning train for the construction of the necessary office furniture, and that it may be furnished from Mesilla or Tucson, with a forge, set of carpenter’s tools, grindstone, horse and mule shoes, shoeing kit, and such other things as are highly essential.

The express from headquarters of the column arrived safely at this post at 1 a.m. yesterday, and left at 2 p.m., escorted by fifteen men from thins garrison to the mouth of the pass. The train, under command of Captain McCleave, arrived at noon to-day, and I have drawn from it what is mentioned in General Orders, No. 12. I have also received a re-enforcement of ten men of Company G (relieved from Mowry’s Mine), and a lieutenant and twenty-five men from Company A, {p.136} Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, and a sergeant and twelve men from Company A, First Cavalry California Volunteers. I would respectfully suggest to the commanding general that there is a detachment of ten men from Captain Hinds’ company at the crossing of the San Pedro, which, if relieved from Tucson, would relieve a like number of Company A, who could go forward and join their company.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THEO. A. COULT, Major Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Fort Bowie.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California.

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No. 7.

Report of Surg. James M. McNulty, U. S. Army, Acting Medical inspector.

SANTA FÉ, N. MEX., October -, 1863.

Brig. Gen. W. A. HAMMOND, Surgeon-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Agreeably to the wish conveyed in your letter of July 27, 1863, I send you the following history of that portion of the California Volunteers known as the Column from California. The march of this column from the Pacific Ocean to the Rio Grande is somewhat remarkable, from the fact that almost the entire distance is a desert waste, with great scarcity of water and that of the worst quality. Men marching day after day through the burning sands and nearly suffocated with alkali dust required to be made of stern stuff-of such were the men composing this column. Men inured to mountain life in California, pioneers and miners; men self-reliant and enduring; men equal to any emergency, if guided by a firm hand and clear head. That they were equal to a great emergency is evinced by the fact that they conquered vast deserts, and accomplished a march not equaled in modern times, traversing a distance of nearly a thousand miles and almost the entire route over a sterile waste.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES M. MCNULTY, Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers, Acting Medical Inspector.

On the 22d of July, 1861, the President of the United States approved “An act to authorize the employment of volunteers to aid in enforcing the laws and protecting public property.” Under this act was raised in California one regiment of infantry and five companies of cavalry. These were called respectively the First Infantry and First Cavalry California Volunteers. The troops were raised for the protection of mime Overland Mail Route between California and the Eastern States, by way of Salt Lake City. The force was placed under the command of Bvt. Maj. James H. Carleton, First U. S. Cavalry, with the rank of colonel. The regiments rendezvoused at Oakland, opposite San Francisco, Cal. During the latter part of August and the month of September they had acquired nearly their full complement of men. Active preparations were making to put the command in the best condition for active field service, and by the 1st of October everything was in readiness for the movement of the troops. About this time the spirit {p.137} of rebellion became manifest in California. “Treason stalked abroad.” In the southern part of the State an open rupture was apprehended. In consequence of this condition of affairs the command of Colonel Carleton was diverted from its original destination by General Sumner, department commander, and moved to the infected district. About the 1st of October the troops moved down the coast and formed a camp near Los Angeles, called Camp Latham. On the 14th three companies of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, under the command of Major Eyre, of the same regiment, were ordered to relieve the regular troops stationed at San Bernardino. This place was the hot-bed of secessionism in California. On the same day orders were received to send three companies of the First Infantry California Volunteers, under the command of Lieut. Col. J. H. West, to relieve the regulars stationed at Fort Yuma. Regular troops stationed at different parts of the State were ordered to rendezvous at two points, viz, San Diego and San Pedro; for the purpose of embarkation, orders having been issued by the War Department that all regular troops on the Pacific coast be sent to the seat of war in the East. Brig. Gen. B. V. Sumner, at that time in command of the Department of the Pacific, was also ordered in. On the departure of General Sumner, Col. George Wright, Ninth U. S. Infantry, assumed command of the department. The Southern District of California was turned over by Colonel Wright to the command of Colonel Carleton.

During the two succeeding months quiet and order were restored throughout the southern part of the State. The distribution of the troops indicated to the disaffected the determination of the authorities to keep California firm and steadfast to the Union. On the 12th of January Colonel Carleton was summoned to San Francisco, to consult with Colonel Wright in reference to the movement of troops into Utah. About this time rumors reached California that Van Dorn, of the rebel service, was fitting out an expedition for the invasion of California by way of Arizona. The fact was well established that Arizona and a portion of New Mexico were occupied by Confederate troops, and it was apparent to all that California was more accessible through Arizona by way of Fort Yuma than any other point. Fort Yuma, located on the Colorado River, on the southeastern line of the State, is our extreme outpost. Surrounded as it is by a vast desert, if once in the possession of an enemy the key to the State was lost. In view of all these threatened dangers to the State and coast, General Wright suggested to the War Department that perhaps the Government would be better served by throwing the California troops into Arizona and driving the rebels from that Territory. A double object would thus be gained; first, an effectual guard would be kept against any invasion of the Pacific coast from that quarter; second, the California troops would fall in the rear of the Confederate forces then in New Mexico and assist the Federal forces in expelling them from that Territory.

The suggestions of General Wright were favorably received by the War Department. The feasibility of the movement was so apparent that the consent of that Department was at once obtained. On the receipt of the decision of the War Department authority was granted to Colonel Carleton to organize and fit out the expedition. The Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, under the command of Col. George W. Bowie also Company A, Third U. S. Artillery, with a light battery, under command of First Lieut. John B. Shinn, of the U. S. Army, were added to Colonel Carleton’s command; also Captain Cremony’s company, Second Cavalry California Volunteers. Active preparations {p.138} were at once made for the movement of the column. It was important that the troops should move as soon as possible, in order that they might receive the benefit of the cool winter weather while passing over the Gila and Colorado Deserts. The great distance from the Pacific Ocean to the Rio Grande, the entire and complete desolation of nearly the whole route, presented obstacles almost insurmountable to marching a column of over 2,000 men and the same number of animals. It was well known that forage and provisions could be obtained but at two points between Fort Yuma and the Rio Grande in time of peace, and then in limited quantities, viz, at the Pima Villages and at Tucson; and it being well known that the enemy occupied one, if not both, of these points, it was necessary that transportation should be made entirely independent of them. The greatest difficulty appeared to be in subsisting animals. Unless this could be done rations could not be furnished the troops, and the expedition would necessarily fall to the ground.

With the commencement of preparations came unlooked-for difficulties. Not for twenty years had a winter of such severity occurred in California. The whole country was flooded; hundreds of horses and cattle mired down in the open plains and were lost. For weeks it was almost impossible to move a vehicle of any kind, and the movement of baggage trains was out of the question. In the meantime commissary stores and forage were sent by sea to Fort Yuma, making this point a general depot and base of operations. The troops during this terrible winter lived in tents. As the rain subsided and the ground became more settled the troops were gradually moved toward Fort Yuma by companies of twos and threes. A sub-depot was formed at Oak Grove, near the edge of the Yuma Desert, 120 miles from Los Angeles, called Camp Wright. From this point to Fort Yuma, 180 miles, it is a continuous desert, entirely destitute of vegetation; water very scarce and generally of bad quality. Before moving the troops on this desert Colonel Carleton sent out parties and had the wells cleaned out and new ones dug, in order that every drop of water might be available. Forage for the animals was deposited at different points between Camp Wright and Fort Yuma. The troops were marched across by companies, one day apart. At some of the wells there was so little water that it was necessary to dip it out in a pint cup, thus consuming nearly a whole night in watering 100 animals. In order that this desert may be more thoroughly understood, I quote from the notes of Lieutenant-Colonel West, of the First Infantry California Volunteers, who marched the first three companies over. The description of the route commences at Oak Grove, Camp Wright, near the edge of the desert:

Left Camp Wright, near Warner’s ranch, at 7.30 a.m.; marched five miles over pleasant rolling roads and well-wooded country to La Puerta, at which place found mountain stream, but no place for a camp-ground; thence by fair road, without water, to San Felipe, eight miles; pasturage good, but no wood; water neither overabundant nor good; camp-ground inferior. Left San Felipe at 3.30 a.m. by heavy, hilly roads to Vallecito. Road sandy through bottom land to first hill, seven miles; thence broken road, six miles, a great portion of which is a cañon, with but one wagon track, winding between cliffs. A very small force could oppose an enemy of far superior numbers. The latter part of the road more level. On the left side and about half a mile from the road is a spring that affords water enough for fifty men; thence a small, rugged hill is surmounted and a valley reached, five miles in length, by sandy road to Vallecito; water in fair supply; no wood but mesquite bushes; pasturage fair. Left Vallecito at 3.30 a.m.; marched nine miles by heavy, sandy road to Palm Springs; water in limited supply, and required to be prepared for a command. The locality can be used for a camp. Thence by a heavy, sandy road to Carriso Creek; no pasturage. The country has now become a complete desert of most, forbidding aspect. The creek is a small stream, affording an abundant supply of {p.139} water of an inferior quality. The bottom land is filled with a stunted growth of mesquite and arrow bushes. Left Carriso Creek at 11.30 a.m., following the stream and constantly crossing it; road heavy and sandy; thence over a level road, with somewhat improved traveling, four miles, to a short, steep hill; thence to a level plain, with desert, brush, to Sackett’s Wells. Last part of the road fair traveling; the desert complete; water good, but uncertain; in dry weather it certainly disappears. Left Sackett’s Wells at 5.45 p.m., through a continuous desert; first five miles sandy; thence better traveling to Indian Well. Indian Well is some thirty feet deep; water good, but in small quantities. Signal Mountain is a prominent landmark; bears southwest about fifteen miles; reached camp at 11 p.m.; distance, fifteen miles. Left at 5 p.m. for New River Station; road a perfect level, over an alkali plain, with a few patches of mesquite bushes; road dusty and heavy for wagons; well deep; water scarce and of inferior quality. Started at 5 p.m. for Alamo; road heavy, over barren flat; there is a well some thirty feet deep, affording some water. Left at 4 p.m. for Gardner’s Wells; no water; nine miles; thence, by same character of road and country, to Salt or Seven Wells; water plenty, but brackish. Started at 4 p.m., nine miles, to Cooke’s Wells; first two miles and a half bad road. At Cooke’s Wells water and wood abundant and good; thence, fifteen miles, to Pilot Knob. Camped on the bank of the Colorado at foot of mountain. From Cooke’s the road is generally good, through mesquite flat, and latter part through Indian Gardens; distance, twenty-five miles. Started at 1.30 p.m. The road follows the Rio Colorado to Fort Yuma; distance, ten miles; road much broken. Reached Fort Yuma at 4.30 p.m.

I have been thus minute in detail in order that a correct idea may be hind of some of the difficulties encountered in marching troops across this desert. It will be seen that nearly every march was made in the night-time. By starting at 4 or 5 in the afternoon the march would be accomplished before daylight, thus enabling men to sleep a part of the night. The ground did not become sufficiently settled for the movement of Shinn’s battery until the 13th of April. Previous to this nearly all the command had been moved toward Fort Yuma, one company only remaining to accompany the battery. Colonel Carleton arrived at Fort Yuma on the 29th of April. Active preparations were made to move the command eastward without delay. Water tanks, holding 600 gallons each, were prepared to accompany each detachment. Contracts were made at Fort Yuma to have hay cut and deposited at different points between the fort and the Pima Villages. It was ascertained that Tucson was still in the hands of the Texans. Their pickets extended down the Rio Gila till within fifty miles of Fort Yuma. Hay deposited at different points by Colonel Carleton’s agents was burned. The Pima Indians are an agricultural people, and cultivate large quantities of wheat. Knowing this fact and the importance of securing as much as possible, Colonel Carleton had for some time been in communication with an American living at these villages. He was directed to purchase all the wheat the Indians had. A considerable quantity was thus accumulated; but before the advance of the column reached that point the Texans had destroyed it ally with the exception of a small quantity the Indians had cached. This was a serious loss, but the growing crops had not been molested, and Colonel Carleton was enabled to secure a considerable amount for his animals. Two companies of infantry and one of cavalry were sent forward toward the Pima and Tucson. As our forces advanced the Texans fell back to Tucson. The command followed them to within a short distance of that place; but, not feeling sufficiently strong to attack them, fell back to the Pima. Lieutenant-Colonel West was then ordered forward with four companies of infantry. The following itinerary was made by Lieutenant-Colonel West:

To Gila City, seventeen miles; no grass, wood; camp on river; thence to Mission Camp, eleven miles; wood, water, and a little grass; wood, water, and grass four miles farther on. From Mission Creek to Fillibuster is six miles; thence to Antelope {p.140} Peak, nine miles; grass within three-quarters of a mile; camp at station. From this place to Mohawk Station, twelve miles; no grass; camp on the river. To Texas lull, eleven miles; a little grass on the hill station, half a mile back from the river. Lagoon Camp.; fine water, wood, grass, and shade; thence to Burwell’s ranch, eleven miles; very dusty and disagreeable; men nor animals cannot recruit much. At Grassy Camp, three miles distant, they do much better. From Grassy Camp to Berk’s Station, six miles; a very poor camp; little better at Oatman Flat, eleven miles farther. From Oatman Flat to Kenyon Station, eleven miles; poor camp; no grass. To Shady Camp, ten miles; everything good. From Shady Camp to Gila Bend, four miles; wood and water, but no grass; thence to Desert Station, twenty-two miles; good wood; no water or grass. To the Tanks, seven miles; same as Desert Station. To Maricopa Wells, eleven miles; plenty of brackish water; some salt grass; and from thence to the Pima Villages, eleven miles; road fair, with some sloughs.

The march from Fort Yuma to the Pima Villages was fatiguing in the extreme. The intense heat and alkali dust was almost unbearable; both men and animals suffered very much. As fast as possible the troops were pushed forward. On the 14th of May Lieutenant-Colonel West was sent forward by way of Fort Breckinridge with four companies of infantry. This fort was reoccupied, and the Stars and Stripes again floated to the breeze. From Fort Breckinridge Colonel West proceeded to Tucson by way of Cañada del Ora. A description of the route is taken from the notes of Colonel West:

May 14, left Fort Barrett, Pima, at 7 a.m.; road tends toward the river on the left hand; detached and irregular mountains from five to nine miles to the right; soil becomes sandy and the country desert. Greasewood and mesquite wood abounded, but no thickets. The river is gradually approached and touched at Sacaton Station; there plenty of sacaton grass; a poor article for pasturage; good camp on the river; road fine for marching and transportation. Course, east-northeast. 15th, left Sacaton Station at 5.40 a.m.; road parts from the river and leaves it from one to two miles to the left; mountain spurs trend off southeast; a lone peak about one mile and a half long is detached from the main range; the Butterfield road to Tucson passes between the peak and main mountain; a picket there can effectually watch both roads. A small lagoon of water is found at the north base. The Picacho is plainly visible throughout the day’s march. Dense mesquite thickets; road fine for marching and transportation. Camp on the river in a cottonwood grove one-quarter of a mile below White’s; good grazing and fine. Course, east by south. May 16, left White’s at 5.50 a.m.; road leaves the river and takes the mesa; the ascent is gradual and road good for twenty miles. Thickets of cactus and palo verde. At twenty to thirty-one miles a steep descent leads to Dry Camp, a basin in the hills of some thirty acres in area; a trail makes out of this due north to Ojo Verde Springs, four miles; the Gila River is three miles farther in the same direction. Ojo Verde can be used; the water is inferior and not abundant; the quality and perhaps the quantity could be improved; the spring is four miles off the road, and the return must be made by the same track. Left Dry Camp at 6.40 p.m.; road turns off southeast up an arroyo; very heavy sand for about six miles; then gradual ascent of five miles; then more abrupt and up high hills. At fifteen miles from Dry Camp a finger post, marked “Water,” points to the right. Cottonwood Spring is distant half a mile, in a ravine. The grazing is fine and water abundant for such a body of troops as this. A lone cottonwood tree prominently marks the spring. Course, east by southeast. May 17, laid by. May 18, left Cottonwood Spring at 5 a.m.; road over rolling hills five miles; good grass, then pass the summit, and the descent commences toward San Pedro River. Sandy arroyo for eight miles and heavy traveling; the road becomes a cañon. A walnut tree, three miles west of Fort Breckinridge, marked “Water,” stands in the middle of the road. At this point the road to Tucson turns off square to the right; thence to the San Pedro and Fort Breckinridge. Colonel Carleton changed the name of this fort and called it Fort Stanford, in honor of Leland Stanford, Governor of California. The fort is three miles to the right, up a cañon; rocks from 100 to 300 feet high; pass from twenty to seventy yards wide; road extremely heavy. At this fort fine stream, good grazing, and abundance of wood. Course, east by south. 19th, left Fort Breckinridge at 5.45 a.m. Returned by the cañon to the walnut tree; thence turned abruptly to the left and south up a similar cañon, which gradually expands to open country; road for twelve miles excessively heavy and sandy; thence gently rolling hills until the foot of a mountain is reached on the left, about seventeen miles from the walnut tree. Next three miles the bills are sidling and difficult. A steep descent of one mile leads to Cañada del Oro. Camp on a fine mountain stream; grazing very line and wood abundant. This is a very {p.141} difficult day’s march. Course, northwest and south. 20th, left Canada del Oro at 2 p.m.; road follows a ravine between the mesa on the right and a mountain range on the left; a good deal of sand, but mainly a fair road; fine grass along the road. At 11.55 the road forks, the left hand leading one mile to the Rincon, a small, ruining stream; fine camp; grass immediately under the mountain. Course southwest. May 21, left Rincon at 5.30 a.m. Road turns round the point of the mountain on the left; traveling rather heavy. Sandy arroyo, and then the ground becomes rolling. About eight miles from Rincon a mesa covered with cactus and mesquite is reached: traveling improves. Course, southwest and south by east.

Our troops entered and occupied Tucson without firing a shot. At our approach the Texans made a precipitate retreat. Colonel Carleton determined to collect the troops at this point for rest, drill, &c. Men and animals required rest; wagons wanted repairing. The dryness of the atmosphere and the intolerable heat had shrunk them to the point of falling to pieces. Communication was opened with Sonora for the purchase of flour, grain, &c. In the first part of June all the troops composing the column were in and about Tucson, with the exception of a paint of the Fifth Infantry, left to garrison Forts Yuma and Barrett. There is another and more direct road leading from the Pima Villages to Tucson. This road was taken by Lieutenant Shinn and two companies of infantry. A description of the road by Lieutenant Shinn is appended.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 15.

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 16, 1862.

The following itinerary of the marches from Fort Barrett (Pima Villages) to Tucson, Ariz., via Picacho Mountain, made by Captain Shinn, Third Artillery, U. S. Army, is published for the information of all concerned:

June 1, left camp at Fort Barrett at 4.15 p.m., with battery, 1 ambulance, 1 water and 8 transportation wagons loaded to 3,600 pounds with ammunition, flour, and forage), 87 men and 153 animals. Road on Gila River fine for transportation of heavily loaded wagons. No water; no grass; vegetation, mesquite and greasewood. At Sacaton Station very dirty; encamped on river at 5 p.m.; eleven miles and eight-tenths.

June 2, filled water-tank (600 gallons) and left camp at Sacaton at 4.20 p.m. Road leaves the river and sweeps round from southeast by south to south by east, with gradually ascending slope to summit, five miles and a quarter between mountain spur and detached peak on left, two miles of road dusty, then soil changes from the alkali dust of Gila River bottom to mixture of sand and gravel, very hard and quite smooth. From summit, Casa Grande in sight on desert to left and the Picacho straight ahead south by east thirty-one miles; desert continues to Oneida Station; road continues good; at eight miles gravel replaced by hard alkali clay; vegetation, mesquite, greasewood, and cactus; no water or grass on road; wood plenty and sufficient for cooking near Oneida Station, which is on the left; well on the right of road; depth, twenty-nine feet, with five feet of water; encamped there at 7.45 p.m.; train all in ten minutes later.

One hundred and seventy-five buckets (equal to 700 gallons) was taken from the well, at the rate of ten gallons per minute, apparently without diminishing the supply. The water is excellent, cold and sweet; the best this side of Fort Yuma; arrived and departed during the night; found no grass near station; eleven miles and one-tenth.

June 3, left camp at 4 a.m. Old marks of surface water show a gradual rise of the desert toward Blue Water Station; road fine marching; for very little sand. At six miles halted from 5.45 to 6.45 for grass, which may be found in considerable quantity 100 yards to the left of road in the belt of mesquite or arroyo leading east from that point, and said to extend four or five miles in the same direction; obtained sufficient for a good night’s feed. This grass is gramma, with some little gaeta. The gaeta was also observed on the left of the road one mile farther on; no water; vegetation, desert plants, mesquite, and greasewood. Arrived and encamped at Blue Water Station at 7.45 a.m.; well (sixty-nine feet la depth, with two feet and a half of water) and station both on right of road; drew water at the rate of six gallons per minute for one hour and three-quarters;-watered ninety horses at the same time, four gallons each; mules in the p.m. and horses again in the p.m. Took from this well in ten hours over 1,600 gallons of water and left the depth of water as found. It will probably afford 4,000 gallons of water in twenty-four hours; quality good and water cool. At 4 p.m. sent a detachment forward to clean out well at the point of mountain; wood plenty; some gramma and a little gaeta reported to exist in the mesquite 500 yards northwest of the station; nine miles and seven-tenths.

{p.142}

June 4, left Blue Water Station at 2.10 a.m. and expected to march to Tucson, fifty-four miles, in the next twenty-four hours, as there is no water on the road, and not enough with company to encamp on; some wagons remain loaded with 8,600 pounds; morning quite cool and very fine for marching; road continues to rise to the Picacho; at 4.40 a.m. nine miles and six-tenths from Blue Water; soil, clay, water-washed, and very hard and smooth, extends for miles on either side of the road; considerable dry gramma grass in the immediate vicinity and mesquite sparde. At thirteen miles and nine-tenths passed graves of Lieutenant Barrett and two soldiers on the left of road. The chalcos or water holes, now dry, are in the mesquite, on the right of the road; here quite a thicket; some grass, but dry. The road is now level, or nearly so, for three or four miles. At 6.45 a.m. halted at the Picacho Station on the right, and distant from Blue Water Station fourteen miles and nine-tenths; saw a band of antelope near foot of peak; no water at this point; consumed about 200 gallons of water in tank, for which had to wait half an hour; resumed march at 7.45 a.m.; road begins to descend toward the south two miles beyond the Picacho and so continues to point of mountain; a very excellent road all the way. At twenty-five miles and five-tenths passed a deep well; dry on right; no water ever found here; high mountains on right, distant from 30 to 100 miles, and between mountain and road valley of Santa Cruz River, here only an arroyo, which road crosses near point of mountain; at 12 m. and twenty-nine miles halted half an hour; met a messenger at 1.30 p.m. and received notice of water in abundance at point of mountain, where company arrived and encamped at 4.15 p.m.; station on right and well on left of road; water plenty; no grass; no wood at well, and but little on last eight miles of road; used water brought from Tucson on wagons, and did not thoroughly test the capacity of the well, which is thirty-nine feet deep, with four feet of water; all agree in pronouncing it the best on the desert and say it cannot be dipped dry; thirty-nine miles and one-tenth.

June 5, left camp at 3 a.m., about five miles from point of mountain; dense mesquite thicket-a good cover for Indians; at six miles crossed arroyo of Santa Cruz River, descending to left; quite dry; a little sand, and some more at eleven miles, half a mile of it this time; remainder of road very good; numerous cottonwood trees on road this day and much mesquite; no water; between seven and ten miles from point of mountain much salt grass; poor stuff for forage. First five and last three miles and a half of to-day’s march very fine; road of hard gravel; arrived at Tucson at 8.45 a.m.; fifteen miles. Total, eighty-six miles and seven-tenths.

Tucson is about halfway between Fort Yuma and the Rio Grande, and contains a population of 400, or perhaps 500, mostly Mexicans. A few Americans and foreigners were living here, principally gamblers and ruffians, traitors to their country-secessionists. Colonel Carleton received his promotion to brigadier-general of volunteers within on the desert in the early part of June. On his arrival at Tucson the Territory of Arizona was at once placed under martial law, and the following proclamation issued.*

...

A number of notorious characters were arrested, examined by military commissions, and sent to Fort Yuma. Order spraining from disorder, and in a short time a den of thieves was converted into a peaceful village. In the meantime General Carleton was making active preparations to move his command to the Rio Grande; wagons were repaired, stores collected from Sonora, and everything put in as good condition as circumstances would permit after the severe march over the Yuma and Gila Deserts. No communication up to this time could be had with our forces in New Mexico. The strength of the rebels and their locality entirely unknown. The great difficulty in communicating with General Canby, at that time in command of the Department of New Mexico, was on account of the hostile Indians, the Apache Nation occupying the whole country between the Rio Grande and the Colorado Rivers. The great distance to be traversed through their country rendered it hazardous, if not impossible, for any small party to get through it. General Carleton endeavored to send an express to General Canby from Tucson. This was carried by three men. The party was attacked {p.143} near Apache Pass, and two of the men were killed by the Indians; the survivor was pursued some forty miles and barely escaped death. He was captured by the Texans near Mesilla and the dispatches to General Canby fell into their hands. From these they learned the exact strength of General Carleton’s command and the intended movement of the column. On the 22d of June General Carleton sent forward Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, with 140 men. This was the advance guard of the column. With the exception of frequent skirmishing with Indians and the loss of three men killed and several wounded at Apache Pass, the party met with no other enemy before reaching the Rio Grande.

Apache Pass is about midway between Tucson and the river. The pass is through a spur of the Chiricahua Mountains, about three and a half or four miles long. In this pass is a fine spring of water, and a favorite haunt of the Indians. A company of infantry and a part of a company of cavalry, with two mountain howitzers, fought the Indians at this spring for four hours. A number of the savages were killed in the fight. Our loss was three killed and several wounded. On either side of this pass extends a plain from thirty to forty miles in width. The Indians can see parties approach and lay in wait for them. On the 17th of July, preparations for the movement of the command having been completed, General Carleton issued the following general order:**

...

No report had been received from Colonel Eyre. The strength and locality of the Confederates were unknown; consequently the column was kept well in hand, the companies marching only one day apart. For a description of the country I quote from the notes of Colonel Eyre.***

...

As soon as the arrival of Colonel Eyre on the river was known the Texans made a hasty flight. Their army was completely demoralized, and Colonel Eyre’s force magnified fourfold. What they could not carry with them they destroyed. One hundred and fifty sick and wounded were left in hospital at Franklin, Tex., and above. Colonel Eyre crossed the river near Fort Thorn and pushed down toward the retreating rebels. He entered Las Cruces, opposite Mesilla, and raised our national colors. Franklin was also occupied by a detachment of his command. General Carleton, with the head of the column, reached the river on the 8th of August, thtime consumed in the march being eighteen days. The sight of this beautiful stream after the many days of toil and suffering gladdened the hearts of all. The last day’s march was particularly severe; over forty miles had been made by the infantry without water without a murmur. The desert had been conquered, and the command arrived on the river in good fighting condition. No deaths had occurred between Tucson and the river, and but few remained on the sick list. General Carleton crossed the river at the point where Colonel Eyre crossed. The river was so high that it could not be forded, and the only boats were two small scows, made by Colonel Eyre. First the animals were swum over. This was successfully accomplished; none were lost. A rope was attached to both sides of the boats and extended to either bank of the river. A number of men were stationed on both banks. By this means they were enabled to {p.144} pull the boat from shore to shore, being constantly in the water. The wagons were unloaded their contents ferried across in the boats, which were hauled across by ropes. In this manner each command as it came up was crossed in safety. Nothing was lost or injured. General Carleton moved the column down the river as far as Las Cruces, La Mesilla, and Franklin. Taking with him two companies of cavalry, he proceeded on down as far as Fort Quitman, Tex.; from there he dispatched a company of the First Cavalry as far as Fort Davis, distant from Fort Quitman miles. The Texans had abandoned this post. One man, much reduced, was found dead, his body being pierced in many places with arrows. This man had evidently been left behind sick. The sick and wounded Texans left behind at Franklin were sent with an escort to San Antonio. General Canby, at this time in command of the department of New Mexico, had been ordered East, and on the 16th of September, 1862, General Carleton arrived at Santa Fé, and on the 18th assumed command of the department. Before leaving the lower country he published the following general order:

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 15.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA, Las Cruces, N. Mex., August 14, 1863.

I. Commanders of towns will at once establish sanitary regulations, and require them to be observed by the inhabitants and by the troops, so far as the policing of the streets and the keeping of their dwellings, quarters, stores, corrals, &c., in a state of cleanliness may be necessary to their health and comfort. Frequent inspections will be made by commanding officers or by a medical officer under his direction, to see that in all respects these regulations are followed.

II. It is expected that all of the inhabitants living along the Rio Grande southward from the Jornada del Muerto to Fort Bliss, in Texas, will, at the earliest practicable moment, repair their dwellings and clean up their streets.

The people may now rest assured that the era of anarchy and misrule-when there was no protection to life or property, when the wealthy were plundered, when the poor were robbed and oppressed, when all were insulted and maltreated, and when there was no respect for age or sex-has passed away; that now, under the sacred banner of our country, all may claim and shall receive their just rights. Therefore let the burden of anxiety be lifted from their hearts, and once more let them pursue their avocations with cheerfulness, and with the full confidence that the protection which now shelters them from injustice will always be stronger in proportion as they shall be powerless to protect themselves.

The success of the march of this column was dependent upon two things: First, the endurance of the men; second, the care taken of them. From the first organization of the column the constant care of General Carleton was given it; the health of the men first, discipline next. Constantly watchful, the minutest detail received his personal attention. Every movement was based upon calculation; nothing avoidable left to chance. To conduct this expedition successfully required a clear head, sound judgment, indomitable will, and perseverance. All these General Carleton possesses in an eminent degree. It will not be too much to say that there are probably few men in the United States Army so well fitted to command ant expedition of this kind. A military experience of more than twenty years, a great portion of it spent on our frontiers, has made him familiar by experience with the wants and requirements of men in desert marching. Inn this march everything was reduced to the smallest possible compass. No tents were used by officers or men during the whole march. Two wagons were allowed to a company. In these were carried camp and garrison equipage, ten days’ rations, mess furniture-everything belonging to a company. Every article was weighed. Officers, from the general down, carried but eighty pounds of baggage, including bedding, mess kit, &c. The troops suffered very little from sickness. The mortality was very small. Not one single death occurred on the march of the column from the {p.145} Pacific Ocean to the Rio Grande, from the 13th of April to the 8th of August, and but five deaths from disease in hospital during this time-two at Fort Barrett and three at Tucson. Every possible care was observed to guard against sickness. This, together with the splendid material of the men will account for the success of the expedition and the slight mortality from disease attending it. General Carleton, on relinquishing the immediate command of the column, published the following general order, viz:

GENERAL ORDERS No. 85.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 21, 1862.

In entering upon the duties that remove him from immediate association with the troops constituting the Column from California the commanding general desires to express his grateful acknowledgment of the conduct and services of the officers and men of that command. Traversing a desert country, that has heretofore been regarded as impracticable for the operations of large bodies of troops, they have reached their destination, and accomplished the object assigned them, not only without loss of any kind, but improved in discipline, in morale, and in every other element of efficiency. That patient and cheerful endurance of hardships, the zeal and alacrity with which they have grappled with and overcome obstacles that would have been insurmountable to any but troops of the highest physical and moral energy, the complete abnegation of self and subordination of every personal consideration to the grand object of our hopes and efforts, give the most absolute assurance of success in any field or against any enemy.

California has reason to be proud of the sons she has sent across the continent to assist in the great struggle in which our country is now engaged.

The commanding general is requested by the officer who preceded him in the command of this department to express for him the gratification felt by every officer and soldier of his command at the fact that troops from the Atlantic and Pacific slope, from the mountains of California and Colorado, acting in the same cause, impelled by the same duties, and animated by the same hopes, have met and shaken hands in the center of this great continent.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

Very respectfully,

J. M. MCNULTY, Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers.

* See inclosure C to Carleton’s report of August 2, p. 96.

** See inclosure No. 1 to Carleton’s report, p. 90.

*** Surgeon MoNulty here quotes Eyre’s entire report of July 6, see p. 120.

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JUNE 11-OCTOBER 8, 1862.– Expedition from Camp Latham to Owen’s River, Cal., with skirmish (June 24) at Owen’s Lake.

Reports of Lieut. Col. George S. Evans, Second California Cavalry.

HDQRS. FOURTH INFANTRY CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS, Camp Latham, July 14, 1862.

Maj. B. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General:

MAJOR: I have the honor to inclose a copy of a report of Lieutenant-Colonel Evans in relation to the Owen’s River Expedition. Major O’Neill has reported to me, and Captain McLaughlin, of the same command, has just arrived from Fort Yuma. The command of Major O’Neill, consisting of the cavalry fit for duty in camp and those brought up by Captain McLaughlin, will number twenty-five men. They will be dispatched to Owen’s River so soon as the horses from Fort Yuma are fit to travel, which will be but a few days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. FORMAN, Colonel Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

{p.146}

IN CAMP AT LONE PINE, Owen’s River Valley, July 1, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report to the colonel commanding at Camp Latham that I arrived at Owen’s Big Lake on the 24th day of June, 1802, at 2 p.m., having made a forced march of thirty-five miles on the last day. Owing to my rapid movement, on the 24th I surprised a party of Indians that were gathering worms from the shore of the lake, killed 2 men and took 2 men, 7 squaws, and 2 children prisoners, together with a large quantity of Indian food, grass, nuts, seeds, worms, &c. I laid over on the 25th to rest my animals, and at night, leaving my wagons with a strong guard, took 120 men and made a forced march of forty-five miles to the Stone Fort, so called, situated on Little Pine Creek, on the western side of Owen’s River, at which place it was represented to me, both by the Indians and the white citizens, there was a large body of Indians, some estimating at 1,000 strong. I reached the fort between daylight and sunrise on the 26th, and found that the Indians had scattered to the hills or mountains after having destroyed the fort by burning everything that could burn, and then throwing down the stone walls. For the last five days I have been scouring the valley in every direction, and am only the more convinced that the opinion formed by myself (and expressed in my official report to the general commanding the Department of the Pacific), from actual observation, when last here, as to the necessity of a post being established in this valley, was entirely correct. The Indians claim the valley as belonging to them, and still insist upon it that no white man shall settle, or, as they term it, sit down in the valley. They say that the whites may pass through to and from Aurora if they want to, or they may locate in the hills and work the mines, but must not sit down on the grass patches. Now, without arguing the point as to their right by prior location to the exclusive use of the valley, I will say that it is very evident to my mind that the mines will be of small value unless the valley can be settled and grain and vegetables grown and beef raised to feed the miners with. It is also evident from actual experiment that these Indians cannot be brought to the sticking point; that no fight can be had with them, and that they cannot be caught and chastised in a week or in a month, or if at all, for the reason that the valley from Owen’s Big Lake up is near 150 miles long, varying in width from five to fifteen miles, with almost impassable mountains on either side, and the valley being open country, without a tree, the Indians can place their lookouts upon the peaks of the mountains along the valley and signalize the appearance of troops for twenty or thirty miles ahead, and upon their approach they can and will scatter into the hills, where it is impossible to follow them. These Indians subsist at this season of the year entirely upon the grass seeds and nuts gathered in the valley from the lake up, and the worms gathered at the lake. They gather this food in large quantities during the summer and prepare it for winter use, which, together with the piñon nuts gathered in the mountains in the fall of the year, is their only subsistence. Without this food gathered and laid up they cannot possibly subsist through the winter. From the facts set forth above, the nature of these Indians and the surrounding country, it does seem to me that the only way [in] which they can be chastised and brought to terms is to establish at least a temporary post, say for one winter, at some point near the center of the valley, from which point send and keep scouts continually ranging through the valley, keeping the Indians out of the valley and in the hills, so that they can have no opportunity of gathering and preserving their necessary winter supplies, and they will be compelled to sue for peace before spring {p.147} and grass come again. The actual settlers here that have come into the valley since my arrival, so far as I have heard them express themselves, are unanimously of the opinion that as soon as the troops leave the valley that soon they will either have to band themselves together to protect their lives and property, or else again abandon the country to the Indians, either course being to their ruin. As you will observe from the date of this report, to-day is the 1st of July, consequently the eighteen days (from the 12th June) for which the command brought rations with them was out yesterday. The remaining forty-two days’ provisions of the sixty for which rations were issued being in the wagons of Mr. Banning, hired by your regimental quartermaster, not having arrived (although I have been here with my teams five days), I am entirely out of commissary stores, and shall be compelled to subsist my men upon fresh beef alone until they do come. I am afraid that my opinion expressed to you and Mr. Banning at Camp Latham to the effect that no teams could haul 4,000 pounds up through this country and make any kind of traveling time has proven too true, and that the teams of Mr. Banning have broken down, and possibly have been compelled to lighten up by caching a part of the stores on the road in order to get to me at all.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding Owen’s River Expedition.

Lieut. WILLIAM FORRY, Adjutant Fourth Infantry California Vols., Camp Latham, Cal.

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HEADQUARTERS OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, Camp Independence, Oak Creek, Owen’s River Valley, July 5, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report to the colonel commanding at Camp Latham that I arrived at this point, forty-five miles above the foot of Owen’s Big Lake, on yesterday, July 4, 1862. Immediately upon my arrival I caused a flag-staff to be erected and the old flag with all the stars upon it hoisted to the breeze, with three times three given most heartily by the men, and a salute fired with small-arms, upon which occasion I named this camp Camp Independence. Owen’s River is out of its banks, overflowing the whole valley, and still rising, consequently the country is too boggy for me to travel farther up the river with my teams. I shall, therefore, make this camp my permanent station during my stay in this valley. In fact, I believe it is about as good a point for a station as Big Pine, twenty miles farther up, where I intended to make my headquarters when I left Camp Latham. Mr. Banning’s teams are all here; they arrived last night in the night, and have to day been discharged and allowed twelve days in which to return. As I expected they would have to do, they have left 10,000 pounds of freight on the road to be brought up by somebody’s ox teams. Mr. Whipple’s teams have not yet arrived. It is impossible for these teams, either those of Mr. Banning or Mr. Whipple, to get back to Camp Latham in time to load up and bring me the next thirty days’ rations within the sixty days for which I drew rations on starting; hence I send you this by a special messenger, so that you may have notice of the fact and start the provisions for the next thirty days in good tune. Mr. Whipple’s teams can be back in time to haul for the second thirty days. It is, as near as I can estimate the distance without measuring it, 250 miles from Camp Latham to this point. By knowing the distance you {p.148} can better estimate the price that should be charged for freight. I have most respectfully to ask for instructions relative to the Indian prisoners that I have (the capture of whom I reported to the colonel June 30), what I shall do with them, and how I am to feed them, &c. I believe it requires an order from headquarters to allow my acting assistant quartermaster and acting commissary of subsistence to issue rations to them. If so, you will please to attend to the matter by laying the facts before the general commanding the Department of the Pacific. I wish again most respectfully to call the attention of the colonel to the fact that I have but four Government wagons and teams, and that if I should be ordered to return to-morrow or to go anywhere else it would be impossible for me to move with the limited transportation that I have at my command. I should have at least four more wagons and teams, which would make two for each company, one for the quartermaster’s department and one for the ammunition.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieut. Col. Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut. WILLIAM FORRY, Adjutant Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, Camp Latham.

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HEADQUARTERS OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, Camp Independence, Owen’s River Valley, July 9, 1862.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report to the general commanding the Department of the Pacific that I have been in this valley fifteen days, carrying out my instructions to chastise these Indians, or the Indians of Owen’s River; that I have killed several, taken eleven prisoners, and destroyed a great many rancherias and a large quantity of seeds, worms, &c., that the Indians had gathered for food. Day before yesterday, July 7, I received a note by the hands of a messenger sent from a detachment of my command thirty miles above this point stating that Captain Rowe, of Company A, with the sub-Indian agent, Mr. Wassen, and his interpreters and ten men, were on the opposite side of the river; that they had seen and talked with the Indian chiefs and made a treaty with them. I immediately sent men to the river with led horses for Captain Rowe and Mr. Wassen to ride after crossing the river, and requested Captain Rowe to come over and report to me the facts in the case. At 2 o’clock Sergeant Ethier came to my camp and stated that Captain Rowe’s health was bad and the river was out of its banks and would have to be swam by him in order to reach me; begged that I would come down to the river, that we might talk from bank to bank. I immediately saddled my horse and rode down to the river, and finding it almost impossible to talk from bank to bank in consequence of the sloughs on either side of the river being swimming, I resolved to cross myself. After swimming two sloughs and the river and wading half a mile through willows and tulles, I reached the eastern bank of Owen’s River, where Captain Rowe was camped, and spent the night with him. I found that Captain Rowe had been for some time previous encamped at the Adobe Meadows, twenty-five miles this side of Aurora and ninety-five miles above this point; that he was acting under orders from headquarters Department of the Pacific and endeavoring to make peace with the Indians, while I was under instructions to chastise them severely; that the captain had performed his duty with judgment and energy and had, {p.149} through the Mono Indians, several talks with the Owen’s River Indians; that, although they were at first very independent and did not care whether it was peace or war, they had since I came into the valley and commenced killing and destroying whenever I could find an Indian to kill or his food to destroy changed their tune and were anxious for peace. Captain George, the big war chief of these Indians, and some forty warriors were in Captain Rowe’s camp when I arrived. I had a big talk with George, and he says that he is tired fighting; that it is no good; that he wishes to be friends with the white men; that if they will let him alone he will let them alone. I told him that I came here to fight and kill Indians, because the big general had been told and believed that the Indians wanted to fight, but that if they did not want to fight I did not want to fight; that I would write to the big captain at San Francisco and tell him that the Indians did not want to fight, but wanted to be friends, and that it would be all right. He seemed much pleased, and said that he would send word to all the Indians that he had made friends with the white men, and that if any bad Indian stole anything or did anything bad he would bring him to me to punish, and that if the white man did anything bad to him he would come and tell me; that he would do what I told him. To Captain Rowe is due great praise for his skill and management in getting the Indians together and having talks with them and preparing the way for a speedy settlement of these Indian difficulties. Captain George is now in my camp, and everything will be quiet hereafter, in my opinion, unless the whites first commit outrages upon the Indians. They are very badly frightened and, I think, are in earnest about wanting peace. As I have no instructions or authority to make any treaty, I most respectfully ask for different instructions as to what course I shall pursue with these Indians under the circumstances; also as to what time I shall have to remain in this valley, so that I can make arrangements accordingly. I send this communication by way of Aurora direct to headquarters, instead of through Colonel Forman in accordance with my instructions), for the reason that I deem it important that the facts should be laid before the general as soon as possible, and by sending by Aurora it will reach San Francisco in half of the time that it would by way of Los Angeles. If my instructions in reply to this communication are sent directed to Aurora, in care of Captain Rowe, he will have a messenger bring them down the river opposite to my camp, where he can swim over, leaving his horse. I can receive them in no other mode, for the river is impassable for horses and will be for some weeks yet. Hoping that the course pursued by myself may meet the approbation of the general,

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding Owen’s River Expedition.

Maj. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco.

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HEADQUARTERS OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, September 16, 1862.

COLONEL: I arrived at this place, twenty-five miles below Camp Independence, on yesterday, where I met the command moving down the valley, bag and baggage, almost in a state of mutiny. The command {p.150} are entirely out of provisions and clothing, and the weather is becoming very cold; the nights almost freezing, hence the dissatisfaction. On Saturday they had a severe wind-storm with quite a heavy full of snow on the mountain tops. This is the second time that the command have been without provisions; once before for the period of five days, and this time, had I not taken the precaution to bring a team through with me, making the trip in fifteen days with 1,500 pounds of flour, they would have been without provisions for at least two weeks. The men are barefooted and naked, although requisitions have been made time and again for clothing. When I send for clothing for three companies I almost invariably, if I receive any at all, receive clothing for one company. The last requisition was for 300 pairs of pants, 300 boots, &c., in proportion, which Colonel Babbitt informed me were ordered but upon examination of the invoice that I brought up to Captain Goodman, I find that no pants have been sent, and only 100 pairs of boots, and other clothing in proportion. Of course 100 pairs of boots are not sufficient for the company to be left at this post for the winter. I therefore inclose estimate for more clothing for the company to be retained here, and most respectfully ask that it may be ordered forwarded through Lieutenant Morgan to Capt. T. H. Goodman, at Camp Independence. The regulations, I believe, only allow one pair of boots to the man for six months, but I assure you that the article of boots that we get will not last three months, and, as the winters are in this vicinity very severe, and there is no possibility of the men purchasing anything (if it were here to purchase), they not having been paid off for nearly nine months, I hope the general will see the necessity of a greater number being furnished the company to remain in the valley. I have also to most respectfully ask that 200 pairs of boots and a full change of clothing for the two companies to return to Camp Latham with me may be invoiced to the quartermaster of the Fourth Infantry at Camp Latham (for the Second Cavalry), so that they may have something to put on to cover their nakedness with when they arrive in the settlements. It is everything else but a pleasant service to do duty in this valley, and the men, volunteer-like, think that they are badly treated at best in being left in this valley, and unless they are regularly fed and well clothed it will be impossible to keep them together. I am fearful that there will be trouble with Company G when they are left alone, anyway. Tomorrow I move the command back to Camp Independence and renew the work of preparing winter quarters for the company to remain. It is going to be uphill business, turning back and getting the men to work. I shall, however, do the best I can between now and the 1st of October, by which time I will have to move the two companies for Camp Latham in order to get out of the valley before the snow falls. One more request and I am done. In consideration of the fact that there is no sutler here, and that the men have not been paid for nine months; that the winters here are so very severe, and there are no gloves to be purchased, I have most respectfully to ask, although out of the regular line, that 100 or 200 pairs of Indian tan gloves (of buck skin) may be ordered purchased, and forwarded to Captain Goodman for his company. The money value can be sent with them, so that they can be charged to the men and thus protect the Government.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.

{p.151}

[First indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, September 29, 1862.

Respectfully referred to Colonel Babbitt and Captain Kellogg, who will see that the troops at Owen’s River and Visalia are properly supplied forthwith. Such articles used for winter campaign (as gloves, &c.) as may be at the Vancouver depot will be sent to Captain Goodman’s company to the extent of supplying that company.

By order of Major-General Wright:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Second indorsement.]

SEPTEMBER 29, 1862.

The gloves at Fort Vancouver have all been sold at auction.

Respectfully,

E. B. B[ABBITT], Deputy Quartermaster-General.

[Third indorsement.]

SUBSISTENCE OFFICE, San Francisco, Cal., September 30, 1862.

Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 3, General Orders, No. 26, Department of the Pacific, July 1, 1862, and of my circular March 20, 1862, which has been liberally distributed (copy herewith), no requisition for subsistence supplies has been received from this command. On the 13th instant I turned over for transportation direct to Lieutenant Goodman, acting commissary of subsistence, at Camp Independence, 25,000 complete rations, except fresh beef. This was forwarded upon a requisition from the depot acting commissary of subsistence (Lieutenant Morgan) at San Pedro. In his letter of the 29th ultimo, transmitting said requisition, Lieutenant Morgan says: “I have received orders from headquarters department, San Francisco, to forward to Captain Goodman, acting commissary of subsistence, Camp Independence, before the rainy season commences, sufficient supplies to last that command until next spring.” It is presumed that what supply was before furnished to this expedition was carried with it from Camp Latham and obtained from San Pedro, but its quantity is not known to me. There has been no deficiency in supplies at San Pedro or Camp Latham. A few days since 20,000 rations were shipped for Visalia. No information has been received at this office giving the number of troops at Camp Independence or at Visalia, or the probable time of stay at those points of either command. Such data from official source is essential to me. In this connection reference is requested to a letter by Capt. M. D. L. Simpson, commissary of subsistence, to department headquarters, dated July 20, 1859.

JNO. KELLOGG, Captain and Commissary of Subsistence.

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HEADQUARTERS OWEN’S RIVER EXPEDITION, Camp Independence, Cal., September 30, 1862.

COLONEL: Inclosed please find a copy of a letter from the Indian Superintendent (or agent) Southern District of California, directed to {p.152} the Indian chiefs of this valley, which was sent under cover to me, with a written request that I would read the same to said Indians. In accordance with the request I sent to Kern River and procured an interpreter, and had the letter translated to the chiefs, and made all the necessary arrangements to have all the chiefs and principal Indians of this country at my camp on the 20th of September, and here they are, and have been since that time, in number about 100. Also the subagent from Nevada Territory, Mr. Wassen, who is here by special request of Mr. Wentworth, but no Mr. Wentworth, although this is the 30th of September instead of the 20th. I deem it my duty to make a report of these facts, for the reason that there is great danger of another outbreak amongst these Indians, arising from what they seem to think duplicity and treachery on the part of the whites. They say that they have complied with their part of the treaty, have given up their arms and families as hostages, and the whites are “mucho big lie; no give them nothing.” In short, there is a very bad spirit around amongst them, and if any trouble grows out of it I want the blame to fall where it belongs, and not upon the military. I have, through the management of Mr. Wassen, put them off with excuses for Mr. Wentworth’s non-appearance until excuses have failed to be of any avail, and in order to keep them here until Mr. Wentworth does come, if he arrives within the next ten days, I have ordered the acting assistant quartermaster at this post to furnish them with meat for the period of ten days, and most respectfully ask the approval of the general commanding the department.

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cat.

[Inclosure.]

OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA, San Francisco, August 1, 1862.

TEN-NE-MAR-HA-TE AND OTHER CHIEFS OF OWEN’S RIVER:

I am instructed by the Great Father at Washington to go to your country and talk with you. I shall be there on the 20th of September. In the meantime you must remain quiet and not allow your Indians to have any more difficulty with your white neighbors. Your Great Father has a good heart for all Indians who are obedient and do not fight. The Great Father regrets that the Indians have killed their white neighbors. This must not occur again. I shall take with me some food, clothing, and blankets for the chiefs. You have lands there, and shall be protected in your rights, but never go to war. When you have trouble with the whites, come to me or the agent who will be stationed there, and he will settle it for you.

JNO. P. H. WENTWORTH, Superintendent, Agent Southern District of California.

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VISALIA, October 7, 1862.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I arrived at this place with one company of cavalry (Company D), Capt. M. A. McLaughlin, on yesterday, having made the trip from Owen’s Big Lake over the {p.153} mountains, a distance of 120 miles, in four days and one-half. The route is almost an impracticable one, and great credit is due to the men for their fortitude and forbearance in making the trail without a murmur of complaint, for the hills were so very precipitous-and the animals so very weak for want of grain, not having seen any for two months-and without shoes on them, that they were compelled to walk about two-thirds of the way, and that, too, barefooted and naked, for many of them were as destitute of shoes as they were the day they were born, and had no pantaloons, except such as they had themselves made out of barley and flour sacks. The weather was freezing cold, heavy frost every night, and on the 4th a heavy snow-storm; still the men plodded on and stood guard at night, leaving the blood from their feet upon the rocks and snow. In this connection allow me to say that I am gratified to find that clothing is on the way for these troops, not only for their sakes, but for the credit of the Government that I have the honor to serve. Company I, Captain Jones, under command of Major O’Neill, will be here in about one week by way of Keysville. I have the honor to report further-that before leaving Camp Independence, Owen’s River I made all necessary orders for the establishment of a one-company military post at that place; that adobes were being made and temporary buildings put up by the troops; that six months’ supplies were laid in, and everything done to make the company left to garrison the post (Company G, Capt. T. H. Goodman) comfortable, and that all was quiet and harmonious, notwithstanding fears to the contrary stated in my last communication on the subject.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. S. EVANS, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Comdg.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.

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JUNE 16-OCTOBER 30, 1862.– Emigrant road expedition from Omaha, Nebr. Ter., to Portland, Oreg.

Report of Capt. Medorem Crawford, U. S. Army, Assistant Quartermaster.

PORTLAND, OREG., October 30, 1862.

SIR: The duty of conducting an escort for the protection of emigrants to Oregon, &c., having been assigned me by the Secretary of War, and having performed that service, I deem it my duty, as it is certainly my pleasure, to comply with your request by reporting to you the principal incidents of my trip.

Having organized my company, procured my transportation and provisions, I left Omaha, Nebr. Ter., on the 16th of June. My company consisted of fifty mounted men, armed with rifles and revolvers, who were instructed in the duties of sentinels and drilled in the simpler evolutions of cavalry tactics. Our route lay on the north side of and immediately along the Platte River, up the Sweetwater, over the Lander road to near Fort Hall, and from thence on the south side of Snake River to Walla Walla. The movement westward was very large. Emigrants to Oregon, Washington Territory, California, Salt {p.154} Lake, and Denver were on this road. Some had started in April, and were consequently several hundred miles in advance of the rear portion of the emigration. Feeling it to be my duty to protect the rear, I did not hasten on the first part of the trip, but urged upon the emigrants whom I fell in with as I proceeded the necessity of husbanding the strength of their teams so as to be able to perform the journey over the barren deserts of Snake River, the necessity for which my last year’s experience had taught me. I soon found that a large proportion of the emigrants had started for the Salmon River mines under the very erroneous impression as to the locality of them. A guide of the route had been published and extensively circulated on the frontier, representing those mines as being within 180 miles of Fort Hall, not giving the locality of the road, but saying-good grass and plenty of water all the way. Under this impression many emigrants had overloaded their wagons and taxed their teams beyond their strength, and so positive were they that they could reach the mines without going down Snake River that many of them disregarded my counsel to dispense with comparatively useless articles with which they were encumbered. The result was that as soon as we left the Platte Valley and encountered the heavy sand and hills their teams and wagons began to fail. They then found it necessary to do what I had advised long before, dispense with heavy and useless articles, but unfortunately it was too late to save many of their teams. From this point to Powder River article after article of furniture and wagon after wagon were left along, and scarcely a camp was left without some evidence of property abandoned. The large number of teams which were ahead of us had cut up the road to such an extent that the dust was very deep and its alkaline properties fatal to cattle. There were over forty head of dead cattle between the Owyhee and Malheur Rivers, a distance of sixteen miles, and we found the proportion nearly as great at other points along Snake River. The first evidence of Indian depredations we saw was a grave at the crossing of New Fork of Green River. From the inscription placed over it we learned that Patrick Moran, of Missouri, was killed by Indians on the 18th of July and two men wounded. We passed this place August 11, about three weeks after, at which time no Indians were to be seen. The next grave was on La Barge Creek, in the Bear River Mountains, on the head-board of which was the following:

Opened by Kavanaugh’s train on the 27th of July, 1862. The body of a man found too badly decayed for removal. One shot in the temple and an arrow shot. Supposed to have been killed by Indians.

On the 25th day of August we passed the graves of the following persons: One unknown man found by Captain Glenn’s party August 13. He bad been shot in the back of the head with buckshot. Three miles farther there were five graves, side by side, of persons supposed to have been killed by Indians. Rufus C. Mitchell, N. Howie, James Steel, David Whitmer, and Frank Sessions were the names inscribed over them. This was in the vicinity of Fort Hall, and happened on the 9th of August, we passing on the 25th. We learned from the ferryman that while these five men were slain by the Indians twenty armed men from the same train stood upon a hill near by and made no attempt to rescue their comrades. There are strong reasons for believing that white men bore a part in this massacre. Between Fort Hall and Raft River we found four graves of men supposed to have been killed by Indians on the 9th of August. After crossing Raft River we found the {p.155} grave of a Miss Adams, who was shot on the 9th and died on the 12th. We passed here August 31, twenty-two days after the fight. About the same time a Mr. Phillips left his train to go fishing, alone and unarmed, and was taken by Indians, and is supposed to have been killed. This happened near Goose Creek. It will be seen that the number killed, of which we have positive information, is about fifteen. No emigrants have at any time been troubled by Indians while in the vicinity of my company, but from the disposition shown toward the advance parties it is easy to see that the later and weaker parties would have been easily cut off had it not been for the protection afforded them by the Government. Near old Fort Hall a ferry had been established, and many emigrants had crossed in pursuit of the mines. Some went to Fort Lemhi, others to the Deer Lodge Prairie, while others kept down the north side of Snake River and recrossed the stream at Boisé. Front what was told me I am satisfied that many were induced to cross at Fort Hall by the representations of these ferrymen, which turned out unreliable. About twenty wagons which had crossed and met a returning party, were induced to recross and join those who were already under my escort. At this point I had 125 wagons of emigrants under my charge, and I found many of their teams so weak that they could not travel over ten miles per day, others being able to proceed faster; and in order to give protection to all, I divided my company, placing the advance party in charge of my principal assistant, Mr. Le Roy Crawford, while I remained with the rear and weaker party. From this point my journey was extremely slow. Many of the emigrants were short of provisions, which deficiency I had to supply. Others had difficulties among themselves which I was obliged to settle. The grass was very scarce, and their stock would scatter during the night, so that frequently my men would spend hours in looking after them in the morning. We cured their sick, fed their destitute, hunted, and in some instances drove their teams, mended their wagons, hauled their goods, settled their disputes, and kept them moving. Two men died and one was drowned in Snake River. With these exceptions every man, woman, and child that had traveled in my vicinity reached the settlements in safety. From the best information in my possession I estimate the emigration to Oregon and Washington this year at 10,000 souls, about two-fifths of whom I think crossed Snake River at the Fort Hall Ferry. From my own observation I am satisfied that a better road for emigrants may be found on the north side of Snake River than the one on the south side, but the precise point at which that river should be crossed I am not prepared to decide. I know there is a good road from near Salmon Falls to Boisé, having traveled down on that route in the year 1842, but as to the character of the country above that point on the north side, I have no reliable information. The recent discoveries of gold on Boisé River will doubtless attract large parties from the States next season, and a road on the north side will be very necessary. Should such be the case, and large numbers of emigrants with families flock to that country, I fear that unless some protection is furnished by the Government the Indians will make an indiscriminate slaughter.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

MEDOREM CRAWFORD, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster.

Brigadier-General ALVORD, U. S. Army.

{p.156}

JULY 7, 1862-OCTOBER 6, 1863.– Operations in the District of Oregon.

Report of Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, commanding the District of Oregon.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, October 16, 1863.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: Inclosed herewith you will receive a communication from Brig. Gen. B. Alvord, commanding the District of Oregon, detailing the operations of troops in that district and the general condition of affairs in that quarter since July, 1862, which is most respectfully submitted for the information of the General-in-Chief and Secretary of War.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., October 6, 1863.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report for the information of the War Department the operations of the troops in the District of Oregon since I assumed command on the 7th of July, 1862. The boundaries of the district are the same known on military maps as those of the old Department of Oregon, including all of the former Territory of Oregon as organized in 1848, excepting the valleys of the Umpqua and Rogue Rivers. It now includes part of the State of Oregon, all of Washington Territory, and the portion of Idaho Territory west of the Rocky Mountains. Three companies of First Oregon Cavalry, under command of Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, were ordered to leave Fort Walla Walla on the 25th of July, 1862, to proceed upon the emigrant road as far as Salmon Falls, on Snake River, for the protection of the expected emigration, the command not to return to Fort Walla Walla until the 1st of November. The duty was faithfully and efficiently discharged by Colonel Maury. The movement in connection with Captain Crawford’s emigrant escort party from Omaha, Nebr., afforded effectual protection to the emigration, which amounted to 2,000 wagons, or about 10,000 souls that autumn. I also ordered in July, 1862, a company of cavalry to encamp in the Nez Percé country, near the agency, for the protection of that tribe so far as practicable from the intrusion of the whites, who in search of gold had (previously to my being placed in command) invaded the Nez Percé Indian Reservation without authority to the number of some 10,000 or 15,000 people in violation of the provisions of the treaty, and in contempt of the rights of the Indians. Hearing of threatened collision in that region between the Indians and the whites, I left on the 16th of October for the Nez Percé country. Before I reached there two murders of white men by the Indians occurred, almost the very first ever attributed to that tribe, who have been proverbial for their persistent friendship for the whites. Finding among the chiefs (who surrendered the murderers) a great desire for the continuance of the soldiers among them, I ordered another company there and established a post at Fort Lapwai. The reasons which impelled me to do so were fully reported in a dispatch to headquarters Department of the Pacific dated 4th of November, 1862, which I have been informed was forwarded to the War Department. The effect of the establishment of the post {p.157} was very salutary, and paved the way for the successful negotiations of a treaty with that tribe on the 9th of June last, by which they have surrendered the greater portion of their reservation, including all of the gold-mining regions.

On the 9th of May last I assembled six companies of troops, under command of Col. J. Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry, at Fort Lapwai, preliminary to said negotiations. I have into doubt that the concentration of those troops had a salutary effect on all the surrounding tribes, as well as furthering the success of the council. All those Indian tribes have remained at peace with whom the Indian wars of 1855, 1856, and 1858 were carried on, and the only Indians who have committed assaults upon the frontier have been the Snakes. The Snakes speak the Comanche language, have the same habits, and are in fact a branch of the Comanche tribes of the region east of the Rocky Mountains. On the 14th of October, 1862, I sent to department headquarters a letter (forwarded afterward to the Adjutant-General of the Army) recommending the establishment of a military post at or near Fort Boisé for the protection of emigrants and settlers in that country. On the 29th of January I received instructions from department headquarters, pursuant to the authority of the Secretary of War, to make the necessary arrangements for the establishment of a post at Fort Boisé. Said arrangements were made with the assistance of Bvt. Maj. P. Lugenbeel, Ninth Infantry, to whom the command of the troops destined for that post was given. After a careful reconnaissance he established it on the 4th of July at a point about forty-three miles east of old Fort Boisé and 275 miles from Wallula (the depot on the Columbia River better known as old Fort Walla Walla). He has found a good site for a saw-mill on a creek ten miles from the post. He has commenced, agreeably to instructions, the erection of temporary quarters for a five-company post, three of infantry and two of cavalry. I have no doubt he has located the post judiciously and that he has practiced the utmost economy, which was strictly enjoined upon him. Daring this winter for want of forage the cavalry, with the exception of twenty-five men, will withdraw to Fort Walla Walla. A population of 10,000 or 15,000 people have gone into those mines and that whole region is fast increasing in importance. Colonel Maury, with three companies of First Oregon Cavalry and two of infantry, was ordered to proceed in July last from Fort Boisé to a point on Snake River above Fort Hall for the protection of the emigration. He has at last dates successfully carried out the plan, and on the 17th of August, 1863, met Capt. M. Crawford, assistant quartermaster, in charge of the emigrant escort, at the ferry on Snake River, as had been arranged by me early in the spring when Captain Crawford left here for Washington City. Owing to the pacification effected by General Connor and Governor Doty, of Utah, the Snake Indians upon that route have been very quiet this summer. Colonel Maury is now on his return to Fort Walla Walla, and has crossed Snake River at Salmon Falls and intended thence to proceed to the headwaters of the Owyhee and Malheur Rivers, southwest of Fort Boisé, in which quarters it was reported that the Snake Indians had fired upon some of the miners prospecting for gold. Colonel Maury was directed this year, as also a year ago, not to return to Fort Walla Walla until the 1st of November, thereby insuring the most efficient protection which could be rendered before the commencement of winter. The experience of former expeditions, as in the unfortunate massacre of September, 1860, had admonished me that the troops should not return to the military posts until the approach of {p.158} winter rendered it necessary. I thus claim that during the summer and fall of 1862 and 1863 the emigrant road has been protected in a well-planned and systematic manner and that Oregon can felicitate itself that the emigrants have not been subjected to the heartrending massacres which have sometimes carried so much pain to all on this frontier. South of Auburn and near Canyon City the Snakes have killed some miners and committed some depredations. It will no doubt be necessary next spring to send if possible an efficient expedition against these Indians into the region southeast of Fort Dalles and west of Fort Boisé. The mineral wealth of that country will be explored by the hardy and adventurous miners, and it will be our duty doubtless to give them all possible protection in the undertaking. I am pleased to say that at last during the last two months a commencement has been made in the erection of batteries for the fortifications at the mouth of the Columbia, and the chief of ordnance has promised to send heavy ordnance for them. In a letter dated the 5th of May last to the Governor of Oregon I learn that Brig. Gen. J. G. Totten, chief of the Engineer Department, has recommended that an iron-clad vessel be sent to this river. His words are: “It is recommended by the Engineer Department that a strong, heavily-armored steam floating battery and ram be provided for the defense of the Columbia River.” I do most respectfully urge that this recommendation be complied with. Absorbed by the stirring events of the war, few in the Atlantic States are conscious of the limitless gold fields recently found in Oregon and in Washington and Idaho Territories, covering an extent of country as large as those of California. Thus the rapid increase in population and commerce of this region gives it now fresh claims on the care and attention of the Government.

I am, with high respect, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

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AUGUST 10-22, 1862.– Expedition from Fort Walla Walla to the Grande Ronde Prairie, Wash. Ter., with affair (14th) at the Grande Ronde Prairie.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, commanding District of Oregon.
No. 2.–Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry.
No. 3.–Capt. George B. Currey, First Oregon Cavalry.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Germ. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, commanding District of Oregon.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 26, 1862.

SIR: I herewith transmit for the information of the general commanding the department a copy of the report, dated 23d instant, of Capt. G. B. Currey, of Company E, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, of his recent expedition to the Grande Ronde Valley; a copy of Col. J. Steinberger’s instructions to him, dated the 9th instant; a copy of Colonel Steinberger’s dispatch of the 23d instant, and a copy of my {p.159} instructions of the 20th instant, on the general subject of aiding the Indian Department in requiring the Indians to live on the Indian reservation. You will perceive that the expedition was entirely successful. It resulted in the death of four Indians, including the leader, Tenounis, or Big Talk on Four Mountains, otherwise called the Dreamer, whose ominous prophesies had exerted a baneful influence over the small party who followed his fortunes. The killing of these appears to have been a necessary and unavoidable act. I have no doubt that the effect of the movement will be to prevent any further aggression against the whites at the Grand Ronde Valley, and will have a salutary effect on all the surrounding tribes. The great majority of the Indians on the Umatilla Reservation appear to have had no sympathy with the Dreamer or his assumptions. A report from Lieutenant-Colonel Maury, dated 17th instant, shows that his expedition had reached the Owyhee River. He had met thus far 300 wagons of emigrants. Few Indian disturbances or depredations had occurred. The emigrants express much satisfaction in the movements of troops, which have every likelihood of preventing collisions.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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No. 2.

Reports of Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 9, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that at the request of the superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon and the Indian agent at the Umatilla Reservation, I have directed Captain Currey with twenty men of his company to proceed on a scout of fourteen days toward Grande Ronde Valley. In a personal interview with the gentleman I became convinced that a serious attack had been made upon a settlement that, unless promptly punished, might result in additional and embarrassing hostilities. Inclosed is also transmitted copy of a communication from Mr. Barnhart, and indorsed by Mr. Rector, referring to the subject. The order and letter of instructions to Captain Currey are both respectfully transmitted inclosed for the information of the commanding general of the district, which will explain my action in the matter. The absence of one subaltern of Captain Currey’s company on leave of absence, and the attendance of the other on a general court-martial at this post, prevents my sending a commissioned officer at present to the Umatilla Reservation to relieve Lieutenant Hillyer. The sergeant and ten men mentioned in the order will serve all the requirements at the reservation until the re-enforcement arrives.

Trusting that the commanding general will approve this disposition of the detachment referred to, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding Post.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

{p.160}

[Inclosure No. 1.]

UMATILLA INDIAN RESERVATION, August 4, 1862.

Col. J. STEINBERGER, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

COLONEL: I have respectfully to request that you will order a detachment of twenty-five or thirty mounted men to proceed to Grande Ronde Valley for the purpose of arresting certain refractory Indians who are creating a serious disturbance among the settlers in that valley. These Indians belong to the Umatilla Indian Reservation, but do not recognize their treaty obligations. They have refused to allow white men to settle in the valley, and have already driven away several men by threats of violence. Should those Indians be permitted to remain where they are at present congregated, difficulties of a serious character must occur between them and the white settlers. If two or three of the leaders of the party are captured at once and placed in confinement in the guard-house at Fort Walla Walla the whole affair may be checked and no further trouble in that quarter be apprehended. I have also respectfully to request that when the infantry detachment at the reservation is relieved a detachment of twenty mounted men may take their place, to remain permanently, for the preservation of peace and good order on the reservation. The great influx of travel to the mines directly through the reservation causes much dissatisfaction in the minds of the Indians and renders it absolutely necessary that a small force be kept constantly at the agency.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. BARNHART, U. S. Indian Agent, Umatilla Reservation.

Approved.

WM. H. RECTOR, Superintendent Indian Affairs.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

ORDERS, No. 170.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 16, 1862.

I. Lieut. J. T. Apperson, Company E, First Oregon Cavalry, with fifteen men of that company, will leave this post to-morrow morning, 17th instant, and proceed without delay to the Umatilla Reservation.

II. This detachment, with the ten men of the same company now at that point, will remain there until the arrival of Captain Currey with his command, for the protection of Government property and assistance in the enforcement of the authority of-the agent of the Indian Department.

III. Forty rounds of ammunition and seven days’ subsistence will be taken with the party.

IV. Instructions will be furnished Lieutenant Apperson from these headquarters.

By order of Colonel Steinberger:

WM. MYLES, First Lieut., First Washington Territory Infantry, Post Adjutant.

[Inclosure No. 3]

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 9, 1862.

Capt. GEORGE B. CURREY, First Oregon Cavalry, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: Representations have been made by the Indian agent at the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and confirmed by the superintendent of {p.161} Indian affairs for Oregon, now here, that a band of Indians belonging to the Cayuse tribe have by force of arms driven white settlers from their farms on the Grande Ronde Prairie, claiming ownership to the lands. The Indian Department shows evidence of treaty by the Government for this section of country, and indisputable right on the part of the United States to it. Orders, No. 161, from these headquarters directing the force under your command to proceed to Grande Ronde are issued at the request of gentlemen above named. I inclose you a copy of the communication* of Mr. Barnhart and Mr. Rector for your guidance. You will use all dispatch on the march to the point at which these Indians are supposed to be, and after carefully collecting-all the information possible, arrest such of the leaders as were engaged in the attack upon the white settlers and bring them at once to this post. Do not encumber yourself with more than four or five of the principal men, and then only after the most satisfactory proof of their actual engagement in the affair. Alexander McKay will be taken with you as guide and interpreter, and as he is highly recommended by Agent Barnhart, you will take his advice as to the route to pursue, and the persons to consult in Grande Ron de Valley capable of giving you information in your search for the disaffected Indians. The camp equipage directed to be turned over to you by Lieutenant Hillyer will be sufficient for the full detachment of twenty men intended to remain at the Umatilla Reservation until 1st of November. This will be left at the reserve in charge of the sergeant. After leaving the detachment of ten men at Umatilla Reservation, you will proceed with the remaining twenty men for the purpose above indicated, and on returning to this post detach nine others with one corporal as a re-enforcement on the reservation. The subsistence taken with you is to be used mainly on the reservation by the force to be employed there, and you will take with you beyond that point not more than is necessary for the twenty men that march with you to Grande Ronde. It is expected that not more than fourteen days will be required for the purpose indicated, and you will use all diligence in accomplishing the object desired, and return to this post on or before the 24th instant. Very much is of necessity left to your own discretion and judgment in carrying out these instructions, and it is enjoined upon you prudently and carefully to exercise the responsibility intrusted.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

* See inclosure No. 1, p. 160.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, August 17, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I received an express last night from Captain Currey with the report* I herewith inclosed, dated 15th instant. The chief (Tenounis) referred to is the Indian reported by Agent Barnhart and Superintendent Rector as the leader in the foray against the settlers of Grande Ronde Valley. Inclosed (No. 1) is also a copy of petition from the settlers in Grande Ronde Valley. The scout of Captain Currey anticipates the protection asked. The request for a {p.162} company at that point I think unwarranted. If Captain Currey’s operations have been prudent, and his recent action just and proper, it should have the effect to subdue hostilities and deter other infringement upon the rights of settlers. The presence, too, of the large force of cavalry eastward of this settlement and the knowledge of their return within a few months will no doubt have the effect to prevent the danger feared. I have no other intelligence than that furnished me by Captain Currey of his encounter with the Indians referred to in his letter. My instructions to him, both written and verbal, were to exercise the greatest caution and prudence in the performance of his duties, and I have no reason to believe the collision with these Indians was other than unavoidable. From information that I gather from intelligent friendly Indians here, there appears to be not more than twenty Indians disaffected in the Grande Ronde Valley, and no sympathy is had with them by the remainder of the Cayuse or other tribes. I received also last night an express from the acting agent of the Umatilla Agency, reporting that the affair of Captain Currey was known among the Indians under his charge, and that some uneasiness was felt. Under date of August 9 I advised you of the disposition of the force sent out under Captain Currey. Ten men with a sergeant were directed to be left at the reservation to relieve Lieutenant Hillyer and twenty men of the Fourth California Infantry. In order to give greater security to the public property on the reservation and insure the authority of the agent, I sent at daylight this morning Lieutenant Apperson, Company E, First Oregon Cavalry, with fifteen men of that company to re-enforce the small detachment left there. Inclosed is respectfully transmitted copy of the order directing the movement. I have much confidence in the discretion and prudence of Lieutenant Apperson in the duty assigned him, and doubt not that oh the return of Captain Currey will be enabled to report to you quiet and submission among the Indians.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Hdqrs. District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

* See Currey to Steinberger, August 15, p. 164.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

Petition.

COMMANDING OFFICER AT FORT WALLA WALLA:

We, the undersigned, citizens of Grande Ronde Valley, would respect fully petition you for the assistance of one company or more of soldiers to be stationed here. Whereas depredations have been committed here by the Indians, and that we are so scattered over the valley that we have not the means of defense, and that our lives and property are not safe, and if you will grant our petition you will confer a great favor on the petitioners.

C. E. FOX, D. CHAPLIN, G. ARNOLD, [AND 20 OTHERS.]

{p.163}

[Inclosure No. 2.]

ORDERS, No. 161.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 9, 1862.

I. Capt. George B. Currey, First Oregon Cavalry, with two sergeants, four corporals, and twenty-four privates, will leave this post on the morning of the 10th instant on detached service for the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Grande Ronde Prairie.

...

III. On arriving at the Umatilla Reservation Captain Currey will leave a reliable sergeant and ten men to relieve the force of the Fourth California Infantry under Lieutenant Hillyer.

...

V. Written instructions will be furnished Captain Currey from these headquarters.

...

By order of Colonel Steinberger:

WILLIAM MYLES, First Lieut., First Washington Territory Infty., Actg. Post Adjt.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, August 23, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith inclosed copy of report* of Capt. George B. Currey, First Oregon Cavalry, returned last night with a detachment of his company from an expedition to the Grande Ronde Valley. The instructions given this officer, as heretofore reported, were to find out the Indians engaged in the disturbances reported by the superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon and the agent of the Umatilla Reservation, and if possible arrest and bring to this post a few of the most active and influential of their number. As by the captain’s report, the effort to carry out the orders given was met by resistance, and resulted in the killing of four Indians, among whom was their leader, Tenounis, or the Dreamer, as he is called. This Indian, I have learned, has been for a long time disaffected. He has always denied and opposed the authority of the Government and their right to the lands now occupied by white settlers, ceded by treaty and acknowledged by the greater portion of his tribe as belonging to the United States. For some months he had separated himself from the Umatilla Reservation, and in opposition to the feelings and expressed inclinations of the Indians collected there had taken with him a small band, with the avowed object to occupy the Grande Ronde Valley to the exclusion of our settlers. The designs of this party culminated, as reported, in attacks endangering the lives and property of settlers in that valley. The other Indians killed were clearly in the interest of the Dreamer and under his influence. To have arrested a few of the headers engaged in these hostile movements it was supposed would have broken up the band. The more Summary punishment resulting from their resistance has I have no doubt, accomplished the same end, and the more effectually. All the reports from the Grande Ronde Valley and the Umatilla Reservation, from Indians as well as whites, concur in the representation that order and quiet have been restored. The promptness with which the aggressions of this small band of Indians has been visited by our troops, and {p.164} the immediate punishment served, has, I think, produced a salutary effect for their future good conduct. It convinces them of the determination and ability of the Government to protect its citizens from outrage and enforce inviolate our stipulated relations.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

* See Currey to Steinberger, August 23, p. 164.

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No. 3.

Reports of Capt. George B. Currey, First Oregon Cavalry.

GRANDE RONDE, August 15, 1862.

SIR: On the second day from Umatilla Agency I surprised Tenounis’ (the Dreamer) camp, about 1 o’clock at night. Held a long talk with him, endeavoring to induce him to go with me to Walla Walla, Wash. Ter. This he obstinately refused. I gave him until 8 a.m. to consider in. At the expiration of that time he told me that if the tyee at Walla Walla wished to see him he might come, but that he would not go. I then concluded to make him a prisoner. This he resisted, firing at me twice. I shot him with a revolver, as well as one of his principal men. While this was going on several shots were fired among my men from a crowd of some fifteen or twenty Indians whom I had supposed to be mere spectators. One fire from my men’s yagers sent them out of sight except two, who fell. The Indians claim that the two shot by the men were friendly Indians. This may create some dissatisfaction among those on the reserve. I shall remain here a day or two to recruit my horses and watch the shape things are taking.

Yours, respectfully,

GEO. B. CURREY, Captain, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers.

COMDG. OFFICER AT FORT WALLA WALLA, WASH. TER.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., August 23, 1862.

COLONEL: In obedience to Orders, No. 161, dated at this place, August 9, 1862, on the morning of the 10th instant I started for the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Grande Ronde Prairie, with a detachment of thirty enlisted men of Company E, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers. Arrived at the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon, on the 11th instant, and in compliance with paragraph III, Orders, No. 161, I detailed Sergeant Ammons and ten men to relieve Lieutenant Hillyer and his detachment of California volunteers on detached duty at that place. On the morning of the 12th, with the remainder of the detachment, I set out at sunrise for Grande Ronde Prairie, with your written instructions to carefully inquire into and arrest the leaders in the late attack upon the white settlers. Encamped for the night on Grande Ronde River. Distance from agency, forty miles. Left camp at sunrise on the morning of the 13th; traveled eight miles to settlements. Remained several hours, making inquiry among the settlers concerning the recent conduct of the Indians in that vicinity. From the settlers I {p.165} learned that a certain Indian, now known among the whites as the Dreamer, but formerly known as the Big Talk on Four Mountains, had staked off a region of country of many miles in extent situated in the northern portion of Grande Ronde Prairie, claiming the same as his, and denying that the treaty between the whites and Indians affected his rights to the same in the least. I further found that this same Indian and his band had, by threatening to kill all the whites who had or would settle within the lines he had set up, caused quite a number of settlers to abandon the claims-all I believe within the boundaries claimed by the Dreamer. The settlers narrated several instances wherein the Dreamer, Wainicut-hi-hi, and a tall young Indian rode up to settlers and gave them until the following day to leave in, or they would kill them. Becoming well satisfied that the Dreamer and two or three of his accomplices were the chief instruments of all the disturbance in that locality, and learning that his lodge was not more than six hours’ ride from me, I resolved to make a night march upon him. Moving from the settlement about eight miles I camped as for the night, but at moonrise I mounted my men and rode on, and after a dashing ride of four hours had the satisfaction of surrounding the Dreamer and his accomplice, Wainicut-hi-hi. As soon as the arrangements were completed to keep them safely in their lodge until morning I caused them to be aroused, and informed them of the object of my coming. I told them that night, as I repeated many times on the following morning, that I did not come to hurt them, but go with them to see the commander of this post; that the commander desired to have a talk with him concerning the difficulties he and the white men had got into. At daylight I awoke the Indians, desired them to send for their horses, as I was anxious to make an early start back to the fort. Upon this they sent out a boy, telling me the boy would bring in the horses. The boy returned after about a half or three-quarters of an hour without the horses. I again urged upon them to have their horses brought in without delay. Another young Indian was sent out, as they told me, for horses. He returned in about an hour, bringing with him four or five other Indians. By this time some fifteen or twenty Indian men had gathered from the neighboring lodges. I again urged the Indians to get ready to start, and if they would not send and get their horses they would have to walk. At this the Dreamer became excited in his manner, and told me if the commander designed to see him that he must come there; that that was his country, and the commander must come there and see him. This put a finale to further talk. I ordered the men to secure and tie the Dreamer and his accomplice, at the same time handing a rope to one of the men. At this both Indians sprang up and seized their arms, which they had hitherto concealed in their blankets. The Dreamer leveled his piece at me, but a ball from my revolver striking him in the breast shook his nerves so that he missed. Both Indians were killed in the tent. While this was going on the Indians who had gathered in, as I supposed, as mere spectators, fired upon my men, who were drawn up in line in front of the lodge. My men returned the fire upon the Indians. killing 2 Indians and 1 horse. The Indians then fled to the brush excepting one old Indian with whom I conversed, telling him the whites did not want to make war upon the Indians, and they must all go back to the reserve. From Mr. White, chief farmer on the Umatilla Indian Agency, I learned that the Dreamer and his band have persistently refused for several months to go upon the reserve, refusing all the while to acknowledge his treaty {p.166} obligations. From the Dreamer’s lodge by easy marches I returned, making inquiry and sent out one scout to learn the disposition of the Indians, and from all I could learn I believe things are all quiet in the Grande Ronde Valley. I arrived here last evening with twenty-five men and horses, and remain,

Yours, very respectfully,

GEO. B. CURREY, Captain, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding Detachment.

Colonel STEINBERGER Commanding Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter.

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AUGUST 19-OCTOBER 11, 1862.– Expedition against the Snake Indians in Idaho.

REPORTS.*

No. 1.–Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry.
No. 2.–Lieut. Col. Reuben F. Maury, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding expedition.

* See also report of Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, p. 156.

No. 1.

Report of Col. Justus Steinberger, First Washington Territory Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Walla Walla, August 23, 1862-2.30 p.m.

SIR: An express has within a few moments arrived from Colonel Maury’s command, and I dispatch a special express to Wallula hoping it will arrive there in time for the steam-boat thence for The Dalles. Inclosed is the only communication* to district headquarters contained in a very large mail brought in by the expressman. They are almost entirely private letters, and none for the commanding officer of this post. The expressman is intelligent and well informed, and I gather from him the following, which I trust will be found interesting to the commanding general: he left Colonel Maury’s command encamped on the Owyhee River about 300 miles from this post all in good condition and about to leave for Salmon Falls in pursuance of district orders and instructions. Very few Indians had been seen during the march and no communication had with them. Evidence was seen of their recent presence along the line of march, and there was no doubt that the Indians throughout the entire country were apprised of the presence of our troops. A very large number of emigrants are on their way to this valley, and many stop in the neighborhood of and divert to the Salmon River and Powder River gold mines. They appear to be in good condition and well appointed, with the single exception of a scarcity of provisions. Reports were current on the Owyhee as the expressman left of the murder of eight or nine emigrants supposed to be by Indians, and one instance is related of the killing of a white man and his being robbed of between $7,000 and $8,000 in Treasury notes and twenty-dollar gold pieces. A few Indians had been seen attempting to exchange the money. The emigrants express much relief in the presence of troops on the road, and the belief is current that trouble {p.167} has been averted by the movements of Colonel Maury’s expedition. I will retain the expressman until a reply has been received from district headquarters.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Commanding.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

* Not found.

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No. 2.

Reports of Lieut. Col. Reuben F. Maury, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding expedition.

HEADQUARTERS EMIGRANT ROAD EXPEDITION, Camp Bruneau, Snake River, September 22, 1862.

GENERAL: On the 19th day of August the command moved from Camp Owyhee, marching slowly, and meeting more or less emigrants almost every day. We arrived at this camp on the 28th, saw but few Indians, and those upon the opposite side of the river. Grass being very scarce and indifferent from Owyhee to this point, I determined to muster here on the 31st, this being an excellent camp with large amount of good grass. Our stock was much improved by the 1st instant, when we continued the march, arriving at the falls early on the 4th. On the 5th moved to Fall River, five miles above the falls. I established a depot at Camp Bruneau, leaving the bulk of our commissary stores and means of transportation, taking with me 125 men and twenty days’ provisions. Found a few Indians at the falls, apparently quite friendly but pretending entire ignorance of all depredations committed at any former period. The Indians seen at the falls are the only ones who have visited our camps. Our intercourse with them was friendly and without any misunderstanding. They expressed doubts as to whether it would be possible to effect a treaty with any considerable number of the tribe. They appear to understand well that soldiers will not kill them indiscriminately and only upon some show of guilt, and that so long as they know nothing or pretend ignorance of all offenders, the Government has no means of fixing guilt upon any. Captain Crawford, commanding the escort from Omaha City, arrived at our camp on Fall River on the 8th instant, all well, and gave it as his opinion that he had the last of the emigrants with him. I sent a detachment forty miles up the river. They returned reporting none on the road. I determined to leave the falls and return to this camp, where I shall remain, sending out detachments as circumstances require until the 27th or 28th, when I shall commence the march for Fort Walla Walla. While on the march to and from the falls and while there, in all eighteen days, the animals of the expedition suffered very much, grass being very scarce and of very indifferent quality. Nothing definite has been heard of the Van Orman children. Their uncle, Z. Van Orman, has gone through to Salt Lake City. In this connection I will mention that one Indian at the falls said that it was the Indians who live in the vicinity of Harney Lake who committed the massacre, and that the children were taken prisoners. Since then he had heard nothing of them, but had no doubt they had been killed. The emigration for Oregon and Washington is very large, amounting to 1,300 wagons with 3,000 people. They have {p.168} met with very little trouble from Indians, and that at or near Raft River, Fort Hall appearing to be the focus of their operations east and west. At the falls they say that a war council is being held in that vicinity at present, to determine upon peace or war with other tribes, the Blackfeet, &c. From the character, as charged by the emigrants, of the depredations committed this season I cannot resist the conclusion but that white persons were the instigators and allies of the Indians.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Lieutenant-Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding Emigrant Road Expedition.

General BENJAMIN ALVORD, Comdg. District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HEADQUARTERS EMIGRANT ROAD EXPEDITION, Camp on Malheur River, Oreg., October 11, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report our arrival on the return trip at this camp in excellent health. As when going up Snake River, the Indians have been very shy of our camp, keeping almost entirely on the opposite bank of the river, although whenever possible they have visited the emigrant camps with much sang froid and impudence. They have studiously avoided, with the exception of a very few at the falls, our camps to such an extent even that on the appearance of a few of our men in any camp they would immediately leave. It is a satisfaction to report also that with the exception of an occasional loss, first by straying of a few heads of stock, I have not learned of the loss, or any material damage to, of a single individual between Fort Walla Walla and Rock Creek, some seventy miles above Salmon Falls, although in a few instances parties of emigrants have been much exposed. This, I think, is mainly attributable to the presence of this expedition. We learn from emigrants that the fact of our coming was generally known before our arrival, and our long stay on the river served no doubt to keep up effectually the intimidation. Their disposition on exposed parts of the road has been aggressive and warlike. The lost party of emigrants, Hiram Smith, of Portland, and party of about sixty persons, are now with us, having been lost and detained some four or five weeks in the mountains of Humboldt River. They are worn out and almost entirely destitute of supplies. I shall supply them with such articles and give such assistance generally as we can spare until they reach the settlements, which I hope will meet your approbation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.

First Lieut. F. MEARS, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

ADDENDA.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., November 19, 1863.

Col. H. F. MAURY, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding expedition against the Snake Indians, Fort Dalles, Oreg.:

COLONEL: I write to express my sense of the valuable and important services rendered by you and your command during the past {p.169} season. It was a long march for some of the troops, more than 1,000 miles. It was free from all untoward events, and the privations of the journey were cheerfully endured with soldierly fortitude and alacrity. No one doubts that if the opportunity had offered the gallant troops under your command would have been distinguished in the face of the enemy. Let them not imagine that the people of this frontier the not appreciate the services your expedition rendered by displaying to the Indians in so many localities the power of the Government. The soldiers of an Oregon regiment have at all events had the satisfaction of seeing in the summer and fall of 1862 and 1863 systematic steps taken for the first time for the protection of the overland emigration. The people of Oregon as well as myself are no doubt ready to express their high appreciation of the honorable manner in which the First Oregon Cavalry have discharged the duties thus devolved upon them.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

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SEPTEMBER 8, 1862.– Skirmish on Redwood Creek, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry.
No. 2.–Lieut. Col. James N. Olney, Second California Infantry.
No. 3.–Lieut. William H. Noyes, Second California Infantry.
No. 4.–Capt. Charles D. Douglas, Second California Infantry.
No. 5.–Sergt. Edward Collins, Company F, Second California Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, September 17, 1862.

COLONEL: I have the honor to transmit herewith the official reports of Lieutenant-Colonel Olney and Lieutenant Noyes relative to the unfortunate affair of the 8th instant on Redwood Creek. On the 14th instant I delivered over all the Indian prisoners at this post, 834 in number, to Mr. Hanson, jr., son of the Indian superintendent, on the written order of his father, who remained at Crescent City. Among these were the noted chiefs of predatory bands, Las-Sic, Say-Winne, and Claw-Foot, with many of their followers. They left in the steamer Panama the same day for Crescent City, together with Captain O’Brien’s company (C), Second California Volunteer Infantry.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second California Vol. Infty., Comdg. Humboldt Mu. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant. General, Department of the Pacific.

{p.170}

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Col. James N. Olney, Second California Infantry.

HDQRS. NORTHERN DIVISION, HUMBOLDT MIL. DIST., Fort Gaston, September 13, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to inclose for the information of the colonel commanding copies of the official reports of scouts made by the detachments under command of Captain Theller* and Lieutenant Noyes, in pursuance of Special Orders, No. 3, issued from these headquarters on the 5th instant; also official report of a scout by a detachment under Sergeant Collins, of Company F, per order of Captain Douglas, who was in command of this post during my absence with Lieutenant Morton’s detachment. These several reports will, I trust, serve to convince the colonel commanding that the various parties zealously and perseveringly endeavored to accomplish the object of the movement, and that it was principally owing to the all but inaccessible nature of the region traversed that caused the plan to fail of success. From the information I had gathered in various ways, I was firm in the belief that The detachment I accompanied would encounter the band either at The source of Prosper Creek or at the heads of the Three Creeks, and in order to give no notice of our approach I moved in the most cautious manner, principally by night, avoiding all trails and overcoming obstacles in the way of frightfully steep ascents and descents, and all but impervious thickets and forests, presenting difficulties to progress of which no pen can give a just idea. Thoroughly examining the supposed localities of the ranches, we discovered but one which seemed to have recently been occupied. This was situated near the banks of a small branch and in the midst of the brush. After a most careful scouting we could discover no traces of which course the Indians took in leaving this ranch. The report of Lieutenant Morton gives all further particulars of the party I accompanied. Captain Theller was equally unsuccessful, and after vainly waiting a considerable time the arrival at the rendezvous of Lieutenant Noyes, our two detachments (our provisions and animals nearly exhausted) returned by different routes to this post, carefully searching, but without success, for Indian signs. At the post I received the most unwelcome intelligence of the disaster that had befallen the party under Lieutenant Noyes. His report and that of the party who afterward proceeded to the scene of the attack serves to give a correct idea of the perilous position of the detachment and the utter impossibility of forcing the Indians from their strong intrenchments, short of sacrificing the greater portion of the command in the attempt to scale the height on which the enemy was posted. I say uselessly, because if some few had succeeded in reaching the summit the nature of the ground upon the other side was such that the savages could have at once eluded pursuit in the dense brush of the ravine. There was no possible way of turning the position, and nothing was left but to retire to the timber a few hundred yards distant, which was done coolly, the men turning and firing whenever a glimpse of the Indians could be caught, Lieutenant Noyes being the last to enter the cover. These facts I gathered at different times from several men of the detachment, and after a thorough investigation of the whole matter I have the pleasure of reporting to the colonel commanding that, however mortifying the result, I am entirely convinced that no censure can be attached to the lieutenant {p.171} commanding, but that he behaved in a cool, judicious manner throughout the whole affair, and deserves credit for extricating his command from such a well-devised ambuscade. It was a little less than miraculous that the whole party was not exterminated. It is most unfortunate that the messenger dispatched to inform me of the state of affairs failed to discover my whereabouts in the wilderness, as possibly I should have been able to have come upon this band unexpectedly immediately after the fight, and when they hardly would have anticipated the approach of another party from a different quarter. If, as I had the honor of suggesting to the colonel commanding, Captain Flynn scouted at the head of Pilot Creek, there is a possibility that he may have fallen upon a portion of this band, which, according to the report of Sergeant Collins, probably took that direction. I shall have the honor in a few days of communicating personally with the colonel commanding, when I shall be able more fully and clearly to explain my ideas as to the future movements against this band of Indians, and give my reasons why I consider it judicious to delay for a time any expeditions against them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieutenant-Colonel Second California Volunteer Infantry, Comdg.

Lieut. JOHN HANNA, First Lieut. and Adjt. Second California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

* Not found.

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No. 3.

Report of Lieut. William H. Noyes, Second California Infantry.

HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Gaston, Cal., September 11, 1862.

SIR: In accordance with orders issued at this post on the 4th of September, 1862, I proceeded to Camp Anderson on the 5th instant with a detachment of seventeen men from Company F, Second California Volunteer Infantry, accompanied by a guide, taking two men from Camp Anderson, making my party to consist of 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 16 privates, 1 guide, 1 packer, and an Indian boy, or in total 22. I started at 3.30 p.m. for the head of Redwood Creek, taking the trail to Pardee’s, at which place I arrived at sundown, took lunch, and continued our march by moonlight. About four miles from Pardee’s discovered Indian sign, and encamped with the intention of making a more thorough investigation by daylight. On the morning of the 7th examined the trail and found the signs two or three days old, and three old camp-fires where the Indians had been roasting beef, killed a few days previous, the carcass of which was discovered by my party some unless back on the trail. Finding no Indians in the vicinity, resumed our march, and after marching fifteen or eighteen miles over an exceedingly rough and mountainous country, my command suffering much from the excessive heat, encamped on a small creek, called by some Rocky Creek, about five miles from where the old Weaver trail crosses the head of Redwood Creek. During the day’s march discovered several old ranches and some fresh Indian tracks, apparently of squaws and children going down the ridge. Started my detachment at daylight and commenced to ascend the exceedingly steep mountain spur over ground covered with a thick growth of fern and filled with holes, making it very difficult for the men and animals to ascend. After marching {p.172} up the hill for the space of an hour, and arriving to within 300 yards of the summit of the ridge, the men and animals being completely exhausted, and the pack train some 200 yards to our left, the Indians opened upon us with a heavy volley of musketry, killing the mule on which I was riding, the mule of the packer, and two of the pack-mules, and wounding Sergeant Connell in the foot. The Indians were intrenched behind a natural barricade of rocks situated on the very summit of and at different intervals along the entire ridge. Front the strength of the volleys and the rapidity of their firing I was satisfied that they trebled my command in numbers, and having the advantage of natural barricades was convinced that I could not dislodge them without the loss of the greater portion of my command. I accordingly ordered the men to gradually fall back into the timber some 500 yards distant, thinking the Indians would follow us, and by that means I might be enabled to save our provisions, the men’s blankets, haversacks, and blouses, all of which were packed on the mules. On arriving on the edge of the timber land I deployed my small force and waited to receive the enemy. I found, however, instead of pursuing us, they endeavored to outflank and surround my party with superior numbers. Finding it impossible to secure the two remaining pack-mules with our rations, and having one of the men so badly wounded that I should be compelled to leave him in case I advanced without provisions or clothing, I concluded to fall back on Camp Anderson, keeping strict watch on the Indians, and being constantly prepared to receive them in case they renewed the attack. I arrived at Camp Anderson at 12 midnight after a tedious march of thirty-five miles. On arriving at Camp Anderson I immediately dispatched a messenger with a statement of the affair to headquarters at Fort Gaston.

On the morning of the 9th instant my messenger returned with a detachment of twenty-one men from Companies F and I, Second California Volunteer Infantry, under Sergeant Collins, with orders to return and endeavor to find the Indians. Being confined to my bed and unable to walk from overexertion the previous day, I dispatched Sergeant Collins with thirty-seven men on the morning of the 10th, with orders to proceed to Pardee’s and send a messenger to Rocky Ridge Camp, some four or five miles distant, and the place appointed for rendezvous by special order of the 4th of September, with a dispatch to Lieutenant-Colonel Olney or Captain Theller, and to await return of messenger for orders, or in case of not meeting either of the above-named officers at the rendezvous, to proceed at once to the head of Redwood Creek and scout for the Indians until his five days’ rations were nearly exhausted, and then to proceed to Fort Gaston. In the affair above mentioned the men of my command behaved with great coolness, receiving the Indians’ fire, and returning it whenever any of them showed themselves over the breast-works. From observations made I have reason to believe that the Indians lost one of their number from the well-directed fire of one of my men. The accompanying rough sketch of the field of action will more fully explain the above account of the engagement.* Being confined to my bed by sickness has prevented my making an earlier report.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. NOYES, First Lieut., Second California Vol. Infty., Comdg. Detach. Co. F.

Lieut. Col. JAMES N. OLNEY, 2d Cal. Vol. Infty., Comdg. Northern Div., Humboldt Mil. Dist.

* See p 173.

{p.173} {p.174}

No. 4.

Report of Capt. Charles D. Douglas; Second California Infantry.

FORT GASTON, September 10, 1862.

SIR: About 8 a.m. 9th instant I received a dispatch front Lieutenant Noyes from Fort Anderson informing me that he, the lieutenant, with twenty men Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers, met the Indians in force near the head of Redwood Creek, and that he was defeated by them with the loss of his mules and rations, the men’s blankets, &c. The lieutenant says that there were about seventy-five or eighty Indians in the party. Sergeant Connell is wounded in the foot. The lieutenant was going to Grouse Creek to co-operate with Lieutenant-Colonel Olney, Captain Theller, and Lieutenant Morton. The lieutenant-colonel and the other parties under him left this post two days ago. I have sent a scout after Colonel Olney to inform him of what has taken place on Redwood. I have also sent from this post twenty men and a sergeant to re-enforce Lieutenant Noyes, on head of Redwood. As the lieutenant fell back on Fort Anderson to wait re-enforcement, I directed him to proceed to the point where he had the skirmish and defeat the Indians, as he will have forty men-I believe enough to defeat seventy-five or eighty Indians. I herewith transmit the lieutenant’s letter to me, for the better information of the colonel commanding. There are eighty-one enlisted men and four commissioned officers on a scout from this post, leaving only twenty-six enlisted men and one commissioned officer for duty.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

Lieut. WILLIAM F. SWASEY, Regimental Quartermaster, Second Infty. California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

P. S.-It can be seen now that the Indians killed on Little River by the citizens were not the band of armed Indians, nor were those killed on Light Prairie of the armed band. These were the same band that so much trouble was made about last spring with Lieutenant Flynn.

C. D. D.

[Inclosure.]

CAMP ANDERSON, September 8, 1862-12.30 p.m.

Captain DOUGLAS:

SIR: The Diggers have cleaned us out and taken our mules and packs and wounded Sergeant Connell. About 6 a.m., as we were going up the hill at the head of Redwood, some four miles from the Weaver trail, and were within 200 yards of the ridge, some seventy-five or eighty Diggers opened a fire upon us from behind a high hedge of rocks, wounding Sergeant Connell in the foot, shooting my mule from under me and two of the pack-mules, and Shepherd’s riding mule. The hill being covered with high fern probably saved the lives of half the party. I found I could not drive them from their stronghold, and I ordered the men to fall back into the timber, some 500 yards down the hill, hoping they would come out from their cover. Having gained the timber we took a position, and after remaining some time we discovered they were endeavoring to surround us; and having one man wounded and all our {p.175} provisions gone, the men having packed their haversacks and blankets, I concluded to return to Anderson, at which place I have just arrived, almost dead, having come all the way down Redwood Creek. The men are all used up. I send Oliver with this dispatch, thinking you might send a messenger to Rocky Ridge to advise Captain Theller’s and Lieutenant Morton’s parties. Sergeant Connell is not badly wounded, but the ball is in his foot and very painful. I write this private letter at present, but will make a full report as soon as I am able to do so.

Yours, in haste,

WM. H. NOYES, Lieutenant, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

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No. 5.

Report of Sergt. Edward Collins, Company F, Second California Infantry.

FORT GASTON, CAL., September 13, 1862.

SIR: The detachment under my command left this post on the morning of the 9th instant, with orders to proceed to Camp Anderson and report to Lieut. W. H. Noyes, Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers. On arriving at that place I made my report, and, Lieutenant Noyes being sick, he placed the detachment under my command, which consisted of thirty men of Company F and five men of Company I, Second Infantry California Volunteers, making a total of thirty-five men, with one guide and one Indian boy. About daylight on the morning of the 10th instant left Camp Anderson with instructions from Lieutenant Noyes to take five days’ provisions and scout along Redwood Creek and the headwaters of Grouse Creek. During this day we scouted as far as Pardee’s ranch (saw no Indian signs), and, as ordered, sent a messenger to Rocky Ridge Camp to report to Lieutenant-Colonel Olney, and if he was not there to report to Captain Theller. The messenger returned that same evening and reported not having seen either of the above-named officers. My party then started to the place where the skirmish had taken place between the detachment under Lieutenant Noyes and the Indians, where we arrived about noon of the 11th instant. Here we found the relative position of the Indians was vastly superior to that of the detachment, having the advantage of natural barricades and a plunging fire on the animals and men. They had also a fortification built out of loose rock, and so situated as to have any party advancing toward them exposed to three fires, which if well directed would sweep off a considerable number of men. I found also that they had closely watched the party under Lieutenant Noyes, judging from numerous decoy fires at different parts of the hill, and they, the Indians, not knowing at what point they would be attacked, had arranged themselves in different positions to receive them. It is my opinion and of others who were at the spot that 100 men placed in the same position as the Indians could keep 500 men at bay. On the evening of the 11th instant we encamped about half a mile from the place of attack, and myself with a party of nine men scouted around to see if we could find what direction the Indians had taken. As we approached the headwaters of Grouse Creek, we found that the Indians had scattered, part of them going toward Pilot Creek and another portion taking down Grouse Creek. Our rations having {p.176} nearly been used up, we started for Fort Gaston on the same night, and reached the headwaters of Willow Creek about daylight of the morning of the 12th. We found several rancherias that had been recently used by the Indians for roasting or drying beef, so we marched on the greater part of that day and encamped at Rocky Ridge. Found no Indian signs, and on the morning of the 13th pursued our way and arrived at Fort Gaston about 3 p.m.

The above is very respectfully submitted by your obedient servant,

EDWARD COLLINS, Third Sergt. Co. F, 2d Infty. California Vols., Comdg. Detach.

Capt. C. D. DOUGLAS, Comdg. Company F, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

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SEPTEMBER 21, 1862.– Affair at the San Pedro Crossing, Ariz. Ter.

Report of Maj. David Fergusson, First California Cavalry, commanding District of Western Arizona.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF WESTERN ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz. Ter., September 23, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that Apache Indians stampeded and ran off three public horses of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, belonging to Lieutenant Guirado’s detachment, at San Pedro Crossing. It happened as follows, according to Lieutenant Guirado’s report: Mr. Rogers, who was putting fifty tons of hay in for Captain Davis at San Pedro Crossing, had about twelve mules and horses at that place. Last Sunday, the 21st instant, Mr. Rogers’ herd was grazing within 300 yards of the station in charge of one man, a Mexican. Lieutenant Guirado’s horses were within fifty yards of the station, all picketed except three public and one private one; the three former were hobbled and under the eye of all his men. The Apaches to the number of six mounted and six on foot stampeded Mr. Rogers’ herd, drove them into Lieutenant Guirado’s, and ran off his own horse and the three hobbled cavalry horses. He immediately mounted, and followed the Indians for twenty-five miles toward the Santa Rita Mountains without being able to get nearer than a mile of the Indians when his horses gave out, and he returned with the only three mounted men left him. The carelessness, to a culpable extent, with which Mr. Rogers herded his animals when he had seventeen persons in his employ idle that day, is the cause of the loss of Lieutenant Guirado’s horses. I cannot find that Lieutenant Guirado is much to blame, for he appears to have taken very good care at all times to have his animals guarded. I detailed one non-commissioned officer and six well-mounted men of Company E, First Cavalry California Volunteers, to report to Lieutenant Guirado, and they form part of his command at San Pedro Crossing now.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

D. FERGUSSON, Major, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut. B. C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Column from California.

{p.177}

SEPTEMBER 21, 1862.– Affair on the Yreka Road, near Fort Crook, Cal.

Report of Capt. Henry B. Mellen, Second California Cavalry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Crook, October 26, 1862.

COLONEL: On the evening of the 21st instant information was brought me that a train had been attacked by Indians on the Yreka road about thirty miles from the post. I immediately sent out Lieutenant Williams with twelve men to render any assistance required. He returned on the 26th instant, after seeing them over the mountains, and reported that the emigrants had succeeded in driving off the Indians, killing one, and losing nothing but their provisions, which was stolen while they were hunting cattle. On the night of the 23d instant I left the post with sixteen men to try and punish the Hot Creek Indians, who had been driving off cattle. I arrived at their camp about daylight and found that the majority were absent. Two bucks were shot. The tribe has been uneasy of late, and seemed disposed to commence operations. I shall watch them closely, and if possible try to punish them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY B. MELLEN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco.

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SEPTEMBER 30-OCTOBER 29, 1862.– Expedition from Fort Ruby, Nev. Ter., to Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., with affairs (October 11 and 15) on the Humboldt River, Nev. Ter.

Report of Maj. Edward McGarry, Second California Cavalry.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, November 18, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a letter from Col. P. E. Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the District of Utah, dated November 6, 1862, also a copy of the report of Maj. E. McGarry, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, detailing the result of his expedition to capture guerrillas and punish Indians engaged in the hate massacres on the Humboldt River. The swift retributive punishment which has been meted out to those Indians will doubtless have the effect of preventing a repetition of their barbarities. It is the only way to deal with those savages.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah, November 6, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of the report of Major McGarry, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, detailing the {p.178} result of his expedition to capture guerrillas and punish Indians engaged in the late massacres on the Humboldt River, for the information of the general commanding the department. I am satisfied from verbal information received from officers of the expedition that the Indians who have been punished were a part of those who had committed the late murders, and that the punishment was well merited.

I hope and believe that the lesson taught them will have a salutary effect in checking future massacres on that route.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDWARD CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

HDQRS. SECOND CAVALRY CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS, Camp Douglas, Utah, October 31, 1862.

COLONEL: Agreeably to your orders, dated Fort Ruby, Key. Ter., September 29, to proceed thence on the next day (the 30th) with Company H, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, on the northern Overland Route, via the “City of Rocks,” in quest of guerrillas or hostile Indians supposed to have congregated there, I have the honor to report that, having left Fort Ruby on the day specified, I overtook, on the second day’s march, Capt. S. P. Smith, of the Second Cavalry, who preceded me with his company the day before, and who was encamped in Pine Valley. Here I remained awaiting the return of the Indians who accompanied Captain Smith, and who had been sent out by him to bring in hostile Indians. Having been informed that fires were seen near our camp, I dispatched Captain Smith with a portion of his company, at night, to learn of them. He returned next morning mind reported, “No trace of Indians.” On the morning of the 4th we took up the line of march, on the route designated, and arrived at Gravelly Ford on the 5th without having discovered any Indians. Here on the 7th I sent Captain Smith and Lieut. Darwin Chase with a party of men down the river, and Lieut. George D. Conrad up the south side of the Humboldt, with instructions to scour the country for hostile Indians or guerrillas, and to report to me, at a place designated, on the north side of the Humboldt, where I encamped on the 9th with the balance of the command. This evening (the 9th) some of the command enticed into the camp three Indians; two of them were armed with rifles and the other with bow and arrows. I immediately ordered their arms taken from them, and placed them under a guard, intending to retain them until the arrival of my interpreter, who was with the detachment under Lieutenant Conrad. A short time after their arrest the Indians made an attempt to obtain their arms, and, having succeeded, they resisted the guard and broke and ran a short distance; they were fired upon by the guard and crippled. Fearing that they would escape, and mot wishing to hazard the lives of my men in recapturing them alive, I ordered the guard to fire and they were killed on the spot. Here on the 10th Captain Smith joined the command, and reported that he had received no information nor had he seen any signs of guerrillas or hostile Indians.

On the 11th I proceeded on the march, having sent out the officers of the command with instructions that if Indians were found to bringing them into camp. Captain Smith, having been sent in advance, had not proceeded more than ten or twelve miles when he came upon a party of about fourteen or fifteen Indians, who were armed with rifles and bows and arrows. He surrounded them and took from them their arms. Immediately {p.179} after, the Indians attempted to escape by jumping in the river. They were fired upon and nine of them killed. On the same day Lieutenant Conrad and party brought into camp three Indians and an Indian child. Captain Smith returned in the evening with two squaws. Next day (the 12th) Captain McLean returned, bringing in one Indian and a squaw. Same day Lieutenant Clark returned with one Indian; another Indian was captured during the evening. The next day (the 13th) I told two of the Indians, through the interpreter, that if they would go and bring in Indians who were engaged in the massacre of emigrants I would release them, but that if they did not return that night I would kill all the Indians I held as prisoners in camp. The next morning (the 14th), hearing nothing from the Indians I had sent out the day previous, I put to death four of those remaining, and released the squaws and child, telling them that we were sent there to punish Indians who were engaged in the massacre of emigrants, and instructed them to tell all the Indians that if they did not desist from killing emigrants that I would return there next summer and destroy them. On the next day (the 15th) I sent Lieutenants Chase and Conrad with a detachment on the south side of the Humboldt with instructions as before. They came upon a party of Indians encamped in the mountains, armed with rifles and bows and arrows. They were surrounded and their arms taken from them. The Indians, attempting to escape, were fired upon, where eight of their number were killed. The balance of the route no traces of Indians were seen. On the 28th I arrived at the place designated by you; the next day, at about 3 o’clock p.m., arrived at this camp. The route is a good one, with ant abundance of grass and water. In conclusion, it affords me great pleasure to report the efficiency of the officers and the good conduct of the men of the command, without the loss of any.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWARD MCGARRY, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

Col. P. EDWARD CONNOR, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding District of Utah, Camp Douglas, Utah.

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OCTOBER 21, 1862.– Skirmish near Simmons’ Ranch, near Hydesville, Cal.

Report of Capt. Henry Flynn, Second California Infantry.

HYDESVILLE, October 21, 1862.

SIR: I started from this place this morning, 7.30 o’clock, en route for Fort Baker. The express having started an hour before, I had no escort. About two miles from Simmons’ ranch I was attacked by a party of Indians. As soon as they fired they tried to surround me. I returned their fire and retreated down the hill. A portion of them cut me oil and fired again, I returned their fire and killed one of them. They did not follow any farther. I will start this evening for my post, as I think it will be safer to pass this portion of the country in the night. Those Indians were lurking about for the purpose of robbing Cooper’s Mills. They could have no other object, and I think it would be well to have eight or ten men stationed at that place, as it will serve as an {p.180} outpost for the settlement, as well as a guard for the mills. The expressmen disobeyed my orders by starting without me this morning.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant.

H. FLYNN, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers. First Lieut.

JOHN HANNA, Jr., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Humboldt Military District.

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NOVEMBER 3-29, 1862.– Scouts from Fort Crook, Cal., and Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter., to Honey Lake Valley, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Capt. Henry B. Mellen, Second California Cavalry.
No. 2.–Capt. Thomas E. Ketcham, Third California Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Capt. Henry B. Mellen, Second California Cavalry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Crook, November 30, 1862.

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report:

On the 2d instant an express from Honey Lake brought mews of an outbreak of Indians on the Humboldt road near Lathrop City. I left the post on the 3d with twelve men, taking from Hot Creek Station eight more. Arrived at Susanville on the 7th. Was joined on the 11th by Capt. William Weatherton with twenty-six citizens of the valley. Examined the country from Smoke Creek to the northeast to the headwaters of Pitt River, striking the road again on the Forty-Mile Desert, finding but seven Indians, who were killed. Arrived at the post on the 29th instant. Private Jacob Haber wounded by an accidental pistol shot. A party of about twenty citizens armed and mounted went to the locality to bring in the bodies of the two men murdered, and had they followed the trail while it was fresh, or at least tried to ascertain the direction the Indians had gone (neither of which was done), the scout might have had a more satisfactory result. But an express was sent one hundred miles for assistance against a party not larger than their own numbers.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY B. MELLEN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco.

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No. 2.

Report of Capt. Thomas B. Ketcham, Third California Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Churchill, Nev. Ter., December 1, 1862.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith copy of the report of Capt. T. E. Ketcham, Third Infantry California Volunteers, commanding detachment sent from this post on the 22d November, to chastise {p.181} the Indians who committed the late depredations between Honey Lake and the Humboldt, Nev. Ter. In obedience to your instructions one wagon load of supplies left this post this day for the command to be stationed in the vicinity of Susanville, Honey Lake. The balance of supplies necessary to subsist said command during the winter will be forwarded.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. MCDERMIT, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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FORT CHURCHILL, NEV. TER., November 28, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in pursuance of Orders, No. 88, November 21, 1862, twenty-five enlisted men of the Second Cavalry California Volunteers, placed under my command, left this post on the 22d instant for Honey Lake Valley on a scout against hostile Indians in that section. Upon the arrival of command at the Truckee Crossing, I received positive information that twenty-five soldiers from Fort Crook were already at Honey Lake and had attacked the Indians. I therefore returned to this post in obedience to my instructions.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. E. KETCHAM, Captain, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Detach.

Second Lieut. WILLIAM L. USTICK, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Post Adjutant.

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NOVEMBER 20-27, 1862.– Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Cache Valley, Utah Ter., with skirmish (23d) in the Cache Valley.

Report of Maj. Edward McGarry, Second California Cavalry.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, December 15, 1862.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose herewith a communication addressed to my headquarters by Col. P. E. Connor, commanding the District of Utah, dated at Camp Douglas, December 2, 1862, with a copy of his instructions to Maj. E. McGarry, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, and a report from the latter officer of the execution of his orders. In Colonel Connor’s communication, it will be observed that line is taking every precaution to guard effectively the Overland Mail Route, and also the telegraph stations; and to his energy and sound judgment may safely be confided that important duty.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah, December 2, 1862.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inclose a letter of instruction to Major McGarry and his report of the expedition upon which he was sent. The uncle of the boy, who is now at this post, is a resident of Oregon, {p.182} and, as he informs me, has been in search of the boy for two years. Three sisters of his, who were captured at the same time, are dead. He also informs me that three expeditions had previously been sent out from Oregon for the recovery of the children, one of which was under command of Captain Dent, of the Ninth Infantry. The Indians are threatening the Overland Mail Route east and west of here. I have no fears of the western end, as the lessons I have been teaching them and the messages I send them make them fear me. About a week since I sent ten men to protect the telegraph station at Big Sandy, which was threatened by Indians. On Saturday last they stole 100 horses from Fort Bridger Reserve, belonging to some mountaineers, who are wintering there, and fears are entertained that they will attack some of the stations of the Overland Mail. I have therefore ordered Company I, Captain Lewis, of my regiment, to garrison Fort Bridger this winter. I shall order detachments of his company to the different stations in this district east of here, if I find it will be necessary. Pacific Springs Station, lately attacked by Indians, is just east of the line dividing this district and the Department of the West, and has been garrisoned by troops from that department. The telegraph station at Big Sandy is in the District of Oregon. I shall leave the ten men now there at that point until I am satisfied there is no further danger from Indians, unless otherwise ordered.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDWARD CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

HDQRS. SECOND CAVALRY CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS, Camp Douglas, Utah, November 28, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report that, agreeable to instructions of the colonel commanding the district, I left this camp on the night of the 20th instant and proceeded to Cache Valley, where I arrived about 11 p.m. on the 22d, a distance of 100 unless, where I was met by Mr. Van Orman, the uncle of the emigrant boy you ordered me to rescue from the Indians; he informed me that Chief Bear Hunter was encamped with thirty or forty of his tribe Shoshones, Snakes, and Bannocks, about two miles distant. I left the horses in the settlement called Providence in charge of a guard, and started about 1 o’clock for the Indian camp; the might was dark and cold, and we did not find the camp until the morning of the 23d. I then divided my command into three parties under Captain Smith, Lieutenant Conrad, and myself, with instructions to surround the camp and close in upon them at daybreak. I found in a tent two squaws; the Indians had all left that night, as I perceived that the fires in their huts were not extinguished. I then returned to where I had left the horses, at which place I arrived about 7 a.m. Captain Smith brought in one Indian, caught in trying to escape; I made a prisoner of him. About 8 o’clock a party of mounted Indians, I should think thirty or forty, armed with rifles, bows and arrows, made their appearance from a cañon on a bench between the settlement and hills, about a mile from the settlement, and made a warlike display, such as shouting, riding in a circle, and all sorts of antics known only to their race. I immediately ordered my men to mount, divided them as before, sent Captain Smith to the right, Lieutenant Conrad to the left, and I took the center, driving the Indians into the cañon; when I arrived at the mouth of the cañon I halted for the purpose of reconnoitering; just at that tune the Indians opened fire upon Lieutenant Conrad; I then ordered my men to commence {p.183} firing and to kill every Indian they could see; by this time the Indians had possession of the cañon and hills on both sides. I found it would be impossible to enter the cañon without exposing my men greatly. I therefore re-enforced Lieutenant Conrad on the left of the cañon, with orders to take the hill on the left of the cañon at all hazards. About the time the re-enforcements reported to him Chief Bear Hunter made his appearance on a hilltop on the right, with a flag of truce (as I was informed afterward); I at the time took it to be a warlike demonstration: a citizen who heard his halloing came up to me and told me that the chief said they did not want to fight any more. I then ordered my men to cease firing, and told him to say to the chief if they would surrender and come in I would not kill them, which terms they acceded to. Chief Bear Hunter, with twenty or more of his warriors, then came in. I took them into the settlement, took Bear Hunter and four others that I thought to be prominent Indians and examined them (through an interpreter) as to the whereabouts of the white boy, and ascertained that he had been sent away some days before. I told Bear Hunter to send some of his tribe and bring the boy to me; that I should hold the five as hostages until they delivered him to me. He dispatched three of his men, and they returned the next day about noon with the boy. I then released Bear Hunter and the four others. I killed 3 and wounded 1 Indian in the fight. I was told by Bear Hunter that an Indian known as Woeber Tom, alias Utah Tom, communicated the information of our approach. In relation to the emigrant stock I was ordered to examine into and bring into camp, I could not find any such, and from the information I could gather I am of the opinion all or nearly all of the stock taken by the Indians last summer is now in the Humboldt country. I left Cache Valley on the morning of the 25th, and arrived at this camp on the afternoon of the 27th, without the loss or scratch of man or horse. It affords me great pleasure to report to the colonel commanding the good conduct of the command, and during the fight, which lasted about two hours, the officers and men behaved handsomely.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWARD MCGARRY, Major, Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

Second Lieut. THOMAS S. HARRIS, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Utah.

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NOVEMBER 22-27, 1862.– Expedition from Fort Ruby, Nev. Ter., to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Report of Maj. Patrick A. Gallagher, Third California Infantry.

FORT RUBY, NEV. TER., December 2, 1862.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report that on the afternoon of the 21st ultimo one of the herders belonging to this post, who was some thirty-five miles down the valley, came in and reported that 10 horses, 1 mule, and 1 head of beef had been stolen by the Indians the night before. I immediately telegraphed the fact to you. On the morning of the 22d I started with a party, consisting of Captain Potts and forty-two men of Company F, Third Infantry California Volunteers, {p.184} with six days’ rations, for the purpose of recovering the stock and punishing the guilty parties. We left this post at 10 on the morning of the 22d, and after marching thirty miles encamped at 9 p.m. On the morning of the 23d we started at sunrise, and after marching thirty miles over a rough, swampy road, where we had to make bridges, &c., for our wagon, we encamped for the night about sundown. On the morning of the 24th, finding it impossible to proceed farther with the wagon, Captain Potts and myself, with three men (mounted), went ahead, leaving the command under Sergeant Buxton to follow on as fast as possible, leaving eight men as a guard to the wagon. I made a reconnaissance of the whole valley north to the mountains, and finding no pass through the mountains, nor signs of either stock or Indians, returned and met the command about twenty-five miles from our morning camp. The men suffering very much from fatigue and cold, and our rations being nearly exhausted, I deemed it advisable to return to the fort, where we arrived on the afternoon of the 27th. From my personal observations I am satisfied that there are no Indians in this valley north of this fort, and those that stole the stock came from Thousand Spring Valley, or that vicinity, probably belonging to the Bannock tribe. In conclusion, I would say that the men who were with me have done nobly, having marched a distance of 170 miles in less than five days (myself and Captain Potts and the three men with us some thirty miles farther), with weather intensely cold, and they thinly clad, without a murmur. I must say I am proud of them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant.

P. A. GALLAGHER, Major Third Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

Lieut. THOMAS S. HARRIS, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Utah.

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JANUARY 29, 1863.– Engagement on the Bear River, Utah Ter.

Report of Col. P. Edward Connor, Third California infantry, commanding District of Utah.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, February 20, 1863.

Adjt. Gen. L. THOMAS, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith the report of Col. P. E. Connor, Third Infantry California Volunteers, of the battle fought on the 29th of January, on Bear River, Utah Ter., between U. S. troops and hostile Indians. Our victory was complete; 224 of the enemy left dead on the field. Colonel Connor’s loss was heavy. Out of 200 men engaged 14 were killed on the field and 4 officers and 49 men wounded; 1 officer and 5 of the men wounded have, since died. Colonel Connor’s report of the suffering of his troops on the march and the gallant and heroic conduct of both officers and men in that terrible combat will commend the Column from California and its brave commander to the favorable notice of the General-in-Chief and War Department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.185}

[First indorsement.]

MARCH 29, 1863.

Respectfully referred to the Secretary of War, with the recommendation that Colonel Connor be made a brigadier-general for the heroic conduct of himself and men in the battle of Bear River.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

[Second indorsement.]

Approved and appointment ordered.

EDWIN M. STANTON.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., February 6, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that from information received from various sources of the encampment of a large body of Indians on Bear River, in Utah Territory, 140 miles north of this point, who had murdered several miners during the winter, passing to and from the settlements in this valley to the Beaver Head mines, east of the Rocky Mountains, and being satisfied that they were a part of the same band who had been murdering emigrants on the Overland Mail Route for the last fifteen years, and the principal actors and leaders in the horrid massacres of the past summer, I determined, although the season was unfavorable to an expedition in consequence of the cold weather and deep snow, to chastise them if possible. Feeling assured that secrecy was the surest way to success, I determined to deceive the Indians by sending a small force in advance, judging, and rightly, they would not fear a small number. On the 22d ultimo I ordered Company K, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Captain Hoyt, two howitzers, under command of Lieutenant Honeyman, and twelve men of the Second Cavalry California Volunteers, with a train of fifteen wagons, carrying twenty days’ supplies, to proceed in that direction. On the 24th ultimo I proceeded with detachments from Companies A, H, K, and M, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, numbering 220 men, accompanied by Major McGarry, Second Cavalry California Volunteers; Surgeon Reid, Third Infantry California Volunteers; Captains McLean and Price and Lieutenants Chase, Clark, Quinn, and Conrad, Second Cavalry California Volunteers; Major Gallagher, Third Infantry California Volunteers, and Captain Berry, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, who were present at this post attending general court-martial, as volunteers. I marched the first night to Brigham City, sixty-eight miles distant. The second night’s march from Camp Douglas I overtook the infantry and artillery at the town of Mendon and ordered them to march again that night. I resumed my march with the cavalry and overtook the infantry at Franklin, Utah Ter., about twelve miles from the Indian encampment. I ordered Captain Hoyt, with the infantry, howitzers, and train, to move at 1 o’clock the next morning, intending to start with the cavalry about two hours thereafter, in order to reach the Indian encampment at the same time and surround it before daylight, but in consequence of the difficulty in procuring a guide to the ford of the river, Captain Hoyt did not move until after 3 a.m. I moved the cavalry in about one hour afterward, passing the infantry, artillery, and wagons about four miles from the Indian encampment. As daylight was approaching I was apprehensive that the Indians would discover the strength of my force and make their escape. I therefore made a rapid march with the cavalry and reached the bank of the river shortly after daylight in full view of {p.186} the Indian encampment, and about one mile distant. I immediately ordered Major McGarry to advance with the cavalry and surround before attacking them, while I remained a few minutes in the rear to give orders to the infantry and artillery. On my arrival on the field I found that Major McGarry had dismounted the cavalry and was engaged with the Indians, who had sallied out of their hiding places on foot and horseback, and with fiendish malignity waved the scalps of white women and challenged the troops to battle, at the same time attacking them. Finding it impossible to surround them, in consequence of the nature of the ground, he accepted their challenge. The position of the Indians was one of strong natural defenses, and almost inaccessible to the troops, being in a deep, dry ravine from six to twelve feet deep and from thirty to forty feet wide, with very abrupt banks and running across level table-land, along which they had constructed steps from which they could deliver their fire without being themselves exposed. Under the embankments they had constructed artificial covers of willows thickly woven together, from behind which they could fire without being observed. After being engaged about twenty minutes I found it was impossible to dislodge them without great sacrifice of life. I accordingly ordered Major McGarry with twenty men to turn their left flank, which was in the ravine where it entered the mountains. Shortly afterward Captain Hoyt reached the ford three-quarters of a mile distant, but found it impossible to cross footmen. Some of them tried it, however, rushing into the river, but, finding it deep and rapid, retired. I immediately ordered a detachment of cavalry with led horses to cross the infantry, which was done accordingly, and upon their arrival upon the field I ordered them to the support of Major McGarry’s flanking party, who shortly afterward succeeded in turning the enemy’s flank. Up to this time, in consequence of being exposed on a level and open plain while the Indians were under cover, they had every advantage of us, fighting with the ferocity of demons. My men fell fast and thick around me, but after flanking them we had the advantage and made good use of it. I ordered the flanking party to advance down the ravine on either side, which gave us the advantage of an enfilading fire and caused some of the Indians to give way and run toward the north of the ravine. At this point I had a company stationed, who shot them as they ran out. I also ordered a detachment of cavalry across the ravine to cut off the retreat of any fugitives who might escape the company at the mouth of the ravine. But few tried to escape, however, but continued fighting with unyielding obstinacy, frequently engaging hand to hand with the troops until killed in their hiding places. The most of those who did escape from the ravine were afterward shot in attempting to swim the river, or killed while desperately fighting under cover of the dense willow thicket which lined the river-banks. To give you an idea of the desperate character of the fight, you are respectfully referred to the list of killed and wounded transmitted herewith. The fight commenced about 6 o’clock in the morning and continued until 10. At the commencement of the battle the hands of some of the men were so benumbed with cold that it was with difficulty they could load their pieces. Their suffering during the march was awful beyond description, but they steadily continued on without regard to hunger, cold, or thirst, not a murmur escaping them to indicate their sensibilities to pain or fatigue. Their uncomplaining endurance during their four nights’ march from Camp Douglas to the battle-field is worthy of the highest praise. The weather was intensely cold, and not less than seventy-five had their feet frozen, and some of them I fear will be crippled for life. I should mention here that in my march from this post no assistance {p.187} was rendered by the Mormons, who seemed indisposed to divulge any information regarding the Indians and charged enormous prices for every article furnished my command. I have also to report to the general commanding that previous to my departure Chief Justice Kinney, of Great Salt Lake City, made a requisition for troops for the purpose of arresting the Indian chiefs Bear Hunter, San Pitch, and Sagwich. I informed the marshal that my arrangements for our expedition against the Indians were made, and that it was not my intention to take any prisoners, but that he could accompany me. Marshal Gibbs accordingly accompanied me and rendered efficient aid in caring for the wounded. I take great pleasure in awarding to Major McGarry, Second Cavalry California Volunteers; Major Gallagher and Surg. R. K. Reid, Third Infantry California Volunteers, the highest praise for their skill, gallantry, and bravery throughout the engagement, and to the company officers the highest praise is due without invidious distinction for their bravery, courage, and determination evidenced throughout the engagement. Their obedience to orders, attention, kindness, and care for the wounded is no less worthy of notice. Of the good conduct and bravery of both officers and men California has reason to be proud. We found 224 bodies on the field, among which were those of the chiefs Bear Hunter, Sagwich, and Leight. How many more were killed than stated I am unable to say, as the condition of the wounded rendered their immediate removal a necessity. I was unable to examine the field. I captured 175 horses, some arms, destroyed over seventy lodges, a large quantity of wheat and other provisions, which had been furnished them by the Mormons; left a small quantity of wheat for the sustenance of 160 captive squaws and children, whom I left on the field. The chiefs Pocatello and San Pitch, with their bands of murderers, are still at large. I hope to be able to kill or capture then before spring. If I succeed, the Overland Route west of the Rocky Mountains will be rid of the bedouins who have harassed and murdered emigrants on that route for a series of years. In consequence of the number of men left on the route with frozen feet and those with the train and howitzers and guarding the cavalry horses, I did not have to exceed 200 men engaged. The enemy had about 300 warriors, mostly well armed with rifles and having plenty of ammunition, which rumor says they received front inhabitants of this Territory in exchange for the property of massacred emigrants. The position of the Indians was one of great natural strength, and had I not succeeded in flanking them the mortality in my command would have been terrible. In consequence of the deep snow, the howitzers did not reach the field in time to be used in the action.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

ADDENDA.

WASHINGTON, D. C., March 29, 1863.

Brig. Gen. P. E. CONNOR, Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, Utah:

I congratulate you and your command on their heroic conduct and brilliant victory on Bear River. You are this day appointed a brigadier-general.

H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.

{p.188}

MARCH 10-JULY 10, 1863.– Operations in the Humboldt Military District.

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Mar.21, 1863.–Skirmish on the Eel River, Cal.
24, 1863.–Skirmish on the Eel River, Cal.
Apr.30, 1863.–Attack near Oak Camp, Cal.
May9, 1863.–Skirmish at Shelter Cove, Cal.
June6, 1863.–Skirmish at Oak Camp, Cal.
July9, 1863.–Attack on Redwood Creek, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California Infantry, commanding Humboldt Military District.
No. 2.–Lieut. Col. James N. Olney, Second California Infantry.
No. 3.–Capt. Henry Flynn, Second California Infantry.
No. 4.–Capt. William E. Hull, Second California Infantry.
No. 5.–Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

No. 1.

Reports of Col. Francis J. Lippitt, Second California infantry, commanding Humboldt Military District.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, April 11, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report the return to Fort Baker of a detachment of thirty-two men of Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, from a twenty-two days’ scout under Captain Flynn and Lieutenant Winchill. They had four engagements with Indians all successful. Two of them were fought by Lieutenant Winchill with a detachment of fifteen men. The number of dead Indians found was forty-six, the number killed was no doubt considerably more. Thirty-seven squaws and children were brought in as prisoners, of whom only twenty-two have arrived at this post, the remainder having succeeded in escaping on the way. The total number of Indian prisoners now confined here is eighty-four. The only posts that need be kept up in this district are Fort Humboldt and Fort Gaston. These could be garrisoned sufficiently by one or two companies of the Mountaineer Battalion, leaving four or five companies for scouting in the field. If the department commander should judge proper to continue any other posts I would respectfully suggest that these could be garrisoned also by the Mountaineer Battalion. Scouting in this district is exhausting to such a degree that the troops engaged in it must spend a portion of their time in garrison for repose and to recruit their strength, and the mingling of the Humboldt volunteers with the men of my regiment at the same post would be demoralizing and dangerous to the discipline that they have been eighteen months in acquiring. In consideration of this I hope the department commander will withdraw all the companies of the Second Infantry California Volunteers from this district, where they are doing so little good, and concentrate them at some point where they may have an opportunity of acquiring regimental discipline and instruction.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

{p.189}

EUREKA, CAL., April 11, 1863-8 p.m.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco:

COLONEL: I am directed to supply the following omission in the district commander’s report of Captain Flynn’s engagement with hostile Indians: “Our loss was 1 killed, Private Lynch, of Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers.”

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. H. BARTH, First Lieut. and Adjt. Second Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, Cal., May 11, 1863.

COLONEL: On the 30th of April a Government pack train, in charge of four men belonging to companies at Fort Gaston, was attacked by a band of Indians in ambush, numbering about twenty, some thirteen miles this side of Fort Gaston. Private Smith, of Company K, Second Infantry California Volunteers, was killed, and Corporal Smith [Agan], of the same company, was wounded. The Indians captured everything, including five Government mules, and all the effects of Lieutenants Stewart and Winchill. On the report coming in, detachments from Fort Gaston and Camp Curtis were sent out in pursuit of the Indians, but returned without finding them, In pursuance of department orders, dated April 7, 1863, received last evening by the steamer Panama, Company E, Second Infantry, Captain Gibbs, and Company H of the same regiment, commanded by Captain Hanna, have embarked on the steamer to proceed to Benicia. Private D. Squibb, of Company E, goes with his company. Company I, Captain Theller, Second Infantry California Volunteers, is ordered here from Fort Gaston to replace Company H, at Fort Humboldt.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Colonel Second Infantry Cal. Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, May 29, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that Captain Hull, with twenty men of Company D, Second Infantry California Volunteers, proceeded on the 3d instant from Fort Bragg in pursuit of a band of hostile Indians who had been committing depredations on the coast; that on the 9th instant, with a detachment of eight men, he came up with them near Shelter Cove, and out of some thirty-five or forty killed 4 and wounded 3 too severely to be carried away, bringing in 1 boy and 5 squaws as prisoners, who were delivered over to the supervisor on the Mendocino Reservation. In consequence of the representations of some of the inhabitants of the outskirts of Arcata, instead of bringing Company I to this post I have halted it at Camp Curtis, near that place, where it is now stationed. To embark that company and the one at Fort Humboldt twenty-four hours’ notice would suffice, but to embark {p.190} the companies at Fort Gaston and Fort Baker (Captain Morton’s and Captain Flynn’s) four days’ notice at least would be required. The supply of the companies of mountaineers will employ all, or nearly all, the pack-mules-at this post. The distance to Captain Douglas’ command in Round Valley is 150 miles. If it is to be supplied from this post nearly the whole, perhaps quite the whole, of the transportation will have to be hired. If it is intended that I shall forward supplies thither, I request an instruction to that effect by the next steamer.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

[First indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, June 3, 1863.

Respectfully referred to Lieutenant-Colonel Babbitt for his opinion in reference to supplying Camp Wright (Round Valley).

By order:

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Second indorsement.]

DEPUTY QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL’S OFFICE, San Francisco, June 3, 1863.

Lieutenant-Colonel DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Present:

Camp Wright has hitherto been furnished via Fort Bragg, from which latter post it is distant sixty-five miles. I know of no more eligible route. They have forty-nine pack-mules and trappings and one wagon at Camp Wright.

Respectfully,

E. B. BABBITT, Deputy Quartermaster-General.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, June 11, 1863.

COLONEL: On the 6th instant a citizen pack train of thirty-seven mules, with a citizen escort of five men, fell into an Indian ambush near Oak Camp, about fifteen miles this side of Fort Gaston. Two of the men were shot, one killed, and the other escaped wounded, arriving at Hoopa Valley the same night. The remainder ran back to Fawn Prairie, the camp of Captain Ousley’s company (B) of mountaineers. Lieutenant Hempfield started at once with thirty-six men, arriving at the scene of attack five hours after it occurred. They have failed, however, to find the Indians. Immediately on the arrival of the wounded man in the valley Lieutenant-Colonel Olney dispatched Lieutenant Winchill with-five men (being all that could be spared, several escorts being then out) to render what assistance he could. Lieutenant Winchill arrived at the place of attack at 3.30 o’clock in the morning. All that he could do was to employ his detachment to {p.191} escort to Hoopa Valley a portion of the train and cargo which the Indians had left on the ground.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mu. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, July 10, 1863.

COLONEL: Yesterday a private train, which had been transporting Government stores to Fort Gaston, was attacked at Redwood Creek on its return by Indians. The escort consisted of eighteen men of the Weaverville company, not yet organized, together with five packers. The attack was finally repulsed with the loss of ten of our men wounded, one or more of them mortally. The escort was detailed by Captain Fleming, who considers the men belonging to the companies not yet complete as being under his own independent command. For the particulars I therefore refer you to his report,* which will go down by this steamer. The present steamer brought me no dispatches from your headquarters.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS J. LIPPITT, Col. Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Humboldt Mil. Dist.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

* Not found.

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No. 2.

Reports of Lieut. Col. James N. Olney, Second California Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, March 7, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report to the general commanding the department that during the absence of the colonel commanding this district nothing of munch importance has transpired. Detailed reports of each day’s operations have been received from the following officers in command of scouting detachments, viz: Captains Theller, Short, and Flynn, and Lieutenants Smith, Gonnisson, and Campbell. These reports, together with that of a party under my own command, prove that the troops have zealously endeavored in the face of great difficulties to achieve success. The result, however, is very meager. Some 8 or 10 Squaws and children and 1 buck taken in the Mattole region by the detachment from H Company. This detachment was in the mountains and absent from this post forty-one days, enduring great hardships. Captain Short, as well as Lieutenants Smith and Campbell (who relieved the captain on the twenty-seventh day, his resignation having been accepted), deserve great credit for their perseverance under the circumstances. In fact, all the parties out during the past six weeks {p.192} have suffered severely from the violent snow-storms which have prevailed. Many of our men have returned to the camps with frozen feet and exhausted by fatigue, and in many cases their shoes being torn from their feet, they attempted to protect them by wrapping pieces of their clothes about them. The officers in their reports testify to the unmurmuring endurance of these hardships by their commands, and I can attest to the same as regards my own party. We were led to hope that the winter season would be the most favorable for hunting Indians, but the experience of the past two months has proved that hope fallacious. The frequent violent storms in these mountains, and the consequent falling of snow covering all trails and signs, render it all but impossible to operate with any prospect of success. Two citizens brought to this post on the 22d ultimo ten Indians from Iaqua Ranch, who had surrendered themselves, their object being, probably, to secure comfortable winter quarters, knowing they could easily escape from Smith River Reservation in the spring. Since pay-day desertions from the different posts have been numerous. As far as heard from the aggregate is twenty-five, of which only eight have as yet been arrested. This result was anticipated as the great accumulation of pay enabled the men to procure outside aid. The pursuing parties from Fort Gaston have already in custody three citizens for aiding deserters to escape and we are on the track of others in this vicinity. There have been no recent outrages by Indians reported except the burning of two or three unoccupied buildings at Minor’s, on the Redwood near Fort Anderson. The colonel commanding the district arrived at this post to-day at about 3 p.m.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieut. Col. Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco.

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FORT GASTON, CAL., May 5, 1863.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to state for the information of the colonel commanding that, upon receiving intelligence on the evening of the 2d instant of the attack upon our pack train, I ordered a detachment consisting of thirty men, under command of Captain Morton, to proceed at once in pursuit of the Indians. Lieutenant Delany was also detailed, and to take command of one of the parties in case it was found expedient to divide the detachment. Up to this time nothing has been heard from this command. I have made inquiry as to any evidence connecting the Hoopa Indians with the attack, but can find none. Private McNeal, one of the escort, and who is, I believe, perfectly reliable, states that the Indians were so completely concealed by the brush that nothing but the smoke from their guns could be discovered, and that the nearest view they had of the attacking party was after the affair, when they were crossing a ridge about three-quarters of a mile distant. Of course it was then impossible to discover to what tribe they belonged. In addition to the lamentable loss of life, Lieutenants Stewart and Winchill met with serious losses, pecuniary and otherwise, viz, full-dress uniform, including hats and epaulets, three swords (one of them a valuable present to Lieutenant Stewart), four sashes, a valuable gold watch (Lieutenant Winchill’s), jewelry, keepsakes, mattresses, blankets, {p.193} wearing apparel, &c. A portion of the papers of Lieutenant Winchill, relating to his quartermaster’s and commissary business at Fort Baker, have been recovered, the Indians leaving them in the rifled trunks, which have been picked up near the place of attack. The officers estimate their loss at nearly $1,000. Private McNeal thinks there were not over twelve or fifteen Indians concerned in the attack. I have little doubt they are the remaining remnant of the band of Redwoods that have committed former depredations.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieut. Col. Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

Lieutenant BARTH, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt.

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FORT GASTON, CAL., May 3, 1863.

Corporal Agan, Privates McNeal and Smith, in charge of a Government pack train, were attacked about four miles on this side of Oak Camp on the morning of April 30 by a band of Indians, supposed to number about twenty, who killed Private Smith and wounded Corporal Agan. The Indians captured everything, including five Government mules, and all the effects of Lieutenants Stewart and Winchill.

J. J. SHEPHEARD, First Lieut., Second Infantry California Vols., Post Adjutant.

[Indorsement.]

FORT GASTON, May 6, 1863.

Lieutenant BARTH, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Nil. Dist., Fort Humboldt:

LIEUTENANT: Through inadvertence the foregoing copy of entry in our post records was omitted to be inclosed in my communication of 5th instant.

Yours, very respectfully,

JAS. N. OLNEY, Lieut. Col. Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Post.

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No. 3.

Report of Capt. Henry Flynn, Second California Infantry.

CAMP BAKER, April 1, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report the return of the detachment which left this post under my command on the 10th of March, 1863, and the following as the result:

I marched from this post with a detachment of thirty-two men of Company A, Second Infantry California Volunteers, with twenty-five days’ provisions, and proceeded in the direction of Fort Seward. Encamped the night of the 10th at Larrabee Station. Remained here the 11th, waiting for my provision train, which owing to an accident did not arrive until the evening of the 11th. Encamped the 12th at Fort Seward. Remained here until the 14th, when, having provided myself {p.194} with a guide, I proceeded in the direction of the Big Bend of Eel River. Encamped the night of the 14th on the Chick-hu-wapet, a small stream which empties into Eel River. Had I observed my usual caution I would have surprised a camp of Indians on this stream. They left in such haste on our approach that they neglected to take with them their camp equipage. As I had never been in this part of the district in search of Indians, I referred the matter to my guide (Fleming), who said it was not necessary to use caution until we arrived at the source of this stream. The following day (the 15th) I went to the head of the Chick-hu-wapet and encamped. The 16th I sent the guide and two Indians, a tracker and interpreter, to spy their fires. They returned on the 17th and reported having seen Indians on the North Fork of Eel River, about thirty miles from its mouth. The 18th I sent Lieutenant Winchill with fifteen men to attack them. In the meantime I scouted in the vicinity of my camp with the other portion of my detachment. I remained here until the 21st, when a messenger arrived from Lieutenant Winchill requesting me to move my provision train to Kitten Valley, fifteen miles distant, at which point he would join me. I did so. This was the farthest point from Fort Baker that I took my train during the scout. It is distant from Fort Baker about sixty miles. Lieutenant Winchill reported that on arriving at the North Fork of Eel River he surprised and captured an Indian. He compelled the Indian by threats (and a few practical illustrations in the shape of a stick on the back of what he might expect if he proved on trial to be a bad Indian) to take him to the place where the Indians could be found. The prisoner finally consented to guide him to the rancheria. He came on them as they were gathering grass-seed and clover. They were extended about a mile along the bank of the river; the squaws busily at work, and the bucks, or Indian men, were armed and on the lookout for any enemy that might attack them, but the lieutenant was too quick for them. He deployed his men to the right and left so as to flank them, in which he succeeded. The river was high, the water very cold; the Indians preferred fighting to swimming. The prisoner attempting to run was shot. The engagement was short but sharp, the Indians disputing every inch of ground left them until they were all killed. Private Lynch, a brave but rash man, seeing three Indians going in a rocky place, followed them in. One of the Indians shot him through the heart. He called to Sergeant Thoman to come to his assistance. The sergeant hurried to the spot, but the poor man was dead. The sergeant shot and killed the Indian, and was in the act of reloading his rifle when another Indian, who was standing in the river, shot an arrow which struck the sergeant’s cap-box, passed through the box and waist-belt. The box saved his life. The Indian was preparing to shoot the second arrow, but a ball from the sergeant’s pistol went crashing through his brain. Owing to the distance from our camp Lynch was buried where he fell. Ten bucks and one squaw were found dead after the engagement. The lieutenant took all the squaws and children he could find and arrived at Kitten Valley on the 22d. As soon as it became sufficiently dark to prevent the Indians from seeing my men, I went to the North Fork and selected a ford. It was very difficult to cross, as the river was much swollen, about four feet deep and 100 yards wide. I crossed twenty men by midnight, and sent the rest back to camp. Went up the river two miles and remained until daylight; raining all the time very hard. At daylight went down on the river; found fresh sign; sent the Indians {p.195} out. They returned at sundown and said they saw four squaws, but could not find their camp. I started at dark. Went up the river five miles and searched about until daylight, when we came on their rancheria on the bank of the river. I immediately surrounded them and poured a volley into their houses. The squaws came out. I sent them to the rear, and during the engagement they all escaped excepting two. It required nearly an hour to take this band, as they kept their arrows flying in showers. We were compelled to charge them. All the bucks of this band were killed, also one squaw-nine in all. I then took the two squaws and went over the mountain to attack a rancheria that our prisoners informed me I would find there. I found their houses with their fires still burning, but the birds had flown. They no doubt had heard our firing. Having good reason to believe that there was a number of Indians at the mouth of the river and between the forks, I hurried down so as to prevent them from concentrating in any considerable force as to endanger the lives of my men. After searching about for two or three days (at this time I had lost the run of dates) we discovered, about 10 o’clock one evening, some smoke issuing from a cañon on the slope toward the Middle Fork of Eel River. I moved my men down the mountain a short distance and waited patiently for daylight, to commence the attack. At the first peep of dawn I moved down to their camp-fires and halted, as there was another ravine to the left; and, thinking there might be Indians in it, I divided my command and directed Lieutenant Winchill to go to the left, down the cañon. Shortly after Mr. Winchill had started I commenced placing my men for the attack. I placed some men in the gulch above the Indians as the attacking party, and some on the left bank in a position that enabled them to command the opposite bank, while I, with a sergeant and three men, went down in the gulch below them. The attacking party poured in a volley, and the Indians, instead of going over the right bank, rushed down the cañon and right onto the muzzles of our guns, they (the Indians) sending their sharp sticks in every direction. We delivered our fire with our rifles, and kept up such a constant and well-directed fire from our revolvers that they were compelled to turn up the right bank, only three having succeeded in passing. One of them Sergeant Penwell shot through the head. Shortly after passing the other two were found dead in the gulch below, having died from their wounds. After the Indians turned up the bank and the men had got over the gulch then the work fairly commenced. We made wild havoc among them. There must have been a great number of them killed. I did not have time to search for them, as I wanted to join Lieutenant Winchill and be ready for a counter attack. Eighteen were found dead where the fighting commenced, but in this and the first engagement there must have been at least twenty-five bodies concealed about in the bushes and rocks, but in making my report of the number killed I will only report those that I actually saw dead. Two squaws were unavoidably killed in this engagement. Lieutenant Winchill surprised a camp of Indians in the cañon shortly after leaving me. He killed eight bucks and captured the squaws and children. The Indians fought like tigers in all the engagements, but they had no time to look about them to decide on any particular manner of fighting. As nothing of interest occurred after this I will merely say that I returned to Fort Baker on the 1st of April, having been absent twenty-two days. In the four engagements 46 of the enemy were killed and 37 captured, making a total of killed and {p.196} captured 83. As I said before, a much larger number was killed; that would make the number in killed and captured over 100, but as I did not see them I will not include them in the killed.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. FLYNN, Captain, Second infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut. CHARLES H. BARTH, Adjutant Second Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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No. 4.

Report of Capt. William E. Hull, Second California infantry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Bragg, Cal., May 21, 1863.

SIR: I do myself the honor to report that I proceeded on the 3d instant from this post to Shelter Cove on scout with twenty men of my company to chastise a band of hostile Indians who have killed several head of cattle and two valuable horses belonging to Mr. Beall, in that neighborhood. Early on the morning of the 9th instant, with eight men of the party, surprised about thirty-five or forty of them, killing 4 and wounding 3, the latter so badly that I found it useless to bring them along. Of the former, one has been recognized as concerned in the murder of two citizens (Oliver and Lewis) some time back. After this affair I proceeded to the vicinity of Eel River, but, notwithstanding the utmost caution was taken, those wary Indians discovered us and got out of range of our rifles. Their camp and several hundredweight of fish I caused to be destroyed. The detachment returned to this post this morning; 1 boy and 5 squaws, brought in as prisoners, have been handed over to the superintendent of the Mendocino Reservation. The country through which the scout was made is almost impassable for underbrush and rocky ravines. The men did their duty with good will and cheerfulness. I beg to recommend that another scouting party be sent to Eel River, for which I trust the colonel commanding will grant his approval.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. E. HULL, Captain, Second California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding post.

First Lieut. CHARLES H. BARTH, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Mil. Dist., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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No. 5.

Report of Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

EUREKA, July 10, 1863.

COLONEL: Previous to my arrival from San Francisco Camp Curtis (near Arcata) had been abandoned. Unmistakable indications caused the people of that vicinity to fear hostilities from Indians and applied to me for protection. Deeming it important that a small force should {p.197} be stationed at Camp Curtis, a detachment of nineteen men was detailed from Company C, at my instance, under command of Lance Sergt. G. W. Eastman, for that service, and proceeded there on the 28th ultimo. At that time there were but thirty-one men enrolled in Company C. On the day following fourteen more men were sworn in. (Above I use the expression “at my instance,” for the reason that I was given to understand by Colonel Lippitt and others at Fort Humboldt that the recruits for Company C were not subject to my orders previous to the complete organization of the company.) On the 29th ultimo I received a communication of which the inclosed is a copy. Immediately upon the receipt-of the order I directed Second Lieutenant Middleton to proceed to Camp Curtis with eighteen more men of Company C, and from the thirty-eight then there to detail eighteen men to escort the train. My directions were complied with, and the escort was furnished under command of Actg. Sergt. E. W. Day. Not having been mustered into service, but feeling an interest in the men and anxious to be with them upon their first active duty, Lieutenant Middleton voluntarily joined the escort. On Wednesday, the 10th [?] instant, Lieutenant Middleton returned and reported to me that he accompanied the escort to Fort Gaston and back to Redwood Creek, nearly equidistant between Fort Gaston and Camp Curtis, when he left the train and came on to this place. His reason for leaving was that he expected to meet his captain and first lieutenant with recruits to fill the company from Trinity County. This morning I was informed that on Wednesday morning* an attack was made upon the detachment escort by a large body of Indians. At once I proceeded to Camp Curtis to ascertain the truth, and from Private William Griffin and one of the packers, just in from the scene of action, gathered details as follows: At 3.30 o’clock on Wednesday morning* the detachment was called by the sentinel, in accordance with the orders of Acting Sergeant Day, for an early start for Camp Curtis. The animals of the train were collected and the packers had commenced to put on the saddles, when the Indians opened fire from the woods and bushes on three sides within easy rifle range. At the first volley three or four of the soldiers were wounded and all sprang to their arms. The Indians were in strong force, numbering not less than seventy-five, and from that to 100, all being armed with guns, and many having both rifles and pistols. The fight lasted eight hours, when our men succeeded in routing the enemy with loss. The detachment retained possession of the battle-ground and are still there. The loss on our side was 3 men dangerously wounded, 1 severely, and 6 slightly. An express was sent as soon as practicable to Fort Gaston for Assistant Surgeon Phelps, who arrived in due time, escorted by six men from Company B. I was informed that Doctor Phelps had said that it was necessary for him to return to Fort Gaston, and to allow him to do so I employed a citizen physician to relieve him at Redwood Creek. I have given orders to have the wounded men brought to Camp Curtis at once if it be prudent to remove them, otherwise to remain at their present camp, guarded by a detachment from Company B. From all I can learn the detachment, under Actg. Sergt. E. W. Day, behaved well upon this occasion and deserves praise for bravely repelling an attacking party of well-armed Indians, so greatly superior in numbers. No commissioned officers for Company C have as yet been mustered into the U. S. service, but advices from Trinity County inform me that the captain and first lieutenant will arrive at this place within three {p.198} days with recruits to fill up to the minimum standard. I am also informed that Major Taylor is on his way from Siskiyou County to Fort Gaston with fifty or more recruits for Company F.

I have the honor to remain, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col., Comdg. First Batt. Mountaineers, California Vols.

Col. RICHARD C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco.

* See Lippitt’s report of July 10, p. 191, which says this attack occurred on July 9. Wednesday of the week preceding the date of this report was July 8.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, June 29, 1863.

Lieutenant-Colonel WHIPPLE, Commanding Battalion of Mountaineers:

COLONEL: The colonel commanding the district directs you to furnish an escort to Manheim & Co.’s train of supplies for Fort Gaston, the escort to consist of not less than ten men under an acting noncommissioned officer, to be detailed from the Weaverville company of your battalion.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHARLES H. BARTH First Lieut. and Adjt. Second Infty. Cal. Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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MARCH 26-APRIL 3, 1863.– Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Cedar Mountains, Utah Ter., with skirmish (April 1) at Cedar Fort.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Brig. Gen. P. Edward Connor, U. S. Army, commanding District of Utah.
No. 2.–Lieut. Anthony Ethier, Second California Cavalry.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. P. Edward Connor, U. S. Army, commanding District of Utah.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., April 9, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that at present all is quiet in this district. The Indians who committed the late depredations on the Overland Mail Route west of here, I have reason to believe, were Goshutes, who have lived in the Mormon settlements of Tooele Valley this winter, and were encouraged and instigated to the raid by Mormons. The Indians, finding that I had the line well protected and cavalry scouring the country in every direction in pursuit of them, made their way back to Cedar Valley near Fort Crittenden on their way south. At that point they were encountered by Lieutenant Ethier, of the Second California Volunteer Cavalry, with twenty-three men. I herewith inclose Lieutenant Ethier’s report, by which you will perceive that the Mormons instead of assisting to punish Indians for bad conduct actually encouraged them. I also inclose a telegram from William S. Wallace, agent of the Overland Mail Company at Fort Crittenden, verifying the statements made by Lieutenant Ethier as to the conduct of the Mormons, &c. From the evidence before me I am well satisfied that the Mormons are the real instigators of the late raid. Brigham Young has sent commissioners to Washington for the purpose, I am {p.199} told, of proposing to the Government to take charge of the overland mail and emigrant route in this Territory for half the amount it costs at present, provided the troops are withdrawn. And also to use their influence with the President to have the Governor and Judges Waite and Drake removed. Until the return of the commissioners I have no fears of any further trouble, but upon their return, and if their mission prove unsuccessful, then I have every reason to fear there will be trouble, as they are determined that the laws shall not be executed, and the three officers named are as equally determined that the laws shall be enforced. If the troops should be withdrawn the Mormons are well aware that the Governor and judges would be compelled to leave with them, as their lives would not be safe one hour after the withdrawal of the troops if they remained. The object of Brigham in encouraging Indian raids at present is, undoubtedly, to induce the Government to withdraw the troops from this post and have them stationed at different points on the mail line. They also wish to impress upon the Government the idea that his people can protect the line better than troops can, and there is no doubt but he can, as the Indians are completely under his control and do just as he tells them. I have taken all necessary steps to protect the mail line from further depredations, and am sanguine of being able to punish the perpetrators of the late outrages. I would most earnestly urge the necessity of sending with the re-enforcements two cannon of large caliber, say 24 or 32 pounders, and two 12-pounder field guns with caissons, battery wagons, &c., which, with the two 6-pounder field guns at this post, will make a light battery of four guns. I would also recommend that one 12-pounder mountain howitzer be sent for the post at Fort Bridger. With the above guns and a force of at least 3,000 men I can be of service to the Government, and in all probability prevent a civil war; otherwise the result is doubtful. I again respectfully call the attention of the general commanding to the fact that this people are at heart disloyal, and are only waiting a favorable opportunity to demonstrate that fact, consequently I would recommend that unless strongly re-enforced, my command be withdrawn. I consider that I would be derelict in my duty to my country and to my command, whose lives are in my hands, did I not urgently represent the dangers menacing them, or if I asked for a smaller body of men than the number called for in this and previous communications. The danger, in my opinion, is not immediate, and perhaps may not be until the season shall have so far advanced that re-enforcements cannot be sent here.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District of Utah.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

FORT CRITTENDEN, UTAH TER., April 1, 1863.

Brigadier-General CONNOR, Camp Douglas:

I do hereby certify to the statement* as being correct, and as regards the Mormons on horseback riding up to the Indians. I think there is treachery on their part.

WM. S. WALLACE, Agent Overland Mail Company.

* See report of Lieutenant Ether, p. 200.

{p.200}

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Anthony Ethier, Second California Cavalry.

CAMP DOUGLAS, UTAH TER., April 6, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report to the colonel commanding that in pursuance of orders of the 26th of March I started with twenty-five men of Company A, Second California Volunteer Cavalry, at 6 p.m. from this camp en route for Skull Valley and surrounding [country]. After traveling thirty miles, encamped that night at the mills on the borders of Great Salt Lake. Next morning, the 27th, raised camp at 7 o’clock and arrived at Knowlton’s ranch, Skull Valley, at 6.30 p.m. Distance of fifty-five miles from the mills. Next morning, the 28th, at 7 o’clock started across Skull Valley to Hastings’ Springs, accompanied by Mr. Knowlton and five of his men. Finding no sign of Indians, crossed the Cedar Mountains and traveled ten miles due west on a desert. Finding no sign of Indians returned to west side of Cedar Mountains and camped at 8 p.m., without water. Distance traveled, thirty-five miles. On the morning of the 29th raised camp about daylight; traveled six or eight miles southward on the western side of Cedar Mountains, examining all the ravines for Indian signs; finding none, recrossed Cedar Mountains nearly opposite the Beckwith Springs, then returned to Knowlton’s ranch; distance traveled, thirty-five miles. Next morning, the 30th, raised camp at 6 o’clock; traveled southward down Skull Valley toward the mail route, and arrived at Simpson’s Springs at 9 o’clock that night. Distance traveled, sixty miles. Men and horses very tired. Horses very sore-footed by reason of traveling through a rocky and uneven country. Next morning, the 31st, raised camp at 10 o’clock and traveled to Point Lookout. Distance, eighteen miles.

Started from camp at 3 a.m. the 1st instant, and proceeded to Rush Valley and took breakfast there. Here I received General Connor’s dispatch to return to Camp Douglas immediately. Started again at 8 o’clock for Camp Crittenden. Arrived there at 2.30 p.m. At 3 p.m., while looking through a spy-glass, saw some Indians coming out of Trough Cañon, traveling on the eastern side of the western hills. My horses being very much jaded and sore footed, I required the mail agent, Mr. Wallace, to furnish me with a coach. Myself with thirteen men in the coach and eight mounted on the best horses proceeded to overtake the Indians, which we did at Cedar Fort, they having taken a position for battle previous to my arriving there. The natural defenses of the position were very strong, which you will see by the diagram* accompanying this report. The Mormons, through treachery, I suppose, and wishing to see my party destroyed, gave me false report as to the position of the Indians and also in regard to their numbers, there being at the time but two Indians in sight, chiefs on horseback riding the war circle, in examining the ground I saw what I thought was their actual position. I acted on my own judgment, not on the information received, which I firmly believe saved my party from destruction. After forming my line of battle, as you will see by the diagram, my men advanced gallantly to the attack, but receiving a withering fire from a quarter we least expected, we were forced to give way. Returning again to the attack, had the pleasure of seeing one of the chiefs fall mortally wounded. There being no more Indians in sight, and continuing to receive a severe fire from an unseen foe, I concluded to {p.201} withdraw my men, when Mr. Wallace, who was present on the field, came and informed me that my horses were in danger of capture. Although the Mormons were at the spot where my horses were at the time, not farther than 100 yards from the Indians, not a shot was fired at them. On arriving at the place where my horses were and repulsing the Indians I concluded to return to Camp Crittenden, but before going offered to leave a guard of twelve men at Cedar Fort, which they refused; but after consulting among themselves they asked me to leave a guard of eight men, which I promised to do, at the same time having no idea of fulfilling my promise for fear of treachery, of which I was convinced immediately afterward by seeing, while I was not more than 100 yards from the fort, a Mormon riding off to Indians, and meeting several of them on the trail, proceeded to the hills with them, where they held conversation in plain sight of me. I then being satisfied that there was treachery, returned to Camp Crittenden, from which place I reported the facts to General Connor. On the 2d instant I found out from the wife of Mr. Savage, the Mormon who went up on the hills to speak to the Indians, that after returning from the Indian camp he held a council with the Mormons at the fort, and then left for Salt Lake City to inform Brigham Young of my doings there. This man Savage is the same who reported to General Connor of his wagons being robbed last winter on Bear River. I have since learned that those Indians were called Old Soldier’s Band, of San Pete Valley, and numbered 150 warriors, of which two-thirds were present at the battle. The 3d. instant, according to orders, I reported to Captain Price at Cedar Fort at 9 a.m.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ANTHONY ETHIER, Second Lieutenant Company A, Second California Vol. Cavalry.

* Not found.

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APRIL 2-6, 1863.– Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Spanish Fork, Utah Ter., with action (4th) at the Spanish Fork Cañon.

Report of Capt. George F. Price, Second California Cavalry, commanding expedition.

CAMP DOUGLAS, UTAH TER., April 6, 1863.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report that pursuant to instruction received from Brigadier-General Connor, commanding District of Utah, I left this camp at 1 a.m. of the 2d instant with Lieutenant Conrad and fifty-one men of Company M, Second Cavalry California Volunteers; crossed the Jordan River seven miles south of Great Salt Lake City, and moved up the west side of the river, traveling until 8.30 a.m., when I arrived in Cedar Valley, thirty miles south of the camp. Examined the valley thoroughly without discovering any fresh Indian signs; arrived at Cedar Fort, in upper western portion of the valley, at 11.15 a.m., where Lieutenant Ethier with twenty-six men of Company A, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, reported to me for duty per verbal order of general commanding the district. With this force proceeded to and arrived at Fort Crittenden at 12.15 p.m.; distance traveled, forty-five wiles; horses and men greatly fatigued. On the following morning left Crittenden. Learning that the band of Indians with whom Lieutenant Ethier had a skirmish near Cedar Fort on the {p.202} afternoon of the 1st instant had moved in a southeasterly direction from Cedar Valley, I determined to pursue them. Resuming the march, the command traveled to the head of Cedar Valley; from thence crossed into Utah Valley, and arrived at the southeastern extremity of Lake Utah at 10.30 a.m.; from thence proceeded to Goshen, the most southern settlement of the valley, where I arrived at 2 p.m.; compelled to halt on account of forage; several of the horses almost unserviceable. The surrounding country was thoroughly examined without discovering any Indian sign; direct distance traveled, twenty-six miles. At sunset I sent Sergeant Gordon with four men well armed on a scout into Juab Valley. They traveled twenty miles south of Goshen, making a night ride of forty miles, returning to camp at 4 a.m. of the 4th instant without making any discoveries further than the fact that a body of Indians were encamped on Salt Creek, still farther to the south of his ride some forty miles. At 6 a.m. of the same day, being satisfied that I was south and west of the Indians, started across the valley searching the hills and bottoms surrounding Utah Lake. Arrived at the town of Spanish Fork at 3 p.m., being everywhere assured that no Indians had been seen for ten days. I had not been encamped three hours when two Indians were discovered on the point of the hill, we on the southeast portion of the town. A scouting party was immediately sent out, who soon returned with intelligence that the Indians already mentioned had entered Spanish Fork Cañon. At this time the sun was scarcely an hour high, but I did not feel like losing even this small chance if there were any Indians in the cañon. “Boots and saddles” and “to horse” were immediately sounded, taking the men away from supper, and in less than five minutes such was the eagerness of the men that the entire detachment, excepting the guard (six), was in the saddle and en route for the cañon, four miles from the camp. Arriving there I found the Indians in considerable force, numbering in sight between forty and fifty, being posted on both sides of the cañon, a large stream of water (Spanish Fork) separating us from the south side. Lieutenant Conrad with fifteen men was ordered to make movement to the right and gain the south side of the cañon. Immediately after Lieutenant Ethier with twenty-five men was ordered to move to the left and gain the north bank of the cañon, while the center, under my own command, moved directly to the front, and as the center approached the mouth of the cañon within rifle-shot the Indians opened a brisk fire upon us, rather annoying, but without accomplishing any injury. The flanking parties having gained their position, a forward movement was made at the same moment. The Indians retreated before us, until finally they broke into a run under fire up the cañon, the detachment following them eagerly, but well under restraint. The Indians were driven until they reached a point in the cañon where it would have been extreme folly and a useless sacrifice of life for us to follow. It being by this time quite dark, and not having yet discovered the strength of the enemy (the cañon being a very bad one-in fact, I have rarely seen a better one for a fight), the assembly was sounded and the detachments commenced returning to camp, being then about three-quarters of a mile up the cañon. During the march back, under cover of the night, the Indians hovered on our rear, discharging their pieces at us. A lively skirmish then ensued, and various expedients were resorted to in order to trap the Indians, but without avail. During this skirmish the horses were never out of a walk unless when they were dashing back upon the enemy. It is impossible for me to state the number of Indians killed or wounded during this brief action and subsequently {p.203} driving them up the cañon. It is known positively, however, that 1 Indian and 1 pony were killed, and several acted as though they were wounded. The Indians fired the first shot. The flank movements made by Lieutenants Conrad and Ethier were finely executed, and reflect credit upon these young officers, while the men behaved with their usual gallantry. Pickets were thrown out during the night, but without any result further than knowing that the Indians did not leave the cañon.

On the following morning (5th) a scouting party was sent in advance of the detachments without discovering any Indians. Not desiring to be caught in a trap, I ordered another flanking movement as on the evening previous, and then proceeded up the cañon until we arrived at the point gained on the previous evening without discovering any signs. Then with a portion of the command moved up the cañon three miles from that point, it growing worse and more dangerous in its character. Caught an Indian and killed him. Found several signs which satisfied me that the enemy was in full retreat through the cañon, running for San Pete Valley. Shortly after killing the Indian saw fires on the highest point on the north side entirely beyond our reach. They fired a few random shots at us. As the cañon is twenty-five miles long, and gradually closes in until very narrow, presenting on each side an almost impassable barrier of rocks, it was deemed proper to give up the pursuit, as it could result in no good and might cost life. Added to this the horses were severely jaded and the men about out of rations. The appearance of this cañon as seen by daylight fully confirms the opinion formed of it the evening before. Having offered them battle twice and driven them twice, it was useless to attempt more. The assembly was sounded, and we left the cañon without molestation and proceeded to Provo, where we camped. Citizens after the skirmish said there were 200 of the enemy, but I don’t credit the story, for we offered battle with only thirty men and gave every chance, so that if there had been that number they would certainly have accepted. It is doubtful whether the band will return into Utah Valley for some time to come. At 2 a.m. of the 6th instant left Provo and returned to camp at 3 p.m. same day, reporting to Captain Black, commanding post. The direct distance traveled, exclusive of scouts, &c., was 165 miles, an average of thirty-three miles each day. Horses and men are much fatigued. My officers and men conducted themselves fully in keeping with previous reputation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. F. PRICE, Captain, Second Cavalry California Vols., Comdg. Expedition.

Lieut. T. S. HARRIS, Adjutant Second Cavalry California Volunteers.

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APRIL 7-11, 1863.– Expedition from Fort Wright to Williams’ Valley, Cal., with skirmish (9th) in Williams’ Valley.

Report of Capt. Charles D. Douglas, Second California infantry.

FORT WRIGHT, Round Valley, Cal., April 11, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that in consequence of the murder of Mr. George Bowers, of Williams’ Valley (four miles north of {p.204} Round Valley), by Indians, I left this post, 7th instant, with a detachment of fifteen men in pursuit of the perpetrators of the murder. I marched in the night into the mountain country they inhabit, so as to conceal my movements from the ever-watchful enemy. Soon-after daylight on the morning of the 8th, my Indian guide found the trail, which we followed as fast as the snow-storm, which was then raging, would permit us to travel. About dark we captured a buck and one squaw, who fell behind their party. Soon after their capture I camped (under the shelter of large trees, having no tents), as the snow-storm was so severe that traveling in the night in such a rugged and broken country was found entirely impracticable. I left the camp at daybreak the morning of the 9th, and about 9 a.m. we found a small camp of the Indians we were in pursuit of, who could not keep up with their band. I endeavored to make them all prisoners, but could not, as they would not surrender, but fight. I therefore gave the order to fire and the entire party were killed, except two old squaws that gave themselves up. Six bucks were here killed, not one of the whole party getting away. I then gave up the pursuit as my men had no rations to go any farther. My men in the detachment carried three days’ rations and one blanket, and the three days’ rations being exhausted and no means for replacing them, I could not do otherwise than return to this post. I have Indian scouts in the mountains hunting for the main camp of those Indians who murdered Bowers, and when they find it they will guide me to it. The squaws we captured are on the reservation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers,

Comdg. Post. Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Pacific.

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APRIL 11-20, 1863.– Expedition from Camp Douglas to the Spanish Fork Cañon, Utah Ter., with skirmish (12th) at Pleasant Grove, and action (15th) at Spanish Fork Cañon.

Report of Col. George S. Evans, Second California Cavalry, commanding expedition.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, May 4, 1863.

Brig. Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of Col. George S. Evans, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, of an expedition against Indians at Spanish Fork, Utah Ter. This adds another to the highly commendatory and successful expeditions which have been sent out from Camp Douglas within the present year. I beg leave to ask your attention to the statements of Colonel Evans in relation to the conduct of the Mormons. It was only a continuation of their perfidious acts which commenced when our troops arrived in Utah. But I trust that the day is fast approaching when retributive justice will be meted out to these worse than open traitors to their country.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.205}

CAMP DOUGLAS, UTAH TEE, April 17, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in pursuance of special instructions from General P. Edward Connor, commanding District of Utah, I ordered Lieutenant Honeyman, of the Third California Volunteer Infantry, with five gunners and one howitzer, with ammunition (covered up in an ambulance as a blind), to start from this post on the morning of April 11 and proceed to the town of Pleasant Grove, situated in a southeasterly direction and distant forty miles from this camp, and there await my coming or further orders. That on Sunday evening, April 12, at 6 o’clock, in pursuance of the same instructions, I started for the same town with forty-seven men of Company A, commanded by Second Lieut. A. Ethier, and forty-nine men of Company H, Second California Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by First Lieut. C. D. Clark and Second Lieut. James Bradley, for the purpose of making that town the base of operations against a band of hostile Indians, the same who committed the late depredations upon the overland stages between Salt Lake City and Ruby Valley, and who were reported to be in Spanish Fork Cañon, thirty-five miles in a southerly direction from Pleasant Grove; that I reached the town of Pleasant Grove at 3 a.m. April 13 and found that Lieutenant Honeyman had arrived there on the previous morning, and had put his animals up in a corral of one of the Mormon settlers to await my arrival or further orders; that at 6 p.m. of the same day a band of some 100 Indians came rushing down upon the town, and dismounting on the outskirts deployed into the town skulking behind adobe fences, hay-stacks, &c., until they completely surrounded the building in which Lieutenant Honeyman and his five men were, when they commenced firing upon him. The lieutenant when he first discovered the approach of the Indians-they being yet some miles from the house in which he was-immediately set his men to work uncovering, getting out of the ambulance, and putting together for action his howitzer, which being done he loaded with shell with a 600-yards fuse, and ran his piece up to the cross street, at the end of which the Indians had dismounted, with the intention of using it against them as they started into the town, but they deploying as above stated rendered it impossible for him to use his gun to any advantage, and finding that the Indians were surrounding him he very prudently retired to the house where his ambulance and mules were. By this time the Indians were within some thirty or forty yards of him, and he, seeing that unless something was done promptly he and his little party would be massacred, very wisely took possession of the house (a small adobe) and prepared to defend himself as best he could. After firing two shots from the house with the howitzer the walls of the building became so much cracked that he was compelled to cease firing for fear of the building falling. The Indians in the meantime from the adobe wall-fence and hay-stacks in the vicinity were pouring an incessant shower of balls into the house, which they kept up from about sundown until 8 o’clock at night, literally riddling the door and windows, but fortunately without killing or wounding any one in the building, although the stovepipe, pans, plates, and almost everything in the house except the men received a shot. At 8 o’clock the Indians ceased firing and left the town, taking with them the provisions, blankets, &c., of the lieutenant and his five men, as also the Government animals that were left alive, seven in number, five having been killed during the engagement. I enter into details in mentioning these seemingly unimportant facts, not because I deem them of any importance in themselves, but that they may be taken and considered in connection with the strange {p.206} but stubborn fact that all this occurred in the town of Pleasant Grove in the face and eyes of a population of several hundred people calling themselves civilized and American citizens-God save the mark! Right in the heart of a Mormon town, where there were perhaps not less than 100 or 150 white men (Mormons), in the broad daylight 75 or 100 savages attack and attempt to murder six American citizens and do carry off mules, harness, and other Government property, and not a hand is lifted to assist or protect them or to prevent the stealing of the Government property; but on the contrary they stand around the street corners and on top of their houses and hay-stacks complacently looking on, apparently well pleased at the prospect of six Gentiles (soldiers) being murdered. They actually assisted the Indians in catching the Government mules that had effected their escape from the corral, and from their natural fear of the redskins were endeavoring to keep beyond their reach. The foregoing facts speak for themselves. Comment is unnecessary further than to say that Lieutenant Honeyman believes and thinks that he has prima facie evidence of the fact upon which to found his belief that the savages were informed by the Mormons of his presence in the town with only five men, and, as they supposed, a wagon load of provisions, bound for Fort Bridger, and that it was a contrived and partnership arrangement between some of the Mormons and the Indians to murder his little party, take the property, and divide the spoils.

In the morning (April 13) as soon as light I started out scouts in different directions to find the course that the Indians had taken, and at the same time sent an express to the general commanding, notifying him what had occurred, and the position I was in as to transportation for my howitzer and ammunition, as well as to the want of animals for the gunners to ride, &c, and received that evening in reply notice from the general that he had ordered Captain Price with his company to join me, and that he had sent with them mules for the howitzer and gunners in place of those stolen by the Indians. Captain Price arrived with his company, numbering sixty men, about 11 o’clock at night, bringing with him the animals for the howitzer, &c. In the meantime my scouts had returned with the information that they could get no trace of the Indians, excepting that eight of them had passed through the town of Provo, some ten miles to the south of Pleasant Grove with the stolen animals, on their way and in the direction of Spanish Fork. The Mormons, however, insisted upon it that the body of the Indians had scattered, and by different routes, had concentrated in what is known as Dry Cañon, where they had a considerable encampment, and their women and children, and as Lieutenant Honeyman seemed also to think that the Indians who attacked him had come out of this Dry Cañon, and as I could find no evidence of a large body of Indians traveling farther south, I concluded to make a drive on Dry Cañon and satisfy myself as to the fact whether they were there or not. I accordingly started in the morning at 7 o’clock with the howitzer and fifty men up what is known as Provo Cañon, and sent Lieutenants Clark and Bradley with the same number of men up Dry Cañon, the two cañons connecting, or at least there being an outlet at the head of Dry Cañon leading over and into Provo Cañon. In this way with the force in Provo Cañon I was certain to head and cut off the enemy from retreat, provided he was, as represented, encamped in Dry Cañon. I, however, found from actual examination after scouring every nook and corner of the two cañons, over almost impassable ledges, the men walking and leading their horses and climbing for six hours (and losing {p.207} one horse which fell down a precipice, breaking his neck), that there were no Indians in that section, nor had there been for weeks; that the statements of the Mormons in regard to the Indians were premeditated lies, gotten up for the purpose of misleading me, and giving the latter time either to get away or prepare for battle. In coming out of Provo Cañon I went across some points of mountains to the southward, discovering the Indian trail at last where they had concentrated and traveled in force toward the celebrated impregnable (so-called) Spanish Fork. I immediately proceeded to and through the town of Provo, it being in the direction and the best road to Spanish Fork, intending to pursue the enemy rapidly; but at this town fifteen miles from Spanish Fork, I received reliable information by means of a soldier dressed as a citizen and passing himself off as a Mormon, that one Potter, a Mormon, had gone into the cañon to notify the Indians of my approach, of the number of men I had, &c., and that there were other Mormons watching around to give the Indians notice of my every movement. Under the circumstances I found that it was necessary for me to practice a little deception on the Mormons if I expected to accomplish anything in the way of catching and particularly of surprising the Indians. So I encamped on the south side of the town of Provo, far enough away from the town to be able to slip off in the night without their knowledge, and giving out the impression that I should stay all night and in the morning send scouts up to Spanish Fork to ascertain whether the Indians were really there and what their number was, &c.; and to completely allay any suspicions regarding my moving during the night I made verbal arrangements and contracts to have hay and grain delivered for the command in the morning, and in fact the men themselves believed they were to remain until morning. But at midnight I had them awakened noiselessly, without the sound of a bugle note, saddled up and slipped off with the intention of reaching the mouth of the cañon before daylight, and making my arrangements to advance up the cañon as soon as it was light enough for the men to see to walk and climb the mountains.

I reached the mouth of the cañon just as day was breaking on the 15th of April; had my one wagon with provisions and the ambulance driven up parallel to each other and thirty paces apart, and, taking the lariat ropes off the horses’ necks, tied them together, making a picket rope, and stretched it from one vehicle to the other. I then dismounted Captain Price’s company (sixty men), and twenty men of Company H, leaving Lieutenant Finnerty with twenty men to guard the eighty horses, which were tied up to the picket rope; directed Captain Price to take Lieutenant Weed and forty men across the river to deploy as flankers and skirmishers on the south side of the cañon, and Lieutenant Clark to take Lieutenant Bradley and forty men to deploy as flankers and skirmishers on the left, or north, side of the cañon, myself taking Lieutenant Ethier, Adjutant Harris, and Lieutenant Peel, with about fifty men, and Lieutenant Honeyman, with the howitzer and accompanying gunners, up the center of the cañon. By the time these preliminaries were arranged it had reached the hour of 4.30 a.m. and would have been quite light but for the heavy rain that was falling. After moving up in this order, my flankers having almost insurmountable mountain spurs to cross that were running down into the Spanish Fork, necessarily making their movements very slow, at 5 a.m., and after getting into the cañon about a mile, the enemy, from his chosen positions on the right, left, and front, opened fire The howitzer having been run up on the spur of a mountain, Lieutenant Honeyman, in charge of it, {p.208} could easily see where the enemy’s fire was the heaviest, and with great coolness and skill he dropped his shell among them, the center in the meantime moving steadily up until they came right onto the brink of a deep side ravine in which the enemy had his main force, and opened on him with the revolvers. This was too much for him; he could not stand such close quarters. When it came to meeting the cool but piercing eye of the white men in deadly conflict, face to face, the redskins quailed, and they began to give way. Then the “forward” and “charge” were sounded and the fight became a running one, the Indians taking advantage of every little outlet from the main cañon, as they retreated up it, to make their escape. At 11 a.m., after chasing the enemy with cavalry fourteen miles up the cañon, scattering him like quails, and finding that my horses were giving out, and knowing that I had a long road to retrace through a dangerous cañon, I ordered the “recall” and “assembly” sounded.

The result of the expedition and battle is that although the Indians were in possession and expecting us later in the day we surprised them as to the time of our coming. We killed about 30 warriors, their chief among the number, and wounded many more who made their escape for the time, but who will undoubtedly die; recaptured 3 [mules] and 1 horse, with saddles, bridles, &c., that had been stolen from Lieutenant Honeyman, and 18 horses, saddles, bridles, quite a number of good rifles, and other plunder of the Indians; losing on our side 1 killed-Lieut. F. A. Peel, regimental quartermaster, Second California Volunteer Cavalry-and 2 wounded-Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant Brown and Sergeant Booth, of Company M, Second California Volunteer Cavalry. By the accompanying rough draft* of the cañon, and taking into consideration the fact that it is twenty-five miles long, you will see that it is an exceedingly strong hold, and will not be surprised at its being called by the Mormons and heretofore believed by the Indians to be the impenetrable and impregnable cañon; one such as none but California troops could drive a superior or even an equal number of Indians from. The enemy’s force, from the best information I can get, was about 200 warriors. To Lieutenant Honeyman, and his coolness and skill in using his howitzer, is in a great measure due the credit of the battle being won with so slight a loss on our side. As for the Second Cavalry, both officers and men behaved as soldiers should, and it would be unfair to make any invidious distinctions. Suffice it to say that they sustained their well-earned fame as the “Fighting Second.”

All of which is respectfully submitted.

GEO. S. EVANS, Colonel Second California Vol. Cav., Commanding Expedition.

Lieut. W. L. USTICK, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Utah.

* Not found.

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APRIL 12-24,1863.– Expedition from Camp Babbitt to Keysville, Cal.

Report of Capt. Moses A. McLaughlin, Second California Cavalry.

CAMP INDEPENDENCE, Owen’s River Valley, April 24, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that in obedience to instructions dated Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal., April 10, 1863, and signed {p.209} Lieut. Col. William Jones, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, I left Camp Babbitt on Sunday, the 12th instant, in command of twenty-four men of Company D and eighteen men of Company E, accompanied by Lieutenants French and Daley, one 12-pounder howitzer, and four six-mule Government teams, used for the transportation of rations, company property, ammunition, and forage, all of which arrived in good condition at Camp Independence, Owen’s Valley, on the 24th of the same month. Distance traveled I suppose to be 250 or 275 miles. I had been instructed by Colonel Jones to investigate the Indian troubles on Kern River. On arriving at Keysville I was waited upon by several of the residents of the place, who represented that there was-a large body of Indians encamped upon the North Fork of Kern River; that many of these Indians had doubtless been engaged in the war and in the depredations committed in Kern River Valley; that one man had been murdered in Kelsey Cañon; that Roberts and Waldron had lost about 150 head of stock; that many other citizens had lost cattle, horses, and other property; that the roads were unsafe, and finally, that the Indians there congregated were for the most part strangers in the valley, and were thought to be Tehachapie and Owen’s River Indians, who after seeing so many troops pass had endeavored to shield themselves from punishment by seeking the more immediate vicinity of the white settlements. After having the above statements, and learning that José Chico was in the neighborhood, I sent for him and two other chiefs who were known to have been friendly. José Chico is an Owen’s River Indian, but resides on Kern River, where he cultivates a farm. He speaks but little English. In Spanish he, however, makes himself well understood. From him I learned that the Tehachapies had endeavored to have him go to the war with them; that many of his own Indians had gone; that some had returned and were now in the valley, sleeping in the camps at night and hiding in the daytime; that there were many Indians there whom he did not know, either Owen’s or Tehachapies. I told him to remain in camp with me and dismissed the others. I informed Doctor George, Mr. Herman, and others, citizens, that I would visit the camps early in the morning, and that they might accompany me and vouch for such Indians as they might know. Accordingly at 2 a.m. on the 19th, accompanied by a detail of twenty men of my command and Lieutenant Daley, with José Chico as guide, I left camp, and at dawn surrounded the camp of the Indians, which was situated about ten miles from Keysville, upon the right bank of Kern River. I had the bucks collected together, and informed José Chico and the citizens who had arrived that they might choose out those whom they knew to have been friendly. This was soon done. The boys and old men I sent back to their camps, and the others, to the number of thirty-five, for whom no one could vouch, were either shot or sabered. Their only chance for life being their fleetness, but none escaped, though many of them fought well with knives, sticks, stones, and clubs. This extreme punishment, though I regret it, was necessary, and I feel certain that a few such examples will soon crush the Indians and finish the war in this and adjacent valleys. It is now a well-established fact that no treaty can be entered into with these Indians. They care nothing for pledges given, and have imagined that they could live better by war than peace. They will soon learn that they have been mistaken, as with the forces here they will soon either be killed off, or pushed so far in the surrounding deserts that they will perish by famine. A Tejon prisoner says the Tejon and Tehachapie Indians (those for whom the Government has done so munch) have been engaged in both these {p.210} wars, and as soon as they are tired return to the reservation. The Indian agents should be notified of this fact. If I have to send down there I will leave them very little to do, and save the Government some treasure. The route from Visalia by way of Walker’s Pass is far preferable to the Los Angeles route, as upon the former there is wood, water, and grass at easy marches. Forage can be purchased in Tulare Valley and forwarded to Keysville, from which point the Government teams can bring it to Camp Independence, having water and grass at intervals upon the road, of not more than fifteen or twenty miles, while upon the Los Angeles road from Tehachapie Cañon by Walker’s Pass, a distance of over fifty miles, there is not a blade of grass and the water unfit to be used.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. MCLAUGHLIN, Capt., Second Cav. California Vols., Comdg. Camp Independence.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.

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APRIL 24-MAY 26, 1863.– Operations in Owen’s River and adjacent valleys, Cal.

Report of Capt. Moses A. McLaughlin, Second California Cavalry.

CAMP INDEPENDENCE, Owen’s River Valley, May 26, 1863.

COLONEL: In conjunction with the accompanying report, dated May 26, 1863, I would most respectfully beg leave to make the following statement in relation to the operations against the Indians in this and the adjacent valleys since April 24, 1863: My almost continued absence in the mountains and the uncertainty of a speedy termination of the difficulties have rendered it heretofore very unsafe to make any statements which could be relied upon. I hope, therefore, colonel, that this will be a partial excuse for the brief and unsatisfactory reports that I have been very unwillingly obliged to forward to your office. On my arrival at Camp Independence April 24, 1863, I found that the Indians were following the same mode of warfare which they had adopted against Colonel Evans in 1862-that of drawing the troops into deep cañons and ravines, up the sides of precipitous mountains, where, hidden behind the rocks, they could with safety use their arms against the exhausted soldiers as they endeavored to follow them. In almost every skirmish the Indians were thus enabled to kill or wound some of the men. I abandoned this course and directed the troops to be conducted during the night up the mountains, where they were easiest of ascent, and where the Indians were not thought to be, and as soon as daylight would permit, to search for Indians in the ravines and cations as they descended to the base of the mountains, where mounted parties were stationed to cut them off should they be forced into the valley. This plan did not suit the Indians, and consequently they abandoned range after range, spring after spring, so closely followed by the troops that they were obliged to throw away even their water jars and seek refuge in the deserts near Death Valley, where they were forced to subsist upon cactus and carry water at least a day’s march. In the meantime scouting parties were employed in searching for any smaller {p.211} bands who might have remained behind hidden in the tule swamps along the river, and scarcely a day passed without two or three of then being found and killed, and everything destroyed that could be of any use to the living. I had instructed the troops, however, that it was of the utmost importance that prisoners should be taken, not only women but men, as I felt confident that their love of life would prompt them to furnish important information as to the whereabouts of the other Indians, their numbers, &c., and that possibly they could be used as guides.

About the 14th of May several Indians who had remained hidden near the river were captured by Captain Noble’s men, and finding that they would not be harmed, but that, on the contrary, they would receive food and clothing, and being informed through the interpreter that we came to make peace, not war, they were prevailed upon to conduct the troops to where they supposed a large party belonging to Joaquin Jim was encamped and where they could be surrounded. From these Indians I learned that Captain George was near Death Valley, but the exact place they did not know. I furnished them with four passes and white flags, explained to them their nature, allowing them fifteen days from the 16th of May to find Captain George and the other Indians and bring them into camp; informed them that after that time if they had not delivered themselves up that no more prisoners would be taken, neither men, women, nor children; that the land which had been set apart for their use would be given away, and that a price would be set upon their heads. I also reminded them of the fate of the Tehachapie and Kern River Indians. On the part of the Government I made liberal promises, as it had everything to gain by their submission and nothing to lose if they did not submit. The four runners referred to I had detained in camp until such time as I might be able to reach Captain Jim’s camp. Accompanied by Captain Noble, Lieutenant Denny, and a detail of eighty men from Companies E and L, and three Indians, I left Bishop’s Creek (fifty miles above Camp Independence), but owing to the darkness of the night, the difficulties of the trail, and the ignorance of the Indians as to distance, the command did not reach the Indian camp until an hour after sunrise on the 16th. The most intimate knowledge of the locality, aided by the darkness of the night, could only have promised success, as the camp was so situated that it commanded a view of all approaches. The Indians were, however, obliged to abandon everything, even their sick and lame, and seek refuge in the mountains, where it would have been dangerous to have followed them with men already exhausted by a ride of over forty miles during a piercing cold night. The huts, baskets, and other property were destroyed; the helpless left unmolested. The detachment remained out four days, returning by way of Adobe Meadows and Hot Springs Valley. At Big Pine Creek (Captain Noble’s camp) on the 19th of May I issued an order suspending hostilities until further orders and sent out more Indian messengers.

On the 21st an Indian was brought into camp who came to announce that Captain George was on his way and would be in camp in two days. In order to learn the truth of the statement, and if true to protect Captain George from the fury of the citizens should they chance to meet him, I sent Sergt. Daniel McLaughlin and Blacksmith Larcom with the guide to find him and conduct him into camp, and on the evening of the 22d I had the pleasure of seeing them return with tie much feared Indian chieftain. Captain George remained all night and went back next day and brought in his people, who appeared to have {p.212} suffered severely from hunger and thirst. He informed me that many of the women and children had died for want of water. Messengers are out gathering in the scattered bands, and I think there are now here about 300. The number will be increased to about 1,000 by the arrival of the Coso, Joaquin Jim, Captain Dick, Tenimaha, and other chiefs. I have before had the honor of stating to you that these Indians had no idea of the importance or obligations of a treaty, only so far as Indian agents fulfill their promises, and as has already happened, a month’s delay in the arrival of the expected gifts would be sufficient to plunge this valley into another war. Mr. Wentworth, Indian agent for this district, has been most undoubtedly the cause of the present difficulties, and from representations made to me he has been shamefully negligent of his duties; added to this his ignorance of Indian character, who expect more than promised, never less. Mr. Wentworth promised everything, gave nothing, and the results have been the destruction of life and property of settlers in the valley, besides an immense outlay to the Government. Undoubtedly many of the Indians deserve the severest punishment, yet it would be very difficult to distinguish between the innocent and guilty. I would therefore recommend that they be removed to Nome Lackie, or some other Government reserve where they would be prevented from future outbreaks, or that a military commission be appointed to try and punish those found guilty, which would, I think, result in the putting to death of nearly every male Indian over twelve years of age. If their lives can be spared with safety to the valley I would respectfully recommend it, but fear that next year would only see a repetition of present difficulties.

In conclusion I would most respectfully beg leave to recommend to your kind notice the officers and men of this command. True, they have not fought great battles-there were none to fight-but the midnight marches over untrodden mountains, mounted, but more frequently dismounted; the sufferings from hunger, thirst, heat and cold, endured without a murmur; added to these the frequent disappointment of finding the enemy gone, without being discouraged, are qualities which will I hope meet with the approbation of those who recognize and esteem true courage. Every order given has been obeyed, no matter what the amount of labor or hardships entailed; no discussing of reasons why or wherefore. By their implicit obedience and unremitting toil by day or night, in less than twenty days from the date of assuming command I have the honor to report to you the Indians subdued and suing for peace, and a force of 250 well-disciplined and brave men only too anxious to find a more worthy field wherein to serve their country. Doctor George, from his knowledge of the country and experience in Indian fighting, has rendered signal service, and deserves many thanks, if not more substantial proofs of appreciation. Lieut. George D. French deserves particular notice, as I have learned from the Indians that in stead of killing one Indian as reported he and his detail of seven men killed four. José Chico, the interpreter, has rendered most important services, as through him alone I have been able to communicate with the Indians.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. MCLAUGHLIN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, San Francisco.

{p.213}

[Inclosure.]

CAMP INDEPENDENCE, Owen’s River Valley, May 26, 1863.

Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Gal.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the Indian chiefs To-sah-o-i-do-bah (Captain George), See-ah-ko-see, To-chu-ten-air-up, and their Indians are now at this camp, subject to your order. Respectfully referred to accompanying statement.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. A. MCLAUGHLIN, Captain, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, June 5, 1863.

Respectfully referred to Mr. Wentworth, superintendent for southern Indians, for his information. The department commander desires Mr. Wentworth to take charge of and locate the within-named Indians, the troops giving the necessary assistance. Please return.

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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APRIL 25, 1863.– Skirmish near Fort Bowie, Ariz Ter.

Report of Capt. Benjamin F. Harrover, Fifth California Infantry.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Bowie, Ariz. Ter., April 26, 1863.

GENERAL: I have the honor to give you the following account of an affair with the Apache Indians: About 8 o’clock yesterday morning the Indians were reported in large numbers approaching the fort from the north. I immediately started out with twenty men of my own company and five cavalry, accompanied by Asst. Surg, Edward L. Watson, First Infantry California Volunteers, and Lieut. John D. Slocum, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Lieutenant Qualey being left in command of the post. On reaching the spring north of the post the Indians were discovered within range, and I ordered my men to fire. The Indians commenced to retreat, but returned our fire. A running fight was kept up for about three hours, during which time I had driven them about four miles. I believe that they lost several in killed and wounded, as I saw several fall. I had one of my company shot through the shoulder, severe, but not dangerous, and one of the cavalry horses was wounded in the breast. The Indians had many guns of large caliber, also several rifle muskets.

I remain, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. F. HARROVER, Captain, Fifth infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. J. R. WEST, Headquarters District of Arizona, Hart’s Mill, Tex.

{p.214}

MAY 4-OCTOBER 26, 1863.– Expedition to the Snake Indian Country, Idaho Ter.

REPORTS.*

No. 1.–Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, commanding District of Oregon.
No. 2.–Col. Reuben F. Maury, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding expedition.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, U. S. Army, commanding District of Oregon.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 1, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to send you, hereto annexed, copies of reports dated 24th of July, 3d and 8th of August, received from Col. R. F. Maury, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding expedition against Snake Indians and upon the emigrant road. There seems every likelihood that he met Captain Crawford with the emigrant escort from Omaha, Nebr., on the 20th instant with the head of the emigration at the crossing above Fort Hall. I promised Captain Crawford to endeavor to thus arrange the movements of Colonel Maury, as see my plan set forth in my letter to you of the 10th of February last. Colonel Maury’s dispatch of the 24th of July from Camp No. 25, Boisé River, Idaho Ter., is as follows:

I have the honor to report that having been supplied last evening by Capt. W. B. Hughes, assistant quartermaster, with the necessary outfit, my command this morning resumed the march. The animals of the expedition are not in as good plight as when we arrived at Boisé River, but I shall endeavor to be at the crossing beyond Fort Hall between the 15th and 20th proximo.

Colonel Maury’s dispatch of the 3d of August from Camp No. 33, Camas Prairie, is as follows.**

Colonel Maury’s dispatch of the 8th of August, from Camp No. 33, Camas Prairie, is as follows. ***

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

* See also Alvord’s report of October 6, 1863, p. 156.

** See p. 217.

*** See p. 218.

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No. 2.

Reports of Col. Reuben F. Maury, First Oregon Cavalry, commanding expedition.

HEADQUARTERS FIRST OREGON CAVALRY, Camp on Dry Creek, May 4, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I left Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., this morning with Companies A, D, and E, of the First Oregon Cavalry, consisting of 7 officers and 212 enlisted men, en route for Port Lapwai.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

{p.215}

HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY OREGON VOLUNTEERS, Camp No. 1, Left Fork, Lapwai, June 15, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that my command, consisting of Companies A, D, and E, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, marched from Fort Lapwai this morning, and are now encamped at this place. I transmit herewith consolidated report of the strength of my command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. F. MAURY, Colonel, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. FIRST CAVALRY OREGON VOLUNTEERS, Camp No. 6, White River Crossing of Salmon River, Idaho Ter., June 20, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that my command arrived here to-day in good condition. I will cross Salmon River to-morrow. I have determined to proceed by the route up Little Salmon. The route thus far has been very good, and grass and water for animals abundant. No casualties. The health of the command is excellent and the troops in fine spirits.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel, Commanding Expedition against Snake Indians.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY OREGON VOLUNTEERS, Camp No. 11, on Little Salmon River, June 25, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that my command arrived at above-named camp this day in good health and condition. The road thus far has been very good for a mountain road, with an abundance of wood, water, and grass, and with the exception of one or two places is perhaps as good a trail as could be expected in so broken and mountainous a country. Unfortunately two mules were precipitated down the side of the mountain to-day and killed. Their cargoes were saved. No other casualties have occurred. The distance to this point from Fort Lapwai is something over 100 miles, and the general course about south, or perhaps a trifle east of south. We are supposed to be about 145 miles from Bannock City or Placerville.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. F. MAURY, Colonel, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY OREGON VOLUNTEERS, Camp Independence, in Payette Valley, Idaho Ter., July 4, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived at this point with my command this day in fair condition, being the twentieth day out from Fort Lapwai, and distance traveled, according to our calculation, 201 {p.216} miles. We are now distant from Placerville about twenty-five miles in a northwest direction, having made a detour to the westward from the main trail by passing down the west side of Payette Valley until we reach the ferry across main Payette River, crossing at or near that point. I made this change of route from my original intention in order to avoid the mountain dividing the Payette and Boisé Rivers, which at this point is represented to me as being in a very bad condition, and the grass and water very scarce. I expect to reach Boisé River in four or five days, but at what particular point cannot now precisely state. Have as yet met with no Indians, nor any evidence of their proximity. The health of the command continues good, and the animals in as good condition generally as when we left Lapwai. For a more full report of the command I have the honor to refer you to the accompanying field return for the last ten days of June, which is without alteration this date.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY OREGON VOLUNTEERS, Camp No. 23, on Boisé River, Idaho Ter., July 8, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report the arrival of my command at this place to-day, having marched 250 miles, estimated, from Fort Lapwai. This distance might have been reduced to 225 miles, and rafting Payette River, opposite Bonny Valley, obviated, by continuing down the west bank of Lake or Middle Fork from the point where the trail first crosses it, six miles southwest of Fish Lake. The health of my command continues good, and the animals are in as good condition as could be expected.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 24, on Boisé River, Idaho Ter., July 13, 1863.

SIR: I have been joined by Companies H and I, First Washington Territory Infantry, the strength of which you will see from the returns, and am now waiting for the necessary outfit, the supplies not having as yet arrived. In consequence of the scarcity and difficulty of procuring the means of transportation, I have determined to establish a depot at some eligible point between this and Fort Ball, from which I can send back a portion of our train for such additional supplies as I may require. The health of the command is as yet good, but I fear the consequence of much delay in camp, both upon its health and morale. Emigrants (two parties) from Missouri arrived yesterday. They report having seen Indians on Camas Prairie and beyond, though making no demonstration of hostilities. They also say that General Connor has been disappointed in his arrangements with the Indians; {p.217} that one train had already been attacked some forty miles beyond Fort Hall. It will take me but few days to move after receiving the necessary supplies from Captain Hughes, which I have reason to think will be very soon, as his train has been heard from at Snake River, some forty miles distant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 24, on Boisé River, Idaho Ter., July 16, 1863.

SIR: I have to report that my command is still lying here awaiting the arrival of supplies and means of transportation. Alkali in considerable quantities exists in this vicinity, which with the scarcity of good grass has affected our animals unfavorably. Inclosed please find consolidated morning report of my command for this day.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 33, on Camas Prairie, August 3, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report the arrival of my entire command in this valley on the 1st instant. I arrived myself with 100 cavalry on the night of the 30th ultimo, leaving the remainder of the cavalry and the infantry, under command of Major Rinearson, to bring up the supply train. On the march from Fort Boisé hither and since my arrival here I have kept scouting parties out on each side of the route, north and southward, in search of Indians, but thus far have been unable to find any evidence of their presence in the vicinity of the road later than two or three weeks ago. Two detachments are out at present with three days’ supplies, one toward Snake River and one toward the source of Salmon and Boisé Rivers. From the information received from emigrants and others recently over the route from Fort Hall to this place, I am led to believe that the principal number of the Indians who were here in the early spring are now in the vicinity of Fort Hall, for the ostensible purpose of making a treaty with General Connor. Those perhaps who are more hostile are near Salmon Falls, or on the south side of Snake River. This is an extensive and fertile valley. It is thirty miles in length and from six to eight miles in width, and is watered by many fine streams that take their rise in the mountain range dividing the waters of Salmon and Boisé Rivers from those of Malade River, and crossing the valley at intervals of from two to four miles run southward into Malade River, which flows at the south side of the valley and in an easterly direction. The growth of grass throughout the entire valley is luxuriant, and the mountains on either side afford pine timber in large, tracts or spots, not more than five miles distant from the margin of the valley. I shall leave Major Rinearson with the two infantry companies and a part of the cavalry at or near {p.218} this place, and send sixty or seventy mules back to Fort Boisé for additional supplies, whilst I shall proceed myself, with cavalry only, to Fort Hall. The health of my command is good and the animals are in fair condition.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 33, Camas Prairie, Idaho Ter., August 8, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the detachments of which mention was made in my last have all returned. Captain Currey with his detachment of twenty men returned last evening, having been five days out, and having made the entire circuit of Malade River to Salmon Falls. Finding fresh signs of Indians passing from this valley toward Snake River, he followed their trail, crossing Malade several times until he arrived in the vicinity of the falls, when he came upon a camp of seventeen lodges, which he immediately surrounded, but the Indians appeared defenseless, and made such demonstrations of friendship that he could not, with any regard for humanity, assault them. Accordingly he made captives of two leaders of their number and brought them with him to this camp. He found in all about 200 Indians in the vicinity of the falls engaged in fishing. They were apparently destitute, having little or no stock. Salmon Falls are almost due south and about sixty miles from here by the nearest route. Malade empties into Snake River about twelve miles below them. I have interrogated the Indians brought in by Captain Currey without being able to ascertain from them any clue to the whereabouts of any captive whites or the animals stolen by their tribe. They say, “The bad Indians are all gone to the buffalo country.” I shall release them to-day. I shall move from here to-morrow or next day. It is supposed to be 130 to 140 miles from here to Fort Hall.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 33, Camas Prairie, Idaho Ter., August 8, 1863.

GENERAL: The scouting parties sent out on my arrival in this valley have returned. The one (Captain Currey’s) going to Salmon Falls found a few families at that point, mostly without arms or property of any kind and professing great friendship. A ferry has been established there. The owners live there unmolested, and represent the Indians in the vicinity as perfectly harmless. They are poor and depend upon fish for a living. If nothing occurs to prevent, I will cross the river at the falls on my return and give the streams entering on the south of Snake River a thorough search; perhaps, if time and circumstances permit, visit the headwaters of Owyhee and Malheur, meeting my supplies for the return to Walla Walla at Malheur River. The Indians at the falls, {p.219} two of whom Captain Currey brought in with him, say that most all the Indians-all who were able-have gone east to the buffalo grounds. Very little dependence can be placed upon their representations. They say they know nothing of any treaty with General Connor. It is to be regretted very much, taking into consideration the present necessities, as well as future prospects, of the Government and these Indians, that the military post had not been established in this valley. I look upon it as a misfortune. With a permanent military establishment in this vicinity, no difficulty would be experienced in collecting and controlling them. I will leave the infantry and sufficient cavalry for scouting purposes in this valley under command of Major Rinearson. I expect to return by the 10th of September, and will be governed by circumstances in future movements, of which I will keep you advised. It is doubtful whether we find any party of hostile Indians. I am inclined to the opinion the immigration to Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, with exception of that to Beaver Head, will be very small. It is time that a large portion of it had reached this point, yet very few, not over 100 wagons, have made their appearance. Notwithstanding that this season was munch earlier than last, the immigration consists mostly of families in good health and well supplied. This valley is large enough for a populous county, covered with nutritious grass and well watered, and unquestionably with the advance of mineral discoveries will be thickly settled. Timber of good quality, though not very abundant, at convenient distance on the mountains. The health of the command is excellent, and the animals of the expedition first rate. With the latter we have had no trouble and met with no losses.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding Expedition.

General BENJAMIN ALVORD, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HEADQUARTERS EXPEDITION AGAINST SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 39, on Lost River, Idaho Ter., August 15, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith copy of a letter this day received from Governor Doty, of Utah Territory. My command will be at the ferry above Fort Hall day after to-morrow. The distance from here is said to be fifty-two miles, forty of which is entirely destitute of water. I have received no tidings of Captain Crawford’s command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

[Inclosure.]

BOX ELDER, UTAH TER., July 30, 1863.

OFFICER COMDG. THE TROOPS OF THE UNITED STATES AT FORT BOISÉ AND IN THE SNAKE RIVER COUNTRY:

A treaty of peace was this day concluded at this place by General Connor and myself with the bands of the Shoshones, of which Pocatello, San Pitch, and Sagwich are the principal chiefs. This information is given that these Shoshones may not be injured when met by the {p.220} troops, if they are at the time behaving themselves well. A treaty of peace has also been entered into at Fort Bridger with other bands of the Shoshones, and it is understood that all of that nation are at peace with the United States and are under a pledge to remain friendly.

JAMES DUANE DOTY, Commander and Governor of Utah Territory.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 42, Near Fort Hall, Idaho Ter., August 24, 1863.

GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that my command arrived at this camp in good health and condition on the 18th instant, having marched a distance of 170 miles from our depot in Camas Prairie, which we left on the 9th instant. Our present camp is on the Port Neuf River, about four miles from Fort Hall and about eighteen miles below the ferry across Snake River, at the mouth of Blackfoot Creek. After leaving Camas Prairie and the adjacent valleys, many of which are of good size and present every appearance of fertility, there is no country offering any inducement for settlement or affording supplies of any kind for the Indians, the streams all sinking at the line of an immense lava field, which approaches the base of the mountains so closely in many places for miles that there is barely a passage for wagons. Water and grass, however, is sufficient, with exception of about sixty miles at this end of the march. The road is generally level and good, with exception of having occasionally to pass over points of the lava fields. I arrived at and crossed Snake River on the 17th, when I met Captain Crawford, of the overland escort, both reaching the ferry in the same hour. He had left his camp on Ross Fork, where the routes for the north and south sides of Snake River separate, and was undetermined as to which he would take. After consultation he concluded, on account of the forty-mile drive on the north side, and the report that one train of forty wagons had preceded him on the south side, to follow the latter route. He reports that there has been no difficulty or trouble of any nature with the emigration this season up to this point. There has been none from this west. He thinks he has the rear of the emigration, consisting of seventy or eighty wagons, with him, having telegraphed from the last station to the rear some 200 miles, and getting information that none had passed that point since his party, and that none had been heard of in rear of that. With the exception of his party, and an occasional team transporting goods or produce from Salt Lake to Bannock City, in the Beaver Head country, none have passed our camp or been heard of. Captain Crawford and party were in good health and generally well supplied, and stock in good condition. The emigrants have had good teams and are well supplied, though the emigration, as compared with that of last season, is very small. About 250 wagons have passed over the route on the north side of the river, and probably 110, including Captain Crawford’s party, on the south side. I will wait in this camp some days yet, when I will return to Camas Prairie; from thence, as indicated heretofore, I will cross the river with the cavalry at or near Salmon Falls and visit the headwaters of the streams entering from the south, meeting my supplies for return to Walla Walla at Owyhee or Malheur, the infantry returning by the same route we came to Fort Boisé. At the falls and on these streams I am in hopes I may be able to satisfy the desire of my command and the ends of justice by inflicting punishment upon {p.221} such Indians as have not been embraced in the treaties made by General Connor and Governor Doty. Our relations with all the Indians in this section are explained by the letter of Governor Doty, copy of which was transmitted heretofore, and the copy of one received from General Connor on my arrival at the ferry near my present camp, which goes forward by this express. The only Indians I have found are those alluded to by the latter, who appear very friendly and say that General Connor has promised to visit and treat with them. A good many of the leading men of the tribes treated with, now living farther east, have visited my camp, generally having letters of recommendation from Governor Doty. I have no doubt that from the rapid succession of settlements in and bordering upon all the country of which they have been heretofore almost the sole occupants, their desire for peace and disposition to behave themselves is sincere, but all experience shows that unless collected and settled in some named district, and some control exercised over them, robberies, &c., will be of annual recurrence. Small parties of our people, and, no doubt, sometimes aggravations and aggressions by these parties traveling in every direction, searching every stream and mountain for gold, offer temptations, sharpened by the curtailment of hunting and fishing privileges (which our settlements naturally cause), which are not easy to be resisted. The south side of Camas Prairie would afford an excellent settlement for them. Camas abounds [with] an abundance of small fish in the streams, plenty of grass, and being adjacent to Snake River, affords opportunities of fishing below the great falls, above which salmon cannot pass. This would not interfere with settlements on the north side, which embraces the largest extent of good lands. All the Indians living northwest of Salt Lake visit the grounds in the spring and summer, putting up their winter supply of camas, and after the root season is over, resort to the falls and other points on the Snake to put up fish. All that were in the valley were collected by messengers east of Fort Hall three or four weeks in advance of our arrival. Necessity will beyond doubt compel them to keep up their visits to the camas grounds, and there is good reason to believe that, if permitted, the usual thefts and outrages would be the consequence, unless settled in the presence of some controlling power. The effect of failure to commit the usual robberies is easily detected among those here by the destitution of which they complain, and scarcity of powder, lead, &c. The great outrages committed heretofore by the frequenters of the country between Boisé and Fort Hall causes some regret that accounts should be canceled so easily, but no doubt the punishment inflicted by General Connor, and the disposition of citizens with whom they have come in contact, have satisfied them that any other policy than their present would lead to extermination.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. B. ALVORD, Commanding District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 51, Camas Prairie, Idaho Ter., September 10, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report the arrival of my command at this camp on the evening of the 5th instant in good health. Not hearing of any emigration, and accepting the opinion of Captain Crawford, of {p.222} the overland escort, as well as the ferryman at Snake River, that the emigration had passed, I broke up camp on the Port Neuf, near Fort Hall, on the 27th ultimo, and moved for this camp by the same route over which we had gone out. Without the occurrence of anything worthy of mention we arrived as above stated. I have completed my arrangements for the march from this camp via Salmon Falls, sending the infantry, Captain O’Regan, to report to Major Lugenbeel and Captain Mason, to receive of Captain Hughes, acting commissary of subsistence at Fort Boisé, such supplies as I may require for the march to Fort Walla Walla and to camp on the Malheur until I join him with the cavalry. Of the prospects of the expedition to the south side of Snake River anything said at present can only be conjecture. The same may be said as to the permanency of the peace or treaties made with the Snake or Shoshone Indians. It is evident, however, to my mind, that it cannot last when these Indians are allowed the privilege of their old resorts or of scattering generally over the country. We found on the waters of McArthur’s River the body of an Indian killed about the 20th August, as we inferred from the date of papers found near the body. Such acts will certainly lead to retaliation, and most likely unsuspecting parties be the sufferers. I learn also that a good many of Pocatello’s people crossed over from Snake River to the waters of Lost River the day after the command crossed what is known as the desert. These will undoubtedly scatter over the country, as heretofore, according to interest or inclination, and cannot fail to come into communication with more or less of our people who are ignorant of existing treaties, or of the tribe to which they may belong. In fact, such knowledge by many is of little importance, and makes but little difference in their disposition to them. Pocatello was at our camp on the Port Neuf the day before we left. In acknowledging the receipt of General Connor’s letter (copy of which has been forwarded) I remarked, “I hope to find on the south side of Snake River on my return to Fort Walla Walla the remaining portions of what are known as the Shoshone or Snake Indians, and to be able to inflict such punishment as their crimes deserve.” Since my return to this camp I learn (unofficially) that an Indian agent, with military escort from Utah, had gone down on the south side of Snake River and returned to Utah by the same route. I know nothing of the object of his visit, but taking into consideration the fact that a number of white people are intimately associated with these Indians, and their facilities for getting information I doubt whether I succeed in finding any body of Indians of sufficient force to warrant me in attacking them; and in the case of the small parties that I may be able to capture, or that may come to my camp, I cannot possibly obtain such evidence as would warrant me in hanging them. I will move early in the morning, and shall endeavor to keep you advised of my future movements and acts as often as possible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 56, Salmon Falls Creek, Idaho Ter., September 23, 1863.

SIR: Since my last of September 10 nothing of any importance has occurred. I arrived with the command at the Salmon Falls on the {p.223} 15th and crossed to the south side on the 16th, establishing the present camp. All in good health. The few Indians we find here are miserably poor and almost destitute. Represent themselves as very friendly and ask permission to live undisturbed in the vicinity. I have represented to them that as long as they remained here without molesting in any manner our people who may travel through the country they might expect to live in peace, but on the contrary they could expect nothing but extermination; that I did not come out to make them presents or to buy a peace, but to make them feel and understand that they must not only behave themselves, but that in the event of bad faith or conduct they would be pursued and punished. There are about thirty or forty of them living within eight miles above and below the falls. Most of them were here last September while I was camped in the neighborhood. They are of course like all other Indians, and have probably been guilty of acts of violence and robbery, but neither during the last nor this season have I heard of any complaints against them. There is a small camp of the same party about thirty miles below on the north side of the river, which I will visit before leaving. I have been careful to impress upon the chief or head man of the party that himself and his people would be held responsible for any depredations that might be committed near the falls; that if bad Indians came among them they must immediately give notice of the fact, or suffer for their acts. Scouting parties under Captain Drake and Lieutenant Apperson have returned, reporting no signs of Indians made the present season. Captain Drake went up the river above Rock Creek to the Great Falls some forty or fifty miles, and reports three falls within five miles; the first or upper, 180 feet; the second, three miles below, 198 feet (measured); the third (estimated), about 29 feet; all perpendicular, almost inaccessible on account of the walls of rock from 500 to 1,000 feet high inclosing the river. The captain succeeded in getting his animals to the river at the second or greatest fall. At the first he discovered signs of visitors; at the second, none. Lieutenant Apperson with his party took a southwesterly direction with expectations of reaching headwaters of the Humboldt, but the scarcity of water compelled his return. He was thirty-odd hours without water for man or animals. I will leave the falls on the 25th en route for the Owyhee, examining to the west all probable resorts for the Indians, and will, whether any are found or not, be able to form a tolerably correct opinion as to the number who have inhabited or visited the country heretofore. The travel from the mines to Salt Lake and the east continues in small parties without the least difficulty. I am inclined to the opinion that more men have gone east than came west by the Snake River roads.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 61, on Bruneau or Goose Creek, Idaho Ter., October 5, 1863.

SIR: As indicated in my letter of 23d ultimo, the command moved from Salmon Falls Creek on the 25th and reached this camp on the {p.224} 29th, halting one day at the Three Islands, thirty miles below Salmon Falls. The road from the falls does not follow the river. I sent out parties while en route to the Three Islands to collect in all the Indians on either side of the river, or to attack in case of finding any considerable force of them. These were the Indians whom I mentioned in my last as intending to visit. About forty were collected. They live a family in a place, on either side of the river for a distance of thirty or forty miles; have no arms, and a very small number of Indian ponies; not an average of one to each family. As in the case of those at the falls they expressed great desire for peace and a willingness to do anything or go anywhere they might be directed. I had no evidence of guilt or of complaints and endeavored to impress the importance to them of not only not molesting our people themselves, but of giving, in the event of any being molested in their vicinity, such information as would lead to the punishment of the guilty. There are from 80 to 100 of this party, all Shoshones, and, aware of the treaties made at Salt Lake, scattered along the river from the great falls to the mouth of this stream, a distance of 100 miles. Something should be done with them, for if disposed to behave themselves they are liable to be punished for the depredations of the roaming and more enterprising bands that occupy the country to the south and west. Since we crossed the river on the 15th of September scouting parties have examined all the country within our reach. Captain Currey was detached on the 24th ultimo, supplied with ten days’ rations, and directed to go south, following the west bank of Salmon Falls Creek to its source; thence northwest to the headwaters of this stream, and to join the command at this place, where he arrived on the evening of the 4th, having made a circuit of some 200 miles, reaching the divide of the waters of Salmon Falls Creek and the Humboldt. Here it snowed two or three inches upon him. He then changed his course for the waters of this stream, which were successively crossed, heading in snow-capped mountains, and came down it on the west side. Saw during the entire trip but four Indians. One family on Salmon Falls Creek, fifty miles from the falls, two other families on the waters of this stream, who were returning, as they said, from a visit to the Humboldt mines. He crossed and traveled many old and much-used trails, all the signs being made during the spring and early summer, and showing that the Indians were moving south and west, evidently getting into the country drained by John Day’s, Malheur, and Owyhee Rivers. I had hoped to be able to travel down the latter, but the lateness of the season and the distance from Snake River to any point high enough up the Owyhee to render the trip of any service make it impossible. Previous to Captain Currey’s return, Lieutenant Waymire, with a detachment of twenty men of Company D, while scouting, came upon a party of about twenty Indians some twenty miles up this stream, attacked and killed four and wounded several others, who with the remainder escaped on account of the character of the country, the camp being so inaccessible that the lieutenant was obliged to leave his horses a mile and a half distant. Many depredations have been committed on this stream, and the Indians who occupy it never fail to kill and steal whenever opportunity offers. From the sign in the upper part of the valley we would have found quite a force of them, but the creek had been visited about the 1st of September by a party of miners who attacked a party encamped near the mouth. We found the remains of seven bodies. All the roaming Indians of the country visit the Bruneau more or less. It affords {p.225} good grass for animals at a sufficient distance from the road to watch emigrants, and also the greatest abundance of salmon. In this respect it excels any stream entering Snake River that I know of. There is an old and much-traveled trail leaving Snake River near Fort Hall, called the Bannock Trail, which is used by roaming and hostile bands who wish to change the scene of their depredations and prevent suspicion as to what tribe they belong. It touches this river about seventy miles from the mouth. The command will resume the march in the morning for Fort Walla Walla, and reach that post probably about the 1st of November. It continues in excellent health.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Camp No. 67, on Owyhee River, October 11, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report that my command arrived here yesterday in tolerably fair condition. Since leaving Bruneau the feed for animals has been very scarce, in consequence of which our stock is considerably reduced. I found Captain Mason encamped here with his company, in charge of additional supplies received from Fort Boisé for my command. I shall remain here only days and again resume the march. Major Rinearson leaves here to-day to assume command of Fort Boisé. I have kept scouting parties out during the march from Bruneau River, but have succeeded in finding no Indians.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

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HDQRS. EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SNAKE INDIANS, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Ter., October 27, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report the arrival of my command at this post on the 26th instant in good health and fair condition. Companies A and E, of my regiment, and H, of the First Washington Territory Infantry, took quarters at this post, and Company D, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, went into camp near here, from whence I have ordered it to repair to The Dalles on the 29th instant. Myself and staff will leave here for Fort Dalles as soon as practicable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. F. MAURY, Colonel First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters District of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.

{p.226}

MAY 5-30, 1863.– Expedition from Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., to Soda Springs, on the Bear River, Idaho Ter.

Report of Brig. Gen. P. Edward Connor, U. S. Army, commanding District of Utah.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF UTAH, Camp Douglas, Utah Ter., June 2, 1869.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report to the general commanding the department that on the 5th of May ultimo Company H, Third Infantry California Volunteers, Captain Black, left this post, pursuant to my orders, en route, via Box Elder, Bear River, Cache and Marsh Valleys, for a point at or near the great bend of Bear River known as Soda Springs, Idaho Ter., for the purpose of establishing a new post in that region for the protection of the overland emigration to Oregon, California, and the Bannock City mines. Accompanying this expedition and under its protection were a large number of persons heretofore resident of this Territory, seceders (under the name of Morrisites) from the Mormon Church. Many, if not all, of these having been reduced by the long-continued persecutions of the Mormons to the most abject poverty, have for some months past claimed and received the protection and assistance of the forces under my command. Prudential reasons, applying as well to this command as to the Morrisites themselves, rendered it advisable that they should be removed from the vicinity of this camp and beyond the evil influences and powers of the Mormon hierarchy. Regarding the expedition to Soda Springs, Idaho Ter., as presenting a favorable opportunity for this purpose, I ordered transportation to be provided for the most indigent and the distribution of provisions to the destitute, both en route and after arrival at the new post, until such time as by industry and well-directed effort these impoverished and persecuted people should be able to support themselves. Some of them were able to furnish their own teams and wagons. Most of them gathered up their household goods and provided themselves with a scanty supply of provisions for their sustenance. They numbered in all 160 souls, comprised of 53 families, 7 single men, and 4 widows. On the next day, May 6, I followed with Company H, Second Cavalry California Volunteers, Lieutenant Clark commanding, and overtook the main train and infantry twenty-five miles north of this city. Proceeding thence by easy marches of from fifteen to eighteen miles per day along the eastern shore of Great Salt Lake, the entire command arrived at Brigham City (or Box Elder), sixty miles north, May 8. Here leaving the infantry and train to proceed by the old beaten road through Cache and Marsh Valleys and across the mountains, via Sublett’s Cut-Off, I took the cavalry by a less frequented road, crossing Bear River at the lower ferry; thence up the plateau lying between the Malade and Bear Rivers, over the mountains dividing the waters of the Great Basin from those of Snake and Columbia Rivers; thence down the westerly side of Marsh Valley, crossing the Port Neuf River north of Sublett’s Cut-Off, and down the east and right bank of that river to Snake River Ferry, a distance of 200 miles from this post, arriving at that point May 13. Our general course to the ferry was a little east of due north, passing through a series of valleys well watered and with light timber along the streams and on the mountain sides. The luxuriant vegetation at this early season of the year furnishing good grass for the animals, as well as the evidences of {p.227} list year’s growth, bespoke the fertility of the soil and its adaptation to agriculture. This remark more especially applies to Marsh Valley, lying due north of and adjoining Cache Valley, the latter being already thickly settled by Mormons, whose most northerly settlements extend within fifteen or twenty miles of the first-mentioned valley, the Bear River and a low ridge dividing the two valleys. After leaving Brigham City the command performed two night marches, the first of twelve and the second of thirty-five miles, as I had reason to believe that wandering bands of hostile savages, remnants of the Shoshones, engaged or connected with [those] who took part in the battle of Bear River (29th of January last), were in the neighborhood and might be surprised and punished for repeated and recent outrages on emigrants and settlers. In this expectation, however, I was disappointed, few, if any, traces of Indians being found, and thenceforward the command proceeded by daily marches. In Port Neuf Valley we came upon two lodges of Indians (Shoshones), who came unhesitatingly into camp with their squaws, satisfactorily answered all questions propounded, and gave evidence of friendly disposition toward the whites. Giving them to understand the determination of the Government to punish summarily all bad Indians, and receiving assurances of future good conduct on their part, I passed on without molesting these Indians. At Snake River Ferry were several large trains of emigrants bound north to the mines, and here recruiting their animals. Here also was an encampment of seventeen lodges of Shoshone (or Snake) Indians, numbering in all, including those who came in the next day, 250 or 300. They were well mounted and had grazing in the vicinity a considerable number of stock. These Indians were reliably represented to me as friendly and peaceable, and have been living at the ferry during the past winter. Being accompanied by Judge Doty, superintendent of Indian affairs for Utah, a conference was held with the Indians on the night of our arrival attended by the chiefs, old and young men, and squaws. Through an interpreter many questions were asked as to the locality of hostile chiefs and their bands, and the power of the Government duly impressed upon them. They were informed that the troops had been sent to this region to protect good Indians and whites, and equally to punish bad Indians and bad white men; that it was my determination to visit the most summary punishment, even to extermination, on Indians who committed depredations upon the lives and property of emigrants or settlers. They were also assured that if bad whites trespassed upon their rights the report of the facts to me or my officers would be followed by punishment on the malefactors and a prompt remedy of all grievances to the extent of my power. After the customary smoking with the chiefs and a grand dance by men and squaws, I ordered the distribution among them of a small quantity of bacon, flour, and sugar. The conference was satisfactory, and the exhibition of the force at my command in that far-off region, as well as our rapid march through a country rarely traversed by whites, evidently had a good effect. I learned from them that Pocatello, the great chief of the hostile Shoshones, had gone a long distance off on the Lower Snake, probably in the vicinity of the Humboldt; that Saquache [Sagwich ?], one of the leaders, who escaped wounded from the battle of Bear River, was somewhere in the south near the Mormon settlements of Cache Valley, and San Pitch still farther east. The region immediately about the Snake River at this ferry, which is about ten miles east of old Fort Hall, is a dry, barren sand plain, the road to the ferry being exceedingly heavy and {p.228} difficult to traverse. Grass of tolerable quality and quantity is to be found several miles to the eastward on the Blackfoot Creek, which here empties into the Snake after running for perhaps thirty miles parallel with and not far from the river. The Snake here is a rapid stream 250 yards in width, and at this season 20 feet in depth, and is seldom or never fordable at this point. Beyond and to the northward the plain of sage brush and grease wood extends some fifty miles to a high range of mountains, three high buttes in the midst of the plain forming a prominent landmark. The distance from Soda Springs to this ferry, via the Bridger and Fort Hall emigrant road, is upward of seventy miles, pursuing a northwesterly course. Emigrants from the East via this road for the new mines, leaving the ferry travel up the Snake River in nearly an easterly direction about seventy miles to a point nearly due north of Soda Springs, thus following from Soda Springs along two sides of a triangle, either of which is seventy miles bug, a distance of 140 miles: With the design of finding a practicable route for a wagon road through some pass in the mountains whereby a more direct course could be made, I sent Lieutenant Clark with a detachment of twenty-five men with five days’ rations and orders to cross the Blackfoot near its source at the base of the foothills, and, proceeding up the Snake sixty or seventy-five miles, turn to the south, seek out such pass, and join the command at Soda Springs. This expedition was eminently successful, finding a good pass for a road along the base of the triangle mentioned above, striking Snake River seventy miles above and east of the present ferry. At this point a ferry has been established, and in a short time a good boat will be in running order. With the main body of the cavalry, train, &c., I left the Blackfoot about fifteen miles east of the ferry, and pursuing a southeasterly course across the divide by a good natural road, arrived at Soda Springs on the 17th of May, passing through large and fertile valleys lying along Ross Fork of Snake River and the North Branch of the Port Neuf. The infantry with the settlers not having yet arrived, detachments under Lieutenants Bradley and Ustick were dispatched north and south to explore the country and find a route for a direct and practicable wagon road to the settlements in Cache Valley and to report on the character of country explored.

On the 20th Company H, Third Infantry, arrived, after a long and tedious trip, accompanied by their charge, the settlers for the new town. A suitable and eligible location was selected on the north bank of Bear River, near the great bend, and four miles east of where the Soda Springs Valley opens into Old Crater Valley, the latter some fifty miles in length and twenty in width. The sight was surveyed immediately east of the springs, as was also one mile square for a military reservation, adjoining on the east the town site, in latitude about 42˚ north and longitude 111˚ west. The water is good and abundant as well from the river as from the numerous mountain streams-easily diverted for purposes of irrigation. Back of the town and north wood for fuel is abundant, while on the opposite side of the river timber of large growth suitable for building purposes is found at a distance of less than two miles. The soil, judging from the growth of the native grasses and the appearance of the ground, is susceptible of cultivation and the raising of valuable crops, the shortness of the season and the altitude of the place alone rendering this at all doubtful. The settlers were allotted building lots of fair size, and proceeded immediately to the erection of shelters for themselves and families. After remaining {p.229} at this post for six days, establishing the infantry at the new post and looking to the present and immediate future wants of the settlers, on the 30th of May I returned to this post via the Mormon settlements in Cache Valley. The explorations above referred to satisfied me of the fertility of the country surrounding Soda Springs and of the entire practicability of making at small expense of labor a good wagon road from the northern settlements of Cache Valley, crossing Bear River at or near the battle-ground through a gap in the mountains, and thence northerly along the western bank of Bear River to Soda Springs. This road will be much more direct than the old road traversed by the infantry company, and the distance can be reduced from 200 miles, as at present, to about 150 or 160 miles. This road, connecting with the new road explored by Lieutenant Clark north from Soda Springs to Bannock City, will render the distance from the latter place to this point not more than 350 miles. The new road north from Soda Springs to Snake River will shorten the route of emigrants from the East via Fort Bridger not less than seventy miles, as well as present a route well watered and furnishing good feed for animals, with abundance of game. The expedition has traveled in a direct line about 500 miles, and has carefully explored a region of country over 1,000 miles in extent heretofore little known, and concerning which only the most vague and crude ideas were held. Before leaving Soda Springs I sent a detachment of twenty men over the mountains to pass through Bear Lake Valley in hopes of finding the band of Sagwich, supposed to be roaming in that section. The detachment was unsuccessful in its object, and it joined the command a few days after at Franklin, the most northerly settlement in Cache Valley, having thoroughly searched the region through which it passed. In this connection I may add that having occasion to send an empty train to Carson for quartermaster’s stores, I furnished to 150 Morrisites transportation to that point, and they have already safely arrived at their destination.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. EDW. CONNOR, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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JUNE 20, 1863.– Skirmish near Government Springs, Utah Ter.

Report of Brig. Gen. P. Edward Connor, U. S. Army, commanding District of Utah.

SALT LAKE CITY, June 22, 1863.

Expedition from Bridger under Captain Lewis captured fifty of San Pitch’s band. Captain Smith killed ten Indians Saturday last near Government Springs, Utes collecting in settlements south in large numbers, and threatening destruction to soldiers and overland mail.

Have only sixty men for duty at Camp Douglas.

P. E. CONNOR, Brigadier-General, Commanding District.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.230}

JUNE 23, 1863.– Affair at Cañon Station, Nev. Ter.

Report of Maj. Patrick A. Gallagher, Third California infantry.

FORT RUBY, NEV. TER., June 28, 1863.

CAPTAIN: Inclosed I have the honor to transmit corrected proceedings of garrison court. I would also inform the general commanding that on yesterday Assistant Surgeon Kirkpatrick returned to this post from Call on Station with Private Abbott, of Company E, who was wounded at that place on the 23d instant. I learn from Abbott that on the morning of the 23d Corporal Hervey and himself left the station as a guard to the water cart. After they had left Privates Burgher and Elliott also left to go hunting, leaving the station unprotected, something which has not been done since the troops have been guarding the road. Between 11 and 12 a.m. as the water cart was returning they were fired upon by Indians, who had made a screen of sage bushes, and Corporal Hervey was shot dead. Private Abbott, although wounded by a ball through his neck, jumped out of the wagon and seized Hervey’s gun and pistol, and returned the fire as also did the driver of the water cart. He is confident that they hit three or four of them. This happened within about 500 yards of the station. They immediately drove there, thinking if the balance of the guard was there they might get some of the Indians, but found them gone. Soon after they saw two or three Indians going up the mountain south of the station, one of whom had a bright gun. Although they were upward of 1,200 yards off they fired at them, and from their actions immediately after think that one of them was hit. An express was immediately sent to Deep Creek, and eight of the cavalry left for the scene at once. On their arrival they found the body of Elliott with thirty-five ball holes in it, horribly mutilated, but not scalped. Soon after they found the body of Burgher with four ball holes in it, and in about the same condition as Elliott’s. The bodies of all three were taken to Deep Creek and there buried under the supervision of Lieutenant Hosmer, who left his post immediately on the receipt of the news. The Indians succeeded in getting Burgher’s musket and fifty rounds of ammunition; also a double-barreled shotgun and a small quantity of powder and shot from Elliott. I have ordered Lieutenant Quinn to scout in that vicinity, and if possible discover their place of concealment. I have also increased the infantry force along the road, sending every maim that can be spared from the garrison. I feel perfectly satisfied that if Burgher and Elliott had not disobeyed orders and left the station they would not have been killed, but on the contrary would have had an opportunity of rendering a good account of some of the Indians, as they were within range of their pieces, and there were seventeen counted.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. A. GALLAGHER, Major Third Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

Capt. C. H. HEMPSTEAD, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Utah.

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JULY 20-26, 1863.– Operations in Round Valley, Cal.

Report of Capt. Charles D. Douglas, Second California Infantry, commanding Fort Wright.

FORT WRIGHT, Round Valley, July 26, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report for the information of the general commanding that on Monday, 20th of July, Col. S. S. Davis, a {p.231} settler in Round Valley, came to me and reported that on Sunday, 19th instant, his hay and barn had been set on fire by Indians, and that the fire had consumed the entire building and hay therein stored, amounting to a loss of about $1,000. Col. S. S. Davis and other settlers in the valley reported to me that the Ukie tribe of Indians did threaten to kill all the white men in the valley, burn their property, and then run off into the mountains. On hearing all these reports I immediately proceeded to investigate all the charges against the Ukie tribe, and the results of my investigation are as follows: That the Ukie chief and three of his tribe set fire to and burned S. S. Davis’ barns and hay, and that the entire Ukie tribe had a well preconcerted plot to kill all the white men they could, burn their property, and then go into the mountains. In doing all this the valley Indians were to be assisted by the mountain bands, and the mountain bands were to be led into the valley to commit all kinds of depredations and murders by the headmen or leaders of the tribe, and they had their plots so well arranged that each Indian knew what he had to do and at what time to do it, but the mountain Indians were to kill some white men that were at that time herding sheep in the mountains southeast of this valley. On learning these facts I directed Lieutenant Coffman to take four men from the command, and as many citizens as could or would go with him, and proceed to the sheep ranches and notify the men there of their danger and the threats the Indians made against them. The lieutenant reports that on his arrival at the first sheep ranch (distant twenty miles) he was informed that they had already run off the men on the other ranches and that they were hourly expecting to be attacked and burned out. The lieutenant further reports that about half an hour after his arrival at the first ranch, five Indians came there well armed, and he believed the Indians came there to put their threat into execution, for the instant the Indians saw the troops they attempted to get away. They were fired upon and killed, all but one. He getting into the brush could not be shot. Two of these Indians were identified by three men as the perpetrators of five murders during the past six years. In the meantime, by the aid of the citizens, I succeeded in arresting five of the principal leaders of the conspiracy against the life and property of the settlers and they were (on the testimony of white men and Indians of the same tribe as the offenders) hung at this post July 21, 1863, in the presence of all the Indians in the valley. I informed the Indians my cause for putting to death the five Indians of their tribe; also that all Indians caught in like conspiracies against white men would be hung in like manner, but if they would be good Indians that the troops and Indian Department would protect and take care of them. The principal chief and another Indian were killed during their attempt to kill S. S. Davis the night of the 20th instant, which makes eleven of the principal leaders in the conspiracy who have suffered death. I have reason to believe that the condign punishment inflicted on the leaders will have a very good effect on the whole tribe. It has already restored quiet among them. None of the reservation are in any way implicated in any of these plots. Those who suffered death were living with and working for the settlers in the valley.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. D. DOUGLAS, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

{p.232}

AUGUST 22, 1863.– Affair at San Pedro Crossing, Ariz. Ter.

Report of Sergt. George W. Yager, Company E, First California Cavalry.

SAN PEDRO CROSSING, ARIZ. TER., August 22, 1863.

SIR: This morning about 9 o’clock, as we were turning our horses out to graze-four of them were already hobbled about 100 paces from the house, and the man who was looking out for them was engaged in catching a horse that had got loose-eleven mounted Indians dashed from the river above and intended to run between the hay-stack and the station to stampede some that were picketed there, but the men commenced firing at them and compelled them to change their course. Then they made for the four that were hobbled, and the men were so close on them that they were forced to leave the best mule. They succeeded in taking two Spanish horses and one small mule. Fortunately, they were the worst animals at the station. Myself and Saenger mounted our horses and pursued them about three miles, firing into them with our revolvers, but all was in vain. They tried to surround us, but we kept the advantage of them. They were armed with bows and arrows and short rifles. I had not enough men to follow them and protect the station at the same time. Two horses short here.

Yours, with respect,

GEO. W. YAGER.

Captain WELLMAN.

As near as I can tell, three Indians were badly wounded.

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AUGUST 22-SEPTEMBER 20, 1863.– Expedition from Port Lapwai, Idaho Ter., to The Meadows.

Report of Lieut. John Bowen, First Oregon Cavalry.

FORT LAPWAI, IDAHO TER., September 20, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following, viz:

In compliance with Orders, No. 144, dated headquarters Fort Lapwai, August 21, 1863, I left here on the 22d ultimo in command of twenty-two enlisted men of Squadron F, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, and the hospital steward of said regiment. On the 30th I arrived in Elk Valley within two miles of Elk City. After learning all I could in reference to the Indian depredations committed on Red River I started the following morning for The Meadows on Red River. The trail from Elk City to The Meadows is somewhat dangerous for loaded animals to travel over. One of the pack animals fell from the trail and was killed. About twelve miles from Elk City came to excellent grazing for our animals and encamped. The day after arriving at The Meadows found a portion of the remains of Mr. Andrews, the person supposed to have been murdered by the Indians in the forepart of August. He had been murdered, and to all appearances partially covered with grass, but had been found by wild animals and entirely devoured, except some of the larger bones. Some papers and pieces of clothing were recognized by some of his friends, enough to prove his identity beyond a doubt. I remained at The Meadows until the 13th instant, during which time I had several parties out scouting, but could find {p.233} no Snake Indians. There were some Nez Percé Indians in the vicinity, but they appeared friendly. I think there were no Snake Indians near there, and such was the opinion of the Nez Percé Indians. On the 13th instant I started on my return to this place. Two privates deserted while on the march. I sent a party in pursuit, but the deserters were not taken. Arrived here without further incident on the 20th instant.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN BOWEN, Second Lieutenant, First Oregon Cavalry.

Maj. S. TRUAX, First Cavalry Oregon Volunteers, Commanding Fort Lapwai.

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AUGUST 27, 1863.– Affair at Fort Bowie, Ariz Ter.

Report of Sergt. Charles Kuhl, Company B, First California Cavalry.

FORT BOWIE, September 1, 1863.

SIR : I report to you the loss of all our horses at this post. On the 27th of this month [August] I had the horses turned out to herd, with one man to guard them, giving the orders not to go out of sight of the fort. The horses were about (not over) 1,000 yards from the post, when twenty-five or thirty Indians on horseback, galloping down the road from Tucson, surrounded the stock and drove it through the cañon toward Mesilla. Private Creeden, on guard that day, fired eight or ten shots at the Indians, hitting one of them. The sentinel at the fort seeing this (a little too late) fired his piece, and most of the men, with Captain Tidball at their head, ran to overtake the Indians as quickly as possible, but the Indians were too far ahead. There was another party of Indians behind a little knoll a short distance from the old station, in number about twenty or thirty, who operated in concert with the Indians on horseback. A third party was outside the post, so it appeared that the Indians had their position chosen to the best advantage. The reason why I herded the horses on foot of the hill is this: Privates Jones’, Blanc’s, Davidson’s, Lange’s, and Creeden’s horses had sore backs. I had all the men to work on their horses to wash and put on medicine every day twice, and with good success. The horses were in a good condition. We built a shed and cut a wagon load of hay, so that we may keep our horses up, only allowing the horses to go to water in the morning and graze for one hour or two, not thinking of any danger. There were two infantrymen herding the sheep close by, only having one man on guard because there were at that time only two privates for duty. Privates Davidson, Jones, and Blanc were sick; Private Chappins is in the kitchen, so left Creeden and Lange for guard. The same time I have to state that there was only one pair of hobbles here. I had to put them on the mule of Chappins, who strayed off the herd most every day. This mule the Indians left in the cañon, and was brought back to the fort by our men. I applied for picket rope at the quartermaster’s here, but there was none. The express will leave here to-morrow, myself and six men, in the post team. Captain Tidball has not a mule here to ride. The mules are most of them bronchos-buck, kick, and bite. We tried them, and there was no show. They broke saddle-straps and laid down in the road, so we had to give it up to ride express. Captain Tidball says he will not send his team a second time. Our {p.234} ammunition is almost out. I had to draw 100 rounds from Captain Tidball. There are no pistol cartridges here. Please send some pepper and mustard if possible. The quartermaster sent you some papers. Please ask Sergeant Andrews if they are correct. The horses lost belonged to the following men: First, Sergeant Kuhl, bay horse, American; second, Private Blanc, black horse, American; Private Lange, dark bay horse, American; Private Davidson, light bay horse, American; Private Creeden, white horse, Spanish; Private Jones, dark cream horse, Spanish.

I sign myself,

CHS. KUHL, Sergeant, Company B, First Cavalry California Volunteers.

Capt. C. R. WELLMAN.

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SEPTEMBER 3-DECEMBER 31, 1863.– Operations in the Humboldt Military District.

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Sept.3, 1863.–Skirmish in the Hoopa Valley, Cal.
Nov.13-14, 1863.–Skirmishes near the Big Bar on the South Fork of the Trinity River, Cal.
17, 1863.–Skirmish near Willow Creek on the Trinity River, Cal.
Dec.25, 1863.–Skirmish near Fort Gaston, Cal.
26, 1863.–Skirmish near Fort Gaston, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers, commanding Humboldt Military District.
No. 2.–Maj. William S. R. Taylor, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 3.–Capt. Abraham Miller, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 4.–Capt. George W. Ousley, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

No. 1.

Reports of Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers, commanding Humboldt Military District.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Humboldt, Cal., September 26, 1863.

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of telegraphic dispatch from department headquarters via Weaverville, of date September 17, 9 a.m. It arrived at this post this evening at 7 o’clock. I immediately dispatched an order to Major Taylor, commanding Fort Gaston, to have the telegraphic order at once carried out, if he had not previously anticipated it. Fort Gaston is the nearest military post to the scene of the recent outrages, being about forty miles distant, and the force there being sufficient to spare, temporarily, thirty or forty men. The first intimation received by me of the Indian depredations in Trinity County came to hand on the 20th instant, to the effect that the mules ridden by the two soldiers who were escorting the mail between Fort Gaston and Weaverville had returned to the former place without riders, saddles, or bridles. This was mentioned in a communication from Major Taylor, but it was then supposed the mules had got away from their riders in the night; still, a detachment of twelve men under Captain Miller, Company C, was immediately sent out to ascertain the {p.235} truth. By the escort to the mail from Fort Gaston to Camp Curtis, which arrived this evening, I am informed officially by Major Taylor that Captain Miller met a party of citizens from Weaverville, who informed him that the mail carrier and escort had been attacked by a party of about fifteen Indians; that one of the escort was killed, the other severely wounded, and it was supposed that the mail-carrier was dead, as he could not be found, though about two miles from where the Indians made the attack, his saddle mule was caught by the wounded soldier and a slip of paper found, upon which was written by the mail-carrier that he was “shot and mortally wounded.” The body of the murdered soldier was found with the nose and flesh cut from his face and his head pinioned to the ground by a long Chinese dirk through the neck. Previous to the attack upon the mail party the Indians had burned the buildings at Little Prairie, Martin’s Ferry, and Taylor’s Flat. It was also reported that twelve Chinamen were killed by this party of savages. At the time they attacked the mail the Indians were returning from these depredations loaded with plunder. The Indians who perpetrated these outrages are from the hostile bands of the mountains, joined, it is believed, by a few from those ostensibly friendly. To send troops to punish these wretches in the vicinity where the depredations were committed will not likely avail anything, as they make these raids and then scatter and rejoin their several bands in the mountains. These marauding parties are generally composed of delegations or detachments from different clans. To hunt them out and kill or capture them is the slow work of months, but it is the only way to put a stop to their hostilities. The best way to prevent a recurrence of depredations in the region of the late attack, I suggest, would be to have troops stationed at the crossings of main Trinity and the South Fork; also to have a strong escort upon the trail, as mentioned in letter to department headquarters of the 10th instant. To insure protection to the miners and other inhabitants along this line of communication, and to keep it open, will require one company of troops. The mail can be protected by less than half that number. This leads to a subject which I would gladly avoid, but I feel compelled to represent to the general commanding that the force at present at my command is not adequate to the service required. There are but four companies of the Mountaineer Battalion mustered into service, numbering in the aggregate less than 300 men, and recruits are coming in but slowly. That life and property may be rendered safe in this military district, and that the principal lines of travel may be kept open, I would most respectfully, but in the strongest manner possible, urge that the present military strength of this district be re-enforced by two companies of infantry and one of cavalry.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col. First Battalion Mountaineers California Vols., Commanding Humboldt Military District.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Gaston, Cal., December 30, 1863.

COLONEL: I very respectfully report the following: On the day of my arrival at this post, 22d instant, information was brought by a friendly {p.236} Indian that he had discovered where hostile Indians were living in log-houses, to which they resorted after committing depredations or when pressed by scouting parties. Lieut. Thomas Middleton, Company C, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, with thirty men of same company, was at once dispatched, accompanied by Indian guides. Lieutenant Middleton found the place as described oh the 25th instant but he was not prepared to take it. In making a reconnaissance, one of his men, Private Leonard, received a severe and dangerous gunshot wound in the breast from an Indian spy. The Indian was shot down on the spot, and Lieutenant Middleton withdrew his command a few miles to await re-enforcements. Re-enforcements were promptly sent on the morning of the 26th instant, under command of Capt. G. W. Ousley, Company B, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, when the attack was made. The houses were found to be of large logs with portholes, from which the inmates kept up a constant firing. The mountain howitzer was used with good effect, though without much accuracy at first from want of practice. Captain Ousley did not deem it best to carry the houses by storm, as it was certain to result in the death of several soldiers. He therefore posted a strong guard around the houses and sent to Fort Gaston for more howitzer ammunition. This I furnished and accompanied the escort in person. When I arrived at the scene of action, about twenty-five miles from Fort Gaston, I learned that the houses were demolished, most of the Indians having managed to elude the guard in the darkness and had escaped. At the escape of the Indians I was deeply chagrined and at first disposed to blame the officers, but after observing the situation of the ground and taking into consideration the continued exposure of the men in the storms and their consequent fatigue, with other adverse circumstances, no other result could hardly be expected. The houses were situated in the center of a prairie, a good rifle-shot from the timber, in which occasionally numbers of armed Indians, friends of those in the houses, manifested their presence. It was found that two Indians had been killed and that several must have been wounded. Within the buildings were many articles recognized as having belonged to citizens heretofore-a Government saddle lost at the time the mail carrier and one of the escorts were killed in September on the Trinity; four guns, loaded, were also taken, and the remnants of swords found, together with household furniture. Two horses and two mules were also captured which had been stolen from citizens. One important result is that the savages are now convinced that they are not safe in any fortifications which they can construct. It also proved that some of the houses (five in all) were owned and occasionally occupied by Indians from this valley. The casualties on our side were Private Leonard, of Company C, as noted above, and Private C. Smith, of Company B, severely wounded in the right arm at the elbow. Upon learning that men had been wounded Asst. Surg. E. Phelps, Second Infantry California Volunteers, at once requested permission to go to them in the field, which was granted.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col. First Battalion Mountaineers, California Vols., Commanding Humboldt Military District.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Pacific, San Francisco.

{p.237}

No. 2.

Reports of Maj. William S. B. Taylor, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

FORT GASTON, Hoopa Valley, Klamath County, Cal., September 19, 1863.

SIR: On the 28th of July, 1863, I assumed command of Fort Gaston. I found the magazine in ruins. I immediately set to work rebuilding it, making it fire-proof. It is now completed and in use. The post reports thirty mules. Of these but about nineteen are able to do light work; four are team mules. Out of the balance, four only would stand a hard day’s ride. The remaining eleven of the nineteen are miserable old things, almost worthless, but can be made to jog along a few miles a day, such as carrying blankets and a few rations for scouts on foot. Eleven animals have been turned out, being utterly useless. Nine of them I have sent on the summit of Trinity Mountain, where the grass is good and water abundant. They may pick up by fall or before winter sets in. Two mules strayed off some time ago. They are represented to me to be utterly worthless. I have not seen them, however. I have been informed by parties well acquainted here that the Government mules that were of any worth were selected and retained at Fort Humboldt, headquarters of this district, therefore our sorry show of mules at this post. We have but seven saddles belonging to this post at this present moment. The two escort mules of the Weaverville mail have returned without saddles or bridles. We suppose they have escaped from the pasture, as they bear no marks of violence. Even if it should be worse with the mail-carrier and escort, we have no means of assisting them, as there is but one saddle left in the stable, and but three animals that can be saddled. The distance to the station is forty-five miles, which is usually traveled in the night-time on account of lurking squads of hostile Indians. I have had some beef jerked for the use of detachments when scouting. I found it answered munch better for the men, as frequently they go out with six days’ rations on their backs. In some instances they are not permitted to kindle fires, nor to shoot game, eating nothing but jerked beef and hard bread, and water as a beverage. We would like to jerk a lot more, if allowable, as it is preferred by the men. The men have been kept very busy scouting, escorting trains, the mail, and opening old trails in order to commence active operations this coming winter, when the Indians can be tracked on the snow and their fires seen at night. The rations have been very insufficient to keep the men up in this kind of service, especially their clothing rations. Frequently a pair of shoes are worn out in a single scout of ten days, and pants in a month; underclothing, however, does very well. The country is very mountainous and thickly covered with underbrush, which makes it so hard on the men and their clothing. The settlers are somewhat inclined to extortion here in the matter of forage, having combined to keep the price up. I would recommend that the quartermaster have discretionary powers about purchasing horse feed. Outside of this post there is no consumption for forage. I think oats can be bought for about 3 cents per pound or less, hay at $20 per ton. Packing from Arcata can be had at about 4 cents per pound. Flour is bought by the citizens at 5 cents per pound; 150,000 pounds can be obtained here at the foregoing figures, payable in coin. I detained the {p.238} Weaverville mail two trips. The escort of two men I considered too small, as their road passed through the worst portion of Indian country, and of the bands with whom we have already come in collision, resulting in the killing of two of their number and wounding one other, and where the party that escaped us are supposed to be lurking. I would have furnished a stronger escort, but such is out of my power. We have not the means in saddles or mules, and men are too scarce. Shortly after having assumed command of this post I made it my duty to ascertain the number of Indians in this vicinity. Above the fort, on Trinity as far up as the South Fork, fourteen miles, there were about 75 fighting Indians and 150 squaws and children. Below the fort, on Trinity River, to the Klamath, eight miles, there are 155 fighting bucks and 350 squaws and children. Indians from this valley are joining small roving bands of Redwood and Mad River Indians. We have conclusive evidence that Madam Weaver and Merrick were murdered by Indians belonging to a ranch about seven miles above this post, at the mouth of Willow Creek, where it empties into the Trinity. Two of these Indians were captured, and, endeavoring to escape, were killed. One of them confessed before he died of being at Madam Weaver’s murder; the other we have evidence of his participation in the fights on Redwood. The ranches to which they belonged have been deserted, and about thirty of their number have taken to the mountains. Two Chinamen were murdered on New River by some Indians belonging to a ranch in the vicinity of this post, who are now prisoners. The guilty ones, however, have escaped. On the 13th of August I visited and had a talk with the Indians at the principal and largest ranches in Hoopa Valley, assuring them that my chief entertained friendly feelings toward them, and would assist and protect them if they remained at their homes and discontinued all intercourse with the hostile Indians, and I would reward them for the apprehension of Indians who had been engaged in hostility against the whites. Everything went on smoothly until August 30, when we ascertained that the murderers of the two Chinamen were at a ranch near the fort. First Lieutenant Hempfield, Company B, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, was sent by Captain Ousley to arrest the suspected parties, who resisted, and would have killed the lieutenant but for the interference of the squaws. Lieutenant Hale and Mr. Moffitt accompanied me to the ranch immediately after the occurrence. The chief informed me that the Indians we wanted had fled. I told him I would give him three days to produce the guilty parties. If they were not brought to me in that time we would hold the ranch responsible, and they should not live there. Previous to the expiration of the three days I visited the lower ranches and informed them of my determination to take the upper ranch; at the same time, if they desired to participate in the fight, we were ready and willing to give them all a good whipping. They, however, declined the invitation. I then ordered them to keep the peace with each other for twenty days (they had been fighting each other for some time past). In the meantime we had captured a couple of boats going down the river in the night, severely wounding one Indian and killing another who endeavored to escape. This Indian we have satisfactory evidence had been engaged in the Redwood fights.

On the night of the 2d of September Capt. G. W. Ousley, Company B Mountaineers, with a detachment of his men crossed the river (leaving a party under Sergeant Hurst to guard the trail where his tracks crossed it), and took up the mountains to come in above the ranch by {p.239} 8 o’clock on the morning of the 3d, as preconcerted. First Lieutenant Hempfield was stationed with a party at the river, Sergeant Hurst commanded the guard at the trail, and Corporal Underwood the lower side of the river opposite the ranch. I proceeded with the howitzer to the mill opposite the ranch, from which place a good range with shell can be had. We were all at our posts when the Indians discovered us. Some endeavored to escape, but were stopped; others proposed to fight, and were about to commence when I ordered the howitzer forward to load with shell. The Indians, seeing the helplessness of fighting, gave themselves up; but one escaped, and he was badly wounded and left his gun behind. We captured 41 fighting bucks and 74 squaws and children, 9 guns all loaded, and 30 quivers of bows and arrows. The prisoners were immediately removed to the fort and just under range of the howitzer. They were then put to work removing their ranches to a site near the fort. They are now gathering food for the winter and constructing a fish dam. They are apparently perfectly contented, and so far have not cost the Government a single extra dollar. I feel confident that all the Indians in this valley can be managed here without extra cost, and kept from participating with or holding correspondence with the hostile Indians if properly controlled. I am satisfied that this has been the leading place for all the attacks made on trains and travelers. The outside Indians, now hostile, are comparatively insignificant, and can be easily cleared out this winter if the war is prosecuted with energy and with vigor. The men at this post are ready and willing to finish this long-continued war this season. I would respectfully call the attention of the department to the importance of this post. It is so situated, commanding as it does such a large body of Indians, by far the most warlike and intelligent of this whole district. It commands a large extent of country connecting with trails and ridges throughout the whole Indian country. We have had lately as munch as 100 miles between portions of Company B, Mountaineers. We have scouted from New River, Trinity, and South Fork up to Trinidad on the coast, and all this from this post. When we made the attack on the ranch September 3 we were obliged to take the sick out of the hospital, the hospital stewards, cooks, &c., to garrison the post. We could only muster, including mechanics and such sick as were able to walk, fifty-six men. I would most respectfully recommend the discontinuance of the Weaverville mail to this place. Its route is through a dangerous country. To make it safe now would require twenty mounted men and stations and ferries at the South Fork and main Trinity during the winter months. The same service can be obtained by the regular mail route to Fort Jones, Scott Valley, via Etna Mills, Sawyer’s Bar, Orleans Bar, Hoopa, Fort Gaston. Letters from San Francisco would probably be one day later by the proposed route, but would be perfectly safe at all seasons, not requiring any escort. I would also most earnestly and respectfully urge the necessity of the inclosed requisitions being forwarded immediately, as the trails will soon close and be impassable for trains until about May, unless at very high rates. It is expected that two or more companies will be stationed at this post.

I have the honor, sir, to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. S. R. TAYLOR, Maj. 1st Batt. Mountaineers, California Vols., Comdg. Fort Gaston.

Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.

{p.240}

FORT GASTON, CAL., November 18, 1863.

SIR: On the 13th of November Captain Miller, of Company C, with a detachment of fifteen men from Companies B and C, who were scouting to Big Bar and South Fork of Trinity, found two Indians and three squaws dressing a beef they had killed. The two Indians were killed, but the squaws escaped. The next morning while crossing the South Fork on their return they were fired on by a small band of Indians. Two of the men were severely wounded, but not dangerously. The pack animals stampeded; all were recovered but three. Captain Miller was obliged to return without pursuing the Indians, as several of his men were sick, two wounded, and the rations exhausted. Captain Ousley on the 14th left with a detachment of sixteen men of Companies C and B, and found two of the lost mules on the morning of the 17th at the mouth of Willow Creek. They encountered a band of about thirty Indians that have been concerned in nearly all the depredations in this vicinity, who attacked the party, severely wounding two of the men and slightly wounding Captain Ousley in the leg. The fight lasted seven hours; five Indians were killed and a number wounded. The men, although taken at great disadvantage, displayed admirable courage and discipline. The two Indians killed by Captain Miller’s detachment are supposed to be two of the worst out, called Handsome Billy and Frank, who have been from boyhood associated with the whites, intelligent, and excellent shots. Accompanying please receive reports from Captains Miller and Ousley.

Very respectfully, yours,

WM. S. R. TAYLOR, Maj. 1st Batt. Mountaineers, California Vols., Comdg. Fort Gaston.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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No. 3.

Report of Capt. Abraham Miller, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

FORT GASTON, November 15, 1863.

MAJOR: In accordance with your orders I proceeded up the river as far as Taylor’s Flat, on Trinity. Finding no chance for foraging with my detachment we returned to Cedar Flat, where we found forage in abundance. We remained there until the messengers we had sent to Weaverville had returned, at which time we started on our return. About 3 o’clock on the afternoon of the 13th we found two Indians and three squaws dressing a beef they had just killed at Thomas’ ranch. Upon being surprised they at once jumped into the river and attempted to swim away, but after much shooting they were killed. Being so intent on killing the bucks the squaws escaped us. The next day, while crossing at the mouth of the South Fork, we were attacked by a band of Indians from the northern side of the main Trinity. At the first fire all the damage was done, two men being severely wounded-J. F. Heckmann, of Company C, and Samuel McCracken, of Company B. Both sides of the river being nearly perpendicular, a grand rush was made to get up the bank. When there we fired a volley at them, when they ran away at the first fire. The wildest of our mules stampeded, {p.241} but we recovered all but three, who were loaded with blankets. Several of our men being sick, and having the wounded to care for, and being just out of rations, we deemed it at this time most prudent to return.

Yours, most respectfully,

A. MILLER, Capt. Company C, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Vols.

Maj. W. S. R. TAYLOR, Commanding Fort Gaston.

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No. 4.

Report of Capt. George W. Ousley, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

FORT GASTON, CAL., November 18, 1863.

SIR: In compliance with Special Orders, No. 69, I took a detachment of fifteen men on the 14th instant and proceeded up Trinity River to the mouth of Willow Creek, where I camped for the night. Here I found two of the mules that had strayed off from Captain Miller. On the morning of the 15th instant I moved camp up the Trinity to within one mile and a half of the South Fork, where I put out scouts, and kept them out until the 16th at noon. Found no sign of the other mule, and but little sign of Indians. At 12 m. the 16th I moved camp down to the mouth of Willow Creek, where I camped for the night. The morning of the 17th, at daybreak, I sent three men half a mile distant to kill some venison, if possible. Whilst out they got separated, and one came into camp a few minutes before 7 a.m. I then took four men and started to go up a ridge to hunt for Indian signs. On arriving at the foot of the ridge I heard a shot and the whoop of Indians. As soon as I reached the summit of the ridge I found that the Indians were giving chase to the two men that had gone hunting, and had already wounded one of them. I got my men from camp, half a mile distant, by hallooing. In the meantime I gave the Indians fight with four men. The fighting commenced at 7.30 a.m. and continued until 3 p.m. Charles Johnson, of Company B, was wounded by the first shot that was fired. Dusky, of Company C, acting packer for the acting assistant quartermaster, was also wounded during the engagement. I was also slightly wounded in the right leg. During the seven and a half hours’ fighting every man behaved as only good men could. We drove the Indians from the ground, but they took with them their dead and wounded, which I could not prevent, there being some thirty or forty of them well armed and stationed in thick timber, and I had but eleven men that I could send against them, as it took four men to guard camp. The Indians carried off five dead that I know of, and I think more. There was also a good proportion wounded. They fired at least 1,000 shots, and as a general thing shot close. I staid on the ground two hours and a half after the fighting was over, finding it necessary to get the wounded where they could be cared for. I then started for Fort Gaston, which place I reached at 12 p.m. the 17th instant.

Very respectfully, yours,

GEORGE W. OUSLEY, Captain, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers.

Maj. W. S. R. TAYLOR, Commanding Fort Gaston.

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SEPTEMBER 8-9, 1863.– Skirmishes in the Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz. Ter.

Report of Capt. James H. Whitlock, Fifth California Infantry.

IN CAMP, September 12, 1863.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to inform the commanding officer that I found an Indian camp on the 5th instant; surprised it and captured 2 mules, 1 Sharps carbine, 1 U. S. blanket (new), some other traps, and as much as a thousand pounds of dried prepared Spanish bayonet fruit. I took such as I wanted and burned the camp, including all that pertained to it. No casualties. On the 8th I found them in force. A very spirited fight of about fifteen minutes, and occasional shots for as much longer, ensued, in which I had 1 man and my guide severely wounded, and 1 horse mortally wounded. I routed then and destroyed their campooda. On the 9th some of my skirmishers met some scattering Indians and exchanged a few shots.

J. H. WHITLOCK, Captain, Fifth Infantry California Volunteers.

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JANUARY 1-28, 1864.– Operations in the Humboldt Military District.

Reports of Lieut. Col. Stephen O. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers, commanding Humboldt Military District.

HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Gaston, Cal., January 29, 1864.

COLONEL: By letter to department headquarters of date January 21 I informed the commanding general of rumored hostilities on Salmon River, Klamath County. Capt. G. W. Ousley, Company B, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, who was dispatched to that section with detachment of twenty men, returned last evening, and from his official report I gather the following facts: On the 15th instant a band of about thirty Indians, mostly Hoopas, made a descent upon a miners’ camp on Pony Creek, a tributary of New River. The miners, nine in number, made their escape to South Salmon, but a winter’s supply of provisions for the miners, four rifles, two watches and some money fell into the hands of the Indians. In this connection I remark that these miners returned to or remained on New River against the remonstrances of the officers of this post. Captain Ousley informs me that four of the miners had squaws living with them. From Pony Creek the Indians crossed over to South Salmon, but by another route from that taken by the miners, and on the 16th killed 2 white men and 2 Chinamen, also wounded 2 Chinamen near the mouth of Plummer Creek. They obtained some gold dust from the Chinamen and robbed a store near by of some $250 worth of goods and about $350 in dust. This store was owned by a Mr. Dumphreys. During the evening of the same day the Indians went down the stream about eight miles to Dumphreys’ lower store and helped themselves to about $300 worth of shelf goods and one revolver. Here the savages divided among themselves (now numbering twenty-two) the gold dust, amounting to about $2,000. The citizens gathered at the forks a few miles {p.243} below during the night, and early the next morning were attacked by the Indians, and the fight was kept up several hours, in which 3 white men were killed and 2 wounded, also a Chinaman wounded. Of the Indians 1 was killed and 2 wounded, 1 of which it has since been ascertained died of his wounds. At this place the Indians obtained two rifles and two pistols. The citizens were but few in number and poorly armed.

The next day other citizens arrived from North Salmon and a party was sent in pursuit, and came upon the camp of the enemy in the dark before they expected to, and the Indians all escaped, being obliged to leave nearly all their merchandise, two rifles, and a double-barreled shotgun. After this the pursuing party saw no more of the Indians, as they scattered in every direction. From this post Captain Ousley proceeded directly to the South Salmon and returned via New River, where he found several hundred pounds of provisions the Indians’ had left, which was cached by the captain. A few miles farther down the stream were found caches made by the Indians of their plunder, which were destroyed. The party of thirty men which I sent out to intercept the Indians were not successful in discovering any. This raid on Pony Creek was nothing but what was expected if a few miners would persist in remaining for the winter on any of the branches of New River. The region is so completely isolated and difficult of approach for troops that it would be impossible to afford assistance or protection to the miners, except a force was stationed there. The people on Salmon River have felt themselves comparatively safe from attack, the more probably because they have heretofore escaped and from the distance than from their ability to resist. The citizens here are now on their guard and able to protect themselves for the present.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col. First Battalion Mountaineers, California Vols., Commanding Humboldt Military District.

Lieut. Col. R. O. DRUM, U. S. Army Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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HEADQUARTERS HUMBOLDT MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Gaston, Cal., January 29, 1864.

COLONEL: I have to report that on yesterday Corpl. José Picaso and a sergeant of Captain Pico’s company Native California Cavalry were by the side of the river a little more than half a mile from this post, when Corporal Picaso was shot through the lungs by an Indian concealed in the brush on the opposite bank. The ball entered the back just below the right shoulder blade, and came out near the neck on right side, inflicting a severe and dangerous wound. Several Indians were seen on the hills opposite, and immediate pursuit was given, but without success.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col. First Battalion Mountaineers, California Vols., Commanding Humboldt Military District.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army Assistant Adjutant-General, Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco.

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JANUARY 2, 1864.– Occupation of Santa Catalina Island, Cal.

Report of Lieut. Col. James F. Curtis, Fourth California Infantry, commanding District of Southern California.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Drum Barracks, Los Angeles County, January 12, 1864.

A company of infantry having been ordered by the commanding general of this department to take post at Santa Catalina Island and to assume military possession thereof, Capt. B. R. West’s company (C), Fourth Regiment California Volunteer Infantry, proceeded there from Drum Barracks, Cal., on 2d of January, 1864, charged with executing the duty above indicated. The command consisted of one captain, one subaltern, one assistant surgeon (First California Volunteer Cavalry), and eighty enlisted men. On the 7th instant the undersigned, accompanied by Captain Morris, assistant quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, Wilmington Depot, inspected the camp and made a reconnaissance of a portion of the island with the view of selecting a suitable point for the garrison and of obtaining such information as might be of value to the department commander. Santa Catalina lies off the coast twenty-five miles southerly from San Pedro (Wilmington), which is one mile from Drum Barracks. It is twenty miles long from east to west, and has an average width of four to five miles. Upon its easterly end it widens to eight miles. Its surface is rough and mountainous and its shores rocky and precipitous. About one-third its length from the west end the shores of either side approach to within 600 yards, forming a low neck or isthmus, which rises gradually from the beaches to the center, where it is about sixty feet above the sea. This neck of land (or isthmus), being 600 yards in length as above stated, is about 300 yards in width, the hills rising abruptly on either side. It was selected for garrison purposes, and the company quarters authorized by the general were directed to be built near its center. It had recently been laid off in town lots by a squatter, and three shanties built, which, together with a sheep corral, were ordered removed. At some distance from the island the appearance presented is of two separate high islands. The indentations formed at the extremities of the isthmus provide secure anchorages. That on the south is termed Catalina Harbor, is landlocked, and will float the largest war ships. Ten or more could safely moor within it. Mariners consider it the safest harbor on the coast of California next after that of San Diego. That on the north side, termed Union Bay, was used by the vessel which transported the troops and supplies. She anchored within 150 yards of the beach. It is safe except during westerly gales, when a heavy swell rolls in. Union Bay contains two coves, known as Fourth of July Harbor and Fisherman’s Harbor, which are used by small craft and fishing boats. Artillery upon the parade-ground of the post as selected will command the entire isthmus and both harbors at short ranges. Fresh water can be obtained by sinking forty to fifty feet, and a stream of running water has its source in the high land about eight miles from the proposed garrison. Thousands of cords of firewood have been cut and sold on the mainland to quartermasters and other purchasers. Directions have been given forbidding the cutting down of more trees for any purpose. Generally the hills are covered with wild sage, grease wood, cacti, and other shrubbery peculiar to the latitude. Cottonwood, ironwood, manzanita, and wild cherry are found in the ravines. The latitude of the isthmus is 33˚ 26' north, and the temperature 10˚ warmer {p.245} than that of the adjacent mainland. Climate more salubrious than that of San Diego or any other portion of California. The fogs of the coast rarely reach the island. No more fitting place could be found for a general hospital or depot for Indian prisoners. It is estimated that 15,000 wild goats are roaming over the almost inaccessible heights on the easterly end and the number fast increasing. The soldiers of the command were already supplying themselves with meat at the point of their rifles. Excepting a few foxes and squirrels, no other animals are found wild. It is unnecessary to state that fish in abundance and variety are taken along the shores. Nothing definite was ascertained of the title to the island. The occupants all acknowledged the United States Government as owner, and received a notification to leave more with regret than surprise. The U. S. district attorney for the southern district of California should possess reliable information regarding ownership. An order for all persons, excepting Government employé’s and others specified, to remove from the island having been issued recently by the department commander, steps were taken to ascertain the names of the occupants, and the following-named persons were ascertained to be engaged in raising stock: John Johnson, ten years a resident; owns 3,000 sheep, 200 head cattle; raises vegetables and fruits for sale. Charles Johnson, brother of above; ten years’ residence; 100 mares and colts. Spencer H. Wilson, five years a resident; 12,000 sheep, 10 head of cattle; principal occupation, cutting firewood for sale. William Howland, six years’ residence; 3,000 sheep. Benjamin Weston, 2,000 sheep. Juan Cota, 400 head cattle. Francisco Guerrero, eight years a resident; 2,000 sheep. Swain Lawson; 10 head cattle; owns a small vessel employed about the island.

It will be impossible for the above mentioned persons to remove without an entire sacrifice of their flocks and property. It is now lambing season, and owing to scarcity of grass this year all through the southern portion of the State it would be useless to attempt moving sheep or cattle. Quite recently mines of galena have been discovered, and about seventy miners are at work prospecting in various places. Copper, silver, and gold are said to exist in connection, but lead is the predominating metal throughout and has been found in numerous places. Whether the ledges will pay to work is being solved. With the contradictory evidence upon the point I could reach no conclusion. An enrolling officer reached the island with the undersigned and proceeded at once with the duties of his office. No great pecuniary loss can accrue to the miners by removal. They have been to no expense as yet for machinery or tools, and have been but a short time there. No work other than prospecting has been done. A meeting was about being called to make such rules as would secure to present possessors their mining claims until they be permitted to return. A harbor so safe as Catalina upon a coast almost destitute of them would be eagerly seized by any maritime enemy unless occupied by the forces of the United States. Upon returning to these headquarters after the inspection instructions were received from the general commanding modifying those previously given regarding the removal of persons from the island so that all owners of stock and members of incorporated mining companies may remain. It is respectfully suggested that claimants of other mining ground, not incorporated, some of which may be more valuable than that of incorporated companies, receive the equal privilege. It is particularly important that the entire isthmus from harbor to harbor, which is the military point of the island and upon which no {p.246} mines have been discovered, should be retained and reserved for Gov. eminent purposes. A 12-pounder field gun with ammunition has been sent to the post commander. A small sail-boat is required to communicate with the main. A steam-boat would be preferable.

Respectfully submitted.

JAMES F. CURTIS, Lieutenant-Colonel Fourth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding District of Southern California.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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FEBRUARY 1-JUNE 30, 1864.– Operations in the Humboldt Military District, Cal

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Feb.29, 1864.–Skirmish on Redwood Creek, Cal.
Mar.1, 1864.–Skirmish in Redwood Mountains, Cal.
17, 1864.–Skirmish on Red Mountain, near Blue Rock Station, Cal.
19, 1864.–Skirmish on the Eel River, Cal.
22, 1864.–Skirmish at Bald Spring Cañon, Eel River, Cal.
27, 1864.–Skirmish on the Eel River, Cal.
28, 1864.–Engagement on the Eel River, Cal.
April28, 1864.–Skirmish at the Big Bend of the Eel River, Cal.
May1, 1864.–Affair at Booth’s Run, Cal.
2, 1864.–Skirmish on Kneeland’s Prairie, Cal.
6, 1864.–Skirmish near Boynton’s Prairie, Cal.
23, 1864.–Skirmish at Grouse Creek, Cal.
27, 1864.–Skirmish at Thomas’ House on the Trinity River, Cal.
28, 1864.–Skirmish at Big Flat, Cal.

REPORTS.

No. 1.–Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Pacific.
No. 2.–Col. Henry M. Black, Sixth California Infantry, commanding District of Humboldt.
No. 3.–Maj. Thomas F. Wright, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 4.–Capt. William E. Hull, Second California Infantry.
No. 5.–Capt. Thomas Buckley, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 6.–Capt. Duane M. Greene, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 7.–Capt. Eli Cook, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 8.–Lieut. Jacob P. Hackett, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 9.–Lieut. Hampton Hutton, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 10.–Lieut. John B. Taylor, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 11.–Sergt. Francis Bellon, Company G, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 12.–Sergt. Charles A. Baker, Company E, Sixth California Infantry.
No. 13.–Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 14.–Capt. Abraham Miller, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 15.–Capt. George W. Ousley, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 16.–Lieut. Knyphausen Geer, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 17.–Lieut. William W. Frazier, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 18.–Lieut. Thomas Middleton, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 19.–Lieut. Leonard C. Beckwith, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 20.–Sergt. John S. Hughes, Company B, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
No. 21.–Sergt. Richard B. Harris, Company E, First Battalion California Mountaineers.
{p.247}

No. 1.

Reports of Brig. Gen. George Wright, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Pacific.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, April 22, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a communication* from Col. H. M. Black, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, dated April 7, 1864, with seven inclosures, being reports of operations against hostile Indians in the District of Humboldt during the month of March, 1864. The officers and men are deserving the highest praise for the zeal and energy they have manifested as well as for their cheerful and patient endurance of privation in that inhospitable region.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

* See p. 248.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, May 9, 1864.

SIR: Tranquillity prevails throughout the department except in the District of Humboldt, where the Indian war is being prosecuted vigorously and successfully. Col. H. M. Black, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, has been zealous and indefatigable in pursuing the enemy, and his officers and men have endured the hardships and exposures of that inhospitable region, amidst the snows and rains, with the greatest cheerfulness. The whole country is covered with our scouting parties, and already between thirty and forty of the hostile Indians have been killed and many wounded, with but trifling loss on our side. Some of the principal chiefs have surrendered, and Colonel Black expresses the opinion that the war will soon cease.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, May 14, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith seven reports* from officers commanding scouting parties against the hostile Indians in the District of Humboldt, Cal., for the information of the lieutenant-general commanding the Army and the honorable Secretary of War. These reports have been forwarded to me by Col. H. M. Black, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, to whom, as well as the officers and men under his {p.248} command, great credit is due for the zeal, activity, and bravery they have exhibited, which it is confidently expected will result at an early date in restoring peace and quiet in the district.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

* See reports of Lieut. W. W. Frazier, First Battalion Mountaineers; Capt. William E. Hull, Second Infantry California Volunteers; Lieut. K. Geer, First Battalion Mountaineers, and Capt. D. M. Greene, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, May 17, 1864.

SIR: For the information of the lieutenant-general commanding the Army and the honorable Secretary of War I have the honor to inclose herewith two reports* forwarded to me by Col. H. M. Black, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the District of Humboldt. The indications are favorable for an early settlement of the Indian difficulties in that quarter.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

* See Whipple, May 6, ante, and Hull, April 30, ante.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, June 23, 1864.

SIR: Inclosed herewith are reports* received from Col. H. M. Black, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, commanding the District of Humboldt. Under the vigorous prosecution of operations against the hostile Indians by Colonel Black and the officers and men of his command it is confidently expected that peace will be restored at an early date. With the exception of the Indian disturbances in Humboldt and in the country of the Snake Indians in Oregon all is quiet.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.

* See report of Sergt. Richard B. Harris, First Battalion California Mountaineers, p. 303.

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No. 2.

Reports of Col. Henry M. Black, Sixth California Infantry, commanding District of Humboldt.

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF HUMBOLDT, Temporarily in Camp near Fort Gaston, Cal., April 7, 1864.

COLONEL: In order that the general commanding department may know what is being done within this district, I have the honor to inclose herewith all original reports of scouts, &c., as far as heard from for the month of March, made by the following-named officers, viz: Maj. T. F. {p.249} Wright, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers; Capt. D. M. Greene, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers; Capt. T. Buckley, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers; First Lieut. J. P. Hackett, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers; Capt. Eli Cook, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers; Second Lieut. H. Hutton, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, and First Lieut. K. Geer, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers. The scouts on the Klamath River, though not successful in capturing Seranaltin John, have had a very beneficial effect upon the Indians along that stream (Klamath), and I believe have made them our allies; all of which is very satisfactory, as important results may be expected from the same. Great credit is due both to officers and men for activity, energy, and zeal displayed in scouting over (to them at least) a new country, which I might say cannot be described, but must be seen and traveled over to know anything about it, particularly with the elements against them nearly all the time. It has been storming, rain and snow, every day but one since the 21st ultimo; snow on all the mountains several feet deep and streams all high. One train has been out nine days to-day from Arcata. I propose to return to Fort Humboldt as soon as the train arrives and the snow and streams will permit, visiting Camp Iaqua and Boynton’s Prairie on my route if possible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. M. BLACK, Colonel Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, U. S. Army, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF HUMBOLDT, Fort Humboldt, Cal., May 28, 1864.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report, and it is with much satisfaction, for the information of the department commander, the arrival at this post yesterday afternoon of Captain Hull and sixteen enlisted men of Company D, Second Infantry California Volunteers, with a goodly number of Indian prisoners-66 bucks, 68 squaws, and 24 children; total, 158-who surrendered themselves to him-near the junction of North Fork and main Eel Rivers. He believes that he could have induced more to come in, but his limited supply of provisions and transportation would not admit of further delay. After a few days’ rest for himself and men at this post he will return to his scouting ground to kill or capture what few hostiles are left in that section of the district.*

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. M. BLACK, Colonel Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut. Col. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.

* See report of Capt. William E Hull, May 15, p 261.

ADDENDA.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., April 23, 1864.

Col. H. M. BLACK, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Humboldt:

SIR: The general commanding has read with much interest and satisfaction your report of the 7th instant, as also the accompanying {p.250} reports of officers under your command, relative to operations in the District of Humboldt against hostile Indians. The energy and zeal displayed by both officers and men of the Sixth Infantry and Battalion of Mountaineers entitles them to the general’s Warmest thanks.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, May 10, 1864.

Col. H. M. BLACK, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Humboldt:

SIR: The general commanding desires me to say that he is well pleased with the zeal and gallantry displayed by the officers and men of your command engaged in the several Indian scouts in the District of Humboldt. All are deserving of great praise, but the activity of Captain Hull, Second Infantry, is particularly praiseworthy. * The example of Captain Hull should be followed by all.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See report of Capt. William L. Hull, May 8, p. 260.

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No. 3.

Reports of Maj. Thomas F. Wright, Sixth California Infantry.

FORT HUMBOLDT, CAL., February 21, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in obedience to orders from the headquarters of the District of Humboldt, dated February 17, 1864, I proceeded with Company C (Captain Buckley) from this post at 5 p.m. same day. The order for the movement was not received until about 4 o’clock on the day of our arrival from San Francisco. Neither the baggage of the officers nor men had been obtained from the steamer. We were accordingly obliged to go badly prepared, the men with blankets and overcoats, and three days’ rations of hard bread and pork. The officers were not able to get at their baggage. From information received at Arcata, on my arrival there, I learned that the Indians had left the vicinity of Dyer’s house, and had probably taken the trail toward Weaverville. We proceeded along that trail from Arcata to the saw-mill, about one mile from the town, when from the difficulty of finding the trail in the night I determined to wait until morning, when we could discover with more certainty the direction they had taken. The following morning after proceeding about two miles we came to the point where the Indians had come up from Dyer’s onto the trail, and we were able to follow them without any trouble to Boynton’s Prairie, a distance of thirteen miles from Arcata. Here they had left the trail. By the time the guide had tracked them to their camp of the previous night and back onto the trail it was too late to go any farther, and we were obliged to camp for the night. During the night it commenced to rain. On the morning of the 19th I, however, proceeded as far as the crossing of Mad River, a distance of six miles. This stream flows between abrupt, steep banks, is exceedingly rapid, and difficult to cross when high, and I deemed it prudent to wait until the rain should cease before crossing with my command. From the {p.251} tracks which I found at this point I think that the Indians numbered about forty or fifty, one-half of whom were women. In the meantime I sent to Camp Curtis for two days’ additional rations, which I received in the evening. During the night the rain fell steadily, and on the morning of the 20th, there being every prospect of a long-continued storm, I determined, with regret, to relinquish the pursuit and return with my command to Arcata. We accordingly marched through a drenching rain to that place, where we arrived at 3 p.m. Yesterday, after seeing that the men were comfortable under a vacant building, occupied by the consent of the owner, I proceeded by steamer to this post. I would respectfully suggest to the colonel commanding the propriety of placing one company of troops at Boynton’s Prairie for a time at least. I think it would prevent any similar depredations being committed in the neighborhood of Arcata. I cannot neglect to mention the good conduct of the men of my command without exception. The energy and endurance which they have displayed on this their first active service will, I am sure, gain in the future for the company, under more favorable circumstances, a high reputation.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. F. WRIGHT, Major Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Sixth California Volunteer Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF HUMBOLDT, Fort Humboldt, Cal., February 21, 1864.

Respectfully forwarded for the information of the department commander, believing that the major and his command are entitled to great credit for the promptness and zeal displayed, and had not the elements been against us I think we would have been able to have given a better account of their maiden efforts. Yet we are here, and it is known, and ready for anything that may offer.

H. M. BLACK, Colonel Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. District.

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HDQRS. BATTALION SIXTH INFANTRY CALIFORNIA VOLS., Camp near Fort Gaston, Cal., March 31, 1864.

SIR: In accordance with Orders, No. 2, dated headquarters District of Humboldt, March 14, 1864, I have the honor to report the operations of the battalion, composed of three companies (C, B, and G), Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, during the present month:

The battalion was in camp on the 1st instant near the town of Arcata, Cal. In accordance with previous instructions, Company C, Captain Buckley, proceeded on that day to take post at Boynton’s Prairie, leaving fifteen men to guard the saw-mill near Arcata. Boynton’s Prairie is east of Arcata, twelve miles distant, and about two miles from Mad Liver. Several trails form a junction at this point from the northeast and southwest. It is, therefore, well located for the defense of Arcata and the vicinity. On the 2d instant the two companies (B and G), with the colonel commanding the district and staff, en route for Fort Gaston, marched to Liscombe’s Hill, thirteen miles; on the 3d to Fawn Prairie; on the 4th to Oak Grove, and on the 5th to this camp; total distance, forty-six miles. On the 8th instant, it having been reported that the Indians were assembling neat the junction of Klamath and Trinity {p.252} Rivers with the intention of attacking a scouting party then out in that vicinity, Captain Greene, with forty men of his company, was sent to that point. I have the honor to inclose herewith Captain Greene’s report of his operations during the remainder of the month.* He deserves much credit for the activity and energy displayed over a region of country new to him and heretofore deemed impassable for troops. The two Indians captured by Captain Greene were, on their arrival at this camp, identified by citizens of the valley and others. They had been engaged in many depredations committed previously, and very recently had been with the Indians in open hostilities. They were both hung, by my direction, on the 16th instant, at this place. On the 9th instant Lieutenant Hackett, with thirty-five men of Company G, was sent out at the request of Lieutenant-Colonel Whipple, of the Battalion of Mountaineers, to assist in attacking a party of Indians discovered by Lieutenant Geer, of the Mountaineers. The report of Lieutenant Hackett is inclosed.** On the 10th Lieutenant Taylor, with fifteen men of Company E, escorted a train with supplies to Captain Greene’s command, returning on the 11th. On the 12th Captain Cook, with a detachment of his company, was out on a scout to the east of this camp, and on the 19th Lieutenant Hutton, of the same company, also was out in the same direction. Both reports are inclosed herewith.*** Lieutenant Taylor was again sent on the 19th to escort the train to the camp of Captain Greene, returning on the 20th.

On the 22d instant, in accordance with my instructions, I left this camp with Company G and the remainder of E for the purpose of making a trip down the Klamath among the Indians on that river who have heretofore been friendly toward the whites, but who had recently been accused of rendering some aid to the hostile band under the Hoopa chief, Seranaltin John. A detachment was left in charge of this camp under Lieutenant Hackett. I arrived on the same day at Martin’s ranch, near the junction of the Trinity and Klamath Rivers, where Captain Greene was encamped. About retreat, Lieutenant Hempfield, of the Battalion of Mountaineers, came into my camp and reported that a prisoner under his charge had been shot a short distance from there. On the following morning I deemed it my duty to investigate the affair as far as possible. All the facts were reported to the colonel commanding the district in my letter of the 23d instant. The prisoner was a very old man, who had, perhaps, more influence over the hostiles than any other man, and his loss under the circumstances was much to be regretted. The deed has also had a very bad effect on the Indians disposed to be friendly, lessening their confidence if nothing more. Having been satisfied from information received that the hostiles under John were in the vicinity of Young’s ranch, on the Klamath, some twenty miles below its junction with the Trinity, and that they were in the habit of visiting that place in the night-time, I, on the 24th, directed Lieutenant Taylor with twenty men in canoes to go down the river, leaving some stores for my command at Young’s house, and afterward to descend some distance below, conceal his boats, and return on the opposite side of the river to a point directly opposite the house, there to remain until my arrival, all of which was performed without the knowledge of any of the Indians in the vicinity. Leaving Lieutenant Hutton in charge with forty men, I with eighty men of the two companies marched by land. On arriving within five miles of Young’s after a very hard march of seventeen miles, I halted, my men and animals almost exhausted, for the purpose of allowing them to recover. {p.253} At 8 p.m. I directed Captain Greene to proceed down the river very cautiously with his men and surround Young’s and the neighboring Indian ranches. The night was very dark, the rain falling in torrents, and the trail difficult to follow even in the daytime, but they succeeded in accomplishing their purpose about 1 a.m.

On the following morning with the train and the balance of the command I followed. On my arrival no hostile Indians could be found in any of the ranches. Mr. Young states to me that the night previous they had been at his house with their leader, John; that he had not allowed him to come into his house, but had warned him not to again come there, and that he did not know the direction which the party had taken. On going into camp a short distance below I sent word to the different ranches in the vicinity that I wished to talk with them on the following morning at my camp. Our arrival was so totally unexpected, and the appearance of so many men so much alarmed the Indians whose fears had been much increased by the stories circulated among them by the whites who live with them, that it was difficult to get them together. After some delay, however, some 200 were collected together. After I had stated to them my object, and assured them that there was no danger, they became calm. It appears that at or near this point there are three ranches, the most powerful ones of the Klamaths. They control the others, and their influence is very great. For some time past the jealousy which exists has prevented them from acting together. They readily admitted that from their inability to resist they had harbored John and his party, but that they were ready to act together now, and attempt his capture if he again came on to the river. I told them that they must hereafter act together; that they would be held responsible that no succor was given to any hostile Indian. They promised to deliver any Indian up who should give them any aid or information. Being unable to learn which direction the party had taken, I sent out my Indian scouts to ascertain if possible their whereabouts, and on the afternoon of the 26th moved up the river six miles. The Indians returning without being able to get any information, on the 27th I returned to our camp at Martin’s ranch, leaving twenty men under Sergeant Bellon, of Company G, to follow the following day. Though not successful in capturing any hostile Indians, I trust the expedition has not been in vain. The exhibition of a much larger force than ever seen before must have its effect upon these Indians. The good resulting from it is already apparent in the actions of the Klamath Indians. During the four days we were absent the rain fell almost incessantly, the weather very cold, and the men suffered much from exposure, as we avoided making fires as much as possible. I regret to state that I was obliged to shoot one of my mules. It fell accidentally over a precipice, breaking its thigh, rendering it unable to move. On the 28th Sergeant Bellon with the train returned to camp. On the 30th I returned with both companies to this camp. The estimated distance marched during the month by the scouts from the two companies will, it is believed, approximate close to the actual number of miles. Company B, Captain Greene, 483 miles; Company G, Captain Cook, 395 miles.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. F. WRIGHT, Major Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Battalion.

Lieut. J. ULIO, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Humboldt.

* See p. 265.

** See p.272.

*** See pp. 272, 277.

{p.254}

HEADQUARTERS, Camp Iaqua, Cal., May 15, 1864.

SIR: In accordance with Orders, No. 2, current series, from headquarters of the District of Humboldt, I have the honor to report the operations of the troops of this command during the preceding part of this month:

May 1 Lieutenant Geer, of the Mountaineers, was absent on a scout with a detachment of his own company, and Lieutenant Taylor, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, with ten men of Company E, of the Sixth Infantry, in the vicinity of Kneeland’s Prairie. Having struck a trail of hostile Indians, he on the morning of the 1st directed Privates Mills and Berry, of Company E, to proceed to the trail with the mules and baggage of his command, and there await the arrival of the supply train coming from Humboldt, join them, and come in to this post. Instead of doing so they kept on, without waiting, in advance of the train. On arriving at Booth’s Run, about six miles from here, they were about a mile in advance of the train when they were fired upon by some Indians, five in number, concealed in the rocks. Mills was mortally wounded and overtaken by the Indians, who cut his throat. Berry was shot through the hand, but succeeded in escaping with the loss of his gun and ammunition. The mules were then stripped and the blankets, overcoats, and cooking utensils taken away. This unfortunate affair was the result of the disobedience of orders on the part of the victims, and can be attributed to no one else. Lieutenant Geer continuing on the trail came up with the Indians at sundown. While planning his mode of attack the Indians engaged in the attack of the morning came in and joined them with all the plunder. The lieutenant then resolved to wait until daylight, in hopes more might arrive during the night. At daylight on the 2d he had completely surrounded them, when he made the attack successfully, as shown by his official report heretofore forwarded. One more body has since been discovered, making the killed seven instead of six. The killing of the squaws was unavoidable on account of the thickness of the bushes and the early hour of the attack, the camp being quite dark still. All who were recognized or gave themselves up were spared. Most of the property was recovered. On learning of the murder I immediately sent Lieutenant Hackett, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, with twenty men to search for Berry. The body of Mills was brought into this post by the train. May 2 Captain Greene, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, was ordered to scout to the southward of this post for five days. On the 3d Lieutenant Hutton was sent in charge of the prisoners taken to Fort Humboldt. On arriving at Brown’s ranch he found the missing man Berry, who had been shot three days previous, just arrived. He was taken in to Fort Humboldt. On the 4th First Sergeant Bellon, of Company G, Sixth Infantry, with thirteen men was sent in search of Berry and to scout over in the direction of the fight. Sergeant Bellon discovered that the Indians had returned and buried their dead. On the 5th Lieutenant Taylor was sent to the head of Mad River, with instructions to protect a drove of cattle and some families who were desirous of crossing the mountains. This was accomplished, and on returning the country was scouted. All of the above scouts had returned on the 9th. On the morning of the 10th Captain Greene was, with forty men and twelve days’ supplies, directed to scout on Eel River to within ten miles of Camp Grant, thence to Larrabee Valley and the headwaters of Mad River, by Fort Baker home. Lieutenant Geer to scout with twenty-five men and ten days’ supplies north of Mad River {p.255} along Boulder Creek to its head, thence toward the head of Mad River. On the 11th Sergeant Holt with ten men of Company G, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, and ten Mountaineers [was detailed] to escort a party of citizens and a drove of cattle up Mad River to the head of Pilot Creek; thence scout in a southeast direction toward the head of Mad River and join Lieutenant Hackett, who on the 12th started for Fort Baker with twelve men, with instructions to go thence east toward the spot designated for the meeting. On the 13th Sergt. F. Bellon, of Company G, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, was sent in pursuit of some Indians reported to be near Harris’ house, five miles southeast from the post, with twelve men and five days’ rations. When heard from Sergeant Bellon was on the trail. On the 15th Lieutenant Taylor left with twelve men to escort the train toward Humboldt. On arriving at Freshwater Slough he is to leave the train and scout the country, joining it at the same place on the 18th. After seeing the train over the dangerous part of the road to Iaqua, Lieutenant Taylor will scout toward Mad River until the 23d instant.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. F. WRIGHT, Major Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Humboldt.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Iaqua, Cal., May 31, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report the following operations of this command during the preceding fifteen days against the hostile Indians:

Five scouting parties were out at the date of my last report. The reports of each I have the honor to inclose herewith. On the evening of the 20th, further information having been received concerning the Indians referred to in the report of Lieutenant Hackett by a scouting party under Sergeant Harris, Company E, Mountaineers, I at once determined to capture them if possible. Nearly the entire command had just returned. Having been in the field about thirty days without rest, many of the men were unable to go until they had recovered from their fatigue. A call for volunteers was responded to by more than the number of men required, and Lieutenants Geer, Hackett, and Hutton. The services of Stephen Fleming as a guide, two or three citizens, eight friendly Indians, with the party under Sergeant Harris, in all amounting to fifty men, left this camp at retreat on the 20th. The report of the action on the 22d [23d], which was the result, I have had the honor to transmit heretofore to the colonel commanding.* The officers and men of the entire command have been active and untiring during the past month, their labors severe, and the exposure has been necessarily great. On the 26th Sergeant Holt, Company G, Sixth California Infantry Volunteers, and nine men left for the purpose of scouting to the southwest of this post. It is believed that few if any Indians are now roaming between Eel and Mad Rivers west of Baker. It is thought that all the armed bands still out can be induced to come in as prisoners of war if steps are now taken with a view to that object. In the meantime another severe chastisement will be perhaps beneficial. The white man seen during the last engagement is thought to be Heath, who recently escaped from Gaston; while at the same time the horse {p.256} captured is supposed to have belonged to a man by the name of Ross, who has been missing since the 20th instant from his home. In obedience to verbal instructions a detachment of ten men was sent to relieve the party of the Second Infantry at Brown’s ranch on the 28th instant. Also on the 30th a detachment of ten men to protect Reed’s ranch, ten miles south of this camp. This point is much exposed and has been threatened repeatedly of late. I have to-day directed Lieutenant Taylor, of the Sixth, to establish a temporary camp at a suitable point near the crossing of Mad River by the upper trail, with twenty-five men for the protection of that route, now very much traveled, and perhaps the most dangerous one in the country. Should this meet the approval of the district commander I will keep a party at the point selected.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. F. WRIGHT, Major Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., District of Humboldt, Cal.

* See Geer’s report, May 25, p. 292.

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HEADQUARTERS Camp Iaqua, Cal., June 15, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report the operations of this command during the previous fifteen days:

June 1, Lieutenant Taylor, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, was sent with twenty-five men of Company B, with instructions to select a suitable place near the Upper Crossing of Mad River and there erect a small block-house. This point has been much frequented by Indians, and they have given much trouble to people traveling that route over the mountains. Large droves of stock pass over this trail during this season of the year, and it is necessary to have a force sufficient for escorts and protection. On the same day, in accordance with instructions from the commander of the district, ten men and two corporals were sent to Light-house Point, near Fort Humboldt, to guard Indian prisoners there. June 2, four men were detached to guard Harris’ ranch, four miles southeast of this post, for the protection of forage belonging to the quartermaster of this post. On the 6th Lieutenant deer, of the Battalion of Mountaineers, with a detachment of twelve men was sent to meet a party of Indians (Redwoods) who were said to be anxious to deliver themselves up. The object was effected as far as shown by his report, and the detachment returned on the 14th instant to this post. I have the honor to inclose the reports of Lieutenants Geer and Taylor.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. F. WRIGHT, Major Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Iaqua, Cal., June 30, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report the operations of this command during the preceding fifteen days:

On the 19th Lieutenant Taylor, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, was sent with instructions to take command of the detachment of Company B, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, stationed since the 1st {p.257} instant at Soldier’s Grove, consisting of twenty-five men, and to scout the country in that vicinity and on Grouse Creek and Mad River, for the purpose of discovering if any Indians still remain in that part of the district. The inclosed report* will show that after thoroughly searching the country referred to no traces of Indians can be found. No signs of Indians have been discovered on the south side of Mad River since the 1st of May. On the 25th Lieutenant Geer, of Battalion of Mountaineers, was sent out with a view to improving and shortening the trail from this post to the town of Eureka. Lieutenant Geer returned on the 29th, having succeeded in locating the trail, shortening at least four miles. The new trail, leaving the old at Lawrence Creek, continues on a ridge running nearly straight, and joins the old one again at the foot of the hill four miles west of Brown’s ranch. Very little work will render it practicable for trains. As soon as possible this work will be performed. Lieutenant Taylor and his command returned to this post on the 29th instant.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. F. WRIGHT, Major Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

First Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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No. 4.

Reports of Capt. William F. Hull, Second California Infantry.

CAMP No. 25, Red Mountain, March 31, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the 17th instant at the Red Mountain, seven or eight miles southwest of the Blue Rock Station, the scouting party of the company under my command routed a band of hostile Indians and pursued them to Eel River. On the evening of the 19th came up with them and killed 2 Indian men and captured 2 squaws. On the 22d followed the same band into Bald Spring Cañon, where 2 more men were killed. Continued the pursuit of the band under cover of night until the morning of the 27th instant, when First Sergeant Maguire, with one corporal and three privates, came upon a large encampment, which they attacked, killing 5 Indian men and capturing 3 women and 3 young children. On the 28th instant with the main body of my detachment encountered a large party on Eel River and succeeded in killing 16 men and capturing 2 women, making in all this mouth 25 Indian men killed and 7 women and 3 children captured; the latter have been sent to Camp Grant under guard to be forwarded to district headquarters. In this section of country there are large numbers of wild Indians known by the name of Wileackee, and where my detachment could do good service. If the district commander should deem it advisable to order me to that section, the communication from him in this instance might be forwarded via Camp Grant, from whence I could receive it earlier than by the usual mail route. In the section of country allotted me for scouting, i. e.,-from the Mendocino Reservation to Shelter Cove, the Indians have almost entirely dispersed, having returned to the reservation or left for other parts to {p.258} evade my command. I beg to state that Mattole Valley and Bear River alluded to in District Orders, No. 118, are beyond the capability of my means of transportation, in consequence of the want of pack animals. The roughness of the route makes it difficult to find animals to hire in this vicinity equal to the task. With reference to the communication dated Fort Gaston, March 6, 1864, and transmitted through district headquarters, relative to operating against domesticated Indians, I beg in reply to state that I have not interfered with any of that class, or with any who are living with or under the protection of white settlers. In conclusion, I feel pleasure in stating that the scouting party under my command did their duty in a soldier-like, cheerful, and satisfactory manner, during several days and nights (the weather being both wet and stormy) while in pursuit of the Indians.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM B. HULL, Captain, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company D.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL Humboldt Military District, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

* See Taylor’s report, June 30, p. 278.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF HUMBOLDT, Fort Humboldt, Cal., April 24, 1864.

Respectfully forwarded for information of department commander. Great credit is due Captain Hull and his command for activity and energy displayed.

H. M. BLACK, Colonel Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

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CAMP No. 25, Coast Range Mountains, Mendocino County, Cal., April 15, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit the following report of the movements of a scouting detachment of Company D, Second Infantry California Volunteers, under my command, commencing on the 1st and ending on the 15th instant, viz:

April 1, Sergeant Maguire and six privates proceeded with seven women and three children (Indian captives) to Camp Grant, and returned here on the 8th instant, having traveled a distance of 104 miles. Sergeant Maguire states that one woman and child succeeded in making their escape on the way to their destination, notwithstanding the strictest vigilance was kept by the party; that during the time they were out they experienced very stormy weather and much snow had fallen. Met with no fresh Indian signs. April 3, Sergeant Winn, one corporal, and three privates proceeded on scout to Bell Cañon, Island Mountain, and returned on the 4th instant. Traveled a distance of twenty-five miles; also on the 3d instant Sergeant Wheeler and four privates proceeded on scout to Blue Rock Cañon and returned on the 4th instant, both parties driven in by severity of snow-storm. Saw no fresh Indian signs on either route. April 5, 6, 7, and 8, much snow lying on the hill, consequent difficulty in traveling. April 9, I proceeded this day with one sergeant, one corporal, and six privates, one packer and two mules in a westerly direction toward the coast and scouted carefully along the South Fork of Eel River, its tributaries, and through the different little valleys where Indians were likely to be found, taking {p.259} care to travel under cover of night. Returned to camp on the 12th instant without finding any Indians or fresh signs. Traveled during this scout a distance of about sixty miles. April 13, I proceeded this day with one sergeant and six privates to Middle Fork of Eel River, which is much swollen and cannot at present be forded. Gradual melting snow on the mountains at the head of this stream will keep it up for some time. Scouted in this neighborhood a distance of forty-five miles, and returned to camp this day without seeing any Indians or fresh signs. The whole of these scouts were supposed to be within the limits of Mendocino County. My first object now will be to build a canoe capable of carrying provisions and ferrying my men across the Middle Fork of Eel River, and following up the remainder of the band of Indians referred to in my last report, who have no doubt escaped across this river, taking with them their wounded, of which there were several. I beg to add that I must give but an estimated distance of miles traveled in each scout, but the figures are placed under rather than over.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM B. HULL, Captain, Second infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company D.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Humboldt Military District, C amp near Fort Gaston, Cal.

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AT CAMP No. 25, Coast Range, Mendocino County, Cal., April 30, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the proceedings of the detachment of my company while on scout, from the 16th to the 30th instant, viz:

April 16, occupied in making preparations for crossing Eel River in a northeasterly direction. April 17, I proceeded with two sergeants, one corporal, one guide, and eleven privates to the mouth of White Rock Cañon that falls into Eel River, a distance of about twenty miles; found the river at that point impassable. April 18, sent out two parties, one up and the other down the river, in search of a ford, but without success, each party traveling about ten or twelve miles. April 19, proceeded up the river with the whole detachment about fifteen miles, and with great difficulty succeeded about 2 a.m. in crossing. The men being very wet, I encamped for the night; found fresh Indian signs. April 20, having arrived in the neighborhood of Indians, kept my men and animals concealed in the bushes until dark, then traveled a distance of about twelve miles, keeping a good lookout for Indian camp-fires, but discovered none; by the moonlight I could plainly see the traces of Indians through the high grass. April 21, encamped at daylight and at night fall resumed the scout; traveled all night over a very rough country called the Rola Bola Mountains; plenty of Indian signs; traveled a distance of twenty miles. April 22, remained in camp until night, then resumed the scout, and after traveling until near daylight discovered Indian camp-fires situated on a high bluff of rock that seemed impossible to approach, and was so to strangers at night-time; hence I was compelled to defer the attack until daylight, but those wary savages discovered us and fled; they had a start of about two miles. I followed them as fast as possible, the ascent being extremely difficult, and pursued them that day until myself and men {p.260} were almost exhausted; must have traveled a distance of fifty miles, including the scout of the previous night; discovered by the trail the Indians had separated in two bands. April 23, divided my men in two parties; gave Sergeant Wheeler one and myself the other. I followed one trail, traveling alternately by day or night until my provisions began to give out. I arrived at this camp on the 28th; traveled a distance averaging twenty miles per day since the 23d. April 29, Sergeant Wheeler arrived at camp with 11 Indian women and 1 child, prisoners captured by him on the 28th; he reports 8 Indian men killed, besides quite a number wounded, that threw themselves into the river and thus escaped or were likely drowned; this occurred at a place called Big Bend, on Eel River; he also states that his party traveled not less than twenty miles each day. I have detained three of the captives (women) as guides for a few days, believing that they will be of great use to me; the remainder I have forwarded to Camp Grant, to be escorted to Fort Humboldt, agreeably to district orders. I have had built on Eel River a large canoe, capable of carrying twenty men. I feel pleasure in stating that people are already driving large herds of stock into a portion of the country scouted over by me, heretofore prevented by Indians.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM B. HULL, Captain, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company D.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District, Camp near Fort Gaston, Cal.

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HDQRS. COMPANY D, SECOND INFTY. CALIFORNIA VOLS., Camp No. 26, Eel River, Mouth of Bell Rock Cañon, May 8, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st instant, transmitted via Camp Grant, and now beg leave to report the proceedings of the scout detachment of my company from the 1st to the 8th, as follows:

May I to 3, removing camp to this place. May 3, a band of forty Indians have this day of their own accord come into camp and surrendered themselves on condition of their lives being spared (having previously burnt their bows and arrows). There are twelve or fifteen bucks, the remainder of the number are squaws and children. I understand from this band that there are more coming in to surrender themselves. My means of transportation will not admit of my victualing a large number long. However, I have made arrangements to have provisions purchased from the nearest settlement to enable me to forward them to Humboldt for the disposal of the district commander. May 6, Sergeant Sweet and six privates from Camp Grant, where they had taken Indian captives, saw no fresh Indian signs.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM B. HULL, Captain, Second Infantry California Volunteers, Comdg. Company D, Second Infantry California Volunteers.

First Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

{p.261}

HDQRS. COMPANY D, SECOND INFTY. CALIFORNIA VOLS., Camp No. 26, Eel River, May 15, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to state that since the 8th instant (the date of my last report, in which I informed you that I had 40 Indians who had surrendered themselves) I have accepted the surrender of 69 more, making the total number of prisoners at this camp 109, and a probability of increase. I am only waiting for sufficient supply of provisions to start on the line of march to Humboldt with them. The pack train from Fort Bragg and a gang of Indians sent to Long Valley for beef will, I expect, arrive to-morrow. Captain Simpson arrived here last night with two privates and his Indian interpreter, by my request, to assist me in getting a full understanding with those Indians. They appear satisfied with my arrangements at present, but I fear that in removing them from their country they may demur. I can muster a guard of but twelve or fourteen men, and in the event of their changing their mind and making a stampede during the night many will doubtless escape. I shall use all caution within my limited means to prevent such a disaster.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM B. HULL, Captain, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company D.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Humboldt Military District, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

N. B.-As a precautionary measure I deemed it necessary to keep the whole of my detachment about the camp, in consequence of the large number of prisoners therein.

W. B. H.

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CAMP No. 26, Eel River, Mouth of Bell Cañon, Mendocino County, Cal., June 14, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the proceedings of Company D, Second Infantry California Volunteers, under my command between the 1st and 14th, are as follows:

Arrived at this camp from Fort Humboldt on the morning of the 3d instant. On the 4th instant sent out a scouting party in charge of Lance Corporal Young, who returned on the 7th with fifteen Indians. He reports that while scouting these Indians came to him and surrendered; they (the Indians) say that they are the last of their tribe in this section of country, which I am led to believe is correct, as I have scouted the country entirely over without finding any Indian signs whatever, having started from camp on the 8th instant and returned on the 13th, traveling on average a distance of about twelve or fifteen miles a day. I sent two friendly Indians to the headwaters of the North Fork of Eel River with the view of finding the whereabouts of the tribe of Indians belonging to that portion of the country. They have not returned, and it is my opinion that they have been killed. As soon as I get supplies from Fort Bragg, and my camp moved from this point to that region, I shall commence active operations against them. However, as my intended camping ground is fully 100 miles from Fort Bragg, over an exceedingly mountainous country, it will be about the 1st of July before I can get the necessary supplies to that part. I have recently understood that there is a small band of roving {p.262} Indians at Usal Creek, on the coast. I shall proceed immediately in person to that vicinity and scout along the coast to Shelter Cove, thence back again across country to North Eel River, by which time my supplies will have arrived at the head of North Fork of Eel River. In the meantime Sergeants Maguire and Winn will be scouting with the detachment in this section. This day I have forwarded to Camp Grant, under charge of Lance Corporal Young and five privates, fifteen Indian prisoners, who will be turned over to the commanding officer of that post for transfer by him to Fort Humboldt.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM E. HULL, Captain, Second Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company D.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Humboldt Military District, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

ADDENDA.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, May 18, 1864.

Col. H. M. BLACK, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Humboldt:

SIR: The general commanding is gratified to observe the activity and zeal displayed by Captain Hull, Second Infantry California Volunteers, and Sergeant Wheeler of Captain Hull’s company, on a recent scout and engagement with the Indians on Eel River. They deserve and receive the highest praise for their conduct on the occasion referred to.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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No. 5.

Reports of Capt. Thomas Buckley, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP BIDWELL, CAL., April 1, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report operations of my command from the 15th to the 31st ultimo, inclusive. Notwithstanding the inclement weather, snowing or raining continually, the command has been actively engaged in scouting. Made scouts to Mad River the 21st, 23d, and 25th ultimo without success. Lieutenant Oaks, in command of a detachment of twenty-one men, with five days’ rations, left camp on the morning of March 26 for the purpose of scouting in the vicinity of the Three Cabins, distant fourteen miles, also to Renalda Creek and Big Bend. After crossing Mad River and while ascending the mountain, Private Joseph Smith, of Company C, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, fell and almost instantly expired at 11 a.m. 26th ultimo; supposed cause of decease, apoplexy. He was buried on the banks of Mad River. The detachment proceeded to the Three Cabins and encamped. On the 27th made a scout three miles north of Big Bend in the direction of Redwood Creek, where they discovered fresh Indian signs on the ridge dividing Bug and Boulder Creeks. It is the opinion of Lieutenant Oaks that there are two Indian ranches on each of the above-named creeks. The detachment returned to their camp at night, having been {p.263} out in a violent storm of rain and snow. On the 28th scouted seven miles up the south side of Boulder Creek through a pelting storm of rain. They saw fresh signs, but no Indians.

On the 29th the detachment scouted all day in a storm with like results. On the 31st ultimo detachment returned to Camp Bidwell by the way of Kneeland’s Prairie, fording the river with great difficulty six miles above the lower ford, the latter being impassable. Lieutenant Oaks reports seeing smoke ascending from the timber to the left of the trail and half a mile from the prairie. On the detachment halting the fire was immediately extinguished. Four men were detailed as spies to watch. They returned to camp that night without discovering the enemy. The detachment was compelled to return, being out of rations and quite exhausted from the effects of the severe storms. On the 28th March I left camp with ten men, intending to join Lieutenant Oaks’ command, but was compelled to return, as the river could not be forded. Lieutenant Oaks reports the country as very favorable for scouting. The creeks are densely covered with heavy timber. On the summit of the mountains are numerous plateaus covered with good grass and with springs of good water. Boulder Creek runs parallel with Mad River, the latter forming Big Bend. Three Cabins is six miles southwest of Big Bend. The range of country described is covered with fat cattle, hundreds of which were seen by the detachment, and affording an inexhaustible supply of food to the enemy. Distance marched going and returning, forty miles. The health of my command has been generally good. It is my intention to make another scout immediately, and I hope a more successful one.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOMAS BUCKLEY, Captain, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Commanding Camp.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant-Adjutant-General, Fort Gaston, Cal.

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CAMP AT BOYNTON’S PRAIRIE, CAL., May 3, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that Lieutenant Oaks, in command of a detachment of twenty-three men of Company C, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, left this camp on the morning of April 25, 1864, on an Indian scout to Boulder Creek. After a diligent search, finding no enemy in that vicinity, the detachment returned to this camp on the evening of the 28th of April. As the Indians had been reported as killing cattle on Kneeland’s Prairie, on the evening of April 30, 1864, I sent a detachment, consisting of Sergeant Wing and six privates, who were to proceed to the prairie and remain concealed, to observe if the enemy returned to the prairie, and their numbers; also to follow their trail to their camping place, and to send back for a larger force to surround them, unless their numbers should be sufficient to attack them successfully. The detachment returned this day, and the sergeant reports that he discovered a small party, consisting of five or six bucks and squaws, but could not succeed in getting close enough to capture them, the nature of the country allowing them to easily secrete themselves, and it would be impossible to get a shot at them unless close upon them. I would also report that Lieutenant Oaks, in command of a detachment of twenty men, left camp this p.m. for a scout in that {p.264} section. I would also report the health of my command as good, with a few exceptions of colds.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. BUCKLEY, Captain, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Commanding Camp.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjt. Sixth Infantry California Vols., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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CAMP AT BOYNTON’S PRAIRIE, CAL., May 15, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that Lieutenant Oaks, with a detachment of twenty-two men, left this camp on the 3d instant for the purpose of scouting on and in the vicinity of Kneeland’s Prairie. The detachment discovered fresh Indian sign at the Redwoods, head of Elk Creek, and other localities in the neighborhood of the prairie. The sign or trail was only made by one band of Indians, who succeeded in dodging and eluding the pursuit, although closely followed by Lieutenant Oaks and party. The detachment found two Indian ranches composed of huts, one of which they destroyed and the other they reserved for future operations. The detachment returned to this camp on the morning of the 8th instant; distance marched, twenty miles (distance marched during the whole scout, as reported by Lieutenant Oaks, 100 miles). I regret that I have to report the death of Corpl. J. D. Barnes, late a member of Company B, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, and but recently attached to my company, who was shot on the 6th instant while on the trail between here and Kneeland’s Prairie, by a party of Indians concealed near the trail. He was returning to camp with two pack-mules, one of which he was riding, and when between one and two miles from the prairie he was shot at and hit by two balls, one penetrating his shoulder, which caused him to drop his gun, and the other shot, which struck him in the lower part of the back, passing through his body. He succeeded in returning to camp, but died about three hours after. He reported seeing a white man with the party that shot him. Lieutenants Oaks and Rowe, with a detachment of thirty-three men, are at present scouting in the same locality. The health of the command is good. I would respectfully request permission to remove five men from Tillow’s Mill to this camp, if agreeable to the commanding officer of the district.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOMAS BUCKLEY, Captain, Sixth infantry California Vols., Commanding Camp.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth infantry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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CAMP AT BOYNTON’S PRAIRIE, July 1, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report operations of my command from the 16th of June to July 1, 1864. I have not been actively engaged in scouting the last fifteen days, owing to the intelligence I received from reliable sources that all the hostile Indians were coming in and giving themselves up. I was informed that there were two bucks and three squaws still out in the vicinity of Boulder Creek, concealed in a cave. I sent out a detachment on the 24th June, with a guide thoroughly acquainted with that portion of the country, to make a thorough {p.265} search for any hostile Indians lurking in that vicinity. The detachment returned to camp on the evening of the 28th June, and report finding the cave on Boulder Creek. It had been evacuated, with no appearance of having been recently occupied. With the above exception the detachment was unable to discover any Indian signs. I have to report the loss by desertion of four men from my command on the night of the 15th June. The next day I dispatched Lieutenant Oaks with a detachment of five men in pursuit. After following them four days the detachment lost their trail and was compelled to return to camp, arriving here on the 22d ultimo. I would also report that the health of my command is generally good.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. BUCKLEY, Captain, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Commanding Camp.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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No. 6.

Reports of Capt. Duane M. Greene, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP NEAR FORT GASTON, CAL., April 1, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report to the colonel commanding the district the following scouts and movements made from the 8th day of March, 1864, to the 1st day of April, 1864, by a detachment of Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, under my command:

Tuesday, March 8, 1864, left camp near Fort Gaston, Cal., at 12.30 p.m. with detachment of forty men of Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, one packer, one Indian guide, two mules with supplies for detachment, and one mule with supplies for Lieutenant Middleton’s command, which was supposed to be in the vicinity of the junction of the Trinity and Klamath Rivers. I proceeded about six miles and met him returning with his detachment to Fort Gaston. I turned over to him the mule with provisions for his command and proceeded to Weitchpec, at the junction of the above-named rivers, where I arrived about 5 p.m., crossed the Klamath River, and camped in front of a vacant house. Found several friendly Indians living near this place. Distance traveled, twelve miles. With the exception of two places where there have been land-slides, the trail is good. Wednesday, March 9, sent messenger to Fort Gaston, reporting my arrival here. Sent out three scouting parties of ten men each under non-commissioned officers, with Indian guides, one up the Klamath, one down the Klamath, and the other to the valley behind the range of mountains skirting the Klamath on the north, to discover the hostile Indians if possible, or signs, and information that would lead to their discovery. The parties returned to camp at 6, 7, and 7.30 p.m., respectively. The one that went up the river found the country in some places near the river flat and sandy, but generally hilly and rough. They went to a point six miles from camp, but saw no signs of Indians. The party that went down the river marched six miles from camp, three miles of which was through tolerably smooth country, the remainder broken and rugged. Found a great many friendly Indians living in ranches. Saw a white man who informed them that a notorious Indian named Wanich {p.266} could be found in the vicinity of Bluff Creek, about eight miles above my camp. The party that crossed the mountain traveled seven miles to a valley, but saw no Indians nor signs of them. Aggregate distance traveled by the three parties, thirty-eight miles.

Thursday, March 10, at a very early hour I took sixteen men and went to Bluff Creek, eight miles from my camp, in search of Wanich. He had been notified of my coming and made his escape to the mountains. I returned to camp at 1 p.m. Lieutenant Taylor, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, with an escort of ten men arrived in camp at 2 p.m., with ten days’ rations for the detachment. Friday, March 11, sent Sergeant McCullough with ten men to look for a more suitable place to camp. He returned at 11 a.m., having found a deserted log cabin and a barn at a distance of two miles from the junction and one mile above Martin’s Ferry. Wood and water convenient. Moved camp in afternoon. Lieutenant Taylor and escort returned to Fort Gaston. I sent the two mules and packer I had back with him. Saturday, March 12, having received information that Seranaltin John’s band was at Young’s ranch, about twenty miles down the Klamath, I took twenty men and twelve Indians in three canoes (the Indians as guides and to work the canoes) and four days’ rations and started in pursuit. Arrived at Young’s ranch about 3.30 p.m., and learned that the Indians were about three miles below that place. Remained at Young’s until night set in, then took the canoes and moved noiselessly down the river, but their system of telegraphing is so perfect that my coming had been long known to them, and they had scattered and fled, some to the mountains and some down the river. The Indians with me said there was but one place for those who had gone down the river to stop at, and that was a rendezvous at the mouth of the river. I continued on and arrived at a point half a mile above the mouth of the river at 3 a.m. Sunday, where I landed the men. I proceeded cautiously over the most indescribable rocks and cliffs a quarter of a mile and discovered a large canoe partly drawn out on the rocks. I then ascended a high buff, on the summit of which I found an Indian rancheria, which I immediately surrounded, capturing the two notorious Indians, Jack and Stone, and two squaws and two children. Having no rope or anything else suitable to hang the bucks with, I was obliged to bring them away with me. I could not take the squaws and children, as I had but four days’ rations for my men and I desired to hasten to the river to intercept any others of the band that might be coming down to this rendezvous. The children could not have got down the cliff to the river, the night being so intensely dark. It is impossible to imagine a rougher or more rugged country than that through which I passed. Animals cannot be taken over it. There is no trail on either side of the river from a point one mile below Young’s ranch to the mouth, a distance of thirty-four miles. There are bowlder-bars in some places near the river one and a half and two miles long, where there is no earth, not even a grain of sand visible, the strong currents of freshets having swept it away, leaving nothing but the clean washed stones to walk upon. The river is wild and rapid as a cataract all the way to its mouth, rendering it extremely difficult to bring an empty canoe up. In traveling thirty-four miles I was obliged to cross the river thirty-eight times. I remained on one side as long as it was possible to get through the dense woods or until I came to an impassable cliff, then crossed to the other side, thus alternating until within one mile of Young’s, where the country is more open. I continued marching until 6 p.m. Sunday, when I halted to rest the men and give them an opportunity to make {p.267} coffee, having marched twenty miles. Resumed the march at 8 p.m. and arrived at Young’s ranch at 4 a.m. Monday, having marched fifteen miles during the night. (This march was munch impeded by the men falling into chasms and gulches hidden by the tops of fallen trees and underbrush.) Left Young’s at 6 a.m. Monday and arrived in camp near Martin’s Ferry at 8 p.m., having marched twenty miles. Confined the prisoners in a log cabin under a guard of six men. Found no other trace of Indians. Distance traveled in three days and two nights, 110 miles.

Wednesday, March 16, sent Sergeant McCullough and nine men with the prisoners Jack and Stone to Fort Gaston. Thursday, March 17, at 4 p.m., Sergeant McCullough and party returned from Fort Gaston, reported having turned over the prisoners safely, and that they were hanged the same evening, after attempting to escape from the guard. Friday, March 18, sent out a party of fifteen men on a scout north of the camp. They traveled about twelve miles and returned to camp at 6 p.m., having seen no signs of Indians. Country mountainous and nearly all covered with forest. Saw very little prairie land. Water abundant. Saturday, March 19, Lieutenant Taylor, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, with twenty-eight men and ten days’ rations for the command, arrived from Fort Gaston. Reported two men, Privates Oultzhover and Perkins, of my company, missing. Sent out scouting party of thirteen men. They traveled northeasterly from camp five miles, thence northerly, thence westerly to the river (Klamath), which they reached about three miles below Martin’s Ferry. Saw no Indians. Country rough and mountainous. Arrived in camp at 6 p.m., having traveled about fourteen miles. Sunday, March 20, Lieutenant Taylor, with an escort of ten men, started for Fort Gaston, having the pack-mules in charge. Sent out Sergeant Heines with fifteen men across the river on a scout toward French Camp to examine the trails and search for the two men who were missing from Lieutenant Taylor’s command on the previous day. Party returned at 5 p.m. Saw no signs of Indians or the missing men. Traveled fifteen miles, four of which were from the foot of a mountain to its summit. Saw considerable prairie land, where feed was abundant. Tuesday, March 22, Major Wright arrived in camp at 6 p.m., bringing with him Captain Cook and Lieutenant Hutton, with a detachment of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, and Lieutenant Taylor, with the remainder of Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, except four men left at Fort Gaston. Thursday, March 24, Lieutenant Taylor left camp with a scouting party of twenty men. By direction of Major Wright I sent four men to Fort Gaston as an escort to U. S. mail. I took thirty-six men of my command and proceeded with Major Wright down the north side of the Klamath River to a place called Notchico, where we arrived at 6 p.m. and camped; distance, fifteen miles. At 7.30 p.m. I started with my detachment for Young’s ranch, Major Wright, with a detachment of Company G, remaining in camp. Raining heavily and night very dark. Arrived at Young’s about 11.30 p.m.; distance, six miles. Friday, March 25, finding no hostile Indians in the vicinity, I camped about 600 yards below Young’s house at 11 a.m. Major Wright, with detachment of Company G, arrived in camp about 4 p.m. Lieutenant Taylor and detachment arrived about 6 p.m. Saturday, March 26, at 12.30 p.m., the entire command left camp at Young’s on their return. Marched about six miles and camped. Sunday, March 27, left camp about 8 a.m. and arrived in camp near Martin’s Ferry at 5 p.m.; distance, fifteen miles. Wednesday, March 30, left camp near Martin’s {p.268} Ferry about 9.30 a.m.; crossed the river at the ferry and took the trail for Fort Gaston about 10 a.m., where we arrived about 5 p.m.; distance, twenty miles. In all the country traveled over water is so abundant as to render it unnecessary for the men to carry canteens. Saw but very little arable or table land, the country generally being of the most mountainous and rugged description. For a distance of nearly seventy-six miles from the mouth of the Klamath River there are only about twenty-two white men, and their interests are not permanent, being engaged in mining along the river shores. Even the mines do not yield an equivalent for the labor and danger of working them. Aggregate number of miles traveled during the above scouts, 278.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. M. GREENE, Captain, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Camp near Fort Gaston, Cal.

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CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 1, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report to the colonel commanding the district the following scouts, made by detachments under my command, during the month of April, 1864:

Friday, April 8, 1864, by direction of the major commanding the battalion Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, I left camp near Fort Gaston at 4 a.m. with twenty-five men of Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, and one commissioned officer (First Lieut. J. P. Hackett, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers), and proceeded by the river trail to a point eleven miles and a quarter from Fort Gaston, and three-quarters of a mile south of Weitchpec, at the junction of the Trinity and Klamath Rivers, where I arrived at 9 a.m.; raining hard and trail very slippery. It had been reported that Seranaltin John and some of his warriors were at the ranch of the friendly Indian known as Old Man Jim, chief of the Weitchpecs, on the north side of the Klamath, near the junction, and to avoid discovery I left the trail and secreted the men in the dense woods on my left, placing some of them in positions from which they could watch the trail. Old Man Jim having been employed as a guide on many occasions, and it being understood that he was co-operating with the troops (having given the information of John’s presence at his ranch), I sent my guide, who was also a Weitchpec Indian, to tell him I was in the woods near by and wanted to see him. About an hour afterward Old Man Jim came and told nine that Seranaltin John and part of his band were at his ranch. I then made arrangements with him to send me two canoes to cross the river with, and to collect his own Indians together and attack John and keep him engaged until I could come to his assistance, all of which he agreed to do. I then advanced under cover of the woods to within 100 yards of the river, where I waited for the signal to cross, which was to be the firing of Jim’s rifles. In the course of half an hour after I reached this point a shot was fired, and according to previous arrangement my men suddenly emerged from the woods and rushed for the canoes, but on arriving at the river found only one had been left for us, and instead of the shot being a signal for me it was for John, it having been fired by one of his party, whose suspicions had been aroused by the mysterious actions of Old Man Jim, and John and his warriors fled to the mountains {p.269} in rear of Weitchpec. I could see them running, but they were out of the range of my muskets. I took ten men into the canoe and crossed the river, leaving Lieutenant Hackett to bring over the remainder of the detachment. The river at this point was about 200 yards wide, having been very much swollen by the heavy rains, and the current so rapid that the canoe was swept down nearly a quarter of a mile before I landed. Finding it impracticable to follow the Indians or to open fire upon them at so great a distance, I sent two old Indians, unarmed, to tell Seranaltin John, who had now reached the summit of the mountain, that I wanted to talk with him, thinking that I could persuade him to come in with his warriors somewhere near Fort Gaston and thus capture the entire party. He sent back a message saying that if I would leave my men under the bluff near the river, in front of Weitchpec, and lay down my rifle, he would lay down his and come half-way down the mountain, where he would meet me, but that he would not go out of the range of his men’s rifles. This being the only condition on which I could talk with him I consented, and proceeded to the spot where we were to meet. His men were deployed as skirmishers near him, each with his rifle in the position of ready. After shaking hands with me and conversing a few moments he said he wanted peace; that he was tired of the mountains and wanted to come in. I tried to persuade him to go to Fort Gaston, but he said he was afraid to go there; that he wanted to stop at Weitchpec and take all his Indians there. I told him he might do so, whereupon he turned to his men and told them there would be no more fighting, and they immediately discharged their rifles into the air. I then left him, rejoined my men, and returned to camp near Fort Gaston, where I arrived at 7 p.m., having traveled twenty-four miles.

Saturday, April 23, left camp near Camp Iaqua at 9 a.m. with eleven men, one packer, and five mules, with five days’ rations for my detachment, and also for that of Lieutenant Geer, which left camp the previous night. Traveled southeasterly to Fort Baker, thirteen miles, thence easterly five miles to camp, where I met Lieutenants Geer and Hackett with eighteen men of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, and two men of Company A, Mountaineer Battalion. They reported that they had tracked the cattle which were driven off by the Indians to that vicinity. On the morning of the 24th Lieutenant Geer with two men went out to ascertain which direction the cattle had taken from the point where their tracks were last seen the previous evening, and discovered that they bad been driven over a high bluff into a cañon about half a mile long and extending down to the Van Dusen River. This place is about one mile and a half east of Fort Baker. I took the entire command to Fort Baker, where I left the mules and ten men, and proceeded up the Van Dusen to the mouth of the cañon through which the cattle passed, and there discovered three cows and two calves hamstrung and living, and four steers and two heifers dead. Some of the dead ones were in the river, and evidently had been hamstrung, and in endeavoring to cross the river were carried down by the rapid current and drowned. One steer had seven arrow holes in it. I directed Lieutenant Geer to shoot those that were hamstrung and still alive. The bluff on either side of the river is nearly perpendicular, and the river is deep and full of large bowlders, and a more fit place for so cruel an act could not have been found. They could not have escaped had they not have been hamstrung. It appears to have been done purely for mischief, as none of the meat had been taken away. It is impossible to track the Indians away from the river, there being nothing but stones {p.270} on either side. I got to the place by climbing from one rock to another. I spent all the 24th scouting in the vicinity, but found no signs showing the direction the Indians had taken. In examining the place where the cattle were driven over we discovered two that had hot reached the bottom, and by getting them on a small bench of the hill they got out. After a thorough examination of the country in the vicinity I went to Fort Baker and camped, and on the 25th returned to Camp Iaqua, having traveled forty-six miles. The trail from Camp Iaqua to Fort Baker is very good, passing through fine open country, but beyond that point mountainous and rough. Total distance traveled during the above scouts, seventy miles.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. M. GREENE, Captain, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company E.

First Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Vols., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 15, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit to the colonel commanding the district the following report of a scout made since the 1st instant:

May 2, information having been received that the Indians were in the vicinity of Reed’s farm, by direction of the major commanding the battalion Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, I took twenty-five men of my company, one packer, one guide, and seven mules, with five days’ rations, and proceeded to that place, where I arrived at 7 p.m. and camped; distance, ten miles. May 3, sent Sergeant Heines with ten men and a guide on a scout to Grizzly Creek, and Corporal Mitchell with nine men down the South Yager. Corporal Mitchell returned about 4 o’clock, having found no signs of Indians; traveled ten miles. Sergeant Heines returned about 5 o’clock. Saw no signs of Indians; traveled twelve miles. May 4, sent Sergeant Heines with thirteen men and a guide to scout down the Middle Yager. Returned about 5 o’clock; traveled fourteen miles and saw no signs of Indians. May 5, sent a scouting party six miles into the Redwoods in the direction of Hydesville to return by the way of the Little Prairies. Reported having seen no signs of Indians; traveled eleven miles. May 6, sent a party in the direction of the junction of the three Yagers. Reported having seen Indian signs about two days old leading toward Lawrence Creek. Followed it as far as the supply of provisions would permit, and learning that Lieutenant Geer’s party had gone in this direction the day previous, the scout returned, having traveled twelve miles. May 7, left camp at Reed’s farm at 9 a.m. and arrived at Camp Iaqua at 12 m. Aggregate distance traveled on the above scouts, seventy-nine miles.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. M. GREENE, Captain, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry.

First Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth California Vol. Infantry, Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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CAMP IAQUA, CAL., June 1, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit to the colonel commanding the district the following report of a scout made by a detachment of Company {p.271} E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, under my command, from May 10 to 20, inclusive:

May 10, left Camp Iaqua at 10 a.m. with thirty men of Company B, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, one packer, and nine mules and two guides. Arrived at Reed’s farm at 2 p.m., ten miles, and camped to prepare parties to go out the next morning. May 11, sent fifteen men and a guide with the train to Cutterback’s ranch, near the Van Dusen River, via the Hydesville trail, thirteen miles. Took fifteen men and a guide and crossed the Redwoods, arriving at Cutterback’s ranch at 4 p.m., where I met the train. This part of the Redwoods is covered with a very dense undergrowth and is extremely rough. It is impossible to discover a person at the distance of ten feet. Corporal Heller became exhausted, fainting several times, and it was with much difficulty that I got him through. Sergeant McCullough fell into a hidden ravine and dislocated his left shoulder. I sent him to Hydesville to obtain the assistance of a surgeon. Traveled twelve miles in the Redwoods and saw no signs of Indians. May 12, went up the Van Dusen River ten miles to a place known as Smith’s ranch (all the ranches on the Van Dusen are deserted), where I arrived at 5 p.m. and found three soldiers, who represented to belong to Company E, Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, and that they were stationed on the Van Dusen at the crossing of the new mail trail to protect the property of the contractor. Suspecting they were deserters, I made prisoners of them. Saw no signs of Indians. May 13, sent a scouting party up the Van Dusen to the mouth of Grizzly Creek; thence up Grizzly Creek with two days’ rations. Also sent a party in the direction of Eel River, to return by way of the new mail station and ascertain if the prisoners I made the day previous were deserters. Party returned bringing with them the order placing Corporal Knighton and four men of Company E, Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, on duty at the mail station with instructions to scout in the vicinity. I thereupon released them. Scout traveled eight miles and saw no fresh signs of Indians. May 14, the scout that went to Grizzly Creek returned, having discovered no fresh signs of Indians. Traveled eighteen miles. Country very rough. Sent party to examine a small prairie four miles north of this place in the Redwoods. Saw no signs. Traveled eight miles.

May 15, left Smith’s ranch at daylight and arrived at the Bald Ranges on Larrabee Creek at 10 a.m., twelve miles. Saw no signs of Indians. Sent a scouting party up the creek, one down, and two others in different directions. Neither of these parties discovered any signs of Indians. Traveled twenty-four miles. May 16, left Larrabee Creek at 6 a.m., and having learned that a scouting party from Fort Grant was on the south side of the ridge which separates Larrabee Creek from Larrabee Valley, and that a party from the vicinity of Fort Seward was about eight miles east of me, to avoid them and keep in country that had not been scouted, I took a northeasterly course fourteen miles to the Van Dusen River, crossed it, and camped. Sent out three parties in different directions. They traveled twelve miles and saw no signs of Indians. May 17, left camp at 7 a.m., taking an easterly course to the head of Grizzly Gulch; thence south to a point near Reed’s farm, where the train was left to await the return of a scout sent in the direction of the junction of the three Yagers (creeks), where it was supposed the Indians who had been killing cattle in the neighborhood of Fort Baker had gone. In the country between the Van Dusen River and Reed’s farm we found no signs of Indians. Distance, twelve miles. May {p.272} 18, sent a party in the direction of the South Yager Creek. Traveled eight miles and saw no signs of Indians. May 19, the scout that went to the junction of the three Yagers returned about 3 p.m., having found twelve deserted Indian lodges near the junction. They appeared to have been unoccupied for several months. Traveled eighteen miles. May 20, many of the men being nearly barefooted and some of them sick, I returned to Camp Iaqua, where I arrived at noon; ten miles. Total distance traveled during the above scout, 189 miles. From the 11th to the 18th the weather was very stormy and unfavorable for scouting. The entire country from Eel River to the source of Larrabee Creek is one mass of mountains. On the Bald Mountains between Larrabee Creek and the Van Dusen River there is an abundance of good forage.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. M. GREENE, Captain, Sixth infantry California Volunteers.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, First Lieut. and Adjt. Sixth Infty. California Vols., Fort Humboldt.

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No. 7.

Report of Capt. Eli Cook, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP NEAR FORT GASTON, CAL., March 14, 1864.

SIR: In compliance with Orders, No. 2, from the commanding officer of Humboldt District, I herewith transmit you a report of my scouting party:

On the 12th instant left camp at 7 a.m. with a detachment of fifteen men of my company. Crossed the Trinity River about half a mile above the camp, and then took a trail over the mountains until we reached the summit. I then left the trail and marched a circuit round through some timbered country about ten miles distance from the camp, until I reached a deep cañon, which I followed down about a mile. I then marched over a long and high mountain. I then followed on the ridge until I reached a trail which took me out near the one that I started on in the morning. I then returned to the camp, which I reached at 8 p.m., making an estimated distance of twenty miles through a heavy timbered country with much underbrush and very little water. Discovered no marks or signs of any Indians made recently.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ELI COOK, Captain, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Company G.

Maj. THOMAS F. WRIGHT, Commanding Battalion Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

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No. 8.

Reports of Lieut. Jacob P. Hackett, Sixth California infantry.

CAMP NEAR FORT GASTON, CAL., March 19, 1864.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that according to instructions from the commanding officer I left Fort Gaston at 8.30 a.m. of the 9th instant with thirty-five men of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, with ten days’ rations, to proceed on a scout under the {p.273} direction of Lieutenant Geer, of the First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers. Marched eighteen miles and encamped on the flat near Camp Anderson. On the morning of the 10th crossed Redwood at 8 a.m. At 2 p.m. we came out on to the Bald Mountain, where Lieutenant Geer thought we had better halt until sunset, as we had to travel a high ridge of open prairie, as it was his intention to take us into his camp without being perceived by the Indians, as he thought they were watching his movements. We reached his camp at about 10 p.m., having marched (according to the estimate of those conversant with the route traveled) twenty-two miles since morning, being about fifteen miles from Iaqua and ten miles west of Boynton’s Prairie. March 11, remained in camp and prepared two days’ cooked rations, whilst the scouts were out reconnoitering. March 12, started about 5 a.m. so as to get on the ridge before sunrise. Saw some signs and tracks, which the scouts reported to be one day old, and were Indians hunting deer. Marched twelve miles and halted in a ravine, with instructions from Lieutenant Geer to remain there until he returned. He then took one of his Indians, and his corporal the other, and proceeded in different directions across the mountains. Both parties returned to camp at night and reported that all the signs seemed to indicate that the Indians were between us and the Trinity. Sunday, March 13, crossed over to what is known as Hempfield’s lower ranch, and camped for the night, having marched about twelve miles. March 14, left camp at sunrise. Lieutenant Geer with ten of his men and six from my command proceeded across the country to meet us at what is called Bloody Camp. I took the trains and the balance of the men, and following the trail reached camp at 4 o’clock, having marched twenty miles. March 15, Lieutenant Geer with twenty-five men from Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, and twenty of his men left camp at 3 o’clock in the morning, crossing the country between the Redwood and the South Fork of the Trinity, with instructions for me to meet him at the South Fork of the Trinity with the trains and the remainder of the men. We reached camp about 5 p.m., having marched about twenty-five miles over the roughest trail we have yet encountered. Lieutenant Geer came in about an hour after, having marched from 3 in the morning until 5 in the afternoon, and across the country without any trails whatever, and he thinks he marched from thirty to thirty-five miles. He found where the Indians had been about four days before, and where they had buried their dead that they had lost with him in his last fight.

March 16, we remained in camp all day, and sent some of the best marksmen out to try and procure some meat, as our last rations of pork had been issued. At the same time the scouts were out reconnoitering, it being Lieutenant Geer’s intention, provided we got meat, to cross the South Fork of the Trinity, where his Indians reported plenty of signs, and scout up as far as New River. The scouts returned about 3 o’clock, and reported having found five houses, which they thought had been vacated about twelve hours. They found some soldiers’ clothing that was worn out, a dress, and some cooking implements. They burned the houses and contents and tracked the Indians down to the South Fork, and, as they thought, were going in the direction of Burnt Ranch. The hunters returned unsuccessful, and on the morning of the 17th we started down the river, sending some men ahead for the purpose of killing some beef. Lieutenant Geer left camp about 5 a.m. with three men and crossed over to Willow Creek and. scouted {p.274} down the stream to its mouth, where I had instructions to halt the trains until he came up. The hunters had succeeded in killing a small bullock. In a short time after halting Lieutenant Geer came up, and we concluded to halt there for the night, as he wanted to cross the main Trinity either that evening or in the morning. It commenced raining very hard before we encamped, and continued all day. March 18, Lieutenant Geer with some of his men built a raft and crossed three of his men over for the purpose of reconnoitering some Indian houses on the other side of the main Trinity. The corporal reported seeing the houses, but did not deem it prudent to approach them up the ravine, as there might be several Indians in them, and to get to them by going up on the mountain would consume the greater portion of the day, and knowing that the men were without any provisions of any kind they returned to the river, and on their way back to the river they found four hogs, which they supposed the Indians had fastened up (as they were in a corral), which they shot and rafted across the river and packed them on the mules and brought them into Gaston, where we arrived about 3.30 p.m. of the 18th, having marched in the last two days about twenty miles. I have to speak in the highest terms of the men under my command, being always ready and willing to march at any hour, late or early (without any grumbling or growling), to accomplish the object for which they started. Aggregate number of miles traveled, 190.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. HACKETT, First Lieutenant Company G, Sixth Infantry California Vols.

Maj. THOMAS F. WRIGHT, Comdg. Batt. Sixth Infantry Cal. Vols., Camp near Fort Gaston.

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CAMP IAQUA, May 3, 1864.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that according to instructions received I left Camp Iaqua at 4.45 p.m. the 1st instant, about an hour after the arrival of the train, with fifteen men of Company G and three of the Mountaineers, to proceed to the place where Private Mills, of Company E, was killed, and find out if there were any more wounded, and if so, to render them such assistance as was necessary and bring them into camp. I arrived at Booth’s Run in about two hours, distant from Camp Iaqua about six miles, and immediately commenced to search the vicinity up and down the stream for any person or persons that had been wounded, but did not succeed in finding any or any signs that would indicate that more than one person had been shot. I found where the Indians had cut the packs from the mules and scattered the cooking utensils, &c., around, all of which I had carried into camp. It then being too dark to follow any signs, I concluded to encamp there and wait for daylight to search farther up and down the stream. At daylight on the morning of the 2d I heard firing, seemingly about a mile distant. I told the corporal of the Mountaineers that there was something going on close by, and to take his two men and five men and a sergeant from Company G and find out the cause of the firing, and return to camp immediately afterward, it being my intention to search still more in the vicinity for any one that might have been wounded the day before. After posting some sentinels on the highest points to command a view of the surrounding country, I went and examined the place {p.275} where Mills was shot. I found that he was first shot as he was going to step on the log that crosses the stream, and fell forward, striking the side of his head against the log. He raised himself up by holding on to the log and crossed over (as the marks of his hands with blood were on the log), and had got up the trail some sixty yards from where he was first shot before they overtook him and cut his throat. The Indians were in some rocks about twenty yards from him when he was first shot. About 12 m. of the 2d the detachment returned that I had sent out, and with it Lieutenant Geer and party with some prisoners. He then informed me that there had been but two men sent with the mules the day before, and also gave me aim account of his fight with the Indians in the morning (distant from us about six miles), and that it was no use to attempt to hunt them for some time, as they were scattered in all directions. The scout I sent out reported having seen the track of a shoe about No. 10, without nails (which corresponded with the missing man’s), and that it was going back in the direction of Brown’s. My instructions being to remain on the trail until the mail came along, I intended to send an escort through as far as Brown’s and see if the missing man had returned there. In the meantime I had scouts out searching for any signs they could find of the missing man, without any success. I remained there until 5.30 p.m., and concluded to return to camp, as the mail would not be along that day. Thinking there was nothing more to be accomplished by remaining any longer, I returned to camp between 7 and 8 p.m. of the 2d.

I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

J. P. HACKETT, First Lieut., Sixth California Volunteer infantry, Post Adjutant.

Maj. THOMAS F. WRIGHT, Commanding Battalion Sixth California Volunteer infantry.

P. S.-Number of miles traveled about twenty-eight.

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CAMP IAQUA, May 20, 1864.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that according to instructions received I sent ten men of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, with one of the Mountaineers as a guide, to proceed on a scout on the morning of the 11th instant, to be followed the next day by myself with ten more, with rations for the whole party up to the 20th instant. This party, under the charge of Sergeant Holt, passed in sight of Fort Baker about 10 a.m. of the 11th (and five miles to the left), when all the buildings were standing. They encamped at the crossing of Mad River that night. Next morning they went to the summit of the South Fork Mountain, arriving there about 12 m. of the 12th instant. They then struck off to the right (or west) and came back to Mad River, and came into what is known as the Second Low Gap after night, arriving there one day sooner than I expected them, having traveled over forty miles in the two days. The next day they sent a spy on the top of the ridge to keep a lookout (which was their guide of the Mountaineer Battalion). He reported to me when I arrived on the afternoon of the 13th instant that he had seen five bucks examining their tracks where they had crossed Mad River. (The rivers are about one mile and a half apart at this point.) I left Camp Iaqua on the 12th between 6 and 7 a.m. with the remainder of the scout, and arrived at Fort Baker between 12 and 1 o’clock, and found every building burned. {p.276} Some of the timbers were still burning. We immediately commenced to hunt for signs of Indians. After three or four hours’ search we found where three squaws had crossed the stream, coming into Baker, but could not find any signs where they had gone out. They probably went down one of the small streams on to the Van Dusen. We encamped there that night (distant from Iaqua about fourteen miles). Friday, 13th, left camp at 6 a.m. and arrived at the Second Low Gap at 2 p.m., having seen the same three squaws’ tracks coming down toward Baker.

After twilight I sent two different parties up on the ridge to keep a lookout for fires. They came in about 10 p.m. and reported seeing some Indians fishing with a torch. It afterward got so foggy they could see nothing more. The next morning before daylight I sent some more men on to the ridge, but everything was so completely enveloped in fog that they could not see anything. Whilst waiting for the fog to lift they heard eight shots fired, which we also heard in camp. The fog continued thick all the morning and then turned to rain and rained hard all night. We have had rain every day since leaving camp. Sunday, 15th, morning very disagreeable and rainy, with thick masses of fog drifting over the mountains. At 11 a.m., the fog lifting, I sent twelve men with the two Mountaineers up the Van Dusen with orders to proceed about four or five miles up the stream and then to go up onto the ridge and look over into Mad River, a to remain out if necessary until midnight. They came in about 6 p.m. well satisfied with what they had seen. The Indians were just below them on Mad River and extended for about one mile. They were on both sides of the river (the majority on the side next the Van Dusen) in squads of ten, twenty, thirty, and-they thought as high as forty together, all dressed in citizens’ or soldiers’ clothing. Some parties were practicing at the target. They counted thirty-five rifle-shots fired by one party. The place was very well calculated for defense and very difficult to get at with men. It was impossible for them to estimate the number as they were continually running in and out from under the hill and we did not have a glass in the party, but they thought there were 200 or 300. The two Mountaineers that I had along were of the opinion that all the Indians with rifles this side of Hoopa Valley were there. I did not consider it safe to remain where I was on account of being on a flat and surrounded by brush. I had everything packed up-and moved camp up onto the ridge. Monday, 16th, 1 crossed the Van Dusen below the First Low Gap and went up the South Fork of the Van Dusen and camped that night. Next morning went over into Larrabee Valley and scouted that valley through, camping that night where Larrabee’s house stood. Wednesday, 18th, we scouted from Larrabee’s over to Fort Baker, and the only signs we saw after crossing the Van Dusen were some squaw tracks, which we concluded were the same ones that were at Baker, going back toward Mad River. Thursday, 19th, left Baker at 7 a.m. and arrived at Camp Iaqua at 1 p.m. The weather was very disagreeable for scouting, not being able to see any distance on account of the fog and rain, either day or night. Number of miles scouted over, about 192.

I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

J. P. HACKETT, First Lieut. Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

Maj. THOMAS F. WRIGHT, Commanding Battalion Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

{p.277}

No. 9.

Report of Lieut. Hampton Hutton, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP NEAR FORT GASTON, March 21, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in obedience to instructions I left Fort Gaston on March 20, 1864, to scout along the ridge on the east of Fort Gaston. I crossed the Trinity River at 7 in the morning, and followed the trail along the river until I reached the trail going up the mountain. Followed it for two hours and reached the summit of the ridge at 9 a.m. Distance marched, four miles. Followed the trail over the ridge, finding it rough and stony. Tried to find a camp on the ridge, but failed, it being too narrow. I then marched to the foot of the trail, which leads into a gulch with a fine creek flowing through it. Camped there at 5 p.m. Next morning started at 7 o’clock. Recrossed the river and followed the trail leading to the Klamath River. Followed it for three hours, and then returned to Fort Gaston. Found that the trail was good, and I arrived at camp near Gaston at 3 p.m., having marched thirty miles in two days. I found in passing over the trails that they were in very bad order, with the exception of the trail to the Klamath River.

I remain, your obedient servant,

HAMPTON HUTTON, Second Lieut. Company G, Sixth infantry California Volunteers.

First Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Acting [Assistant] Adjutant-General of Humboldt District.

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No. 10.

Reports of Lieut. John B. Taylor, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 10, 1864.

SIR: Pursuant to instructions from the major commanding, I left Camp Iaqua on the 5th instant with one sergeant, one corporal, and eleven men, one packer, two mules, three horses, and six days’ rations. Marched to the Weaverville trail and camped; distance, ten miles. May 6, joined two trains of emigrants at this place, both having long droves of cattle. I went with them to Soldier’s Grove and camped; distance, eight miles. May 7, crossed Mad River and camped on the summit of the mountain between South Fork and Mad River, the distance traveled being eleven miles. May 8, left the emigrants and started en route for Camp Iaqua; camped at Soldier’s Grove, and on the 9th I arrived at Camp Iaqua at 3 p.m. Total number of miles traveled, fifty-eight. The trail along the entire route is in good condition, with wood, water, and forage in abundance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. TAYLOR, Second Lieutenant, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry.

First Lieut. J. P. HACKETT, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Camp Adjutant.

{p.278}

CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 30, 1864.

SIR: Pursuant to instructions I left Camp Iaqua on the 17th instant with ten men and ten days’ rations, and accompanied the Government train same day to Brown’s ranch and camped for the night; distance traveled, fifteen miles. May 16, I traveled with the Government train to Big Slough, a distance of seven miles, and camped, on account of a sudden fog which made it impossible for me to know what course I was going after I had left the trail. May 17, at daylight I was attacked by a severe chill; got my men ready to march, but before 6 a.m. a heavy fever set in on me, so that I was unable to leave camp. May 18, sent to Fort Humboldt for medicine; unable to leave camp. May 19, the Government train arrived at Big Slough, and myself and men returned to Brown’s ranch with the train and camped. May 20, I left Brown’s ranch with the train, and returned to Camp Iaqua for the purpose of getting medical attendance; total distance traveled, forty-two miles. Trail good, wood and water plenty, and forage in abundance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. TAYLOR, Second Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

First Lieut. J. P. HACKETT, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Camp Adjutant.

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CAMP IAQUA, CAL, June 15, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in pursuance of Orders, No. 8, dated Camp Iaqua, Cal., May 31, 1864, I left Camp Iaqua on the 1st instant, with one sergeant and twenty-seven men of Company B, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, two packers, and thirteen animals, with ten days’ rations; traveled fifteen miles, and camped near Mad River. June 2, went in search of a suitable location to build a block-house, and after traveling some distance both up and down the river selected a suitable place at a point about three-quarters of a mile from the Hyampom trail and close to the Weaverville trail. June 3, moved camp and commenced work on the block-house. June 4, employed in building blockhouse. June 5, sent a scout out with instructions to cross Mad River and proceed up that river in search of Indians; the scout returned on the evening of the same day, having traveled sixteen miles; reported no Indians or Indian sign to be found. June 6 and 7, employed on blockhouse; got it ready to put the roof on. June 8, Sergeant Baker, of Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, arrived in camp and relieved me of the command in obedience to Orders, No. 11, of June 6, 1864. On the 8th I returned to Camp Iaqua, Cal., to attend a general court-martial. Total distance traveled, thirty-nine miles.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. TAYLOR, Second Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

First Lieut. J. P. HACKETT, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Post Adjutant.

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CAMP IAQUA CAL., June 30, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the 23d instant I left camp at Soldier’s Grove at 6 a.m. with ten men; crossed Mad River at the {p.279} upper trail; thence up the river about ten miles. No signs of Indians. Recrossed Mad River en route for camp. On my way back canine across several old Indian camps; some of them were such as they live in in winter, but all of them had the appearance of being deserted for a long time. The signs I found in that part of the country were, in my opinion, at least a month or six weeks old. I arrived at camp at Soldier’s Grove at about 7 p.m., having traveled a distance of about twenty-eight miles. The country up the river is very rough. I had no trail after leaving the upper trail, which I left immediately after crossing the river.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. TAYLOR, Second Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

First Lieut. J. P. HACKETT, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Post Adjutant.

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No. 11.

Reports of Sergt. Francis Bellon, Company G, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 8, 1864.

MAJOR: In obedience to orders received from the commanding officer at Camp Iaqua, Cal., I left camp on Wednesday, May 4, at 12 in., with one sergeant, two corporals, and ten privates, for a scout. At 4 p.m. same day I encamped at the other side of Lawrence Creek on a deserted ranch, a distance of eight miles. Nothing seen that day. On the 5th instant I left camp at 4 a.m. Saw nothing, and having nothing to detain me on my march, arrived at Brown’s ranch at 6.30 a.m., a distance of eight miles. I scouted about five miles round the place, but no Indian sign to be seen. In the afternoon I encamped. I ascertained at Brown’s ranch that Berry came there about two hours before the train got in, and went with it to Fort Humboldt, being two days and a half in the woods with his right hand shot. On the 6th instant at 7 a.m. I left the ranch for Iaqua, marching through the woods about four miles. When I came on Kneeland’s Prairie I saw a detachment of Company C, Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, encamped about one mile and a half to the left of the trail on a ranch. Spoke to Lieutenant Oaks; he told me that he was only a few days there-that he had destroyed two Indian ranches, and knew there had been plenty Indians around. I left him and went on my trail. I took to the right for about two miles to find Mr. Geer’s fighting ground, which I found after a long search. At first there was nothing to show there had been a fight. It had the appearance of a deserted camp, with meat scattered here and there, and no more. But after a long search we discovered about three or four places that indicated graves. So to satisfy myself I had one opened and found a dead squaw. Being satisfied, I went to my first encampment, where I arrived at 1 p.m., after a march of fifteen miles. In the evening I sent out a scout, but they could find no Indian sign, but brought in a bear. Being directed to keep lookout for the train, which I expected would come in that morning, did not leave the camp until about 9 a.m., so as to keep about two miles ahead of it and to place myself in a position to see it pass across the Lawrence and Mills Creeks in safety, which I did. I saw the train at 11 a.m. coming and crossing the creeks in safety. Seeing it safe, I started for Camp {p.280} Iaqua, arriving at 1 p.m., a march of eight miles. Total estimated distance, forty-four miles. No Indian sign had been seen during the trip.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS BELLON, First Sergeant Company G, Sixth California Vol. Infantry,

Maj. THOMAS F. WRIGHT, Sergeant-Major of Battalion. Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Commanding Post.

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CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 18, 1864.

MAJOR: I left Camp Iaqua on the 13th instant, at 1 p.m., with ten men and a guide for Harris’ ranch, agreeably to written instructions received from the commanding officer. I arrived there at 3 p.m., a distance of five miles, and halted to derive some information. All I could learn from a party that had driven in their cattle was that several Indians were seen that morning in the vicinity of said place, and also that Indians were seen having a dance over a dead cow about seven miles from the farm. Mr. Harris, one of the settlers residing there, went immediately to see if he could find any Indians or tracks of them anywhere around. At his return, which I was waiting for, reported that he did not see any Indians nor any tracks of them, but to his belief that there must be Indians around, as they were seen by different parties for the last three days. I came then to the conclusion to leave the place at dark. Mr. Harris offered his services as guide. Accordingly I left at 7 in the evening and proceeded on Taylor’s Ridge to have a view on Van Dusen’s River, to discover, if possible, some Indian camp-fires, but arriving on the summit we were disappointed by finding the ravines and rivers below covered by a heavy fog. I concluded then to lie concealed for the remainder of the night, and to leave the place early in the morning, which I did after a march of ten miles. At about 3 a.m. of the 14th left my place of concealment under cover of a heavy fog, and arrived near the Van Dusen River, where I halted, making six miles. I sent then two scouts out in different directions, but both returned without success, except a party of armed men, about twelve in number, must have encamped the same night in a house stationed about two miles from where I halted, and crossed the river the same morning about an hour before we got there. At 6 o’clock in the evening I left the place and marched up the river without seeing anything, and encamped after marching eight miles. At 11 on the same night I sent two scouts out, but they could not see any fires in the ravines and opposite side of the river. On the morning of the 15th I left camp and crossed the river, and keeping my guides about 300 yards ahead of me, so as to warn me in case they should discover anything, I arrived at the place where it was supposed that the Indians had a dance around a dead cow. I could see nothing to indicate anything of the kind. I halted in the brush and sent two parties out immediately to find something more about it, but returned after two hours’ scouting without having seen either Indians or Indian tracks. I encamped after a march of ten miles; I remained there all day of 16th, sending out scouts off and on, but all returning without finding anything. On the 17th I left for Camp Iaqua, where I arrived at 2 p.m., after a march of thirteen miles, making an estimated distance of fifty-two miles. In all my travel I could not see {p.281} or find anything to corroborate the report of the citizens. The only thing I could see were cattle and bears’ tracks.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS BELLON, First Sergeant Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

Maj. THOMAS F. WRIGHT, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding Post.

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No. 12.

Report of Sergt. Charles A. Baker, Company B, Sixth California Infantry.

CAMP AT SOLDIER’S GROVE, June 15, 1864.

SIR: I left camp on the 8th, crossing Mad River, then taking the Hyampom trail, arrived the same evening at Hyampom, on the South Fork of the Trinity River. Having ascertained that Government arms were in possession of some of the inhabitants of that place, I remained there the following day to search for them. Found one Government rifle, which I took possession of. Hyampom is eighteen miles distant from camp. Left the valley on the 10th, arriving in camp the same evening. No signs of Indians on the trail. Taking a corporal and eight privates, with three days’ rations, left camp after sunset on the 12th, marching down and camping near Mad River. Next morning started out scouting through the woods down the river. No signs of Indians. Turned and followed up the river, occasionally finding the track of Indians, one being that of an unusually large-footed Indian; finding plenty of old huts along the banks; also several places where small game had been killed by this party of Indians. The banks being very rocky and covered with brush, made slow progress. Camped near the river. Started again next morning along the foothills. No signs of Indians. Returned to camp, arriving there on the 14th. Distance traveled on the above scouts, fifty-one miles.

Very respectfully,

CHAS. A. BAKER, Sergeant, Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers.

Lieut. J. P. HACKETT, Post Adjutant.

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No. 13.

Reports of Lieut. Col. Stephen G. Whipple, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

HEADQUARTERS, Fort Gaston, Cal., May 6, 1864.

SIR: I respectfully report that Seranaltin John and party arrived last evening, having finally concluded to settle in this valley. Matters seem to be settling down, and people begin to feel secure on the Trinity, Klamath, and Salmon Rivers. A few of Jim’s Indians, some half dozen, still remain up the Trinity. As yet they refuse to come in, but assert most positively that they have no hostile intentions toward any but their Indian enemies. If prudently managed I think they may be induced to comply with the terms offered, especially after finding there {p.282} is no safety for them while abroad. I have constant applications made by the Indians who have come in and are building for assistance in the way of subsistence, tools, nails, and medicine.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col. First Batt. Mountaineers, California Vols., Comdg. Post.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjt. Sixth Infantry California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Gaston, Cal., May 19, 1864.

SIR: I respectfully report for the information of the colonel commanding the following in regard to the Indian affairs in this section:

On the second day out Captain Miller was hailed from opposite side of Trinity by the Indian known as Frank, a member of Jim’s band, heretofore refusing to come in. He wanted to talk, but would not cross the river for the purpose. Lieutenant Middleton and one man then by agreement went over to see the Indians, but provided against treachery by having more men follow. At first the Indians were very saucy and said they had no intention of coming in. They, however, agreed to finally, and on Sunday last did so. I told them they could live in the valley upon the same terms as Jim and John. This they agreed to, and asked and obtained permission to return for their families and other Indians, Big Jim accompanying them. My impression is that they intend to do as agreed, though it is by no means certain, as Handsome Billy is in need of nursing and medicine. Frank is a desperate scoundrel, and was at the head of the party which committed the outrages on New and Salmon Rivers last winter. Another Indian is with him who is said to be more influential and evil-disposed, but they both promised me fair, though they know their guilt and are very suspicious, as are all of those which have been out. My object is, and I believe it to be the wish and policy of the district commander, to induce all or as many as possible of these outlaws to come to this valley to settle. To accomplish this time is required, and they must be managed with firm kindness and watched closely. Some few days ago the Indian known as Old Man Jim, of Weitchpec, was killed by other Weitchpec Indians. It is an old quarrel, aggravated by the arrest of the two Indians confirmed in the guard house at this place a few days some two months ago. I expect no very serious results from this, though the Indians who killed Jim will be killed by the friends of the latter or buy themselves off at a heavy figure.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. G. WHIPPLE, Lieut. Col. First Batt. Mountaineers, California Vols., Comdg. Post.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth California Vol. Infty., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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No. 14.

Reports of Capt. Abraham Miller, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

BURNT RANCH, TRINITY COUNTY, CAL., May 19, 1864.

SIR: In accordance with Post Orders, No. 137, dated Fort Gaston, May 11, 1864, I left Fort Gaston with my company on the 12th instant {p.283} and camped the first night one mile below the mouth of Willow Creek, nine miles from Fort Gaston. Left Camp No. 1 at 8 a.m. 13th instant, and arrived at Camp No. 2 at 2 p.m.; distance from Camp No. 1, nine miles and a half. This camp was situated half a mile above the South Fork of the Trinity River. Soon after camping we were enlivened by the well-known whoop of the Indians. Looking across the river we saw upon the opposite hill four bucks and two squaws; we called them to come down to the river and talk. Lieutenant Middleton instantly started down the hill to meet them. Two bucks came to the river, one of whom was Frank. They would not swim the river, but said that if a few men would go up the river to Thomas’ house, where they had a boat, they would come across. I sent Lieutenant Middleton with seven men to confer with them. Arrived at the appointed place, the Indians refused to cross, but sent Thomas with a boat and permission for two men to come to them, assuring him that only three Indians should be present or near. Lieutenant Middleton and Sergeant Eastman went back with Thomas, and after going up the bank, which was about fifty feet high, and across the bench out of sight of the men on the opposite shore, they found three Indians as agreed. Frank said they knew nothing of the peace that had been made with the Indians in Hoopa; that Big Jim had not been to them. He seemed willing to come in, but was afraid, as he said that everybody knew that he had helped to kill white men. While talking three more Indians came out of the brush with their guns in their hands. One of these proved to be Bob, the chief of this band. He was very saucy; said that he knew nothing of Big Jim or Seranaltin John; that these Indians belonged to him; that we could not go to Burnt Ranch, and ordered us to go back to Hoopa, as he said he had Indians around Burnt Ranch and he did not want us to go there. From the time of Bob’s appearance the Indians assumed a very hostile attitude-so much so that the lieutenant and sergeant supposed themselves to be in great danger. Lieutenant Middleton before going over had taken the precaution to have the men as soon as he was out of sight send one of the Indian boys belonging to the company to get the boat, and for all to cross as soon as possible. The men had obeyed orders strictly, and came in sight at this time very much to the surprise of the Indians, who were not aware of their approach until they had arrived within 150 yards. The Indians instantly brought their cocked guns to bear upon the lieutenant and sergeant, and told them the soldiers must come no nearer. To save his own and the sergeant’s life Lieutenant Middleton was obliged to order the men to halt. Their near approach had, however, saved the lives of Lieutenant Middleton and Sergeant Eastman, as we believe, and caused the Indians to lower their pretensions considerably. They would agree to nothing that night, but said they would come to the river opposite the mouth of the South Fork the next morning. This they did, and told us to go on and they would go to Hoopa, and if they found everything right they would try to get permission to live at Willow Creek. Bob informed us that there were ten of his band here. He asked for a pass, which Lieutenant Middleton wrote, but so suspicious was he that he refused to come for it until after we had left Camp No. 2, which we did about 9 a.m. We arrived at Burnt Ranch 2 p.m. the 14th instant. Distance from Camp No. 2, eleven miles and a half; from Fort Gaston, thirty miles. May 15, I sent Sergeant Eastman with thirteen men to Fort Gaston as escort to Government pack train (Company Orders, No. 1, date May 15, 1864). Returned to this camp May 18. May 18, Lieutenant Middleton, with twenty enlisted men, proceeded to operate against some hostile Indians found by one of the {p.284} Indians belonging to my company upon the South Fork of Trinity River (Company Orders, No. 2, date May 18, 1864). They found two ranches that night about 12 o’clock after fording the South Fork. The Indians had left a short time previous, having been informed of the approach of the party by some Indians who had crossed the trail of Lieutenant Middleton’s command near this camp. May 19, Lieutenant Middleton and command returned to this camp.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ABRAHAM MILLER, Captain, First Battalion of Mountaineers, California Vols., Commanding Company C and Camp.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjt. Sixth Infantry California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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CAMP AT BURNT RANCH, TRINITY COUNTY, CAL., June 1, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of my command from the 15th of May to the 1st day of June, 1864:

On the 18th instant I received a communication from Lieutenant-Colonel Whipple advising me that the Indians were to be allowed four days (commencing on the above date) in which to bring their families to Hoopa Valley. By the same communication I was informed that Heath (an escaped prisoner from Fort Gaston) was at Quimby’s house, on New River (sixteen miles from this camp). On the 20th instant I dispatched Lieutenant Middleton with one enlisted man in search of him (Company Orders, No. 3, date May 20, 1864). He found on his arrival at the above-named place that Heath had left for Pony Creek, twelve miles farther on. He was followed by Lieutenant Middleton to this place, but the search proved unsuccessful. The party returned to camp on the 23d instant. On the 25th I sent Sergeant Eastman with six men, with three days’ rations, to scout for Indians up the Trinity River (Company Orders, No. 4, date May 24). He returned to camp the 27th instant. Saw no Indians or fresh signs. This command proceeded as far as Big Flat, twenty-eight miles from Burnt Ranch.

On the 27th instant Sergeant Leonard with seven men was ordered to proceed to the South Fork of Trinity River, in the direction of the mouth of Grouse Creek, in search of hostile Indians (Company Orders, No. 5, date May 27). He returned with his command on the evening of the 28th instant; saw no Indians, but fresh signs leading in the direction of Trinity River. Same day ordered Sergeant Wilson with nine men to proceed to Trinity River, in vicinity of Thomas’ house, in search of hostile Indians (Company Orders, No. 6, date May 27). In the afternoon of this day a camp (in which there were seven or eight bucks and several squaws and children) was found. The command advanced within 150 yards before they were discovered. Three bucks and 1 squaw (the last accidentally) were killed and 1 or 2 wounded before they could gain the cover of the rocks and bushes. In endeavoring to advance upon the ranch the command received a volley of bullets from the opposite side of the river, where a band, supposed to be Frank’s consisting of fifteen or twenty Indians, now appeared. After regaining the cover of the timber, which they had before occupied, the fire was returned. Two Indians were wounded, and all were driven farther up the mountain. Exchange of shots was kept up with this band until dark, when Sergeant Wilson, finding that he could not {p.285} go down to the ranch without exposing his men to great danger, gave orders to return to camp, where he arrived with his command 6 a.m. 28th instant. This engagement took place near Thomas’ house, on Trinity River, three miles above the mouth of the South Fork and eight miles from Burnt Ranch. May 30 (in accordance with Company Orders, No. 7, date May 29), Lieutenant Middleton with twenty-five enlisted men, with ten days’ rations, proceeded against hostile Indians in the vicinity of Hyampom. No report has been received from this command.

Respectfully submitted.

Your obedient servant,

ABRAHAM MILLER, Captain, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, Commanding Company C and Camp.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth California Volunteer Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Fort Humboldt, Cal.

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CAMP AT BURNT RANCH, TRINITY COUNTY, CAL., June 12, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report the operations of my command (stationed at Burnt Ranch) from the 1st to the 12th of June, 1864:

On the 1st instant Corporal Young, with one man, proceeded to Fort Gaston in charge of special express to that post (Company Orders, No. 8). Returned to this camp 3d instant. On the 5th instant Sergeant Leonard with five men, with two days’ rations, ordered to proceed against hostile Indians on the South Fork of Trinity River, near its mouth (Company Orders, No. 9, date June 5). Returned to this camp on the evening of the 6th instant. Saw two Indians traveling up the river, but were unable to approach within gunshot. Discovered but little fresh Indian sign. The 5th instant Lieutenant Middleton, with fifteen men of his command, returned to camp at Burnt Ranch. The 6th instant Sergeant Ipson with nine men, the remainder of Lieutenant Middleton’s detachment, reported at this place. For particulars of the operations of this detachment I refer you to the inclosed report of Lieutenant Middleton. Lieutenant Middleton, with fourteen men, ordered to proceed against Indians supposed to be engaged in fishing near Burnt Ranch Cañon, four miles from this camp (Company Orders, No. 10). Returned same evening. Found ranch, but the Indians, warned of the approach of the party by a squaw placed upon a high point as lookout, were, with the exception of the above-named squaw, enabled to escape. The ranch, with several fish-nets and a large quantity of cured fish, was destroyed. The squaw, taken prisoner, will be sent by the first train to Fort Gaston. Sergeant Wilson, with eight men, ordered to proceed at 10 p.m. to Tinsley’s place on Trinity River, eight miles from this camp; to cross the river at daylight of the 7th instant and scout for Indians up and in the vicinity of the above-named river (Company Orders, No. 11). June 7, Corporal Downer, with five men, ordered to proceed [at] 8 a.m. to Trinity River, near Burnt Ranch Cañon (Company Orders, No. 12); to keep concealed until the arrival of detachment under Sergeant Wilson, when he would act in union with them. The two detachments returned to camp the evening of the 7th instant. Saw, with the aid of a spy-glass, two bucks and several squaws and children. They were high up on the mountain, and it was impossible to get near them. June 8, Sergeant Leonard, {p.286} with five men, ordered to proceed to-day in search of hostile Indians in vicinity of Altapom, eight miles southeast from Burnt Ranch (Company Orders, No. 13, date June 8). Sergeant Leonard, with his detachment, returned the evening of the 9th instant. Saw no sign indicating the presence of Indians in that neighborhood. The company under my command received to-day payment for eight months’ service. June 10 and 11, company remaining in camp.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ABRAHAM MILLER, Captain, First Battalion of Mountaineers, California Vols., Commanding Camp at Burnt Ranch.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth California Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

ADDENDA.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, June 20, 1864.

Col. H. M. BLACK, Sixth Infantry California Vols., Comdg. Dist. of Humboldt:

SIR: The commanding general has perused with much satisfaction the report of Captain Miller of operations against the Indians in the District of Humboldt, and desires me to say that the zeal and bravery of the officers and men composing the captain’s command, particularly the conduct of Sergeant Wilson and his detachment, is worthy of all praise. Let all emulate the activity and spirit of these brave men and the Indian troubles in the District of Humboldt will soon be brought to a close.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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No. 15.

Report of Capt. George W. Ousley, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

CAMP ANDERSON, CAL., May 17, 1864.

SIR: In compliance with Orders, No. 5, I marched at 6 a.m. the 7th with twenty men and ten days’ rations; made my way up the east side of this creek; camped at 3 p.m. at what is known as Indian Camp; distance, fourteen miles, direction two points east of south. On west side of ridge but little timber, good water, and grass plenty; east side of ridge timber and chaparral; Indian signs scarce, probably twenty days old, going up the ridge. The 8th marched at 5 a.m.; camped at 4 p.m.; distance, fifteen miles; mountainous country, same as yesterday, but more Indian signs, but not fresher. The 9th marched at 5.30 a.m. and camped at 8.30 p.m. at the head of Redwood Creek; country chaparral prairies, with timber in gulches. Scouted all day; no fresh sign. The 10th marched at 6 a.m.; camped at the lake on Upper Weaver trail at 12 m. Distance, seven miles and a half. Route brushy, with prairie on the ridges; direction northwest; some Indian sign; scouted during afternoon and the following day. The 12th marched at 6.30 a.m.; camped at 10 in prairie north of Thief Camp. Distance traveled, four miles; direction north. The mountains here are heavier {p.287} timbered all the distance. Found two fresh Indian signs. Scouted the balance of the day; could not ascertain where the tracks went to. The 13th marched at 6 a.m.; camped at what is known as the Upper House at 12 m.; distance, five miles; direction north. Heavy timber with a thick growth of underbrush all the distance. A good range for stock where 1 camped. Scouted balance of the day. The 14th marched at 5 a.m., arriving at Bald Mountain at 6.30 a.m.; distance, six miles. Good trail; prairie most of the way on west side of-ridge; timber on the east. Scouted all day. The 15th marched at 6 a.m., arriving at this camp at 11.30; distance, ten miles. Good travel all way through a dense forest. Direction about two points east of north.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEORGE W. OUSLEY, Capt., First Batt. Mountaineers, California Vol&, Comdg. Co. B.

Maj. W. S. R. TAYLOR, Commanding Camp Anderson.

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No. 16.

Reports of Lieut. Knyphausen Geer, First Battalion California Mountaineers.

FORT GASTON, CAL., March 8, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor of transmitting the following report, to wit:

In compliance with Post Orders, No. 54, dated February 21, 1864, I left this post February 21, at 11 p.m., with thirty men of Company A, Battalion Mountaineers, on a scout. I went by the way of Bald Hills and Redwood Creek, which stream I reached at Albee’s ranch without seeing any fresh Indian sign. I followed up said stream to the old trail leading from Arcata to Weaverville, which place I reached on the 28th, and pitched camp. From here I sent out scouts on both sides of Redwood Creek. The scouts returned at night and reported having found Indians on the east side of the stream about eight miles from our camp. On the 29th, at 5.30 a.m. I attacked the Indians; killed 3 of them; badly wounded several; took 2 women and 3 children prisoners. I had 1 man wounded in the leg. Same day returned to camp, carrying the man with us. On the morning of March 1 I had 1 man (William Sharp) killed by the Indians while hunting for deer. Several shots were exchanged between the Indians and the men under my command without any accident to either party, the Indians fighting under cover. On the 3d I moved to Thief Camp, having scouts to the right and left of the trail. On the 4th the scouts returned and reported having discovered from 80 to 100 Indians camped on the west side of Redwood, between Hempfield’s old ranch and the trail known as the Hyampom trail. March 5, went to Camp Iaqua with eight men sick. On the 6th returned to Thief Camp. On the 7th, at 4 p.m., left camp for this post, at which place I arrived on the 8th, at 6 a.m., leaving the detachment at Thief Camp.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

K. GEER, Lieut., Co. A, First Batt. Mountaineers, Cal. Vols., Comdg. Detach.

First Lieut. A. W. HANNA, Adjutant First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers.

{p.288}

FORT GASTON, CAL., March 19, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the following report:

According to instructions from the commanding officer, I left this post at 8.30 a.m. of the 9th with six men of Company A, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, and was accompanied by Lieutenant Hackett and thirty-five men of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, with ten days’ rations. Marched eighteen miles and camped on a flat on Redwood Creek, near Camp Anderson. March 10, crossed Redwood Creek at 8 a.m., and at 2 p.m. came to Bald Mountain, where I halted until sundown in order to proceed unobserved to Thief Camp, where the balance of my detachment was stationed. Reached there at 10 o’clock at night; distance about twenty-two miles. March 11, remained in camp and prepared two days’ cooked rations whilst the scouts were out reconnoitering. March 12, started about 5 a.m., in order to cross over the bare ridge before sunrise. Marched twelve miles and halted in a ravine, where we camped and sent scouts in different directions. March 13, crossed back on the same ridge, and sent one corporal, two privates, and an Indian scouting down Redwood Creek. The rest of the detachment marched to what is called Hempfield’s ranch and camped. The scouts came in and reported having found three ranches, the Indians having left some three days before. March 14, I left camp at sunrise with ten men of my command and six men of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, proceeding across the country. Crossed Redwood Creek about seven miles above the upper crossing. Lieutenant Hackett took the train and the balance of the men and advanced on the trail to meet me at what is called Bloody Camp; distance about twenty-two miles. March 15, left camp at 3 o’clock in the morning with twenty men from my command and twenty-five from Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, en route to the mouth of South Fork of Trinity River, passing over the ground where I had an engagement with the Indians. They had been back to bury their dead. Crossed the head of Willow Creek, and reached the mouth of the South Fork of Trinity River at 6 p.m. Traveled thirty-five miles. Lieutenant Hackett took the train and the balance of my command and advanced on the trail to meet me at the mouth of the South Fork of Trinity River, where he arrived after marching twenty-five miles. March 16, remained in camp and sent scouts in different directions; also some hunters to kill a beef, as our pork was all gone. The hunters did not succeed in finding any cattle. The scouts returned at 3 o’clock in the evening, reporting having found a ranch consisting of five bark houses, which they think was vacated some twelve hours before they found them. They left several articles of soldiers’ clothing, which had been worn out. The Indians seem from the sign to be traveling in the direction of a place on Trinity River called Burnt Ranch. Everything that was left behind in their flight was burnt, also their ranches. March 17, Lieutenant Hackett took the train and all the men but two and went down the Trinity River to the mouth of Willow Creek. I took the two remaining men and advanced over the Willow Creek Mountain, from thence down Willow Creek to the mouth, where I joined my command and camped for the night; also sent some men to kill a beef, in which they succeeded; also found a stray horse running with the cattle. March 18, I made a raft and sent a corporal, an Indian, and private across the Trinity River for the purpose of reconnoitering some Indian houses. The corporal reported seeing the houses, but did not deem it prudent to approach them up the ravine, and to get to then by going up on the mountain would consume the greater portion of the day, and knowing that the {p.289} men were without any provisions of any kind they returned to the river, and on their way back they found four hogs, which they supposed the Indians had fastened up (as they were in a corral), which they shot and rafted across the river and packed them on mules to Fort Gaston, where we arrived about 3.30 p.m. of the 18th, having marched in the last two days about eighteen miles. I have to speak in the highest terms of the officers and men under my command, and also the officers and men of Company G, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, who held themselves in readiness to march at any hour. I must say a word for Lieutenant Hackett, who has paid unwearied attention to the officers and men and withstood our many fatiguing marches, that he is well deserving of all praise.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

K. GEER, First Lieut. Company A, First Batt. Mountaineers, Comdg. Detach.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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FORT GASTON, CAL., April 7, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the following report:

That according to instructions from the commanding officer, I left this post at 8 a.m. of the 27th of March with twenty-five men of Company A, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, and five Indians, with ten days’ rations, and was accompanied by Lieutenant Middleton, of Company C, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, and twenty-five men and two Indians. Traveled nine miles and camped at the mouth of Willow Creek. There was plenty of wood, water, and good feed for our animals. Rained and snowed nearly all day. March 28, left camp at 7 o’clock and started for the mouth of the South Fork of Trinity River; distance about nine miles. Arrived about 3 o’clock. Still continuing rain. March 29, attempted to cross main Trinity River in a canvas boat. The river being very high caused me to fail, after making several attempts. I returned to camp and prepared some cooked rations. I then took one man and two Indians; crossed the South Fork of Trinity River; traveled about seven miles. Finding no sign, returned to camp. March 30, Lieutenant Middleton left camp with nineteen men and two Indians with four days’ rations; crossed Trinity River about 12 o’clock. I remained in camp and prepared three days’ cooked rations. Still continues to rain at intervals. March 31, left camp with nineteen men and five Indians; crossed the South Fork of Trinity River at 7 o’clock; marched twelve miles and halted at the mouth of New River. In advancing on the trail I saw where the Indians had killed some hogs not long since.

April 1, remained in camp and sent our five Indians up the south side of Trinity River. I found a boat lying in the river; crossed over four men; they reported having found one log-house and several small brush-houses which were tenanted not long since. From the position on which the log-house was stationed the Indians could view the Trinity for miles in extent. There was in the log-house a large quantity of grain, some worn-out clothing, all of which was burnt. From all indications the log-house was not entirely evacuated. The Indians sent up the river returned about 4 o’clock, reported having gone to Burnt Ranch, and on their return were fired upon from the opposite side of {p.290} the river by three Indians. Fired several shots, but to no effect. Still continues to rain. April 2, left camp at 7 o’clock for the mouth of South Fork of Trinity River. In order to have a safe and better means of crossing the Trinity River, I sent two Indians to pilot the boat down to the mouth of the South Fork, but to no purpose. One of the Indians broke his paddle, then she was unmanageable and left to the mercy of the waves. The boat struck full broadside against a rock, sinking her at once, the Indians barely escaping with their lives, losing their guns, ammunition, and some articles of clothing. Still continues to rain at intervals. April 3, remained in camp and awaited the arrival of Lieutenant Middleton, who came in about 2 p.m., and reported:

Traveled about eight miles, and camped at Davis’ Point at 3 p.m. Saw one fresh Indian track at Haden’s ranch, and where the Indians had killed some cattle and hogs; crossed the mountain and struck New River, two miles and a half above the mouth. Saw no sign. Went up the river some three miles and camped about 3 p.m. Left camp for Big Flat, where we camped at 11 a.m., and sent men out on the points to see if they could discover anything. Nothing but a small smoke on the other side of the river was seen. The river being too high, no attempt to cross was made. Left camp with ten men. Went up the river and found a log across the river. Sent one sergeant and four men down on the opposite side. The sergeant reported having found an old Indian and two small children. The Indian had a paper stating that he was friendly, and was left to protect the property of Thomas & Quimbis. Returned to the mouth of South Fork after traveling through rain and snow for twenty miles and joined the main command.

April 4, sent Lieutenant Middleton with the train to Fort Gaston for a supply of provisions. April 5, the train returned with orders to report at Fort Gaston. Left camp at 2 o’clock the same day and camped at Willow Creek. Rained all day. April 6, left camp at 7 o’clock. After traveling nine miles arrived at Fort Gaston at 11 a.m. The only pleasant day we had, as it rained and stormed at intervals all the time we were out. As for the Indians I can put no dependence in them. One contradicts the other, and they were little or no use to me. As for the guns that were lost in the boat, one belonged to Government, the other to one of the Indian guides, which I recommend he be recompensed for. My command was kept well together on all marches, and, as much as the nature of the country would permit, under my own eye. When within a few miles of Fort Gaston I saw each man of the command. I remained with the advance guard, Sergeant Eastman, of Company C, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, being in command of the rear guard. Upon arriving at the fort it was found that Private Samuel Overlander, of Company C, First Battalion Mountaineers, California Volunteers, was missing, which was duly reported to the commanding officer.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

K. GEER, First Lieut. Co. A, Battalion Mountaineers, Comdg. Detach.

Lieut. JAMES ULIO, Adjutant Sixth infantry California Volunteers, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Humboldt Military District.

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CAMP IAQUA, CAL., May 2, 1864.

SIR: In compliance with instructions from Maj. T. F. Wright, commanding, I left Camp Iaqua on the 27th ultimo with four men of my detachment of Company A, Mountaineers, in company with Lieutenant Taylor, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, and one sergeant and ten men of Company E, Sixth Infantry California Volunteers, ten days’ rations and two mules, and proceeded in a northwesterly direction {p.291} twelve miles