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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 9, Ch. XXI–Union Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER XXI.
OPERATIONS IN TEXAS, NEW MEXICO, AND ARIZONA.
February 1-September 20, 1862.
–––
UNION CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.626}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Mex., January 28, 1862.

MEMORANDUM, No. 116.]

As the bulk of the enemy’s force is mounted, it is to be expected that his principal efforts will be directed to attempt to cripple the means of transportation by attacking the trains, or impede the operations of the {p.627} troops by stampeding the animals, or subjecting the men to the annoyance of night attacks. These will, of course, be guarded against by the usual precautions, but the colonel commanding desires that commanders will impress upon their men that these attacks are to be feared only when they succeed in throwing a portion of the command into confusion and in forcing their way within the lines, and that in this event they should be enjoined to repel the enemy by the use of the bayonet or clubbed musket, and not by firing, which is more likely to endanger their friends than enemies, In any encounter with the enemy’s horsemen the main reliance of the infantry should be in their bayonets. An infantry soldier who is cool is more than a match for a horseman, and in groups they are safe against any number.

Four days’ rations will habitually be carried in the company wagons and the remainder in the supply train.

By order of Col. E. R. S. Canby:

WM. J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain, Twelfth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, January 29, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Inclosed herewith is a copy of a telegraphic dispatch which I had the honor to transmit to you yesterday; also copy of extract from a letter from Mr. Thomas Robinson, a resident of Guaymas, Sonora. This extract was presented to me by Mr. Flint, of this city, a gentleman of standing and reliability, connected with the steamship line between this place and Guaymas. From the best information in my possession at this moment I am disposed to believe that the views taken by Mr. Robinson as to the intended movements of the rebel forces are in the main correct. The large force I am assembling in the southern portion of this State, preparatory to an advance from Fort Yuma, will doubtless cause the rebel leaders to deflect from their line of operations and, if possible, gain the port of Guaymas. To frustrate all such attempts I deem it of the first importance that a strong force should be thrown into that city, aided by the presence of a few ships of war. I propose to open a correspondence with the Governor of Sonora on this subject, and I am assured by the best authority that our temporary occupation of Guaymas or any portion of the State, to protect it from the inroads of the rebels, would be cheerfully acquiesced in by the authorities and people of that country.

The storm has somewhat abated for a few days past. To-day it is raining again, and the roads are not in a condition to advance my expeditionary forces to Fort Yuma. However, it is only a question of time. We will be successful.

I have no special news from the District of Oregon. All was quiet in that quarter when last heard from. The winter has been unusually severe, and the navigation of the Columbia River entirely obstructed by ice.

The Legislature of California is now in session in this city, compelled to abandon Sacramento temporarily.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.628}

[Inclosures.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 28, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

From the latest and most reliable information I am more strongly than ever impressed with the importance of an early and prompt occupation of Guaymas.

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Copy of letter from Thomas Robinson, Esq.

...

Immediately en the receipt of this please call upon General Wright, and state to him, in my name, that by express received by me to-day from Arizona, and from most reliable source, I have the following statement:

The Southern troops, under Colonel Baylor, Military Governor, are expected at Tucson within ten days, numbering 900 men. It is said they will immediately make a strong and continued campaign on the Apaches. Reports say (which, I fear, is very probable) they march into Sonora. In the mean while their headquarters will be at Calabazas, on the line. Agents to purchase flour, corn, &c., are actually in the Territory under escort. Contracts for hay have already been given out. Brigadier-General Sibley, C. S. Army, with 3,000 men, takes command in Arizona and New Mexico, and will immediately attack the United States forces in New Mexico. The Southern soldiers are full of fight. Only the other day 100 crossed the Jornada del Muerto, drove in the pickets of the United States forces, and made 40 prisoners.

These same reports were afloat here three days since, when I arrived, and to-day they are confirmed. There is no doubt in my mind as to the desires and intentions of these Southern forces. What the devil do they care for Arizona, without 100 souls in it, and nothing worth having there? They wish to march into Sonora, as is intimated from many sources, and take quiet possession, for we are not at present in condition to resist, having just passed through a very sore trial, although with success. If they once get possession of this State and its ports, the North may just as well give up the complete line through from Gulf of Mexico to Gulf of California, and it will require a supreme effort then to rout them.

This is no newspaper talk, but something certain, and the only way to avoid a most serious and difficult position is for the United States Government to send, without a moment’s delay, the necessary forces to act.

Let me request of you to urge upon General Wright the necessity of this step. Let 1,000 men, properly equipped, be sent immediately to Guaymas, officered by gentlemen of prudence and judgment, and I will see that they get through immediately to Arizona. The Governor and people will be too happy to see such a friend coming to their rescue. If necessary, let the general telegraph to Washington for the necessary powers, but he must act promptly, and I will guarantee his full success, and by adopting these measures he will have acquired a victory which will be more than galling to the South.

...

I will take the contract for transporting troops and equipments to Arizona and furnishing everything necessary. You are aware the Congress of Mexico has given a cordial permit for transit of troops {p.629} through Sonora, and our State will be pleased to forward the views of the United States Government or its representatives. You can assure General Wright that all my influence and that of my friends will be used in favor [of] his forces.

Yours, sincerely,

THOS. ROBINSON.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington City, D. C., February 3, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: I am directed by the Secretary of War to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 29th instant, inclosing copies of letters from the Secretary of the Navy and the United States consul at Havana, and suggesting that, should the exigencies of the public service permit, a military force of observation be posted opposite to or near Matamoros, on the Rio Grande; that he referred your communication and inclosures to Major-General McClellan, who reports as follows, viz:

The occupation of Brazos de Santiago and Brownsville is important and desirable for many reasons. It would not be prudent, however, to attempt it without force sufficient to hold points farther north and east. We have not the disposable force at the present moment, nor would it do to risk a detached force in so remote a position, without retreat or succor, until certain that our foreign relations are entirely satisfactory.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, February 7, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I inclose for your information a copy of a letter of the 11th ultimo, addressed to this Department by the Governor of the Territory of New Mexico.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

F. W. SEWARD, Acting Secretary.

[Inclosure.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Santa Fé, N. Mex., January 11, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: Since my last, of the 4th instant, there has nothing taken place in relation to the Texans that merits attention. They retired precipitately from the settlement of Alamosa, 30 miles below Fort Craig, and have made no demonstration against that place. Since Colonel Canby has divided his forces, leaving about one-half at Craig, and has or is about to take a position midway between Craig and the Pecos River, so as to enable him to act in conjunction with the forces at Union on the Pecos, or with those at Craig on the Rio del Norte, as circumstances may require, I am of opinion that there are no Texan forces on the Pecos; but this is merely an opinion, the truth of falsehood of which will be revealed within a few days.

The spy companies sent in that direction ten or twelve days since have not returned. We have no fears of any armed force that Texas {p.630} can send against this Territory. We have now in the service of the Government and under fair discipline something more than 4,000 volunteers and militia of this Territory; also, say, 1,500 regular troops. With this force and what I could call into the field of the organized militia in a few days’ notice I am sure we can repel any force that will be sent against this Territory.

We are in great want of arms and ammunition, and hope that by the early spring trains our requisition will be filled.

The Navajo and Apache Indians still continue their depredations to an alarming extent, altogether in robberies. Few deaths occur, but a continual spoliation of property. The losses of the Territory the past year will not fall short of half a million of dollars. The Texans keep us in such continual uneasiness that we can make no effective campaign against those hostile tribes.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF KANSAS, Fort Leavenworth, Kans., February 10, 1862.

To His Excellency ACTING GOVERNOR OF COLORADO, Denver City, Colo.:

Send all available forces you can possibly spare to re-enforce Colonel Canby, commanding Department of New Mexico, and to keep open his communication through Fort Wise. Act promptly and with all the discretion of your latest information as to what may be necessary and where the troops of Colorado can do most service.

D. HUNTER, Major-General, Commanding.

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CIRCULAR.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., February 14, 1862.

The following arrangements of the columns for field operations will govern the chiefs of the staff departments in making the necessary provisions for supplying the troops:

First Column.
Headquarters, Company D, First Cavalry, and detachment86
First column: Capt. H. R. Selden, Fifth Infantry
First Battalion: Capt. B. Wingate.
Headquarters and Companies B, D, F, and I, Fifth Infantry306
Second Battalion: Capt. P. W. L. Plympton.
Companies C and F, Seventh Infantry; A and H, Tenth Infantry, and Colorado Volunteers310
616
McRae’s battery130
Hall’s battery37
167
Second column.
Col. B. S. ROBERTS.
Headquarters and Companies C, D, G, and K, Third Cavalry, Major Duncan210
Companies B, E, and G, Third New Mexico Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Chavez234
Barriento’s company, Fifth New Mexico Volunteers63
Four companies New Mexico Mounted Militia, Lieutenant-Colonel Otero.200
707 {p.631}
Third column.
Col. C. CARSON.
First Battalion, four companies, First New Mexico Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Chavez254
Second Battalion, four companies, First New Mexico Volunteers, Major Morrison258
512
Fourth column.
Col. M. E. PINO.
First Battalion, four companies, Second New Mexico Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Chavez252
Second Battalion, two companies, Second and Third New Mexico Volunteers, Major Pino238
490
Fifth column.
Six companies First New Mexico Militia, Colonel Armijo; four companies Second New Mexico Militia272

The ambulances and wagons (hospital) and an ammunition wagon for each column will be kept in readiness to move with the column whenever it marches.

Three days’ cooked rations, to be carried in the haversacks, are required to be kept constantly en hand.

If any of the columns leave the post permanently the amount of supplies and the transportation to be taken will be specially directed.

By order of Col. E. R. S. Canby:

WM. J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain, Twelfth Infantry, Acting Asst. Adjt. General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 14.}

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, A. G. O., Washington, February 14, 1862.

I. Fort Garland, Colorado Territory, is transferred from the Department of Kansas to the Department of New Mexico.

...

By command of Major-General McClellan:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, COLORADO TERRITORY, Denver, February 14, 1862.

Brig. Gen. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department of New Mexico:

GENERAL: Orders have been received from Maj. Gen. David Hunter, commanding the Department of Kansas, to which this Territory is attached, to send all the available forces of the Territory to your support. I have therefore ordered the seven remaining companies of the First Regiment to march immediately to Santa Fé, under command of Col. John P. Slough.

The other three companies of the regiment are stationed, as you are {p.632} aware, at Fort Wise, under command of Lieut. Col. S. F. Tappan. I have written to Colonel Tappan to hold himself in readiness to join his regiment in case you desire it. I think that in the present state of things at that post it might be easily held by a detachment of Mexican troops; in which case three very efficient companies, two of infantry and one of cavalry, could be added to your force.

Feeling that it was possible that you might desire these troops, I have written to Colonel Tappan to consider himself under your orders. I trust that this course will be agreeable to you.

You will find this regiment, I hope, a most efficient one and of great support to you. It has had, of course, no experience in the field, but I trust that their enthusiasm and patriotic bravery will make amends, and more than that, for their lack of active service in the past.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant,

LEWIS WELD, Secretary and Acting Governor of Colorado Territory.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., February 14, 1862.

To the ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to state that since my report of the 10th instant* the Confederate forces have been moving slowly up the river, and are now about 20 miles below this place. From spies captured yesterday by our pickets their entire force is estimated at 3,000 men. I have now at this post, including the New Mexican Volunteers and Militia, nearly 4,000. The Mexican population appear to be animated by a very good spirit.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NEW MEXICO, Camp near Fort Craig, N. Mex., February 22, 1862.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding U. S. Forces in the Territory of New Mexico:

COLONEL: I desire hereby to accredit to you Lieut. Col. William R. Scurry, of the Fourth, and Capt. D. W. Shannon, of the Fifth, Regiment of Texas Mounted Volunteers, in the service of the Confederate States.

These gentlemen are dispatched under flag of truce, to hold communication with you upon matters pertaining to the military service of our respective Governments, in regard to which they will express to you my views and purposes.

I commend them as officers and gentlemen to your highest esteem and confidence.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

H. H. SIBLEY, Brig. Gen. Army of C. S., Comdg. Army of New Mexico.

{p.633}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., February 23, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: After the battle of the 21st instant there remained for the troops at this post but three plans of operation:

1. To retain this post to the last extremity, await the arrival of the re-enforcements that had previously been asked for, and upon their arrival, by concerted operations in the direction of the Pecos and the Rio Grande, defeat the enemy and force him to retreat down that river, and in that event cut off his retreat with the force at this point. This post is regarded as of paramount importance, not only for the purpose above indicated, but to intercept any re-enforcements that might be sent from Texas, and with a view to ulterior operations against the Mesilla Valley.

2. To abandon the post and endeavor to throw the force now here above the enemy, impede his further progress up the river, and then unite with any force that might be found above. This course would involve the loss of the supplies on hand, the abandonment of an important strategic point, and of the sick and wounded who could not be transported.

3. To bring on a second battle with the Confederate Army, and submit this portion of our Army and New Mexico to the chances of that battle. The organized Confederate force in the battle of the 21st was above 2,500 men. Our own force on the field was 2,200, of whom more than half were volunteers and militia. Our loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners was 222 in the regulars and Colorado Volunteers; in the New Mexican Volunteers about 15.* The loss of the Confederates was somewhat greater, but independent of the loss of our battery the proportional disparity of force was increased by the results of the battle.

The first of these plans was in my judgment best calculated to secure the ultimate success of our operations, and was concurred in by the several commanders and functionaries of the Territory who were consulted. It was adopted, and measures immediately taken to carry it into effect.

I have disembarrassed myself of the militia by sending them away, and have arranged with the officers of that force to impede the operations of the enemy, obstruct his movements if he should attempt to advance, and cut off his supplies, by removing from his route the cattle, grain, and other supplies in private hands that would aid him in sustaining his force. I have also sent away all the public animals not required for the immediate service of the post.

I am now organizing a partisan force from the volunteers, for the purpose of operating on the flanks of the enemy. This force will be composed of picked men, and I anticipate some good results from their action. If there be any consistency of purpose or persistence of effort in the people of New Mexico, the enemy will be able to add but little to his resources from a temporary occupation of the country.

If the enemy should determine to advance, I will send a part of the regular cavalry now here to re-enforce our troops in the northern part of the Territory, as they are now deficient in that class of troops.

On the night of the 21st instructions were sent to the commander above to remove or destroy any public property that might fall into the hands of the enemy. Major Donaldson, quartermaster, having volunteered {p.634} for the purpose, was detached last night with the militia, and charged with the duty of superintending the removal of the public property, procuring supplies, and collecting troops for future operations.

The enemy still occupies a position near the battle-field. His intentions are not yet developed; but as a demand for a surrender has been made, I anticipate, of course, an attempt to enforce it. If it should be made, I have no apprehensions as to the result.

Our loss in killed,wounded, and missing is somewhat greater than I supposed when my report of yesterday was made. The wounds, however, are generally of a light character, and the proportion that will terminate fatally will be small.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* But see p. 493.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ACTING INSPECTOR-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Santa Fé N. Mex., February 28, 1862.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Comdg. the Dept. of the Missouri, Saint Louis, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: I wrote to you fully and freely, as acting inspector-general of this Territory and a member of Colonel Canby’s staff, in order that you may have a proper view of the situation of affairs here.

This communication would have been sent to General Hunter, as a nearer military commander, had it not suggested itself that possibly he would be absent on the field when this communication should have reached his headquarters.

You will probably learn from the telegraph, from rumor, and from other sources that we have had a most desperate and bloody struggle with the Texans, and that, notwithstanding the great loss upon their part, we have lost one light battery and retreated to Fort Craig. Colonel Canby did everything which man could do to retake his battery and thus save the day. He beseeched and begged, ordered and imperatively commanded, troops to save his guns, and a deaf ear met alike his supplications and commands. Our loss is great; 4 officers killed-Captains McRae and Stone, Lieutenant Mishler, and Captain Bascom. Stone was first wounded and has since died; Captain Wingate, leg shattered; Lieutenant McDermott, volunteers, killed. Our loss, as far as ascertained up to the present moment, is 62 killed and about 140 wounded.*

The loss of the enemy is 150 killed and 450 wounded. Major Donaldson thinks they lost over 100 killed in front of McRae’s battery. The enemy is now above Colonel Canby, on the Rio Grande, and of course has cut him from all communication with his supplies. It is needless to say that this country is in a critical condition. The militia have all run away and the New Mexican Volunteers are deserting in large numbers. No dependence whatever can be placed on the natives; they are worse than worthless; they are really aids to the enemy, who catch them, take their arms, and tell them to go home.

A force of Colorado Volunteers is already on the way to assist us, and they may possibly arrive in time to save us from immediate danger; but, my dear sir, we must look to the future. The conquest of it (New {p.635} Mexico) is a great political feature of the rebellion. It will gain the rebels a name and a prestige over Europe, and operate against the Union cause. It therefore should not only be checked, but it should at any future period during the spring or summer be rendered impossible.

These Texans will not rest with the forces they have already with them, but they will have large additions to their command here, in order to extend their conquest toward old Mexico and in the direction of Southern California. I therefore beg you, in the name of Colonel Canby, who is fighting two to one, and laying valuable lives upon this issue, to send at once-lose not a day-at least two regiments infantry and a battery of rifled cannon to Fort Union. These troops cannot serve the Government better than by saving this Territory. Do not depend on the New Mexican regiments serving in Kansas; they are not filled up nor ready for the field. Send us troops already organized; they can start by the time this reaches you.

Believe no reports you may hear of the number of troops Canby has. I have given you a true picture of the state of this country, and if you wish to save it, you, I hope and pray, will act immediately in its favor.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GURDEN CHAPIN, Captain, Seventh Infantry, Acting Inspector-General.

Colonel Canby has but 1,100 men, exclusive of his volunteers, and the Texans have at least 2,200, all mounted.

Please inform the headquarters Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé, what you can do for this country, and if you cannot help us, be kind enough to acknowledge the receipt of this communication.

* But see p. 493.

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Abstract from return of the Department of New Mexico, Col. Edward R. S. Canby, Nineteenth Infantry, commanding, for the month of February, 1862.

Troops.Present for duty.Effective present.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.Pieces of field artillery.
Officers.Men.
Department staff5555
Abo Pass145
Albuquerque162
Camp Connelly167
Cubero74
Fort Craig and vicinity1102,1302,6772,8921,208
Fort Garland3374851130
Fort Marcy*221
Fort Union and depot1426735960178015
Hatch’s Ranch65773102261
In the field1,775
Total1382,4913,1623,6514,92815

* No return.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SANTA FÉ. Santa Fé, March 1, 1862.

General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: In obedience to an order from Colonel Canby, commanding {p.636} the Department of New Mexico, I respectfully inclose his report* of the battle of Valverde, which took place near Fort Craig, on the 21st instant.

The colonel is sanguine that he will succeed in holding the enemy in check, but having been in the battle, and having succeeded in getting through the enemy’s line from Craig on the night of the 22d with the view of turning back any trains that may have been on the road, as well as to secure the public property on the river below Albuquerque, I may be allowed to express the opinion that I consider the colonel’s situation as critical, and would most earnestly advise that no time be lost in sending re-enforcements to this country. Four regiments of infantry, some cavalry, and a battery of rifled cannon at least should be sent. The enemy numbers about 2,000 men, all mounted, and is expecting re-enforcements. He suffered severely in the battle, and is now encumbered with a large number of wounded. This may prevent him from moving up the river at present, but his foraging parties have already come within 60 miles of Albuquerque. No reliance can be placed on the New Mexican Volunteers or Militia, and I advise their being disbanded. They have a traditionary fear of the Texans, and will not face them in the field.

I will not anticipate Colonel Canby’s detailed report, but I must say that he made every exertion to save Captain McRae’s battery.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. L. DONALDSON, Quartermaster, Brevet Major, Comdg. Dist. Santa Fé.

* See Canby’s report of February 22, on p. 487.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SANTA FÉ, Santa Fé, March 1, 1862.

General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I am in receipt of a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Tappan, of the Colorado Volunteers, informing me that General Hunter had ordered his regiment immediately from Denver City to Santa Fé to re-enforce Colonel Canby, who, as you will see by his report, has had a severe conflict with the Texans near Fort Craig. This order of General Hunter is most seasonable, and may perhaps save the Territory. Colonel Tappan is stationed at Fort Wise with two companies of his regiment and a mounted company, the rest of the garrison being a regular company, under Lieutenant Warner. I have not hesitated to order Colonel Tappan to Santa Fé by special express to join the other companies of his regiment (seven) coming by way of Garland, and if Colonel Canby can hold the enemy in check for fifteen or twenty days I am in hopes of marching to his assistance with 1,000 men, 100 of whom will be regulars, under Captain Lewis, Fifth Infantry.

I have dates from Colonel Canby to the 25th instant. I sent a trusty messenger to him last night, urging him to delay the enemy as much as possible, and communicating the fact of a Colorado regiment being on the road to his relief. Nothing as yet has fallen into the hands of the enemy. When I left Craig, which I did the evening after the battle, Colonel Canby authorized me to use his name and to take such steps as I deemed best. If disaster happens to the colonel before re-enforcements arrive I shall throw myself into Union, but I need hardly urge the importance of at once putting en route to Union a force that will overwhelm the enemy.

{p.637}

I send a copy of these letters to General Halleck, Saint Louis, being apprehensive that General Hunter has gone South.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. L. DONALDSON, Brevet Major, Commanding District of Santa Fé.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF SANTA FÉ, Santa Fé, March 1, 1862.

General H. W. HALLECK, Commanding Department of Missouri, Saint Louis:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose a copy of the official report* of a battle between the Union troops under Colonel Canby and the Texans, near Fort Craig.

The loss was heavy on both sides, that of the enemy being at least double that of ours.

The enemy have possession of the road above Craig, and may march up, as Colonel Canby is embarrassed with his wounded, as well as having lost McRae’s battery.

Everything will be done here to succor him. You will see by my letter to the Adjutant-General of the Army that a regiment of Colorado Volunteers is on the march to this city from Denver and Fort Wise, but the snow is deep on the Taos Mountains and they may not get through in time.

I urgently recommend that four regiments of infantry, some cavalry, and a battery of rifled cannon be at once put en route for Union.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. L. DONALDSON, Quartermaster, Commanding District of Santa Fé.

* Canby’s report of February 22, p. 487.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Santa Fé, March 1, 1862.

SECRETARY OF STATE, Washington, D. 2:

SIR: Since my last communication from Fort Craig I have been unable to write you until this day, in consequence of the commotion and excitement that have existed from that day to the present. On the 19th of February the enemy retrograded from their position, 5 miles below Craig, to the place called Paraje, where they crossed to the opposite or east side of the river. On the 20th he advanced up the river, but at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from it, until about opposite the fort, when Colonel Canby marched out to give him battle. The ground over which the enemy passed, and over which our forces had to pass in order to reach him, was a bed of sand, covered generally with loose volcanic rocks, which impeded the progress of our train of artillery, and made it quite late in the evening before the position of the enemy was reached. This position he had taken with great labor on a sandy height somewhat inaccessible to our heavy artillery. After some fifty or sixty shots fired by the enemy with their largest guns without effect our forces retired again to the fort, arriving some time after dark.

On the 21st the enemy were met 5 miles above the fort, having during the night and the next morning made their way to the river at {p.638} that distance above the fort. The action commenced about 10 o’clock, with artillery across the river at a distance of 1,000 yards and in a forest of cottonwood trees, which gave the enemy greatly the advantage, as it shielded them from our artillery and even the small-arms that were used at that distance.

About 1 o’clock our whole force passed the river, having previously driven the enemy from his position near the river to the foot of and into the sand hills. The battle now raged with increased fury, and the enemy was to all appearances in the act of retreating from the ground, when to hasten his retreat, one of our batteries of six guns, light artillery, was advanced some 200 yards nearer their position, which was in a degree covered by a ridge of sand, behind which they had taken momentary refuge, when, to the surprise of all, about 500 men came forth from that position and advanced steadily on to and finally captured the battery. This was not done without great loss to the captors, for of the 500 men that left the position of concealment not more than 200 arrived at the battery.

It is painful to relate that of the forces in position for the protection of the battery not one company advanced to its relief or even fired upon the enemy as he approached. The force consisted of two or more companies of regular troops and one regiment of volunteers. The regulars were ordered-nay, implored-to charge the enemy, by Colonel Canby, Major Donaldson, and Colonel Collins, superintendent of Indian affairs, who were all three present in immediate contact with the troops and within 10 or 20 yards of the battery when it was taken. The regulars having refused to advance, the volunteers followed their example, and both retired from the field, recrossing the river and leaving the battery in possession of the enemy. There was no flight, and the enemy gave no pursuit. He was evidently greatly crippled, and chose as the more prudent course to close the day with the advantage gained. Colonel Canby now ordered all our forces to recross the river, and marched into the fort some time after dark. Thus ended the bloody day of the 21st February.

A cessation of hostilities intervened the next day, for the purpose of burying the dead and removing the wounded from the field. On the following day, 23d, a deputation of two officers waited upon Colonel Canby, asking a surrender of the fort, and indicated that very honorable terms would be granted. The proposition was peremptorily refused. The day following it was thought that the fort would certainly be attacked by the enemy. A council of war was held, in which it was determined rather to await the attack of the enemy in the fort than to attack him again in his strong position. The number of men in the fort was more than could be usefully employed, and it was ordered by Colonel Canby that the militia lately called into the service should withdraw from the fort and make a detour that would place them in advance of the enemy. This had to be done by a night march, which was effected without much difficulty and with no loss, except in the dispersion of the militia, but few of whom have been embodied since they emerged from the mountains and reached the settlements upon the Rio Grande. In fact, the enemy gave but little time for rallying.

On the morning of our arrival on the river in advance of the enemy, and before all had reached the place of rendezvous, it was ascertained that a body of the enemy, 400 strong, with two pieces of artillery, was in our neighborhood, and advancing at the rate of 30 miles per day. This they had done in order to capture a depot of provisions that was at Polvadera, 50 miles from Craig. The provisions, however, had been {p.639} sent off in advance, and the enemy captured nothing or very little. Under this state of things I saw that my presence out of the capital would be of no further utility, and therefore came in company with a few militia officers, and arrived here on the 27th of February.

Colonel Canby is, or was at last accounts (25th), still at Craig. The enemy had not attacked the fort, as was expected, but had crossed to the west side of the river, and was encamped 8 miles in advance of the fort. It is supposed that Colonel Canby will attack him so soon as he leaves the strong position he occupies, and his forces are quite sufficient to defeat the enemy. He has yet 1,000 regular troops, with five pieces of artillery, among them two 24-pounder howitzers, and a volunteer force of not less than 1,500 men. His stock is in much better condition than that of the enemy, and we are expecting the result of a decisive action daily.

The advance party of the enemy mentioned had not progressed farther at last accounts than the depot of provisions spoken of before. Whether they will continue to advance with their small number will be known in a short time. Albuquerque is defenseless as to any armed force in that place and if the enemy advance it is very likely that they will succeed in taking that place. All the Government stores have been removed however, and are far on their way to this place and to Fort Union. We are making some efforts here to repel any small force that may arrive in advance, and we will be able to do so; but all will be determined by the result of the operations of Colonel Canby upon the enemy. If he defeats him, or even be not routed and dispersed by the enemy, we will be able to expel the invaders from the Territory.

Our loss consisted of 46 killed and 160 wounded.* Among the former were several valuable officers. Captain McRae, commanding the battery, died at his guns, with one or two other officers. The 80 men at the battery defended it with a heroic valor worthy of better success, of whom 43 were either killed or wounded. The loss of the enemy, it is ascertained by deserters from their camp, was very large-at least 300 killed, and the wounded in proportion. The deserters say that a consultation was held two days after the battle in regard to an attack upon the fort, and that the more daring officers were in favor of an attack, but that the men utterly refused to put their lives in such imminent danger, which would lead to certain defeat and dispersion of the whole invading force. There was some talk of their trying to effect a retreat, as it was thought that the conquest of the Territory could never be effected by the force then in the Territory.

I have been absent from the capital one month, and am sorry to be able to give no better account of the operations of our army. I had anticipated a very different result. Through the official reports you will be informed more in detail as to the cause of our repulse.

March 2. An express has just arrived, giving information that nearly or quite the whole force of the Texans are on their march up the river and have reached the town of Socorro. No news of Colonel Canby having moved from Craig. Under these circumstances Major Donaldson, commander of this district, has ordered all the Government stores from this place to Union, and most likely will leave himself with the three companies of troops that have arrived here within the last two days. Should this be the case I shall follow him to Union, and even to the States, {p.640} should the Territory be abandoned to the enemy; for I feel no disposition to be taken prisoner by them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY.

* But see p. 493.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, D. C., March 4, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I transmit for your information a copy of a letter of the 31st of January last, addressed to this Department by Henry Connelly, esq., the Governor of the Territory of New Mexico.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure.]

SOCORRO, N. MEX., January 31, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I wrote you on the 25th instant that I should have the day following for the theater of war, Fort Craig, having left one major-general of divisions of the militia actively engaged in organizing and sending into the field all the disposable militia force in the Territory. I have daily intelligence from them, and from appearances there will be an additional force of 1,500 men with us within five days. The forces of Texas have fallen back to Fort Thorn, 75 miles below Fort Craig, and I think it very doubtful whether they will give us battle this side of that place. Colonel Canby left here yesterday with 1,500 men for Craig, 35 miles distant, and will increase the number of men at that place to 3,000. We have now no fears of any serious reverse to our arms. The whole Texan force is concentrated at and near Fillmore, Robledo, and Thorn, distant from each other 25 miles. We have a force at Craig equal to theirs, and with the militia now en route will have fully 1,000 men more. Whether Colonel Canby will advance upon them I have no idea, but think he will pursue a prudential course until he is sure of success. The proclamation of General Sibley to the people of this Territory,* which has been found in considerable numbers scattered through the villages in this part of the Territory, has, when found, been universally delivered to the military commander, without having circulated among the people any number of copies. I have none by me, or I would inclose you one. It will have no effect, even if circulated. I am sure the Territory is safe at present, and only by re-enforcements, which the enemy in all probability will never obtain, can there be any danger of a great disaster to our arms. A great inconvenience will always be felt by having to keep so many men under arms to meet and repel this force of the enemy which is threatening our borders. Perhaps a few days or weeks may lead to new developments, and teach us more of their plans and their means of executing them.

I have remained at this place a few days to await the arrival of the militia now en route from the counties above. When they arrive much more will be known as to the position and intentions of the enemy than we now know, and then, in co-operation with Colonel Canby, will be {p.641} able to determine upon the course most prudent to be pursued. I will keep you advised of anything worthy of note that may take place. The enemy is in straitened circumstances, both as to subsistence and forage, and will have to advance upon us with a hope of success, or forage upon Mexico for the means of subsistence. It is said they are in doubt which course of the two presents the fairer prospect of success.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

* Reference is probably to proclamation printed on p. 89, Series I, Vol. IV.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, D. C., March 11, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of dispatch No. 3, received on the 7th instant, from Franklin Chase, esq., United States consul at Tampico, recommending the capture and occupation of Brownsville, Tex., by our forces. Believing as I do that such occupation is necessary to prevent the injury to our Government which would ensue from the unrestricted intercourse between Tampico and the Southern States, I beg to commend the subject to your consideration, and to suggest that you confer with the Secretary of the Navy in regard to it, to whom I have also written and inclosed a copy of Mr. Chase’s dispatch.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure.]

CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Tampico, January 24, 1862.

Hon. F. W. SEWARD, Asst. Secy. of State of the United States, &c., Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report to you that since the commencement of this month the military and civil authorities have been busily engaged in making preparations to vacate this place. All the forts and fortified points have been dismantled, and vast quantities of armament have been embarked in vessels and lighters, and sent as far up the river as practicable. About fourteen pieces of light artillery have been detained to cover the retirement of the forces under General Tapia the moment the allied forces appear off the bar.

The civil authorities here, who acted as chiefs in revolt against the late elected Governor, Don Jesus Serna, on hearing of the success of the opposite party at Matamoros and the city of Victoria, closed their offices and disappeared from the place. These occurrences took place on the 17th instant, and on that day General Tapia took formal possession of the offices thus vacated, viz: Collector of customs, Governor of the State, and that of the political chief or prefect.

At the instance of the President of this Republic all the archives of the different offices have been sent to this consulate and to the stores belonging to my premises, which I received as an act of kindness toward these distracted people.

On the 18th instant a schooner, called the Lord Lyons, under the British flag, arrived in this port, in fifteen days from Matamoros. I {p.642} have ascertained that this vessel was formerly called the Sultan, belonging to Key West, and that her nationality was changed at the British consulate at Havana. She is only 57 16/95 tons burden, laden with 720 pigs of lead and a quantity, of goat-skins, with a clearance for Nassau, N. P., notwithstanding she had 9 passengers on board for Havana.

I have intimated to General Tapia the expediency of detaining the lead brought by the Lord Lyons, who assured me that he would consult with the district judge, and if he considered it contraband of war it should not leave the port; but I have lost all confidence in these people, and we must only look to our own resources for the means of our national security.

The sloop Warrior, mentioned in my No. 29, 27th ultimo, has been made over to a Mr. David Jolley, British merchant of this place, and furnished with authority to sail under the flag of that nation by Her Majesty’s consul here.

The secession schooner Clarinda, Sherffins master, arrived here from Sabine in the early part of this mouth with a cargo of lumber and left in ballast on the 18th instant, the exportation of arms and provisions having been denied her.

By the inclosed copy of the letter from John M. Coe, esq., you will be informed of the movements of our enemies in the interior of this Republic.

The people of New Orleans have conceived a plan for the purpose of expediting the transmission of their correspondence with foreign nations through the medium of this port, and to effect that object they have sent Mr. Augustine Leona as commissioner to this place, to provide the means of connecting an express with the monthly British mail steamers. I may add that this port is now becoming the medium for all persons wishing to return to the Southern States who do not like to incur the risk of attempting to force the blockade, and as we are now momentarily expecting the place to fall under the rule of European powers, incalculable injury may accrue to our Government unless this intercourse can be interrupted by the capture and occupation of Brownsville by our forces.

Permit me now to impress upon your mind the importance of having this coast closely guarded by our ships of war, with instructions to communicate with the consulates at least semi-monthly, assuring you that no other means can effectually put a final check to military supplies going into the hands of our enemies.

I am, with great esteem and respect, sir, your most obedient servant,

FRANKLIN CHASE.

[Inclosure.]

ZACATECAS, January 2, 1862.

FRANKLIN CHASE, Esq., Tampico:

MY DEAR SIR: On my arrival here yesterday I was informed that a certain individual named J. E. Schenck, a German by birth, and an American citizen, was actively purchasing ammunition of war for the Southern Confederacy. To-day I met the same person at one of the commercial houses of this place, where he has purchased 130 flasks quicksilver, some saltpeter, sulphur, and all the percussion caps he has been able to obtain. I have been assured that he leaves in a few days for Matamoros

{p.643}

I have thought it my duty to communicate this intelligence to you as a representative of the United States.

Hoping you may be able to communicate the same to our Government, I remain, dear sir, yours, very truly,

JOHN M. COE.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, March 11, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I inclose for perusal two letters, dated respectively the 5th and 11th ultimo, addressed to this Department by Henry Connelly, esq., Governor of the Territory of New Mexico.

Please cause them to be returned when you may no longer have occasion for them.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

FORT CRAIG, N. MEX., February 5, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: I arrived at this place to-day, having delayed three days in Socorro waiting the arrival of the first column of the militia called out under my recent order. With that column I came in company. Within four or five days the entire militia force will be in the immediate neighborhood of this post. The exact number I cannot at this time state except by approximation; not less, however, than 1,000, and perhaps as many as 1,500, consisting of our principal citizens.

The Texans have made no demonstrations upon this post since my last, and in fact nothing new has been heard from them.

We expect to hear something certain within two days, as spies are out to ascertain if possible their exact position, and something reliable as to their preparations to move against the forces of the Territory now assembled at this place. Colonel Canby, I think, has not determined whether he will march against them, but most likely will resolve according to the information he may receive by the spies, whose return is daily expected.

There is now, or will be within a few days, a force concentrated at this place of 4,500 men, 3,500 of which are volunteers and militia. This force is fully equal to the protection of the Territory against the forces of Texas north of the desert of Jornada, but it might be a question as to the propriety of advancing upon them at disadvantage at so great a distance from all resources in the event of a reverse to our arms.

The matter will be duly considered by Colonel Canby, and in his good judgment we all have entire confidence. There is something not well understood in the late movements of the Texans; their falling back rather precipitately from all their positions on the Rio Grande north of Robledo, when we all expected a forward movement of the whole force upon this place, has created some surprise, and is attributed to various motives; such as disaffected feeling among the men, to the unexpected force of citizen soldiery arrayed against them, and to the prevalence of small-pox to an alarming degree in their ranks. Perhaps something of all these causes may have contributed to change their {p.644} program and advised to a defensive instead of an offensive course. I am sure that a few days will lead to new developments, of which you will be duly apprised.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

FEBRUARY 6.

After writing the foregoing last night the spies came in and reported the advance of the whole Texan force upon this post. They were at and above Fort Thorn, 80 miles distant, but without a doubt marching forward to determine by a decisive battle the fate of the Territory.

I have no fears as to the result here. We will conquer the Texan forces,if not in the first battle, it will be done in the second or subsequent battles. We will overcome them. The spirit of our people is good, and I have here and en route 1,000 and more of the élite of the yeomanry of the country to aid in defending their homes and firesides.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

FORT CRAIG N. MEX., February 11, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The enemy are approaching in full force, not, I think, exceeding 3,000 men. They are within 20 miles of this post. To-day our united forces march out to meet them. The battle will most likely take place on the 13th, about 10 miles below. We have no fears of the result. Enthusiasm prevails throughout our lines.

About 800 militia will arrive to-morrow, there being already here and in service 500 of those called out by my late order, issued on the 25th of January. The militia have displayed a coin mendable spirit in the present emergency, and I have great confidence that they will do good service. We have fully 4,000 men under arms, among them 1,200 regular troops.

Colonel Canby has the entire confidence of the army and of the country. He will be ably assisted by his regular and temporary staff.

I may owe an apology or explanation for having left the capital during the session of the Legislature. It was thought by all that my presence would be very necessary and my example more so, which I think has been the case, as there are hundreds of our best citizens, with their retainers, now present, who might have hesitated had I remained at Santa Fé.

The Legislature had but five days remaining of the session when I left, and but few and unimportant laws to pass; the most of which were sent to me and were signed before the Legislature adjourned.

I learn that Secretary Holmes has left Santa Fé for the States since my departure. He will doubtless explain to the President the necessity that compelled him to leave.

So soon as anything decisive takes place I will communicate the result.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

{p.645}

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FORT UNION, N. MEX., March 11, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington City:

SIR: Since my last communication, of the 1st instant, there has been no further encounter between the forces under Colonel Canby and those of Texas, so far as heard from. On the 4th instant, Major Donaldson, then commander of the District of Santa Fé, determined to leave that city with the small force he had under his command, say 200 men, and fall back upon this place. It was then said that the advanced guard (500 strong) of the enemy had entered Albuquerque and would proceed immediately to the capital. His departure became the more necessary in order to escort and defend a large amount of Government property then on the way from Albuquerque and Santa Fé to this place. The capital having been abandoned by the United States forces, I came in company with them, and I have for the present established the executive department at Las Vegas, 30 miles west of this post.

Since my last there has been nothing official received from Colonel Canby, but we have reason to believe that he has left Fort Craig and is now on march for this place or its neighborhood. The enemy in full force are said to have entered Albuquerque four days since; if so, Colonel Canby will have an opportunity to make a detour, and march to this place, or to a position in advance of them, by the way of Manzano.

I presume he wishes to avoid a decisive engagement until he can unite with the re-enforcements that are here from Colorado Territory, of whose arrival or near approach he is doubtless apprised. Colonel Slough, from Denver City, arrived here last night, with 950 men, who from all accounts can be relied upon. These, with 300 or 400 that are already here, will give Colonel Canby a force of 2,000 regular troops; that is, American troops. He has still the fragments of three regiments of Mexican Volunteers, I think to the amount of 1,500 men, which would make his force fully 3,500. The militia have all dispersed, and have gone to preparing their lands for the coming harvest, and this is by far the best use that could be made of them.

Should the forces at this place unite with Colonel Canby, of which at this time I have no doubt, the enemy will be driven from the Territory. Should Colonel Canby be attacked by the enemy and suffer a defeat, with considerable loss of men and arms, we will then be in a very precarious condition until re-enforcements arrive. The whole force from this place, say 1,300 men, will leave in a few days to meet Colonel Canby should he be on this side or south of Santa Fé, and if he be still in the rear of the enemy, to engage them between two fires or operate as circumstances may require. I hope by next mail to give you the information that the enemy are either vanquished in battle or are in retreat from the Territory.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

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HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DISTRICT, Fort Union, N. Mex., March 11, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that since the battle of Valverde, on the 21st of February, the state of affairs in the Department {p.646} of New Mexico has been daily growing from bad to worse. All the militia and a large number of the volunteers (natives) who were called into the service of the United States have deserted and taken to the mountains. A general system of robbery and plunder seems to be the order of the day. There is a general panic in the country, and people are flying from their homes.

Communication with Colonel Canby at Fort Craig has been neatly cut off, and since the 27th of February, 1862, nothing whatever has been heard from him. On the 27th he dispatched Captains Lord and Howland, each with 50 mounted men, to observe the enemy and to communicate with Maj. J. L. Donaldson, commanding the Santa Fé District, directing him to go to his relief. This order was doubtless given under the belief that regiments of Kansas Volunteers had arrived in the Territory. Major Donaldson, however, had no sufficient force either to go to Colonel Canby’s relief or even to hold Santa Fé. He therefore sent all public property that could be transported to this post, and abandoned Santa Fé. His report is herein inclosed.* The supplies reached Fort Union safely. Under these circumstances, as the senior officer, I assumed command of all troops, posts, and depots in the department not immediately under command of Colonel Canby, and ordered Major Donaldson to march all his forces to this post.

The main body of the enemy, about 2,000 strong, is at Albuquerque, N. Mex., and a strong force is near Fort Craig, watching Colonel Canby’s movements. I am now organizing a column to march against the enemy and form a junction with Colonel Canby. Should this expedition prove successful-of which I entertain no doubt-the Territory will be saved to the United States; but should it fail, the country will be lost. In either case I cannot too strongly urge the absolute necessity for a re-enforcement of 4,000 men, two batteries of rifled cannon, and six siege pieces. Maj. J. L. Donaldson, whom I have ordered to Washington to represent the interests and wants of the department, will enter more fully into details.

On the arrival of Colonel Slough, with his regiment of Colorado Volunteers, I had the mortification to discover that his commission was senior to mine, and thus I am deprived of a command which I had taken so much pains to organize and with which I expected to reap laurels. Thus, also, an officer of only six months’ service, and without experience, takes precedence of one of many years’ service, and who has frequently been tried in battle. It is as little as I can ask of the War Department for past and present service to give me such rank as will prevent in future such mortifications. I therefore ask for the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Colonel Fourth Regt. N. Mex. Vols., Comdg. East, Dist.

NOTE.-At a late hour last night the two inclosed notes were received from Colonel Canby, the express, after many narrow escapes, having made his way safely through the enemy’s lines. I also inclose the copy of a letter received by Dr. Baily from Dr. Norris.

G. R. P.

* See p. 527.

[Inclosures.]

FORT CRAIG, N. MEX., March 5, 1862.

DOCTOR: I am not yet prepared to make my official report, and I {p.647} have only to say at present that our department is conducted satisfactorily. We have everything which is needed for the wounded.

Capt. W. A. Van Vliet, assistant quartermaster, has furnished us with 100 blankets and 50 bed-sacks. Fifty-six men killed on the field, including 9 volunteers. One hundred and forty men were brought to the hospitals wounded, 17 of whom have since died. The wounded are treated in five hospitals, established in the officers’ and company quarters, and under the charge of the following medical officers: 1st, Dr. B. A. Clements; 2d, Dr. S. Rankin; 3d, Dr. J. H. Bill; 4th, Dr. E. Arnold; 5th, Dr. J. H. Shout. Up to the 2d of March I had charge of Hospital 5, including five amputations in a separate ward. I had also charge of Captain Wingate, Captain Stone, and Captain Mortimore, severely wounded, and Lieutenant McDermott, disabled by a deep flesh-wound in the thigh.

I was attacked on the 2d instant with pneumonia, and was compelled to take my bed, since which time Dr. Shout has been in charge of part of my duties and Dr. Clements with the rest. Dr. Shout remained until very late on the battle-field, and was unable to attend to his duties for several days afterward. Dr. Bill, having been assigned to duty as post surgeon, has been exclusively occupied with the sick of the garrison. His industry and experience have rendered him very useful in that field. I will write you more in full as soon as I feel able. I will forward my report of sick in a day or two. Articles needed for the wounded of another battle are lint, muslin, tow, field stretchers with handles, pulveris licii, and dressings of every description. Mattresses will be very much needed, and I recommend that woolen ones be made. We have been compelled to seize all the mattresses of the garrison. The mattresses allowed by the supply table would not be sufficient for the minimum number of severely wounded to be expected after any battle. Liquors we have found very useful, and I would recommend another supply purchased for future occasions. Ether and chloroform are indispensable, and should be preserved with the greatest care.

I have purchased of the sutler of this post 200 yards of muslin and 40 yards of canton flannel, which is a tolerable substitute for lint. Our wounded are doing well, and if we are ordered to move, all but about 15 could be easily conveyed.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BASIL NORRIS, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, Medical Director and Purveyor of Troops in the Field.

E. I. BAILY, Surgeon, U. S. Army, Medical Director, Dept. of New Mexico, Santa Fé, N. Mex.

[FORT CRAIG], March 7, 1862.

MAJOR: Our wounded are all doing well and the men are in good spirits. We have supplies of every kind for two months, except flour, and that we can eke out for fifty, or, if necessary, sixty days. Do not trust the Mexican troops. If the Colorado or Kansas or California troops have not joined you, do not risk an engagement until they do.

I have sent you three messengers to advise you of my movements, but they have not returned.

Yours, &c.,

ED. R. S. CANBY.

Maj. JAMES L. DONALDSON.

{p.648}

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FORT CRAIG, N. MEX., March 7, 1862.

COLONEL: As our communications via Santa Fé will probably be interrupted, I wish you to send me by reliable expressmen, and as frequently as possible, any information that you can gain with regard to the movements of troops coming into the Territory, and any other information that would be useful in our present position.

Our wounded are all doing well, and the men are in good spirits.

Very truly, yours, &c.,

ED. R. S. CANBY.

Col. G. R. PAUL.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, March 13, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: This Department has recently had correspondence with the Department of War upon the subject of the occupation of a part at least of the west bank of the Rio Grande, for the purpose of preventing trade between the adjacent region of Texas and the Mexican bank of the river, particularly Matamoros. Though fully appreciating the objections and difficulties suggested by the military authorities against that occupation at this juncture, I cannot forbear to mention a recent marked instance of its importance.

There has in all probability been an extensive importation of merchandise, especially contraband of war, into Matamoros, destined for the insurgent States, and an exportation of cotton from those States through the same channel. Our right to blockade the mouth of the Rio Grande for the purpose of preventing this commerce may be considered as at least questionable. A British steamer, with a cargo of cotton, has recently been captured near the mouth of that river, and has been sent to New York for adjudication. In all probability this Government will ultimately have to pay heavy damages for this capture. A military force, however competent to guard the roads leading toward Matamoros from Texas, might check the carriage of cotton to that port, and consequently the temptation to vessels to proceed thither and exchange it for contraband of war.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

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HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DISTRICT, Fort Union, Y. Mex, March 17, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to state that on the 9th instant Colonel Canby was still at Fort Craig awaiting the arrival of re-enforcements. His note to Major Donaldson is herein inclosed.* The enemy has ascended the Rio Grande and taken possession of Albuquerque and Santa Fé. Their main body is at or near the former place, and their advance guard is at the latter. I expect an answer to-morrow from Colonel Canby to a dispatch I sent him proposing a plan for his relief. As soon as it reaches me I shall move forward. I have just written a communication to His Excellency Governor W. Gilpin, of Colorado Territory, urging him to send forward all the assistance he can to the relief {p.649} of New Mexico, and I would respectfully call your attention to the situation of our little army here, and assure you of the necessity of large re-enforcements.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Colonel Fourth Regt., New Mexico Vols., Comdg. District.

* Not found herewith, but see inclosures to Paul’s letter of March 11, p. 646.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., March 18, 1862.

Col. J. P. SLOUGH, First Colorado Volunteers:

SIR: Keep your command prepared to make a junction with this force. I will indicate the time and route. Move with as little baggage as possible. Take no tents and only the camp equipage essential for comfort and efficiency. Ammunition, at least 100 cartridges per man and gun. To save transportation, take only bread and meat, coffee and sugar. Reduce the flour and increase the fresh meat ration. Increase the coffee and sugar for guards and pickets. Do not rely upon the New Mexican troops except for garrisons and for partisan operations. Impress upon your men not to place too much confidence in their battery, but to rely upon the musket, and especially upon the bayonet. Be on your guard against attempts to cripple your operations by stampeding your animals. If you have been joined by a sufficient force to act independently against the enemy, advise me of your plans and movements, that I may co-operate. In this you must be governed by your own judgment and discretion, but no thing must be left to chance. There is no necessity for a premature movement on account of this post. We have flour to last until the 10th of next month (April), and it can be made to last until the end. I am jerking beef to serve as bread. Of all other supplies we have enough for three months. The question is not of saving this post, but of saving New Mexico and defeating the Confederates in such a way that an invasion of this Territory will never again be attempted. It is essential to the general plan that this post should be retained if possible. Fort Union must be held and our communications with the East kept open. If you move, a reliable garrison must be left in it. The communication by Fort Garland should also be kept open. If it cannot, that post should be destroyed. All other points are of no importance. While waiting for re-enforcements harass the enemy by partisan operations. Obstruct his movements and cut off his supplies. Use the mounted volunteers for these purposes and keep the regular cavalry in reserve. Feed their horses well.

This post will be retained until the last moment. If forced to abandon it everything will be destroyed, and I will move without incumbrances. The sick and wounded will be left at Limitar. Advise me of the arrival of re-enforcements; what troops are en route; when they are expected. Send carriers daily and by different routes-duplicates or triplicates of important communications by different couriers. Reports in relation to plans and movements will be made in cipher. Colonel Paul will give you the key. Keep the Adjutant-General advised of the state of affairs in this department.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

{p.650}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, D. C., March 19, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: The Secretary of War directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 11th instant,inclosing a copy of dispatch No. 3, from Franklin Chase, United States consul at Tampico, recommending the capture and occupation of Brownsville, Tex., by our forces, and in reply to inform you that your letter has been carefully considered, with the conclusion that the condition of the United States forces does not admit at present of the detachment of the troops that such an expedition would require.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

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[MARCH 20-23, 1862.-For Halleck to Secretary of War, March 20, 21, and 23, and to Prince, March 21; and Secretary of War to Halleck, March 20, all in relation to re-enforcements from Department of the Mississippi for New Mexico, see Series I, Vol. VIII, pp. 627-629, 631, 633]

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WASHINGTON CITY, March 23, 1862.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK:

DEAR SIR: I am placed under deep obligation of gratitude for the prompt dispatch of six regiments to the relief of the oppressed people of New Mexico. I am pained to think of the fearful outrages which the Texas forces will heap upon them. The valley of the Rio Grande will be desolated for 200 miles. I feel assured that the re-enforcements sent by you will capture the whole Texas force if they move with rapidity. If they do not do so they might as well not go, for they will find a desolated country and an absent and retreating enemy. Texas will bring up from San Antonio re-enforcements rapidly, and the prospect of plunder will fill New Mexico with this class of troops as fast as they can go. Colonel Canby will no doubt destroy and abandon Fort Craig, and re-enforce Fort Union by a rapid march by Monganos to Fort Union, on the east side of the mountains. Colonel Canby, when at Fort Union with the regiment from Denver, can hold that place until the re-enforcements get to him. Excuse me for urging that at least the mounted portion of the column be urged forward at the most rapid rate possible. The infantry and artillery can follow at leisure. It is probable, if you will look at the map, that the Texas forces will, after taking and plundering Santa Fé, attempt to pass out to Fort Smith by the Canadian River, under the impression that a large column of the Confederates are at that point, threatening Missouri. I hope that in selecting the head of this expedition it will not be forgotten that the rapidity of the movement is the most important requisite of leaders. I shall trust with the utmost confidence to your judgment. Major-General Harney, Major Steen, General Davidson, who is well known to the country and people of New Mexico, and others have been suggested to me as suitable persons, but I shall be perfectly satisfied with any one that your judgment dictates as most suitable to insure success. I have been twenty-six times across the plains; feel a deep interest in the rescue from destruction of the people of New Mexico, who have been my friends for many years, and if my services should be required I will {p.651} leave my place here vacant, and without money and without price aid all I can to forward the movement. I do not wish any command, but will go and aid the command or commandant all in my power if it should be thought best for me to do so.

With kind regards, I remain, yours, &c.,

JOHN S. WATTS, Delegate for New Mexico.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Las Vegas, March 23, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington City:

SIR: Since my last from Fort Union, dated 11th instant, there has occurred nothing indicating a speedy encounter with the enemy until this time. To-day the whole force from Denver City, Colo., together with the Territorial forces, numbering 1,400 men in all, will leave this place in the direction of the enemy, but I am informed will go but a short distance until they receive further communications and orders from Colonel Canby, who still remains at Fort Craig. These orders are daily expected, and with them a simultaneous movement of the two forces, so as to reach the position of the enemy on the same day.

There has been some little discord in relation to the movement now made from Union, in consequence of the want of orders from Colonel Canby. Major Paul, in command at Union, was of opinion that the orders of Colonel Canby were essential to an effective forward movement from Union; whereas Colonel Slough, in command of the forces from Colorado, was of opinion that an advance of a day or more march in advance could lead to no evil and would curtail the limits of the enemy, and mayhap lead to the expulsion of the enemy from the capital, now occupied by about 100 men, with two pieces of artillery. I think this slight difference of opinion and movement will lead to no unfavorable result, as Colonel Slough will advance upon the road that the enemy will necessarily have to march to reach Union, should an attempt be made upon that place, which seems to be the fear, entertained by Colonel Paul.

The enemy in force are now occupying a pass in the mountains east of Albuquerque, some 15 miles, called Carnavel, with a view, doubtless, to prevent the junction of the commands from Union and Craig, near which the commands will have to pass in order to form a junction. The forces in either command are nearly equal to those of the enemy, but I presume that Colonel Canby desires to avoid an engagement with them until he unites the two commands. I am sorry to say that the Texans have not behaved with the moderation that was expected, and that desolation has marked their progress on the Rio Grande from Craig to Bernalillo. Exactions and confiscations are of daily occurrence, and the larger portion of those who have anything to give or to lose are here on this frontier, seeking a refuge from their rapacity, and have left their houses and contents a prey to the invaders.

My own house, 90 miles from Santa Fé, was despoiled of its entire contents, including a valuable stock of goods, together with everything in the way of subsistence. On yesterday there arrived at this place some 20 of our most prosperous and respectable citizens from the neighborhood of Albuquerque and Bernalillo, who had fled from the exactions of Sibley; among the number a gentleman of eighty years of age, {p.652} Don Pedro José Perea, and his three sons, upon whom a demand had been made for a large sum of money, which they had not in their houses, having advanced all their available means to the disbursing officers of the Government but a short time before. The threat of personal violence in case of refusal so alarmed them, that they left their houses and entire contents at the mercy of the enemy.

It is said that the Texans are preparing for a precipitate retreat from the Territory by way of Fort Stanton and the Pecos River, which I think is not without probability, from the fact of their sudden and mercenary demand for money, and from the fact that they know there is a force superior to their own in the field, to which they must finally succumb. Their position at this time is directly on the road to Stanton, and it is thought was taken with the view indicated.

I hope in my next to give you the news of a more favorable condition of things in this Territory. We have the means now on hand to destroy the Texan forces now among us, except they receive large re-enforcements, of which there exists no probability. I hope in ten or fifteen days more to advise you of their expulsion from the Territory.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor New Mexico.

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HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DISTRICT, Fort Union, N. Mex., March 24, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to state that on the 9th instant I sent a dispatch to Colonel Canby, proposing a plan to form a junction with him (copy of dispatch marked A). In a dispatch from Colonel Canby, of the 14th, instant he approved of the proposed plan, and on the receipt of his note I completed the organization of a column, which I turned over to Col. John P. Slough, First Colorado Volunteers. On the 21st I received another dispatch from Colonel Canby (marked B), in which he concludes by saying: “Do not move from Fort Union to meet me until I advise you of the route and point of junction.” Notwithstanding this order Colonel Slough determined to leave two days sooner than the original plan contemplated. I then addressed him a note (marked C), to which he replied, through his acting assistant adjutant-general (marked D). Believing that the best interests of the Government demanded it I wrote again, urging upon him to leave me a part of the troops for the defense of this post (letter marked B). To this letter he paid no attention whatever and left with his column. I am thus left with a feeble garrison and no suitable artillery for the defense of the principal and most important post in the Territory.

My object in this communication is to throw the responsibility of any disaster which may occur on the right shoulders. The position of affairs in the Territory is, with the exception of the occupation of Santa Fé by a small force of the enemy, the same as stated in my last communication. Colonel Canby is still (March 16) at Fort Craig, with 1,600 men; Colonel Slough is now at Bernal Springs, with nearly 1,400 men and eight pieces of artillery. The enemy’s main force is now at and near Albuquerque, say 1,900 men and fifteen pieces of artillery; about 120 men and two pieces of artillery are at Santa Fé, and numerous pickets will swell their number to 2,500 men.

{p.653}

I once more urge upon the War Department strong re-enforcements of at least 4,000 men and several batteries of the best cannon.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Colonel Fourth Regiment, N. Mex. Vols., Comdg. Dist.

[Inclosure A.]

MARCH 9, 1862.

COLONEL: I shall move from Fort Union with 1,200 Americans and four guns on the 24th, and be at Anton Chico on the 26th. If you leave Fort Craig on the 20th you can be at Punta del Agua on 24th and Berenda Spring on the 25th; on 26th make a forced march, and on 27th we can unite our forces. If no danger threatens I shall await you at Anton Chico, but if it does I shall move to meet you. I shall have provisions for you. Do not fail to meet me at the time designated, for everything depends on your uniting with me. To throw the enemy off his guard move your mounted men and two guns 30 or 40 miles up the river above La Joya, to convey the idea that you are about to attack his rear. This will compel him to concentrate, and under cover of this move by Socorro and road to Abo Pass and Punta del Agua, and before the enemy can unite and attack us separately we can form a junction. Send your express to meet me on the road to Anton Chico. Leave your sick and wounded at Fort Craig if they impede your march.

G. R. PAUL.

[Inclosure B.]

MARCH 16.

Place no reliance on the New Mexican troops except for partisan operations, and then only when the main operations will not be affected by the result. Concentrate all your reliable troops until the re-enforcements from Kansas, Colorado, and California arrive. If in sufficient force to operate directly upon the enemy, advise me of your plans, in order that I may co-operate. Fort Union must be held and our communication with the East kept open. Fort Garland is not so important. If it cannot be held, it should be destroyed. All other points are of no importance. While awaiting re-enforcements harass the enemy by partisan operations; obstruct his movements, and remove or destroy any supplies that might fall into his hands. This post must be held in order to cut off his retreat. Our supplies will last until the 10th of next month (April), and can be made to last until the end. If it is necessary to abandon the post, everything will be destroyed. I will move from the post at the last moment, and without incumbrances of any kind. The sick and wounded will be left at Limitar. In this case it will be necessary to effect a junction with your command. I will indicate the route and point of junction verbally and by several messengers. Keep the Adjutant-General advised of the state of affairs in the department and advise me of the arrival of re-enforcements. Do not move from Fort Union to meet me until I advise you of the route and point of junction.

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel.

{p.654}

[Inclosure C.]

HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DISTRICT, Fort Union, N. Mex, March 22, 1862.

Col. J. P. SLOUGH, First Colorado Regiment:

SIR: Although I had organized and transferred to you all the available troops in this district previous to the receipt of the dispatch from Colonel Canby dated the 16th instant, yet you are aware it was done to carry out plans approved by that officer for the relief of and junction with his forces, to the end that when united the entire force should be used to drive the enemy from the Territory. Colonel Canby’s dispatch of the 16th instant directs that the movement from here be delayed until further instructions from him, and urges the maintenance of this post at all hazards as of vital importance to all. I fully coincide with him in his views regarding this post. If therefore, you are determined on moving toward the enemy, I request that you will do so with your own regiment, one section of Captain Ritter’s battery, and one section of Lieutenant Claflin’s battery, and the regular cavalry now in your front. The remaining sections of Ritter’s and Claflin’s batteries and the command of Capt. W. H. Lewis are in my opinion the least force required to garrison this post securely, and I request that they be directed to report to me. Even this force will not be sufficient for the purpose should you meet with disaster or advance so far as to render it impossible to return promptly to my relief in case I am attacked by the enemy.

Hoping that you coincide with me in these views, I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Colonel Fourth N. Mex. Vols., Comdg. Eastern District.

[Inclosure D.]

HEADQUARTERS NORTHERN DIVISION, Fort Union, N. Mex., March 22, 1862.

Col. G. R. PAUL, Comdg. Eastern Dist., Fort Union, N. Mex.:

SIR: I am instructed by Colonel Slough to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of this date, and to state in reply that the instructions of Colonel Canby are not only to protect Fort Union, but also to harass the enemy. By moving the command to or near Bernal Springs both ends can be accomplished, and as the command will be between the enemy and Fort Union, the latter is as much protected as if the troops remained here. By being at the Springs we can better operate for the double purpose of harassing the enemy and protecting Santa Fé from depredation.

If the enemy at San Antonio are no stronger than reported by Captain Walker, the troops under my command will be sufficient to control their action and to defeat them in case of an attack.

Thinking that the command assigned by you can be spared for the purpose named, the colonel commanding cannot consent to leave any portion behind.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GURDEN CHAPIN, Captain, Seventh Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.655}

[Inclosure E.]

HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DISTRICT, Fort Union, N. Mex., March 22, 1862.

Col. J. P. SLOUGH, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers:

COLONEL: Yours in answer to mine of this date is received. You must be aware that no part of the regular force of this district would have been turned over to you had the instructions of Colonel Canby of the 16th instant been received twelve hours earlier. I had trusted that this knowledge and the fact that your movement is in direct conflict with Colonel Canby’s positive orders and in disregard of his anxiety for the safety of this department that my request would have been answered differently. The force offered you in my first note was ample to answer all purposes of annoying and harassing the enemy, as you state that as the object of your advance. You, however, indicate that an attack upon the enemy’s position at San Antonio is within your calculations. This most certainly is or will be in violation of Colonel Canby’s instructions, and, if unsuccessful, must result in the entire loss of the Territory, at least for a time, and render its reconquest much more difficult. I must urge upon you to reconsider your decision and to submit to the plan of the department commander. The arrangements I proposed in my first letter on this point give you sufficient force to comply fully with Colonel Canby’s orders to “annoy the enemy.” With due deference to your superior judgment I must insist that your plans do not meet either of these ends, but must inevitably result in disaster to us all. Colonel Canby must have had good reasons for the change directed in the plans he at first approved, and his anxiety to have the change made known is indicated by his sending duplicates of his instructions by different messengers, both of which have been received.

In the name of the department commander, of the best interests of the service, and of the safety of all the troops in this Territory, I protest against this movement of yours, made as it is two days before the time first agreed upon, and as I conceive in direct disobedience of the orders of Colonel Canby.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Colonel Fourth N. Mex. Vols., Comdg. Eastern District.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington City, D. C., March 24, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: The Secretary of War directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 13th instant, relative to the occupation, by United States troops, of the left bank of the Rio Grande, with a view of preventing trade between the adjacent region of Texas and the Mexican bank of the river, particularly Matamoros, and in reply to inform you that your letter has received careful consideration, with the conclusion that the condition of the United States forces does not admit at present of the detachment of the necessary troops for such an expedition.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

{p.656}

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KANSAS CITY, March 24, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

Major Donaldson is here en route to Washington. Furnishes the following:

Santa Fé evacuated on the 5th. Troops and supplies withdrawn to Fort Union. Colonel Slough, of Colorado, arrived at Fort Union with 950 men, making total strength of that place 1,500. They would form junction with Colonel Canby. Colonel Canby was at Fort Craig on 7th, with 800 regulars and about same number Mexicans, with supplies for sixty days. Advance guard of Texans was at Algodones, 45 miles from Santa Fé, on 4th instant. Another battle expected before April 1.

JAS. ROBERTS.

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CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Matamoros, March 24, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: ... In a conversation with the colonel commanding this line he informed me that a force was being organized of Mexicans on the Texas side to capture Matamoros, and that many Texans were joining, and that the real object was the capture of all the Americans on this side, and on observing everything in relation to it I find such to be the facts without a doubt.

The colonel here (Colonel Quiroyo), who is a warm advocate of the Union, and has been throughout the war, has assured me that he will protect all American citizens in Matamoros to the extent of his power, and for my own personal safety and the safety of my documents he has several times offered me apartments in his own quarters, but as I have a small force of true Americans constantly around me I have declined, thinking that I can fight my way out if attacked.

A collision is becoming more imminent every day, and hundreds of heartfelt wishes are uttered both by Americans and Mexicans that a Government force may appear at Brazos Santiago and restore order.

The Texan troops are becoming demoralized and disorderly in the extreme, declaring that they will burn and destroy everything of both friend and foe.

A force of 1,000 men could conquer the entire line of the Rio Grande, as most of the German and the old United States soldiers would immediately turn at sight of the Union flag.

The difficulty in our mail facilities being now obviated and a regular line being established to Tampico, I am relieved of the expense of my own courier, my great difficulty now being in procuring stationery.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient,

L. PIERCE, JR., United States Consul.

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[MARCH 28, 1862.-For Halleck to Secretary of War, in reference to re-enforcements for New Mexico, see Series I, Vol. VIII, p. 647.]

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Las Vegas, N. Mex., March 30, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington City:

SIR: In my communication of the 23d instant I informed you that {p.657} Colonel Slough, with the troops from Colorado Territory, together with the small regular force at Union, had advanced through this place in the direction of the enemy.

On the 26th the advance guard of our forces, making a reconnaissance and without anticipating any encounter with the enemy, came in contact with his advance guard of 600 men, neither, it would seem, being aware of the presence or near approach of the other. This took place at the Cañon del Apache, the east end thereof, on the road to and about 20 miles from Santa Fé. An action ensued, in which the enemy were entirely routed, with a loss of 25 or 30 killed and wounded and 62 prisoners. A flag of truce was sent in at night by the enemy asking a suspension of hostilities for the purpose of burying their dead and taking care of the wounded. The 27th was occupied in these acts of humanity. The main body of their forces being at the cañon, only about 7 miles distant, they advanced on the 28th in full force to the attack of ours, which had all been called to the scene of action. The engagement commenced at about noon and lasted until sunset, without any decisive result. The cause of this indecision as to result was that early in the day Major Chivington, with 500 men, had been ordered to make a detour on the heights (mesa) and observe the operations of any forces that might approach in that direction. His position on the table-land, and parallel to the whole length of the cañon, gave him a full view, part of the way, of everything that was in it, and to his joy and surprise when he reached the lower end of the cañon he found the enemy’s whole train parked, together with the mules and horses necessary for its transportation, guarded by 200 men. The nature of the country enabled him to approach very near without the observance of the guard. He made a sudden and unexpected attack upon them, and captured the whole train of 80 wagons, with all the stock except the few upon which some of the guard made their escape. He also captured 40 prisoners, and after burning the train, with all its contents of provisions and ammunition, he returned to the command late at night by the way of the same tableland over which he had advanced.

Meantime and before his arrival at the train the enemy had advanced 1,200 strong to attack our forces at the east end of the cañon and about 7 miles distant. The absence of Major Chivington from the field gave the enemy a greatly superior force, ours not passing 700 men, and hence the contest was delayed and became very obstinate and doubtful until dark. Both armies remained upon the field a short distance from each other, but Major Chivington having returned and rejoined our forces made our numbers nearly equal.

There were some reports that General Sibley was moving by another road upon Fort Union with the balance of his forces. It was thought best to fall back to a point at which he must necessarily pass in order to reach that place. This was done, and our forces will to-morrow take a position at Bernal Springs for the purposes indicated. Our loss in killed, wounded, and missing in the two days’ encounter will reach 150; that of the enemy fully double that number. It is the opinion of those who are better capable of judging that the enemy lost their entire stock of provisions and ammunition in the train that was burnt, and hence that he will have to fall back on Santa Fé or scatter in confusion through the country seeking subsistence. A few days will determine his future movements. I had forgot to state that the enemy lost three pieces of artillery in the engagement, two with the wagons and one on time field.

{p.658}

We have reliable information to-day that General Sibley left Albuquerque five days since for Santa Fé, with 500 men, but at the distance of 20 miles was informed of the approach of Colonel Canby from Fort Craig, and returned to meet him. This I think is reliable, and as Colonel Canby has full 2,000 men with him, there can be no doubt as to his entire rout or capture by Colonel Canby.

From the facts above stated you will see that our Territory will soon be liberated from the further progress of the desolating foe. Our forces here are fully equal to the encounter and dispersion of the enemy we have before us, and Colonel Canby will soon dispose of Sibley and come to our aid, should any be necessary.

I am pleased to be able to give you this flattering account of our affairs, and hope in my next to say that we have not a Texan in arms within our limits.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., March 31, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a copy of a communication* from Colonel Slough, of the First Regiment of Colorado Volunteers, reporting an engagement in Apache Cañon on the 26th instant, and announcing his intention to move against the enemy with his entire force. This movement is, in my judgment, premature, and is at variance with my instructions, but as it may involve serious consequences, I have determined to move to-morrow with the force under my immediate command, leaving a garrison of volunteers for this post, and effect a junction with the troops in the northern part of the department. There are two routes by which this junction may be effected: First, by the Abo Pass and Anton Chico; second, by the river to Albuquerque, and thence by San Antonio and Gallisteo. Both of these routes are liable to interruption by an enterprising enemy; but the latter, as the boldest, will be the least suspected, and I shall move directly upon Albuquerque, for the purpose of occupying that place if it can be done without serious loss, and holding it until the junction can be effected, or, if it cannot be, making such demonstration against it as will draw the main force of the Confederates from Santa Fé and enable the columns to unite without opposition. When united, the force under my command will be sufficient to expel the enemy from the country north of this post, but not to follow them into the Mesilla Valley, unless in the mean time re-enforcements from the East sufficient for the occupation of the upper country should arrive. The New Mexican Volunteers cannot be relied on for any purpose of this kind.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* See Slough’s report of March 29, p. 533.

{p.659}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., March 31, 1862.

Col. C. CARSON:

COLONEL: You are charged with the duty of holding this post. Your command will consist of seven companies of your own regiment, two of the Second, and one of the Fourth Regiment New Mexico Volunteers. The convalescents, as they become effective, will add to your strength.

I am instructed by the colonel commanding to say that the objects in view and the plan of operations require that it should be held to the last extremity. The manner of doing this is left to your judgment and discretion, in both of which he has the utmost confidence. The force of the enemy in the Mesilla will not allow him to make a regular attack upon the post, but it may be attempted by surprise. To guard against this he desires that you will exercise yourself and exact from all of your command the most unremitting vigilance.

The sick and wounded left in your care will of course receive every attention, and the colonel commanding desires me to say that any expenditures that will add to their comfort or conduce to their recovery will be fully authorized.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

WM. J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain, Twelfth Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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[APRIL 2, 1862.-For Denver to Halleck, in reference to expedition to New Mexico, see Series I, Vol. VIII, p. 653.]

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[APRIL 5-6, 1862.-For Halleck to Denver, April 5, and to Sturgis, April 6, in reference, among other matters, to New Mexico expedition, see Series I, Vol. VIII, pp. 664, 668.]

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Las Vegas, N. Mex., April 6, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington City, D. C.:

SIR: In my communication of the 30th ultimo I informed you that our forces had fallen back to Bernal Springs, 20 miles from the place of our late encounter with the enemy.

On the day of their arrival at that place the adjutant-general of Colonel Canby, Lieutenant Nicodemus, arrived in camp, bringing news and orders from Colonel Canby. The first was that he had not on the 25th of March left Fort Craig, and the orders were for the whole force to fall back on Union.

These orders were obeyed, and on the 31st ultimo the troops passed this place en route to Fort Union.

Since the late encounter with the enemy we have had occasion to learn much more of the particulars and consequences of that engagement than I could write you in my last communication.

Two days having been given for the burial of the dead and taking {p.660} care of the wounded, an opportunity was thereby offered to ascertain the loss of the enemy and their subsequent movements. As I had anticipated, they fled in confusion from the field and returned to Santa Fé, not having on an average 10 rounds of ammunition to the man, the whole of the ammunition having been destroyed in the train that was burned by Major Chivington on the day of the battle. So it turned out that had our troops advanced the day after the battle it would have led to the entire capture or dispersion of the enemy’s force in the neighborhood of Santa Fé.

This opportunity has been lost, and we have again to try the fortune of another battle. Upon hearing of the defeat of the troops under the command of Colonel Scurry and their retreat to Santa Fé, General Sibley sent a re-enforcement of 500 men from Albuquerque, which re-enforcement reached Santa Fé two days since, together with as much ammunition and provisions as could be spared from that quarter. These troops, united with those lately routed from the Apache Cañon, I do not think will pass 1,500, and perhaps not reach that number. With these I have no doubt that an attempt will be made either to defend Santa Fé or make a stand again in the cañon 15 miles this side, which can be defended by a smaller against a superior force, acting only on the defensive.

We have certain intelligence that Colonel Canby has left Fort Craig, and on the 1st of this month, so that by to-day he must be at or on this side of Albuquerque. The troops from Union will also leave to-day for Santa Fé or to form a junction with Colonel Canby by concert. The junction will be formed as the situation of the enemy and his strength will permit. It may be at or near the canon before mentioned, say at Gallisteo, 15 miles south of Santa Fé, or in the more immediate neighborhood of that city.

Certain it is that we are on the eve of another battle, which will be decisive, as all our forces, save a few left at Craig, will be in the field and also the whole available force of the enemy. I do not doubt the result. We shall triumph. Our troops are more in numbers, buoyant with the late success, and resolved to drive the enemy from the Territory.

The loss of the enemy in the late encounter does not fall short of 400 men in killed, wounded, and missing. Many officers of high grade, 1 colonel, said to be Green or McNeill, 2 majors, 1 captain, and 2 lieutenants killed on the field. Three captains (Shannon, Wells, and Scott), 8 lieutenants, names not given, taken prisoners. Their wounded are in a hard condition on the late field of battle, without medicine, medical aid, or the necessary subsistence, and are said to be near 200 in numbers.

By next mail I hope to give you the welcome intelligence of a final and decisive victory over the enemy.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, April 8, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith for your information an {p.661} extract from a dispatch (No. 3), dated March 21, received this day from Mr. Leonard Pierce, jr., United States consul at Matamoros, Mexico, relative to the prospect of a battle near Austin, Tex., between loyal and disloyal citizens of that State.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure.]

CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Matamoras, Mexico, March 21, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: ... The Union men in Texas are becoming bolder, and a battle is expected in the neighborhood of Austin and San Antonio.

I am continually besieged with refugees and deserters; most of them without funds, who expect me to send them North. For many I have procured situations, where they can earn a subsistence, and others I have to provide for to the best of my ability.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

L. PIERCE, JR., United States Consul.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington City, D. C., April 9, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday, inclosing an extract from a dispatch of the United States consul at Matamoros, Mexico, and to say that the suggestion contained therein will receive the consideration of this Department.

Very respectfully,

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Las Vegas, April 11, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I informed you in my communication of the 6th instant that the troops from Union had marched forward in the direction of the enemy, at that time in and around Santa Fé, having been re-enforced by the remnant of their forces under General Sibley from Albuquerque. On the 7th and 8th instant all our forces had concentrated at Bernal Springs, 20 miles west of this place, and from there marched on the 9th toward the capital. At San Jose, 7 miles distant, they were met by a flag of truce, borne by Maj. A. M. Jackson and another officer high in rank, the object and purport of which have not come to my knowledge. Enough is known, however, to enable me to say that nothing asked for under the flag of truce was granted, and our troops marched hastily on, Colonel Paul having disposed of the bearers of the flag in a very short {p.662} conference. But a few hours after leaving San José Colonel Paul received information direct from Santa Fé that the whole Texan force had evacuated that place and were then marching hurriedly toward Albuquerque, leaving behind them all their wounded. The information also confirms the intelligence that I gave you in my last as to the great loss of the enemy on the 28th ultimo in the engagement with our forces on that day. It now appears certain that their loss exceeded my calculation, not falling short of 450 in killed, wounded, and prisoners, so that when they had collected the fragments of their dispersed forces together in Santa Fé (and this was not done until at the end of three days) it was ascertained that out of 1,200 men that had been engaged in the conflict of that day not more than 750 could be found ready for duty. This number, united with the force brought by Sibley from Albuquerque-say 400 men-constitutes the whole Texan force now in the Territory.

Colonel Canby left Albuquerque on the 7th instant, and is presumed to be on his way to the capital either by the way of the river or on the east side of the mountains by the way of the Placer. In either event an encounter with the enemy is inevitable. His movements are all now in concert with those of the forces from Union under Colonel Paul. The enemy is between them, and but a short distance from either. A desperate effort will be made either to defeat Colonel Canby or elude his forces before Colonel Paul’s command arrives in their rear and to Colonel Canby’s assistance. The force of Colonel Canby now with him is about equal to that of the enemy-say 1,100 or 1,200-900 of whom are regulars, so that we may not fear any serious reverse before Colonel Paul can arrive upon the ground and aid in the capture of the entire Texan force now in the Territory. It is very sure that the Texans are now in full flight, but if not permitted by Colonel Canby to pass round him, I have no doubt but that they will give him battle, and attempt to force their passage down the river to Fort Craig, and thence out of the Territory.

The road to the capital is now clear of the enemy and his spies, and there is not a Texan in Santa Fé except the wounded, one surgeon, and a few attendants. I have this from a gentleman direct from Santa Fé, who left there the day after the evacuation by the enemy, and to whom every credence can be given. I shall leave to-morrow for the capital, and from there, by next mail, I hope to be able to give you the intelligence that the enemy are either captured or dispersed.

We are greatly indebted to the command under Colonel Slough, from Denver City, for this favorable result in our struggle with the Texan invaders. Their defeat and utter annihilation is now sure, and I think it will be the last attempt upon the Territory from that quarter.

I am sorry to say that the Indians during the last three months have entirely desolated the Territory of all the stock within: their reach, having advanced as far east as the Canadian, a point far in advance of all their former depredations.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor New Mexico.

[Copy furnished to War Department by Secretary of State May 6, 1862.]

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Las Vegas, N. Mex., April 13, 1862.

W. II. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that on the 11th instant Colonel Canby formed a junction with the command under Colonel Paul at Gallisteo, 15 miles south of Santa Fé, and proceeded by forced marches on to Albuquerque, at which place the enemy with their entire force had concentrated. On his march upwards and in the town or neighborhood of Albuquerque Colonel Canby had an encounter with either the whole or a part of the enemy’s forces, in which it is said he took several pieces of artillery, and that Major Duncan, of our cavalry, was wounded in the head.

Colonel Canby made the detour by way of the Cañon Carnavel, and came on the east side of the mountains to the junction at Gallisteo. Today he will arrive at Albuquerque, and doubtless decide the question of the occupancy of this Territory by the Texans. It is thought the Texans are in hasty retreat, and have full three days’ march the advantage. Should that be the case, it will not be easy to overtake them. Col. Kit Carson, with his entire regiment, and some auxiliary forces, is still at Craig, and may offer some embarrassment to the safe retreat of the enemy.

I think there can be no doubt as to the result of any action between the forces under Colonel Canby, now united with the late victorious troops from Denver, and the enemy, with all the forces they have in the Territory.

The cavalry and means of transportation on both sides are completely broken down, and neither a retreat nor pursuit can be effected with any degree of rapidity.

The Territory has been completely exhausted of grain on the route of the military movements, and nothing can be obtained of forage for animals.

I give you herein the latest news from and the positions of the different forces. Not having left for the capital the day mentioned-in my last, of the 10th instant, has enabled me to do so. I leave on to-morrow for that place, and will by next mail give you the result of the impending conflict.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

P. S.-The inclosed communication from Colonel Paul was received after the above was written. I forward it for the satisfaction of the Department.

[Copy furnished War Department by Secretary of State May 6, 1862.]

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DISTRICT, Gallisteo, N. Mex., April 12, 1862.

His Excellency HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico, Las Vegas, N. Mex:

SIR: It affords me great pleasure to inform you that Santa Fé is now in our possession, and that Your Excellency will hazard nothing by returning to the seat of government and resuming the duties of your office whenever it may suit your convenience.

{p.664}

I tender to you, sir, the best guarantee of the future prosperity of New Mexico in assuring you of the junction of my command at an early hour with the forces under General Canby, and I am confident that the rebel troops will be driven before us.

Your Excellency will be glad to know that the Union troops on entering Santa Fé were received with public demonstrations of joy.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Colonel Fourth Regiment New Mexico Vols., Comdg. Dist.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 30.}

HDQRS. DEPT. OF NEW MEXICO, Camp near Peralta, N. Mex., April 16, 1862.

I. Col. G. R. Paul, Fourth New Mexico Volunteers, is assigned to the command of the first column, and Colonel Chivington, First Colorado Volunteers, to the command of the second column, of the Union Army of New Mexico.

II. Col. B. S. Roberts, Fifth New Mexico Volunteers, is assigned to the command of that part of New Mexico including the Central, Northern, and Santa Fé Districts, and charged with the duty of establishing garrisons and taking such other measures as may be necessary for the security of public property and the restoration of order at the point recently occupied by Confederate forces.

III. Capt. R. M. Morris, Third Cavalry, is assigned to the command of all the cavalry force with this command except Graydon’s Spy Company.

IV. Two companies of the Second Kansas Regiment will re-enforce the garrison of Fort Union; the remainder of that regiment will join this command with as little delay as possible.

V. Capt. J. C. McFerran, senior quartermaster, will proceed to Fort Union, for the purpose of collecting and forwarding supplies and superintending the operations of his department on his arrival at Fort Union. H. M. Enos, assistant quartermaster, will report in person at the headquarters of the Army.

VI. Surg. E. I. Baily, medical director of the department, will proceed to Santa Fé and to Fort Union, and is charged with the duty of providing the supplies and making arrangements for the comfort of the sick and wounded. He will establish such general hospitals and purchase such supplies as may be necessary to secure the comfort and speedy recovery of the wounded. Surg. J. M. Whitlock, First New Mexico Volunteers, will report for duty to Surgeon Baily.

VII. Capt. Chacon’s company of the First, Sena’s, Eaton’s, and Sanchez’s, companies of the Second, and Hubbell’s company of the Fifth Regiment, will report for duty to Col. B. S. Roberts.

VIII. Col. M. S. Howe, Third Cavalry, will report in person at these headquarters. The officers accompanying him will join without delay their regiments or companies in the field or at the stations at which they may be found.

IX. The senior paymaster will make immediate arrangements for the payment of the troops, commencing with those that have been the longest unpaid.

X. The chief commissary will [make] the necessary provision for the supplies pertaining to this department.

By order of Col. E. R. S. Canby:

WM. J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.665}

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Santa Fé, N. Mex., April 20, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, &c.:

SIR: In my communication of the 11th instant I informed you that a junction had been made between the forces under General Canby and those under Colonel Paul at the place called Gallisteo, 15 miles south of Santa Fé. I have learned since that the main body of the two forces did not unite until they reached the Cañon of Carnavel, directly east of and about 15 miles from Albuquerque. General Canby, having left his position on the river below Albuquerque, at which place he had a slight skirmish with a small force of the enemy, left a garrison, and taking the position to which I have referred, in the Cañon of Carnavel the two commands were united on the 13th instant.

The fugitive forces of the Texans had meantime reached Albuquerque from this place, and, uniting with the small force there, took up their line of march down the river on the east side, not being able to cross the stream at Albuquerque. They had progressed only 20 miles, when they were overtaken by General Canby at and in full possession of my residence. It being late at night when General Canby arrived within hearing of their position, his ears were saluted with the “sound of revelry by night.” The violin was in full blast, accompanied by other and more noisy instruments. The enemy seemed to be entirely unconscious of his approach, nor was his presence known to them until next morning.

My residence is surrounded by quite a dense forest of trees, extending in every direction for at least half a mile, and the only approach for vehicles is by the main road. The ditches (asequias), for the purpose of irrigation, running across and parallel with the road, offer no small impediment to the operation of artillery.

During the day after General Canby had reached the position of the enemy, as related, a cannonading was carried on from both sides without any serious result. The position of the enemy was a strong one and dangerous to be approached by infantry, having high walls, made of adobes, which constitute our inclosures of farming lands. Against this position General Canby did not think prudent to make any demonstration.

During the night, however, the enemy silently left their position, and passed below a mile or two to a ford in the river, where they attempted to cross, but their teams being weak and the river swollen by the spring floods, the whole of their train, consisting of 60 wagons, was left in the river and on the banks, the mules alone having been crossed over to the opposite shore. I am not informed that any of their artillery was either left behind or captured by our forces, with the exception of one piece the day previous, together with seven wagons and the contents.

The latest news from General Canby by Colonel Roberts, who arrived in town this evening, is that our forces were still in pursuit of the enemy, and had taken a position in advance of him at La Joya, 30 miles, where they crossed the river, but on the east side, where the enemy could not pass except under the direct fire of our artillery.

Colonel Paul, with the forces from Colorado, was harassing the enemy in the rear, having crossed the river to the west side. There can be no doubt of the entire capture of the Texans, with all their train of artillery, numbering some eighteen pieces, and this closes the scene of this devastating Texan invasion.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY.

{p.666}

[Copy Furnished War Department by Secretary of State May 14, 1862]

HDQRS. CENTRAL, SANTA FÉ AND NORTH. MIL. DISTS., Department of New Mexico, Santa Fé, April 23, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report myself in command of the Central, Santa Fé, and Northern Military Districts, Department of New Mexico, and that I have re-established and garrisoned the posts at Albuquerque and at this place, recently occupied by Confederate troops of General Sibley’s brigade.

It will gratify you to know that the Texan troops are in retreat out of the country, having been compelled by our operations to abandon most of their supplies of all kinds, and to take the mountain route behind the Socorro Range, to avoid the capture of the small remaining force of the 3,000 troops that invaded the Territory.

They have abandoned their sick and wounded everywhere on their line of retreat, and are leaving the country in a state of demoralization and suffering that has few examples in any war. The long line of their retreat over Jornada and wastes of country without water, and that furnish no supplies, will render their march extremely difficult, and aggravate the ordinary suffering of a disorganized army under defeat. The broken-down condition of all our animals, the want of cavalry, and deficiencies in all our supplies will make a successful pursuit equally impracticable, if not impossible.

My report of the operations of my division in the field from the 1st to the 16th instant will reach you in time through the proper channel. I effected a junction with Colonel Paul’s command at San Antonio on the 13th, after a demonstration on Albuquerque and artillery combats there on the 8th and sharp skirmishing on the 8th and 9th. The last engagement was at Peralta, on the 15th; that drove the main Confederate forces from that position and put their army in utter rout.

We have great numbers of their prisoners, but I am unable to give the figures with accuracy, and some 60 wagons of their supply train and two pieces of artillery have fallen into our hands.

Colonel Canby is on the pursuit with both the Northern and Southern Divisions of the Army, and this information is communicated to you indirectly, because it will be many days before his official reports can be made.

According to the most reliable information, General Sibley has not left 1,200 men of the army of 3,000 that appeared before Fort Craig on the 13th of February, and his retreat is the complete annihilation of his remaining forces.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. S. ROBERTS, Colonel, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 34.}

HDQRS. DEPT. OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., April 23, 1862.

I. Col. G. R. Paul, Fourth New Mexico Volunteers, is assigned to the command of the field force operating in this neighborhood. The cavalry {p.667} force under command of Capt. R. M. Morris, Third Cavalry, will report to Colonel Paul for duty as soon as possible.

II. The companies of the Seventh Infantry and Claflin’s battery will form part of the garrison of this post.

By order of Col. E. R. S. Canby

WM. J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain, Twelfth Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, D. C., April 25, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I inclose a telegram to this Department from the United States consul at Halifax, announcing a change of the destination of certain British steamers believed to contain contraband of war, from Charleston to Tampico. This change was undoubtedly with the view of transferring their cargoes from Tampico to Matamoros or adjacent points on the coast of Texas.

On several recent occasions I have done myself the honor of suggesting to the Department of War the necessity of occupying Brownsville with a competent military force. The objections to that course at this juncture which have been offered by the Department of War are duly appreciated. Permit me, however, in view of the peculiar position of our boundary on the Rio Grande frontier, the impossibility of blockading the mouth of that river, at least without the consent of Mexico, and consequently the impunity with which arms and munitions of war may be introduced into Texas in that direction, again to urge the importance of posting a military force for the purpose of endeavoring to check such proceedings.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure.]

HALIFAX, N. S., April 23, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

I am advised by consul at Bermuda English steamer Stellia arrived there with cargo destined for Charleston, but has changed destination for Tampico. Will probably be accompanied by steamers Bermuda and Herald.

M. M. JACKSON, Consul.

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KANSAS CITY, April 28, 1862.

E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

Through Santa Fé mail, with dates to 12th, has arrived. Colonel Slough and General Canby formed junction at Gallisteo on 11th. Major Duncan, who was in command of General Canby’s advance guard, encountered a large party of Texans and routed them. Major Duncan was slightly wounded. The Texans were 30 miles south of Gallisteo, in full flight from the Territory. General Canby designs giving immediate pursuit. No doubt is entertained of the speedy capture of Sibley’s command, as they are entirely destitute of everything.

JAS. ROBERTS.

{p.668}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, April 30, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: Major Drum is still absent inspecting the troops at and near Fort Yuma. My latest dates from him are of the 14th instant. It is probable that Colonel Carleton is now at or in advance of Fort Yuma. Colonel Bowie’s Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, is concentrating at Fort Yuma as a reserve. Carleton’s movement will sweep the predatory bands of Baylor and Reily out of Arizona and break up their plan of obtaining a foothold in Sonora; and then, with the well-appointed force under his command, strengthened, if necessary, by the fine reserve regiment of Bowie, I have no apprehension as to the result in any conflict with the rebels this side of the Rio Grande.

Outwardly everything is quiet in this country, but I know that there are many men on this coast who are traitors at heart, and who are at this moment writhing under the defeats of the rebels. They are harmless now, because so greatly in the minority; but such men require close surveillance. In the southern portion of this State there are more sympathizers with the rebels than anywhere else, and I have now ordered Colonel Forman, of the Fourth Infantry, California Volunteers, now in camp at Sacramento, to proceed by the next steamer to San Pedro with his headquarters and three companies. The colonel will take post at Camp Latham, near Los Angeles, where we have already four companies of the Second Cavalry.

It has been my aim not to create any unnecessary alarm in the public mind on this coast, but to watch closely the progress of events, and be ever ready to crush any attempt to raise the standard of rebellion on the Pacific. You will observe, by my General Orders, No. 17, that I am gradually drawing the cords a little closer around treason.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, U. S. MIL. DEPT. OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., May 3, 1862.

His Excellency Señor DON IGNACIO PESQUIERA, Governor of the State of Sonora:

SIR: By the last steamer from the Gulf of California I received a copy of a communication addressed to Your Excellency, under date of December 16, 1861, by H. H. Sibley,* the rebel chief in command of a body of insurgents in New Mexico; and although I did not receive a copy of Your Excellency’s reply, yet I was much gratified by the assurances of my correspondent that Your Excellency had declined entering into any arrangements proposed by the rebel commander. Considering the friendly relations subsisting between the Government of the United States and that of the Republic of Mexico, as well as between the citizens of the contiguous States of Sonora and California, any other decision than that which Your Excellency has made would have been deeply regretted.

{p.669}

I need not point out to Your Excellency the utter ruin and devastation which would inevitably befall the beautiful State of Sonora should the rebel forces obtain a foothold within its limits, as in that event it would be indispensably necessary that the frontier should be passed by the United States forces and our enemies pursued possibly to the city of Guaymas.

I beg Your Excellency to rest assured that under no circumstances will the Government of the United States permit the rebel horde to take refuge in Sonora. I have an army of 10,000 men ready to pass the frontier and protect your government and people.

With the greatest respect, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s most obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Comdg. Dept. of the Pacific.

* Not found. Sibley’s reports of his communications with the Governors of Chihuahua and Sonora are printed in Series I, Vol. IV, pp. 167, 174.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., May 4, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I left Fort Craig on the 27th ultimo, and reached this place last night, making arrangements on the road to facilitate the transmission of supplies to the troops in the South. The Confederate force, in rapid retreat, had taken the route by the Renesco through a mountainous and difficult country exceedingly destitute of water. They will probably reach the Rio Grande in the neighborhood of Santa Barbara, where Colonel Steele would probably meet them with supplies. Scouts and prisoners report this force as greatly demoralized, and that they have abandoned everything that could impede their flight. The sick and wounded have been left by the wayside, without care and often without food. Many of them have been collected and are properly cared for, and arrangements have been made to bring in the others and secure any valuable property that has been abandoned by the enemy.

I shall accumulate as rapidly as possible at Fort Craig and at Peralta the supplies that are necessary for a movement below the former place. This will occupy some time, as with our extremely limited means and the length of the line it is very difficult to meet the current wants of the troops.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., May 4, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have learned through the newspapers that five regiments of volunteers have been ordered from the East to this Territory. If this force is intended only for the defense of New Mexico and the reoccupation of Arizona, the whole of it will not in my judgment be necessary. Two regiments, in addition to the troops now here, will, I think, be amply sufficient, if at the same time arrangements are made to secure our communication with the East by arming and garrisoning strongly the posts between Fort Union and Fort Riley.

{p.670}

The difficulty of procuring supplies of all kinds in this country makes it important that no greater force should be sent here than is absolutely necessary. No operations can be carried on with advantage from New Mexico against any part of the South, as all the supplies for such operations must be brought from the East, as no reliance can be placed upon the resources of this country, Arizona, or Chihuahua.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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SAINT LOUIS, MO., May 9, 1862.

General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army:

General Halleck telegraphs me he can give no orders in reference to the troops for New Mexico.

I reiterate my recommendation that not more than 500 infantry, 500 cavalry, and two batteries of light artillery be sent. All their subsistence will have to go from the Missouri River.

JAS. L. DONALDSON.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, May 10, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Fort Monroe:

The following telegram, received by General Meigs from quartermaster at Saint Louis, namely:

Colonel Donaldson decidedly of opinion 1,000 men and two batteries ample force to send to New Mexico. General Canby’s force now superior to enemy. If original order* carried out expedition will cost probably $10,000,000, three-quarters of which can be saved by reducing expedition to needed force.

Watts Delegate from New Mexico, Colonel Donaldson, and General Meigs all think force should be reduced, to save expense and expedite its leaving. Have you any orders to give?**

P. H. WATSON, Assistant Secretary of War.

* Of April 23, for six regiments.

** No record of the Secretary’s orders found. The only re-enforcements sent to New Mexico in this and the following month was one battery of light artillery (Ninth Wisconsin) from Fort Leavenworth, Kans.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., May 10, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the Confederate troops, after passing the Nugales, broke up into small parties, and reached the river from the mountains at different points between Cañada Alamosa and Santa Barbara (Old Fort Thorn). They made no stay at this place, but continued their retreat, and crossed the river at San Diego, near {p.671} Doña Aña. The Rio Grande is unusually high, and has added greatly to our embarrassments in supplying the troops at Fort Craig. I hope, however, to accumulate a sufficient quantity of supplies at that place to enable me to resume active operations by the 1st of next month. Two companies of mounted Colorado Volunteers reached Fort Union on the 8th instant. I am now making arrangements to reduce and consolidate the New Mexican Volunteers, and expect, by the discharge of incompetent officers and inefficient men, to have one serviceable regiment.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., May 12, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that before the receipt of the regulations published in General Orders, No. -, I had given instructions to parole and send out of the country as soon as possible all the prisoners of the Confederate Army who had been or should be taken in this department.

The two reasons that influenced me in giving these instructions were:

First. The difficulty of supplying our own troops, with provisions. The troops at the most distant stations have for some time past been and are now upon reduced rations-12 ounces of flour-and this cannot be materially increased until additional means of transportation are received.

Second. My inability to furnish guards, if they are held as absolute prisoners.

Under these instructions 240 have already been sent out of the country and about 240 remain. Of these last two-thirds are sick or wounded men and their attendants.

Before leaving Fort Craig for this place an officer was sent to propose an exchange of the officers and men (about 30) of this command who were taken prisoners, but he returned without effecting his object, having been unable to overtake the Confederate troops.

There are still many stragglers and deserters and abandoned men in different parts of the country who are now being collected, and will probably make the whole number of prisoners about 500.

The consolidated return will be forwarded as soon as the correct reports are received.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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POLVADERA, N. MEX., May 14, 1862.

Colonel PAUL, Commanding:

SIR: Last night I reached here from Salada. On the 8th I reached Nugales Spring. From there the road ran between the hills for about 15 {p.672} miles, then took toward the Magdalene Mountain, where they found water, distance from Nugales about 29 miles; road very rough. On the road they deserted one wagon and a camp and left three dead bodies half buried. In another place found bones of a man’s arm, half eaten by wolves. I had all buried. From there the road took to Feather Springs. I called it so on account of feather-beds being strewed around; distance from Dead Man’s Spring 17 miles. They encamped there. From there they took the road to Ojo del Pueblo, distance 15 miles; road very rough. Here they blew up a caisson, burned three wagons, hospital department, medicines, &c.; left a few shell and round shot. From there they took to the Salada, distance from Ojo del Pueblo about 30 miles; road very rough. On this road, near and at Salada, they blew up and burned six caissons, one 12-pounder howitzer, and two mountain-howitzer carriages. I found out where they had buried some 40 shell, loaded, in one place, and 38 in another; 78 in all. I took them up and hid them in another place. To-morrow the quartermaster from here sends for them. They burned up about 19 wagons, 10 ambulances, 6 caissons, and 3 carriages. I think they left 3 howitzers, one 12-pounder and two mountain. I had with me a man who came with them, who saw them leave the howitzers. I believe the Mexicans have the large one buried, and by offering a reward we could find out. They destroyed six 100-pound barrels of powder at Salada and a great deal of camp equipage. The road from Ojo del Pueblo is strewn with old harness, iron ovens, and in fact everything but small ammunition. It seems they destroyed very little, if any, of that. It appears that the Mexicans have carried off a great deal. There is nothing worth sending for in the shape of ammunition except the shell. The distance from Nugales to Rio Puerco is about 109 miles; road very bad. Sibley’s command made it in five days. Left dead on the road about 60 or 70 mules and horses. Inclosed I send a letter* I found about hiring the wagons.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. GRAYDON, Captain, New Mexico Mounted Volunteers.

* Not found.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Santa Fé May 17, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington City:

SIR: A few days since I returned from a visit to my place of residence near Peralta, and 90 miles from this city. The visit was made to see in what state the Texans had left my house and its contents. I am sorry to say that all I had heretofore been informed of as to the wanton destruction of property proved to be true.

They remained in entire possession for near forty-eight hours; all of which time was devoted to the destruction of everything of value about the premises. The same would have happened no doubt to my neighbors of Peralta had it not been for the timely arrival of General Canby, who gave them no time for further depredations upon private property.

My loss has been very heavy, not less than $30,000, and much of this through a pure vandalic spirit. There was much about the house {p.673} of goods and furniture that they could put to no useful purposes, yet all was taken or wantonly destroyed.

The last thing heard of the Texans they had arrived with about one-half of their original number, in a perfectly disorganized condition, at the Mesilla, on the west side of the river, where they hurriedly crossed it and continued their flight without delay to El Paso, driving before them every quadruped that was upon the borders of the river or in the possession of time inhabitants of that valley. That they have suffered intensely by thirst, starvation, and fatigue we have every evidence by those who voluntarily came into Fort Craig seeking succor, and by one or more contrabands who have returned from Mesilla, after having accompanied them that far. This is the second invasion our territory has suffered from Texans, both of which have proved equally disastrous, and it is to be hoped we will never witness another.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico.

[Copy furnished War Department by Secretary of State June 9, 1862.]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., May 18, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to state that since my report of the 10th instant no material changes in the state of affairs in this department have occurred. The Confederate troops are scattered along the Rio Grande from Doña Aña to El Paso, Colonel Steele with 500 men (the re-enforcements that attempted to reach General Sibley about the 20th of March) occupying their most advanced position. They reached the Mesilla with six guns and seven wagons. The remainder of their guns and wagons and the caissons of all their guns were abandoned or destroyed. The command sent out for the purpose of collecting them has not yet returned. The Confederate troops in the Mesilla are now collecting the means necessary to enable them to leave the country, and many of the citizens who had embraced their cause are preparing to leave with them. I have succeeded with some difficulty in getting to Fort Craig a sufficient quantity of subsistence to prevent any suffering among the troops now there, and hope to accumulate within the next twenty days sufficient to warrant a movement below.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel 19th Inft., and Brig. Gen. Vols., Comdg. Dept.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, May 24, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose for your information an extract {p.674} from a dispatch received at this Department on the 23d instant from Leonard Pierce, jr., United States consul at Matamoros, Mexico.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure.]

CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Matamoros, March 1, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: ... It has been with the greatest difficulty that I have established myself here, as the Confederates had used every possible exertion to get me driven out and succeeded so far that none of the authorities, with the exception of the commanding general, would acknowledge my right until after the receipt of any exequatur. When I say the Confederates. I mean the military; most of the citizens of Brownsville being really Union men. The prefect (Martin Lougona, who was among the slain in the final assault), a man unknown to me personally, endeavored in every possible manner to show his authority, and went so far as to enter my room with ten armed men to search (as he said) for gunpowder. Although he would not acknowledge my right as consul until the arrival of my exequatur, still he had seen my passport and appointment, and knew that the general-in-chief had recognized me and had also given me permission to hoist my flag, which was flying over my house at the time.

The Confederates occupy both the Texan and Mexican side of the Rio Grande at its mouth, and use every exertion to prevent me from communicating with the U. S. ship Portsmouth.

The general commanding here, with most of his officers, are much against the people of the South, and, in fact, are all the better class of Mexicans. The general has said to me that he will endeavor to protect his side of the river in which case I can then communicate freely. There are now in port fourteen vessels, among them one American only, from New York. As the only lighters here bear the rebel flag, they were unable to unload them while the ship of war may lay there, but the merchants have now purchased three steamboats and put them under the Mexican flag. The difficulty is obviated.

Matamoros is now the great thoroughfare to the Southern States. They pass their coffee, flour, and in fact all the supplies they receive through here. They have also a large pile of cotton on the east bank of the river, to take out when an opportunity offers, or, as they say, burn, in case of an invasion.

There are at Brownsville and Brazos Santiago about 1,200 men, among them some German companies, whose loyalty to the Southern Confederacy is much doubted in Texas.

...

There are many of the citizens of Texas leaving since the Governor’s proclamation calling out the militia, and some that have been prisoners and escaped; nearly all without friends or means to take them North.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient,

L. PIERCE, JR., Consul.

{p.675}

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, June 5, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to submit for your perusal the inclosed original note with annexed translation, dated the 2d instant, from Señor Romero, chargé d’affaires of Mexico, in relation to the incursions committed by the insurgents of Texas upon the Territory and citizens of Mexico.

I will be very glad to know that the disposition of our forces will enable you to give assurances that such aggressive acts will hereafter be prevented.

Requesting the return of the inclosures, I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure No. 1.-Translation.]

MEXICAN LEGATION IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Washington, June 2, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

Mr. SECRETARY: The Mexican citizen Juan Bustamente, a deputy from the State of San Luis Potosi to the General Congress of Mexico, and who is now in this capital, to which he has come on personal affairs, informed me upon his arrival here of the unsatisfactory state of things at present upon the eastern frontier of Mexico and the United States, and of the assaults which, in violation of treaties and the rights of sovereignty of Mexico, the insurgents of Texas have made upon the Mexican territory.

I requested him to communicate to me in writing this information, and I have to-day received the communication of which I have the honor to transmit you a copy for the information of the Government of the United States.

Through other channels I had received notice of the incursions made by the insurgent Texans against the defenseless towns of Mexico, and I had abstained from communicating them to you owing to the want of official data confirming them. The situation of the frontier is represented in general to be very dangerous to Mexico. The dissenters of the South maintain considerable bodies of armed men upon the frontiers of Chihuahua and Sonora, and it appears that they desire to make common cause with the traitors of Mexico, which will cause great injuries both to the Government of that Republic and to the United States. I deem it, therefore, my duty to call your attention to this subject, requesting of you that the Government of the United States may take the proper measures to prevent armed bodies from passing over to its territory with a view of invading a friendly republic.

I shall take great pleasure in transmitting to my Government the assurances which you may be enabled to give me upon this matter.

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurances of my distinguished consideration.

M. ROMERO.

[Inclosure No. 2.-Translation.]

WASHINGTON, May 31, 1862.

To the Citizen Licentiate M. ROMERO, Chargé d’Affaires of the Mexican Republic in Washington, present:

SIR: I avail myself of my arrival in this capital to address you the present, with the view of bringing to your knowledge that, in April {p.676} last past, the people of Piedras Negras were assaulted by a party of Texans, numbering some 200, who robbed and set fire to said town. This outrage will not be the last one, since the Texans are badly disposed toward the Mexicans in consequence of our government not having received the representative which the insurgents of the South sent.

This circumstance and the facilities which the former have for invading our territory will cause these incursions to be repeated if the Government of this Republic does not send a respectable force to prevent not only robberies but also the Texans from giving some aid to the retrograde faction of Mexico, who has offered them to recognize the independence of the Southern States. This is sufficient for believing that the Texans referred to will assist them as far as they can in overthrowing the government which, by the vote of the nation, to-day governs our destinies.

From what I have stated you will perceive that it is most important to remedy such serious evils, and I have no doubt that, as the representative of Mexico in this Republic, you will do all in your power that this Government may determine upon what is necessary to prevent the Texans from carrying on hostilities, by making an agreement to that effect with the clerical faction.

Upon addressing you the present it gives me pleasure to tender you my respect and consideration.

Liberty and reform.

JUAN BUSTAMENTE.

WASHINGTON, June 3, 1862.

This is a copy.

ROMERO.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex, June 21, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL 19. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The inclosed report from Colonel Chivington, commanding the Southern Military District, of the 11th instant, and note from El Paso, old Mexico, of the 10th instant, give the last information from Arizona. This last comes from a gentleman who has heretofore furnished very reliable information, and gives, I believe, a nearer approximation to the actual facts than any of the previous reports.

My letters to Colonel Chivington, of the 16th, 18th, and 20th instant, copies of which are inclosed, indicate the operations proposed in the direction of Arizona. Delay in the arrival of necessary supplies, the unexampled flood in the Rio Grande, which has flooded the valley and destroyed the roads, and the inertness and inefficiency of the flour contractors, have deferred these movements much beyond the time when I expected to commence them, but I believe that I will in a few days have the control of means that will enable me to carry them on without interruption. Heretofore it has been impossible to accumulate a supply of flour at Fort Craig beyond what was required for daily consumption, and it was with great difficulty that a supply to that extent could be kept up.

The movement directed in my instructions of the 20th instant will be a few days in advance of full supplies for the force at Fort Craig, {p.677} but it is necessary in consequence of the unexpected contingency of the approach of troops from California, which may require support, and it will he followed up as rapidly as possible.

I do not propose to occupy the interior posts in Arizona until after the arrival of the troops that are expected from Colorado Territory and Kansas, but will establish the main body of the force to be sent into that Territory in a strong position in the neighborhood of El Paso, and will not weaken it by detachments until affairs in this Territory have assumed a more settled shape.

A change in the manner of supplying posts that may be established in Arizona west of the Rio Grande is suggested, adopting for all the posts west of that river the route by the Gulf of California and the post of Guaymas for all supplies that cannot be procured in the country.

In this Territory there has been no material change since my report by the last mail. About one-half (521) of the deserters from New Mexican Volunteers have availed themselves of the conditional pardon offered them in Department General Orders, No. 43, of May 7. The remainder are still at large, and are giving much trouble to the frontier settlements.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Brig. Gen. Vols., Comdg. Dept.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HEADQUARTERS SOUTHERN MILITARY DISTRICT, Fort Craig, N. Mex., June 11, 1862.

Brig. Gen. E. R. S. CANNY, U. S. A., Commanding Department New Mexico, Santa Fé, N. Mex.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to state that five men arrived here yesterday from the Pino Alto mines in Arizona, and fully confirmed what the two Mexicans last week reported about the California forces and the movements below. They saw the California captain at the mines before Hunter took him over to Mesilla. They say that Colonel Baylor has been appointed Governor of Arizona, and his first act was to publish Jefferson Davis’ conscription proclamation, and they are impressing all white men in Arizona into their service; also all in the Mesilla Valley. Those men all fled to keep from being forced to fight against the Government. The Arizona Guards, who were raised for the protection of the settlements against the Indians, and who are more than half Northern and Union men, are pressed into the Confederate service. Colonel Reily had been to Sonora, and reports that he had made a favorable treaty with the authorities there. But one of these men is just up from Sonora, and he asserts that they only obtained the privilege of buying for cash anything the citizens had to dispose of, and that they will not touch the Confederate scrip. The name of the California captain who was captured by Hunter is McCleave. His company is independent or unattached, and used exclusively for picket and scouting purposes, named “California Mounted Grays.” When he was taken several of Hunter’s men were taken by his company. The names of these men from whom this information is obtained are James S. Chase, James Cranston, John McLaughlin, A. J. King, and Patrick Connell, and one of them has been a soldier, and has his discharge with him.

I am, general, with much respect, your obedient servant,

J. M. CHIVINGTON, Col. First Colorado Vols., Comdg. Southern Min. Dist., N. Mex.

{p.678}

[Inclosure No. 2.]

The skeleton of Sibley’s brigade, consisting of 1,250 men, returned from New Mexico to Doña Aña on or about the 3d of May. General Sibley made his headquarters at Fort Bliss; Colonel Green and Colonel - [probably Reily] at Fort Fillmore. Colonel [Lieutenant-Colonel] Scurry is now in San Antonio. Major Pyron left Fort Franklin [Bliss] with his command about twenty days ago. Since then parties of 15 and 20 men of infantry companies have been leaving and are now on the road to San Antonio. Those that were left of the Second Regiment have been leaving on the road to San Antonio. Most of their artillery has passed San Elizario on the way down. General Sibley was ready to move this morning. Colonel Steele, it is said, will remain until further orders. He is at Doña Aña. He has between 300 and 400 men. Colonel Herbert, with two or three companies, remains, also under Colonel Steele; but it is believed that these movements are to cover their retreat.

The Second Regiment (Green’s) is scattered in parties of 15 or 20 along the road between Doña Aña and Franklin, committing outrages upon the inhabitants they meet upon the highway. They are almost on the point of starvation, receiving as a ration one pound and a quarter of beef and twelve ounces of flour. The Mexican population are much enraged against them on account of their rude treatment. There are no provisions to be bought in this valley, for they are not to be had. Sibley has pressed all the spare provisions on the American side of the river, and has given orders to take all the necessary transportation and provisions from the villages below. No army can subsist in this valley this year unless they bring the necessary supplies along, for there is no supply, not even of live stock, and there will be a scanty wheat crop to say the best of it. It is believed here that there will be a famine among the people at Mesilla, Las Cruces, Doña Aña, and Picacho.

The Confederate money (paper) is selling at 20 cents on the dollar, and large amounts could be bought for less if there were any purchasers. Captain Hunter’s company has returned from Tucson. They report a large Federal force near that place when they left.

[Indorsement.]

This information is furnished by a merchant of El Paso old Mexico, and sent to the commanding officer at Fort Craig.

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General Volunteers, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., June 10, 1862.

Col. J. M. CHIVINGTON, 1st. Colo. Vols., Comdg. Southern Mil. Dist., Fort Craig, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: Your communication of the 11th has been received. The information is certainly very circumstantial, and seems probable, but I cannot think that any large force would have been sent from California without being advised of it. It is more probable it is a detachment from the force at Fort Yuma, sent to Tucson for the purpose of acquiring information. The Mesilla produces but little beyond what is required for its own population, and it is certain that there is {p.679} no surplus at this time. It is necessary, therefore, that we should have supplies for at least forty days after reaching the valley, as it will take that time to get there from Chihuahua (or that we should have sufficient means of transportation to keep up the supply from this country) or Sonora.

I expected confidently to have been prepared in this respect by the 1st of this month but the inefficiency of the contractors, the destitution of the country, and the flooding of the river have all concurred to delay this; but I hope that these difficulties will be overcome in a few days, and I wish your command to be kept in readiness to move the moment that the state of the supplies will permit it. I do not anticipate any future difficulties, as abundant supplies from the East are near at hand, and with them are considerable means of transportation that will be available for our operations.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure No. 4.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., June 18, 1862.

Col. J. M. CHIVINGTON, 1st. Colo. Vols., Comdg. Southern Mil. Dist., Fort Craig, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: The force intended for the movement against the Confederate troops in Arizona will be composed of the sixteen companies of infantry and eight companies of cavalry and one or two batteries. These troops will be organized into two or three columns, as may be considered most expedient by the immediate commander. The headquarters and eight companies of the Fifth Infantry will for in one, and the headquarters and eight companies of the First Colorado Volunteers the other infantry column. The cavalry force will be composed of two companies of the First, three companies of the Third Cavalry, one company of the First Colorado and two companies of the Second Colorado Volunteers. The cavalry force now at Fort Union will be sent down as soon as the troops from Kansas are in striking distance of that post. If it arrives in season the battery attached to the Second Colorado Volunteers will form one of the batteries, and it is intended to replace the pieces in McRae’s battery by four 12-pounder guns and two 32-pounder howitzers, now on their way to this country; but as these pieces may not arrive as early as they are expected, the present battery should be put in the most perfect condition for the field that is possible, so that there may be no delay in the movement after the supplies have been received.

The garrison of Fort Craig will be composed of four companies of infantry and two of cavalry. Two companies of infantry and two of cavalry will be posted temporarily at Santa Barbara, to give additional security to the communication between Fort Craig and the Mesilla. These garrisons will be in addition to the field force designated above.

Mule transportation for the baggage train las been ordered and is being prepared as rapidly as possible. Clothing is expected at Fort Union from the East in three or four days, and will be sent down at once. Corn for the cavalry and artillery horses is being sent as rapidly as possible.

A section of mountain howitzers to move with the cavalry should {p.680} also be prepared. Some pack saddles for the use of detachments that move rapidly, or when wagons cannot be taken, will be necessary.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

[Inclosure No. 5.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., June 20, 1862.

Col. J. M. CHIVINGTON, 1st Colo. Cobs., Comdg. Southern Mil. Dist., Port Craig, N. Mex:

SIR: I have received a telegraphic dispatch from Captain Nicodemus, to the effect that Colonel Carleton, with 500 California Volunteers, was on this side of the Pima Villages on the 7th of May, moving in the direction of the Mesilla Valley. I wish you to advance a portion of your command, say 1,000 men, if you have the means of moving and supplying that number, in the direction of Santa Barbara, open a communication with Colonel Carleton, if possible, and hold yourself in readiness to support him if lie should he advancing on this side of Tucson. Unless it should be absolutely necessary, in order to support Colonel Carleton, I do not wish the command moved into the Mesilla Valley until I have the means of subsisting them there. This will be arranged in a few days, and in the mean time the force at Fort Craig must be held in readiness to move at any moment and at any sacrifice, if it should be necessary.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., June 27, 1862.

Col. J. M. CHIVINGTON, Comdg. Southern Military District, Fort Craig, N. Mex.:

SIR: The general object of the expedition to Arizona is the re-occupation of that country and the restoration of the authority of the United States in and over it. In carrying out these instructions I wish to leave you as untrammeled as possible by special instructions, and shall indicate in general terms the particular objects to be accomplished, leaving the details of execution to your own judgment and discretion.

The force that will be under your command has already been indicated in my instructions of the 18th. It is probable that the cavalry may be somewhat reduced by the non-arrival of troops that were expected. This force will be kept as mobile and complete as possible. No other baggage than is necessary for the comfort and efficiency of the troops will be taken. No incumbrances, as laundresses or other persons not immediately necessary for the service, will be permitted to move with the troops. Many persons will no doubt attempt to go with the command, but all persons not directly connected with the Army by enlistment or employment will be vigorously excluded. The only exception will be in the case of civil officers going to their duties in that Territory or contractors and their necessary employés. If the condition of the road or other circumstances of the route should render it necessary to subdivide your command, the columns should always be {p.681} kept within supporting distance and no operations should be undertaken that are foreign to the main object of the expedition, and until that is accomplished everything else will be subordinate.

Immediate operations against the enemy must be governed by circumstances and your own judgment.

As soon as possession of the country is secured the main body of your command will be established in eligible position for defense, for supplies, and for facility of movement in any direction. It will be made your depot of supplies, and strengthened so as to be held by a small force when your main body is engaged in active operations.

Doña Aña, or that neighborhood, is suggested as suitable for that purpose, as it commands the road leading into Arizona and the approach to the country from crossing of the Pecos. The position to be selected should be strengthened so as to be held by a small force whenever the main body of the force is in the field and should be made the depot for your supplies.

It will be your duty to secure the inhabitants of the Territory in their civil rights, and to protect them in their persons and property as far as the means in your power will permit. They will also be secured as far as possible from the aggression of hostile Indians, but any operations undertaken for this purpose will of course be subordinate to the main object of the expedition. If there should be no civil authorities in the Territory the administration of civil affairs, se far as may be necessary to prevent anarchy and confusion, will devolve upon the military authorities, employing as subordinate the civil functionaries authorized by the laws of the United States. Collectors of customs, &c., will be provisionally appointed by the commander of the district, subject to the approval of the department commander; the territorial officers by election, in accordance with the laws of the Territory, commissioned by the Governor, unless in the mean time a separate Territorial government is organized for Arizona, care being taken that no one is allowed to enter upon the discharge of their functions whose loyalty is at all questioned. If it can be procured, a copy of the Territorial laws will be sent to you.

The question of supplies for your command will be one of great importance and difficulty; they should be drawn as far as practicable from Arizona or the neighboring Mexican States of Chihuahua and Sonora. After the necessary arrangements have been made these will no doubt supply you with fresh meat and breadstuffs, bacon, &c., for subsistence, and forage for the animals, and you will at once send agents into the neighborhood from which these supplies can be procured for the purpose of making these arrangements. Until these are definitely fixed your requisitions will be made upon the depot at Fort Craig.

It is apprehended that many disloyal and lawless individuals will be found in Arizona, both in the native and foreign population. These should be vigorously dealt with. The provisions of martial law, as promulgated in General Orders, No. 53, of October 20, 1861, furnishes the necessary power for controlling this part of the population. This order, modified in some particular, will be republished, and furnished you for distribution.

The country south of Santa Barbara will constitute the District of Arizona, to be commanded by the senior officer of the troops serving there.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

{p.682}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., July 6, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the party sent for the purpose of opening a communication with General Carleton’s command met his advance (130 cavalry) at the Ojo de la Vaca, 140 miles southwest of Fort Craig. This command and the advance forces of that post will meet at Santa Barbara to-day.

General Carleton was at Tucson on the 17th ultimo, with ten companies of infantry, five of cavalry, and one field battery of four pieces. In addition to this, some companies of infantry and one of cavalry are posted at different points (not mentioned in the report) in Arizona.

The force designed for the reoccupation of Arizona, and assembled at Fort Craig, consists of about 2,000 men, but upon information arriving from the commander of the Department of Kansas of the movement of a rebel force against Fort Wise and the supply trains coming to this country I have diverted a part of this force for the purpose of re-enforcing Fort Wise and guarding the supply trains reported to be coming out by the Cimarron route.

The squadron of Kansas cavalry which came to this country as the escort of the paymaster will halt at Fort Wise and report by letter to the commander of the Department of Kansas. The squadron of Colorado cavalry which was on the road to Fort Craig has been ordered back to Fort Union for duty on the Cimarron route. I have requested General Blunt to issue the order given by General Hunter, at my request, directing all trains to come by the way of Fort Wise, as this division of the trains multiplies the chances of loss, doubles the duty of guarding them, and weakens the command by detachments that would not be necessary if only one route is used.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., July 9, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES H. CARLETON, Commanding District of Arizona:

GENERAL: The reported movements of the rebel force threatening our communications with the East and the supply trains en route to this country has rendered it necessary to divert a portion of the command heretofore designated for operations in Arizona.

A part of the force at Fort Craig has accordingly been ordered to Fort Union for service on the plains, and an other part will be held in reserve at Fort Craig to meet further contingencies, reducing the strength of the command that will report to you for duty in Arizona to about 1,000 men. This, with the part of your command not required for duty in the interior of Arizona, will, I have no doubt, be amply sufficient for the purposes intended in the instructions heretofore given, and of which copies have been furnished you.

In consequence of the scarcity of water in the direct route from Cook’s Spring to Mesilla, I have supposed the most eligible point for the junction of the two commands would be on the Rio Grande, at or near Santa {p.683} Barbara. The commander of the sub-military district was accordingly instructed to advance 1,000 men to that point for the purpose of opening a communication with you and supporting your movements, if the scarcity of water on the route should render it necessary, as is probable at this season, to move your command by mule detachments.

If you should consider it expedient that the junction should be made at any other point you will give the necessary order to the commander of the troops in the neighborhood of Santa Barbara, without waiting for them to come within the limits of your district.

Until the reoccupation of the country and the restoration of order are secured your headquarters and main body of your command will be kept in the neighborhood of the Mesilla Valley.

The force that is ordered to report to you will be deficient in artillery and cavalry horses. Every deficiency I hope to remedy soon. Two heavy field batteries (12-pounder guns and 32-pounder howitzers), completely equipped, are now on the way out, and one of them will be sent down as soon as it arrives. Eight hundred cavalry and artillery horses are also on the road, and a sufficient number to mount the cavalry to complete the equipment of the cavalry batteries will be sent to you as soon as possible.

The staff department are throwing forward to Fort Craig additional supplies to meet the positive wants of your command. The order now in force requires 200,000 rations in depot of subsistence; and, in addition to this, a daily issue of 5,000 rations provided for at and below Fort Craig, to meet unexpected contingencies. One hundred thousand rations will be in depot at Peralta, and other supplies in the same proportion will be sent down as fast as they are received from the East or can be procured from this country.

I have received no information as yet as to the state of your supplies the sources from which they are drawn, and the arrangements made for procuring them. Please advise me in this respect as soon as possible, in order that the arrangements for supplying your command may be completed as soon as possible.

The chief paymaster has estimated prospectively for funds for the payment of your command, but if there are any arrearages which have not been provided for, you will cause the estimates (if you have a paymaster with your column) or the data for preparing them to be forwarded as soon as practicable.

It is hoped that arrangements will be made by which the greater part of the subsistence and the forage required for your troops can be supplied from that country and the neighboring State of Mexico, but the necessity of depending for some time upon the depot at Fort Craig is anticipated and will be provided for.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, July 10, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: My latest dates from the Department of Oregon are to July 1, when all was quiet. My latest dates from General Carleton are of June 18, which I inclosed yesterday to you, with certain other papers.

{p.684}

The expedition has thus far been a perfect success. Our army, with all its supplies, has advanced and passed many deserts without loss of men or property. Arizona is recovered and now held under martial law, waiting for the re-establishment of the civil powers, and the Column from California is advancing eastward to co-operate with the forces in New Mexico.

In preparing the expedition under General Carleton, as well as the one under Colonel Connor, for the protection of the mail route, we have been compelled to make large purchases, principally of mules and means of transportation; but I can assure the Department that in all cases the greatest economy, consistent with the good of the service, has been practiced.

The great difficulty is to guard the public interests on such a vast extent of country, with many small posts, some a thousand or more miles distant. However, the losses which the Government will sustain in this department, I am happy to say, will be small; and but a small portion of that can be set down to the unfaithfulness of officers or agents.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, July 11, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a copy of two letters to this Department, one from the United States consul at Matamoros and the other from the consul at Monterey, written at the former place. The condition of the loyal inhabitants of Texas in that neighborhood is represented to be so miserable, that it occurs to me those of them of a suitable age to bear arms might be most readily and effectually relieved if they would accept service in our Army. It is consequently suggested that an arrangement be made with the Secretary of the Navy for receiving any such persons on board the blockading vessel or vessels in that quarter as recruits, in order that they may be transferred to the nearest United States military command.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Matamoros, Mexico, May 5, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: In my last (No. 5) I informed you of the arrest and imprisonment of American citizens. After their release I had thought that I should be troubled no more with such outrages; but on the evening of the 2d, as Mr. Alfred Westrop, a young man in my employ, was coming from the United States steamer Montgomery with several letters, he was seized by four Texas Rangers, who had crossed the river (for the purpose) and waited for him, and, with his letters taken across and to Fort Brown. Mr. Westrop is an English citizen, the only one that I knew {p.685} that I could put any confidence in, twenty-three years of age, and has resided nine years in this country, his father and mother now living in the neighborhood of Monterey.

Immediately on hearing of his arrest the commander of this city demanded him, and he was released, but the letters were retained. I had addressed a letter to the commander, urging him to demand the release of the prisoner and whatever documents he might have with him. Since this I have not pressed the matter further, as it would only bring a collision between the two cities.

The crowds of refugees from Texas do not diminish in the least, although it is very difficult, owing to the strict watch kept upon their movements, for them to get out. Many are arrested; some are hung; others are taken and pressed into service.

False dispatches of the most ridiculous kind are circulated throughout the country and through Mexico; but even this mode of encouraging the masses is failing, and throughout the counties bordering on the Rio Grande there exists a perfect reign of terror.

At Austin there is a strong Union party, headed by Ex-Senator Hamilton, who will probably resist all attempts that may be made by the rebels to subdue them. At San Antonio nearly all the stores are closed, and many of the merchants are now residing here, waiting patiently for their time to come when they can return.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

L. PIERCE, JR., United States Consul.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

MATAMOROS, MEXICO, May 23, 1862.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I arrived in the country the 26th instant. Of course I have no business and nothing really worthy an official letter, yet, sir, I hope to make it worth reading. I have seen much that my Government at Washington should know, then correct as fast as their many duties shall afford.

Captain Hunter, of the United States steamer Montgomery, is all that the Government can ask or expect; yes, more; his position is difficult; he lays in a fleet of all nations. To take a prize is out of the question. Smuggling is apparent, but the neutral river affords expenses, &c.

There is no harbor; exposed to gales, in many of which he has at great risk saved vessels and lives. The Mexicans have been laid under obligations by his saving 9 of them from drowning in the surf. They appreciate it and are on the shore furnishing beef; &c.; also giving shelter and feeding the destitute Union men that make their escape from Texas. They do it, sir, to the risk of their lives against the threats of the Texas army, to which the little Mexican villages will be exposed, especially if our ship is removed.

Captain Hunter had brought off through the surf 70 of these refugees. There does not appear to be provision for the protection of this class of our citizens.

I hope it may be consistent for you to give me some special instructions or advice. I have been for the past two days with Mr. Pierce (consul here), and from what I see it is evident that he should expend treble his salary upon the worthy Union citizens. It is really painful for a consul to see men driven from home and the comforts of life, not even allowed to bring an article of clothing; the only cause of complaint {p.686} in many cases that they were Northern men (had never killed any one), and refused to fight against the United States. O sir would that I could show cases vividly before the Department! Must this thing be, that our best, truest citizens must be turned into the streets, from the door of an American consul upon a population poor themselves, not able to speak their language, also threatened by the soldiers from Brownsville for harboring them? It is not uncommon for complaints and favors asked from Government, but, sir, I am confident no portion of the United States has been so badly oppressed as the Union men of Texas, and I can learn nothing is yet done to relieve the refugees or avenge the oppressors. I have received reliable information that within one week 6 of those refugees have been hung on the frontier of Texas on trees and left hanging.

I have conversed to-day with a secessionist to find out both sides of this hanging business. To excuse it, he alleged that 4 of them were deserters and the other 2 alleged to be suspicious characters; not improbable they may have joined the Home Guard for peace or to save hanging previous, but learning they could get onto a United States steamer, made the attempt, for which they have been hanged.

Let me urge that a force be sent onto this frontier; it may not be very large, if they have plenty of arms. I am assured that there could be 3,000 enlisted from Texas as soon as it was known. I am informed that there is over 300 men at Monterey fed by charity; that they have been impatient for the United States consul to arrive. A merchant 01 high standing from Monterey says the merchants there have been paying the expenses of this number for months; that when the consul arrived they expected to turn them over, &c.

My office is [not] a rich one; expensive place to get to; fees not half enough to pay my board; more callers than at an almshouse. I shall not turn back. I have been since April 5 on the route to my appointment; shall get there after 300 miles farther, or thereabouts [on] the stage route. I am willing my country shall have my time and all I can do for her during this rebellion but I have been so badly robbed by it that I cannot contribute much more.

May I hope that some provision will be made for those sufferers, that the United States consul may not be a disgrace in the eyes of other nations by driving away from his presence honorable citizens that seek the protection of his and their country; honorably for their country’s welfare thus reduced that they cannot feed themselves.

If this matter cannot be redressed through the Government, then petitions should be circulated through cities. Those who contributed to teed foreign nations I know will not withhold from those Union refugees in Mexico.

I am aware I have not followed rules in this long and hearty letter, but I shall expect an answer, and hope prompt action may be had.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. B. H. BLOOD, U. S. Consul, Monterey, Mexico.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., July 20, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the advance of General Carleton’s command (two companies of cavalry) reached the Rio Grande {p.687} near Santa Barbara on time 4th instant. Two companies of the Third U. S. Cavalry from Fort Craig reached the same point on the 6th instant.

The Confederate forces under Colonel Steele, variously represented at from 500 to 800 men, commenced their retreat on the 6th as soon as advised of the near approach of the United States troops. The Rio Grande is still so high that our troops were unable to cross, and consequently any attempt to pursue was impracticable. The latest accounts from the Mesilla Valley represent that the Confederate troops left in great destitution, and that more than 100 of their men were left at different points on the road from time want of transportation to move them. The American part of the population that had taken part with the rebels left the country with them.

I have no information yet as to the orders under which General Carleton is acting, but presume that his force will be available for the reoccupation of Arizona, and have given orders accordingly. The presence of these troops will render a portion of the force now in this department available for service elsewhere if they should be needed and I propose as General Carleton’s troops come into position to withdraw the First Regiment Colorado Volunteers from the southern part of the Territory and order them to report to the commander of the Department of Kansas for service on the route from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Union, on which, in my judgment, there should be at least 1,000 men.

I inclose herewith a copy of General Carleton’s proclamation* and of a letter from Colonel Steele, of the Confederate Army.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

* For the proclamation see p. 561.

[Inclosure.]

FORT FILLMORE, July 5, 1862.

COMMANDING OFFICER UNITED STATES FORCES:

SIR: As I am about to leave this Territory under circumstances which have caused ill-feeling between white men and Mexicans, and as I have many Americans, some with their families, in some degree at the mercy of the Mexican population, I have entered into a covenant with the principal Mexicans of Mesilla, who have bound themselves to protect the Americans remaining in the country, the consideration being the release of one Donmingo Cebeno, who is my prisoner under circumstances which would ordinarily cost him his life. The citizens are those remaining here as having taken no part in the struggle now going on between the Confederate and United States of America. All those who have by holding office or otherwise compromised themselves with your side of the question having already withdrawn, I trust that, for the sake of humanity, you will inquire into the manner in which the agreement has been kept.

Your obedient servant,

WM. STEELE, Colonel First Texas Mounted Volunteers, Commanding in Arizona.

{p.688}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., July 27, 1862.

Brig. Gen. JAMES G. BLUNT, Commanding Department of Kansas, Port Leavenworth, Kans.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt (during a temporary absence) of your communication of the 26th ultimo,* and to express my thanks for the measures you have taken to secure the supplies coming to this country.

General Carleton, with about 1,500 California troops, is now between Tucson and the Rio Grande. This advance and the advance from Fort Craig united at Santa Barbara on the 7th instant. The Confederate force in the Mesilla Valley commenced their retreat on the same day. Unfortunately the Rio Grande was so high that our troops were unable to cross until the rebels got beyond the reach of pursuit.

As General Carleton’s force will be sufficient for the occupation of Arizona, I propose, as soon as his troops get into position, to withdraw the Colorado regiment to Fort Lyon, and place them under your orders, as I do not think they will be needed longer in this country.

I do not think that an invasion of this country by the Rio Grande will again be attempted, but it may be by the Canadian or the Arkansas, if our troops in the South should meet with any serious reverses.

A copy of the latest returns of the Colorado troops serving in this department will be sent to you by the next mail.

I have directed copies of the most important orders issued in this department to be sent to you.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

* Not found.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 181.}

WAR DEPT., ADJT. GEN.’S OFFICE, Washington, August 5, 1862.

...

7. Brig. Gen. E. R. S. Canby, U. S. Volunteers, is relieved from duty in the Department of New Mexico. He will turn over time command to the next officer and repair without delay to this city and report to the Secretary of War.

...

By order of the Secretary of War:

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., August 6, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The instructions from the War Department and the Headquarters of the Army, of August 15, 1861, contemplated the withdrawal of {p.689} the regular force in this department upon the organization of the additional volunteer force then authorized. I have already (May 17, 1862) conditionally recommended the withdrawal of a part of the regular force now here, and the near approach of General Carleton’s force, understood to be about 2,000 strong, justifies the opinion that the original instructions of the Department may be carried out without detriment to the service.

I do not apprehend another invasion of this country by the Rio Grande, but in the event of any serious reverses to our troops in the Southwest it may be attempted by the Canadian, or an attempt may be made to out off or destroy the supply trains coming to this country. This last I regard as the most probable danger, and since the renewal of the disturbances in Missouri have made arrangements to send a portion of the troops now in this department upon that line, believing that they could be better spared from New Mexico than from Kansas. One regiment of Colorado Volunteers will be sufficient in my judgment for the occupation of Fort Lyon (Wise) and to keep in check the Indians of Colorado Territory. The Second Regiment for Fort Union and the northern part of New Mexico, the California troops for the southern part of this Territory and for Arizona, while the New Mexican Volunteers will be sufficient for the Indian frontiers. This will give for New Mexico proper about 4,000, with an additional thousand (in Colorado) within reach, if their services should be needed. If this force should not be considered sufficient, re-enforcements may, I suppose, be drawn from California with more ease than from the East.

I have received no report from General Carleton, but have learned unofficially that he expected to leave Tucson about the middle of last month. As he will be obliged, in consequence of the scarcity of water, to move by detachments, his entire force will not reach the Rio Grande until some time in this month.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier General, Commanding Department of New Mexico.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex, August 10, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I have just received reports from General Carleton, but too late to copy them by this mail.

He left Tucson on the 17th ultimo and was at Ojo de la Vaca (about 60 miles from the Rio Grande) on the 27th. He would wait at that place for the rear of his command to close up. He is now probably in the Mesilla Valley. He reports his command in fine condition, and that his effective force in the valley will be 1,273. This is independent of the garrisons of the posts established in the interior of Arizona and the command (four companies of infantry and two of cavalry) sent from Fort Craig.

His command is generally well supplied, and any deficiencies can be furnished from the depots in this country.

With the exception of the sick and some deserters and a few who have taken refuge in old Mexico, none of the Texan troops are now in the neighborhood of El Paso.

{p.690}

The Indians in this department are exceedingly troublesome, and give constant employment to the troops in this neighborhood, thus far with but little success. The depredators are the Navajoes and Mescalero Apaches.

Serious Indian troubles are reported in Colorado Territory, and upon an application for assistance I have sent a company of infantry and one of cavalry to Fort Lyon, and have ordered two companies of infantry upon the road between Fort Union and Fort Lyon, for the protection of the trains. Two companies of infantry and one of cavalry have been ordered from Fort Craig to Fort Union to replace the companies sent from that place, and two companies of infantry have been ordered to this place to relieve companies of New Mexican Volunteers, which will be sent into the Indian country.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, August 16, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a letter of the 6th ultimo and the accompanying papers, addressed to this Department by Benjamin C. Cutler, who styles himself “Military Secretary of State of the Territory of Arizona.” As that Territory has not been organized by act of Congress, and consequently no civil officers have been appointed therein, it is presumed that the communication of Mr. Assistant Adjutant-General Cutler would have more properly been addressed to the War Department.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz., July 6, 1862.

His Excellency W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State of the United States, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith certain documents, marked A, B,* C, D, E, which relate to matters in this Territory, and which it may be important for you to know.

Other copies, with additional papers, together with a mass of evidence in the cases of Mr. Sylvester Mowry, will reach Washington through the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific. These, to save time, I send direct.

Very respectfully, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Military Secretary of State.

* Inclosure B is a copy of proclamation printed on p. 561.

[Inclosure A.]

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Fort Yuma, Cal, May 2, 1862.

His Excellency DON IGNACIO PESQUIERA, Governor of State of Sonora, Ures, Sonora, Republic of Mexico:

SIR: Your Excellency is doubtless aware that for certain military considerations the general commanding the United States forces on the {p.691} Pacific coast interdicted the crossing by any person of the Colorado River unless such person had a passport signed by himself.

This excluded many of the citizens of the State of Sonora, in the friendly Republic of Mexico, from coming to work in the rich mines recently discovered on the Colorado River, in California, and also excluded others from coming to Fort Yuma to sell provisions and other of the products and commodities of your State.

The restrictions as to the crossings of the Colorado applied no less to citizens of the United States than to citizens of our sister Republic. Thus you will see that no invidious distinction was made favoring Americans in preference to the people of Your Excellency.

It is now my good fortune to be able to say to Your Excellency that the prohibitions about crossing the river are removed, and the people of Sonora are at liberty to come and work in our mines, or to sell their provisions, forage, fruits, &c., within our lines. The forces of the United States under my command now passing up the Gila River to the Pima Villages and thence on to occupy the Territory of Arizona, though abundantly furnished with every necessary article of subsistence and forage, with adequate means of transportation for all additional supplies from the depot at Fort Yuma which they may need, yet if the people of Sonora desire to bring flour, pork, beef, mutton, sugar, coffee, wheat, barley, fruit, vegetables, &c., to the Pima Villages or Tucson, after I have occupied it, they will be paid a fair price in gold and silver coin for what they sell.

It is our sincere desire as well as our true policy to maintain the most friendly relations with the citizens of all nations, but more particularly with those who, like ourselves and like our neighbors of Mexico, are endeavoring to prove to the world that any brave and intelligent people are capable of being governed by laws made by themselves and by rulers chosen by and from among themselves.

Therefore Your Excellency may rest assured that nothing will be done on our part to disturb the kind feelings which happily subsist between your people and those of the United States.

The people in the South, who are in open rebellion against the Government of the United States having an unjust cause, can never succeed in establishing themselves as an independent nation. As the war which they have wantonly commenced is an unrighteous one, they have not the sympathies of a single Christian nation in the world. Such being the case, you can judge how incredulous I was when I heard that an officer of rank of the so-called Confederate States Army, who has recently been to visit you, had stated publicly in Arizona, on his return from Sonora, that he had made such arrangements with Your Excellency that what supplies he might need for his troops could be landed in the ports of Sonora and be transported without let or hindrance thence through that State to Tucson. I know that Your Excellency is well aware that the very people whose emissary, it is alleged, thus comes to ask of you these commercial privileges would, as filibusters, usurp the power you yourself hold, and subjugate your own State if they had but the ability to do so. Therefore you can judge of my astonishment at such intelligence. I will not even ask Your Excellency if what I have heard is true, as such an utter want of faith toward a friendly neighbor would be so unworthy of your position as a governor, and so much against your integrity as a man, that I should shrink from wounding your sensibility by such a question. I merely mention the rumor that has reached me to show Your Excellency how much you have been maligned.

{p.692}

Wishing Your Excellency health and good fortune and your people happiness and prosperity, I have the honor to be, Your Excellency’s obedient servant,

H. CARLETON, Colonel First Cal. Vols., Major U. S. Sixth Cavalry, Comdg.

[Inclosure C.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz, June 11, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that under the authority assumed by the undersigned in the proclamation placing the Territory of Arizona under martial law, which proclamation was dated at Tucson, in Arizona, June 8, A. D. 1862, I hereby appoint Acting Assistant Adjutant-General Benjamin Clarke Cutler to be secretary of state of the Territory of Arizona while the said Territory remains under martial law or until the time when a successor may be appointed to take his place.

His duties shall be to record and to preserve all the acts and proceedings of the Governor in his executive department, and to transmit an authentic copy of these acts and proceedings through the general commanding the Department of the Pacific to the President of the United States on the last day of every month.

And be it also known that the secretary of state of the Territory, while it is under martial law, is hereby empowered to administer oaths.

Given under my hand at Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Military Governor of Arizona.

[Inclosure.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, Tucson, Ariz, June 11, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that by virtue of the authority vested in myself as Military Governor of Arizona I hereby empower the following officers with the right to administer oaths within this Territory while it shall remain under martial law; that is to say:

Lieut. Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers.

Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers.

Maj. Edwin A. Rigg, First Infantry, California Volunteers.

Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers.

Maj. David Ferguson, First Cavalry, California Volunteers.

Capt. Tredwell Moore, assistant quartermaster, U. S. Army.

Also the presidents and judge-advocates of military commissions, when such commissions are in session.

JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First Cal. Vols., Major, U. S. Sixth Cavalry.

By the Governor:

BEN. C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Military Secretary of State.

{p.693}

[Inclosure D.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, ARIZONA TERRITORY, Tucson, June 12, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known:

I. That from and after this date a monthly tax of $5 for license to trade shall be levied on all merchants in Tucson, Ariz., including those who shall traffic within a mile in every direction from its suburbs, whose monthly sales of merchandise amount to $500 or under, and an additional tax of $1 per month for each additional monthly sale of $100.

II. That every keeper of a gambling house within the aforesaid limits shall pay a tax of $100 per month for each and every table in said house whereon any banking game is played.

III. That every keeper of a bar, where wines, spirituous or malt liquors are to be sold, shall pay a tax of $100 per month to keep said bar.

IV. All keepers of gambling houses, for the non-payment of license for gambling tables, will be fined $50 for the first offense; for the second offense he shall have his money, implements, tools, &c., seized, and the same shall be confiscated, and he shall pay a fine of $100 and be forbidden to again gamble in this Territory.

V. Any person who after this date shall sell without a license any intoxicating liquors or drinks shall be fined $50 for the first offense; for the second offense he shall pay a fine of $100 and forfeit all the liquors in his possession.

VI. The commanding officer at Tucson is hereby empowered to grant licenses under these rules, and collect all taxes, fines, and forfeitures. The moneys thus collected shall be turned over to the medical director who shall receipt for the same and add it to the hospital fund, to be used exclusively for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers belonging to the Column from California until further orders.

VII. All sales made by the Government of the United States shall be exempt from taxation, and no license is necessary for the sale of forage, subsistence stores, fruits, or vegetables.

By order of Colonel Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Military Secretary of State.

[Inclosure E.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 17.}

HDQRS. COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 16, 1862.

I. A board of officers, to consist of Lieut. Col. Joseph E. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers; Capt. Charles A. Smith, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, and Capt. Nicholas S. Davis, First Infantry, California Volunteers, will assemble at this post at 4 p.m. to-day, or as soon thereafter as practicable, to investigate certain charges and facts tending to show that Mr. Sylvester Mowry, of the Patagonia mines, in this Territory, is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well-known secessionists, and has afforded them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies to the legally-constituted authority and Government of the United States.

The board will be duly sworn to the faithful performance of its duty, and will examine witnesses on oath, and will examine and make certified extracts from such documents as may be laid before them which {p.694} may have immediate or important bearing on these points, and the board will report in writing and in full the evidence it receives on all these matters, and its opinions whether or not there are sufficient grounds to restrain of his liberty and bring to trial before a military commission the said Mr. Sylvester Mowry.

II. The board will also inquire into the truth of a report that a respectable German citizen was recently murdered at or near Patagonia mines, in this Territory, and report in writing the evidence in the case and their opinion, in the event they find the report to be true as to who are probably the guilty parties.

The record of this investigation will be made up separately from that ordered in the first paragraph hereof.

III. Second Lieut. Erastus W. Wood, First Infantry, California Volunteers, is appointed secretary of the board, and will be duly sworn by the president thereof to a faithful discharge of his duties as such.

By order of Colonel Carleton:

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieut., First Infantry, California Vols., Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., June 16, 1862.

Lieut. Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, President of a Board of Officers convened by Special Orders, No. 17, current series, from these Headquarters:

COLONEL: The colonel commanding the column directs me to inclose to you, as one of the charges against Mr. Sylvester Mowry, the original of a letter directed to General Carleton from the Mowry silver mines on the 11th of May, 1862, and signed by one “T. Schumer, metallurgist, M. S. M.;” also a paper in your own handwriting, purporting to be a statement of one William Pyburn, which seems to touch on the matter of the alleged furnishing of Captain Hunter’s men at the Patagonia mines with percussion caps.*

The board will also examine such documentary evidence as Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre may have brought from the Patagonia mines and placed in your custody.

The board will examine into the facts touching the known political character of one Robinson, and whether he has been a guest and received aid and comfort recently from Mr. Mowry, and in all matters touching this case the board will question the persons brought by Colonel Eyre from the Patagonia mines and such other persons as may be thought to be important witnesses in this matter not herein named, but who may become known to the board during its investigation.

The testimony and evidence you will receive will be ex parte, and your inquiry will be analogous to that made by a grand jury in the administration of justice by the civil authorities.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. C. CUTLER, First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers.

* Not found.

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Tucson, Ariz., July 6, 1862.

The board having examined the foregoing personal testimony and documentary evidence, as directed by Special Orders, No. 17, and by the letters of the colonel commanding the Column from California to the {p.695} president of this board, which said order and letter are copied on and made part of these records, are of opinion that said Sylvester Mowry is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well-known secessionists, and has afforded them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies to the legally-constituted authority and Government of the United States, and that there are sufficient grounds to restrain the said Sylvester Mowry of his liberty and bring him to trial before a military commission.

J. R. WEST, Lieut. Col., First Infantry, Cal. Vols., President. CHARLES A. SMITH, Captain, Fifth Infantry, Cal. Vols. NICHOLAS S. DAVIS, Captain, First Infantry, Cal. Vols.

ERASTUS W. WOOD, Second Lieut., First Infantry, Cal. Vols., Secretary.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fé, N. Mex., September 14, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit a report from General Carleton, of the 9th instant, which gives the latest information in relation to affairs in Arizona and Northwestern Texas. The commanding officer at Fort Garland reports that his spies have discovered the rendezvous of a party of guerrillas on the Huerfano, and that he has detached a force for the purpose of destroying or capturing them. This party is composed of gamblers and desperadoes from the southern mines of Colorado, and it is understood that their object is to reach Arkansas or Texas. They will probably be intercepted by the troops operating east of the Raton Mountains. The regular troops are being concentrated at Fort Union preparatory to going East, and, with the exception of the companies of the Fifth Infantry, will be in readiness to march by the end of this month. Upon the representation of Colonel Leavenworth of the danger of Indian hostilities on the Arkansas, I have ordered the companies of the Tenth Infantry to proceed at once to Fort Lyon.

I will leave for the East in two or three days after the arrival of General Carleton.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS COLUMN FROM CALIFORNIA, Fort Craig, N. Mex., September 9, 1862.

General E. R. S. CANNY:

I received the order to go to Santa Fé to relieve you in the command of the Department of New Mexico at Franklin, Tex., at 10 p.m. on the 2d instant, and started the following morning for that city.

I arrived here last night, and, shall leave this post this evening and endeavor to arrive at Santa Fé, say, by the 16th or 17th instant. Since {p.696} I wrote to you on the 15th of August I marched with a small cavalry force down the Rio Grande to a point below Fort Quitman, where the San Antonio road leaves the river. I had heard that Colonel Steele, C. S. Army, had left some 50 or 60 wounded, sick, and disabled men at Fort Davis, on the Limpia River, and that these men were guarded by a company of troops of Mexican lineage, under command of a Captain Mararro, from San Antonio. I detached a portion of my command to proceed to Fort Davis to look after the wants of the sick, to capture the company, and to hoist the colors upon the fort. This force has returned, having found not a single living person at the fort, but -having found one dead soldier in the hospital, who had evidently been left by his comrades and had afterwards been butchered by Indians. He had been shot in the head, and an arrow was still remaining in his body. The fort was very much dilapidated and had been left in great disarray.

It is said that Colonel Steele destroyed much of his ammunition and some of his wagons at Fort Bliss and more at Eagle Springs in his hurried flight, as he had heard the California troops were in pursuit of him, and that you had sent a force to intercept him somewhere near the Pecos. The force which I sent to Fort Davis had a fight with some Mescalero Indians near that post. We had 2 men and 1 horse wounded. The Indians had 4 killed and 20 wounded. Capt. Edmond D. Shirland, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, commanded the handful of men sent to Fort Davis. I recovered at El Paso some 12 wagon loads of hospital and quartermaster’s stores which had formerly belonged to the United States. The Texan prisoners, 26 in all, which I found at Franklin, I sent to San Antonio, starting them from Franklin on the 1st instant. They were furnished with provisions, transportation, and an escort.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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Abstract from return of the Department of New Mexico, Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton, U. S. Army, commanding, for September 20, 1862.

Commands.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
Cubero2748990
Fort Craig and vicinity7176216281
Fort Garland686137147
Fort Marcy and vicinity14311431478
Fort Union and en route to295718691,064
Fort Union Depot1151616
Gallisteo2527180
Los Lunas8119152176
Peralta10283362450
Polvadera6138172173
The California Column501,2321,5031,725
Total1353,0574,0184,680

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6