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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 7, Ch. XVII-Confederate Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER XVII.
OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY, TENNESSEE, NORTH ALABAMA, AND SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA.
November 19, 1861-March 4, 1862.
(Mill Springs, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson)
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CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE

{p.684}

ORDNANCE OFFICE,F Nashville, Tenn., November 20, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Nashville:

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith, for the information of the general commanding, a copy of telegram received from the Chief of Ordnance, Richmond, under date of 19th instant, in reply to one from this, office of same date:

RICHMOND, November 19, 1861.

Lieutenant WRIGHT, Nashville:

About 5,000 rifles are assigned to General Johnston out of those received. You can have as much money as you want for purchase.

J. GORGAS.

From this I suppose that I will be authorized to purchase good, serviceable arms as required.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. H. WRIGHT, First Lieutenant Artillery and Ordnance, C. S. Army.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 20, 1861.

General SAM. D. WEAKLEY, JAMES E. SAUNDERS, and others, Committee, Alabama:

In reply to your verbal inquiries, I have to say that our position here is of great strength, and that we can hold it against greatly superior numbers of the enemy; but unless we are supported on the flank and rear by forces to strengthen our present column, now at Feliciana, near Union City, the country south of us is open to an advancing column, and by cutting our railroad communication we would be isolated from the country south of this position. If this was done, and the enemy should seize New Madrid (which he can easily do) and fortify it, cutting our river communication, and thus cutting off our supplies by land and water, it is manifest that the force at this place would soon be starved out. Without additional force at this place the same result may take place by a force of 30,000 or 40,000 men investing the place and reducing it by famine. In the event of this place being reduced by this mode, the result would be the same, viz, the loss of the army and all its arms, artillery, &c., the opening of the river to the Gulf of Mexico, and isolating all the country west of the Mississippi, destroying the great valley of the Mississippi, with all its untold wealth. The magnitude of the calamity to the country can be appreciated by those only who know. In regard to the question, Do I consider {p.685} the Tennessee River safe, I answer unhesitatingly that I do not. The work at Fort Henry is as good as we could construct in the time allowed for it and the means at our hands; but we have received but little assistance from any quarter in the construction of the works on the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland, except from Tennessee, and in guns. The exigencies of the service of the Confederate Government have induced it to take most of the troops raised in Tennessee and the Mississippi Valley to Virginia. She is not strong enough to sustain unaided the great conflict before us. Our sister State South must come to our support. We will furnish the necessary engineers to lay off additional works on Tennessee River and superintend their construction and will provide artillery, if Alabama will provide the labor for construction and the troops to garrison the work, and make that river secure against the enemy. But all troops designed for our support must be armed. We can supply them with ammunition and with rifles and shot-guns, and our troops will defend our strongly-fortified positions as effectually as if they had the musket and bayonet, for the bayonet can never be used in intrenched works. If Alabama will furnish the means of constructing these works and the forces to garrison them, with arms, &c. the troops from that State will be placed in them for the purpose of defending them, thus allowing her to hold the keys of the gate-way into her own territory.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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OKOLONO, TENN., November 20, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, &c., Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Permit me to make a light draught upon your time, and ask your attention to a few suggestions in reference to the rebellion of East Tennessee. I am a citizen of Carter County, and have been all my life, except a temporary absence, which I spent in the State of Mississippi. In my judgment there is not a Union man in Carter County who was not involved to some extent in the rebellion. Many of them were drawn into it by wicked leaders, and some have heartily repented, but many others will seek the first favorable opportunity to repeat the experiment. Under these circumstances, what can be done to hold them in check in the future? If a Northern army invades the State at any future day, a majority of our population will undoubtedly tear up the railroad, burn the bridges, and destroy the lives and property of Southern men. All, however, are not bad men, but the evil-disposed must be removed from our midst or a sufficient force stationed here to hold them in check. If a force is placed here, it must not be removed again under any circumstances until the end of the war, or we will all be ruined and the railroad torn up. In this opinion I am not mistaken, and hope the Confederate Government will not be deceived by deceptive professions of loyalty.

If the military commander at this point could have a discretionary power, which would enable him to inquire into the character of the rebels and give certain ones the option to join the Confederate service during the war or be sent on for trial for treason, I have no doubt the ends of justice would be attained and much annoyance to the Government avoided. This, perhaps, would be rather a high-handed movement, {p.686} but the disease is a desperate one, and requires severe and energetic treatment. Every Union man in the county either took up arms or was fully advised of the intention of his party to do so so they are all principals or accessaries before the fact. If they are all prosecuted, every citizen of East Tennessee must be arraigned before the court or brought up as witnesses. Nearly every rebel in my county could be convicted if all the Southern-rights citizens were brought up as witnesses; but this, perhaps, would look too much like political prosecutions.

Martial law ought to be enforced in every county in East Tennessee to hold these bad men in proper restraint, but our President is very averse to such a policy. But be assured if the Northern despotism succeeds in throwing a strong military force in here we shall have much worse than martial law. Even now our most quiet and law-abiding citizens have been shot down in cold blood from behind coverts by the tories, and the proof can be made that Unionists have been tampering with the slaves.

The mass of the Union party religiously believed that a Northern army of at least 100,000 men was in East Tennessee before they began this rebellious demonstration. The Southern men have all been disarmed, and the tories have apparently disbanded in most of the counties, but really gone home to await the approach of an invading army. If we are invaded, every Southern man will be taken a prisoner or else murdered in the night-time. Our very existence depends on Mr. Lincoln’s ability to invade the State. Under these circumstances ought we not to have all the aid in the power of the Government to bestow?

If we are not invaded, a few thousand troops will keep the rebels quiet until they are completely subdued, but a hostile force here will open up a passway for our enemies down through North Carolina, Georgia, and all the Gulf States. Of this I think there can be no sort of doubt. In addition to all this, East Tennessee is full of spies and emissaries. Military law alone, in my judgment, will stop the intercourse of these spies with their colaborers in Kentucky. Men come here under the guise of refugees from Kentucky and Maryland, and thus hold intercourse with our enemies.

Asking your pardon for my boldness and the hasty manner of writing this letter, I am, very respectfully, &c.,

MADISON T. PEOPLES.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Wartburg, one mile from Montgomery, November 20, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I am moving as expeditiously as possible, with four and a half infantry regiments, a battalion of cavalry, and Rutledge’s artillery, to unite with Stanton’s command (his and Murray’s regiments and McClellan’s cavalry) beyond Jamestown, with a view of taking a strong position on the Cumberland River beyond Monticello. The country is sterile from near Clinton to beyond Jamestown, Tenn. The counties of Wayne and Clinton and the western half of Pulaski, in Kentucky, are, I learn, comparatively good counties for subsistence and forage. If I can find a good position on the Cumberland for hutting in winter I hope, by scouring the country on the north bank down to Burkesville occasionally, to command the river, and draw supplies from Nashville {p.687} when the roads to Knoxville are bad. From this camp as a base of operations I hope in mild weather to penetrate the country towards London or Danville, or in other directions, and command the approaches to Cumberland Gap or Jacksborough. I hope it may be practicable, by scouring the intervening country occasionally by detachments from both camps, to establish and safely maintain a line of express messengers between General Buckner’s outposts and my camp.

My information, when at Knoxville, induces me to believe that the numbers under Clift, in Hamilton County, were greatly exaggerated. I doubt whether he had at any time more than 100 to 200 followers. They are not now to be found, having dispersed. The tories in Sevier seem also to have retired where as yet our troops are not able to find them. I sent a few men up to Greeneville to arrest Andrew Johnson’s sons and son-in-law. Have no late news from Carter and Johnson Counties. By this time I presume General Carroll is at Knoxville, in command, and instructed to make proper dispositions to guard the railroads and crush the tory combinations.

The recent burning of the bridges brought a crisis which I think demonstrates that but comparatively a small proportion of the population will now give countenance to hostile acts against the Confederate Government, and that those who are still hostile are only running upon their own destruction. They should now be dealt very severely with. Leniency and forbearance have gradually won many thousands over who would have been driven to the enemy had our policy been severe two mouths ago, but those that are yet hostile can only be cured of their folly by severity. They should be made to feel in their persons and their property that their hostile attitude promises to them nothing but destruction.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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Abstract from return of Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer’s command for November 20, 1861, headquarters Wartburg, Tenn.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
16th Alabama (battalion)22303401455
15th Mississippi285157011,051
17th Tennessee26371538938
19th Tennessee28603693989
20th Tennessee.43637765961
1st Tennessee Cavalry (battalion).13297341376
1st Tennessee Artillery, Company A4105126137
Total1642,8313,5654,857

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 21, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN J. PETTIS, Governor of State of Mississippi:

To oppose the formidable invasion about to be made by the enemy upon the northern line of Tennessee, with the design to penetrate the {p.688} valley of the Mississippi, the Secretary of War has authorized me to call upon your excellency for all the armed men that can be raised in your State.

I therefore call upon you to assist me with every soldier of your militia into whose hands arms can be placed.

From the fact that it is more economical and less inconvenient to the citizen, a volunteer force is more desirable than militia if it can be raised as promptly, but time is now of the first importance to enable me to cover the homes of our people and save them from the suffering always incident to an invasion. I rely on the prompt and earnest efforts of your excellency to furnish as large a force as possible at the earliest day, to be armed and assembled at such convenient rendezvous as you may designate, where proper officers will furnish them supplies. Desirable as it is to have men enlisted for the war, the emergency does not permit the Government to insist, as heretofore, on this condition. I will receive all armed men for a period of twelve months.

Companies will be transported at Government expense from points where organized, and your excellency’s order for the movement will be authority to my officers to pay the charges of such transportation.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

A duplicate of this letter sent to Governor of Alabama, with exception that it called for troops from Northern Alabama.

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PROCLAMATION.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Jackson, November 21, 1861.

Whereas the Legislature has, by an act approved this day, authorized and empowered me to receive and muster into the service of the State any number of volunteers, not exceeding 10,000, by companies or squads, or individuals offering themselves, with arms in their hands, to serve in defense of Columbus, Ky., or any other threatened position, for sixty days:

Now, therefore, by virtue of the power thus vested in me, I will receive any company, squad, or individual tendered to me, armed and equipped; double-barreled shot-guns or hunting rifles will be considered efficient arms. It will be necessary for each volunteer to provide his clothing and blankets and cooking utensils of easy transportation, as provision of those articles cannot be made by the quartermaster of the State.

The places of rendezvous are Corinth and Grenada, where officers will be in readiness to receive and organize into companies, battalions, or regiments such volunteers as present themselves. Transportation will be furnished from the depots nearest the place of assembling to the rendezvous for all companies, squads, or individuals.

The commanders of companies and squads are authorized to sign certificates showing the number of men and distance traveled by their respective commands which certificates will be received as evidence of the indebtedness of the State.

All volunteers should provide themselves with three days’ rations. All who have efficient arms I hope will bring them, and if they cannot, {p.689} put them in the hands of some able and serviceable man who will bring them to the aid of the State. Volunteers requested to be at places of rendezvous by Monday next, or as soon thereafter as possible.

Generals Reuben Davis and J. L. Alcorn will command the troops thus raised.

JOHN J. PETTUS.

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CLARKSVILLE, November 21, 1861.

General POLK:

A telegram at 10 p.m. from General Johnston changes my destination. I am ordered to take charge of Forts Henry and Donelson and the region around about. I am very sorry not to be with you.

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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CHATTANOOGA, November 21, 1861.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

General Carroll has gone on to Zollicoffer. Colonel Cook’s regiment, partly armed, and the Seventh Alabama Regiment, are here. I have assumed command. Tories now quiet, but not convinced. Executions needed.

S. A. M. WOOD, Colonel Seventh Alabama Regiment Volunteers.

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RICHMOND, November 22, 1861.

Colonel WOOD, Seventh Alabama Regiment, Chattanooga, Tenn.:

Your dispatch received and also report. Have you reported to Colonel Leadbetter, according to orders If so, your report should have been addressed to him for transmission to this Department. If not, you will report to him immediately by letter to Jonesborough.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 22, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding First Division, Columbus, Ky.:

I am directed to inform you that 50 barrels of powder went forward yesterday to Memphis for Fort Pillow and 2 tons additional the day before to Columbus.

General Johnston has authorized the organization of a battalion at Grenada, Miss., of which Lieutenant Hardcastle will probably be elected the commander, and has ordered it to go to Memphis and report to you.

You will order the monthly payment of such guides as you retain in service by the Quartermaster’s Department-Davis, the pay of captain; Faulkner, of lieutenant; and to the other men $45 per month. {p.690}

The general has called on the Governors of Tennessee, Mississippi, and North Alabama for every man who can be armed for the defense of our frontier. General Pillow was advised by telegram that Louisiana would send to Fort Pillow every artillerist that could be spared, and also two regiments of infantry, with 100 rounds of ammunition. Your orders should meet them at Memphis.

The general further remarks, Fort Columbus being completed, your force will now be free to maneuver in reference to the movements of the enemy, and to act as a corps of observation to prevent the siege of the place, and should be so handled as to avoid being caught between the enemy and the river and surrounded and cut off from the magazine and re-enforcements.

His efforts have been continuous to bring a force into the field to meet the present emergency (long anticipated), and he trusts they will prove successful. Major Jackson was some time since ordered to put six months’ supply of provisions for the computed garrison into Fort Columbus. Let this supply be put there from the stores on hand and kept at that level, the garrison and troops without drawing their current supplies from Jackson depot.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Jamestown, Tenn., Nov. 22, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and. Inspector-General, Richmond:

SIR: Heavy rains have made the roads slippery and will somewhat retard our progress. Day before yesterday I ordered Colonel Stanton, with his regiment, Colonel Murray’s and Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan’s cavalry, encamped about 10 miles north of Jamestown, to make a rapid and stealthy forward movement to capture the ferry-boats at four or five crossings of the Cumberland, and, if practicable, the enemy’s cavalry said to be on this side of the river. I have not heard whether the movement has been made. I see it stated in the Nashville newspapers that General Ward has 2,000 men at Campbellsville, 1,200 at Columbia, and a regiment at Lebanon. It is reported to Colonel Stanton that the two or three regiments between Somerset and the river have moved towards Columbia, to join other forces there. He communicates also a rumor of the crossing of the Cumberland by a force of the enemy at Green’s Ferry; but all these reports seem to be uncertain.

I have no dispatches from Knoxville since I left there, but hear through various scouting parties that the tories in Lower East Tennessee are dispersed, a number of prisoners taken, a few Lincolnites killed and wounded, and several hundred guns captured. Citizens have turned out in large numbers and assisted the soldiers in scouring the mountains and hunting down the fugitive traitors. They should now be pursued to extermination, if possible.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General

[Similar report to Colonel Mackall.]

{p.691}

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 22, 1861.

ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee, Nashville, Tenn.:

We know we shall be attacked soon. The enemy’s gunboats came down to-day, made a grand flourish, but did not come within reach of our guns. It is impossible to form any correct idea of his movements, but you cannot get up your forces too soon-I fear not soon enough. We can and will hold the position unless we are invested and starved out, and I am exerting every possible effort to get supplies. I have enough now for one month.

GID. J. PILLOW, General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 22, 1861.

Maj. W. W. MACKALL, C. S. Army, Bowling Green, Ky.:

We are in great distress in this army for want of money. The supply staff is broken down for want of funds and the credit of the Government very much impaired. The banks of Tennessee have gone as far in meeting our wants as they are able and willing to do. The troops are not paid, and are dissatisfied at not being paid. As yet we have not received one dollar of assistance towards supplying the wants of this army from the Confederate Government. We have borrowed from banks as long as we could, and bought commissary and quartermasters’ supplies as long as we have credit to purchase anything on credit. An army cannot be supplied without money. The proper staff officers have made estimates and requisitions again and again, and yet we get no funds. We are unable to sell checks on Richmond for money. The Tennessee banks have put out their circulation in aid of the Government to the limit of their charters or nearly so. Quartermasters’ checks upon Richmond are now selling in the market at 15 per cent. discount. This is owing entirely to the fact that the banks are not able to cash the checks and sustain the credit of the Government.

The system of checking upon Richmond transfers the capital of the banks to Richmond, which must, of necessity, be returned in Government Treasury drafts, or the banks will all be utterly prostrate. Tennessee is throwing into the field such a large force, and in equipping and sustaining it (now transferred to the Confederate Government) and since in supplying its wants has advanced over $6,000,000. The whole of this sum has been advanced by the banks of the State.

You will perceive in these facts the necessity of providing some means of relief for the command. The impression which is extending itself through the army and country that it is neglected has a depressing influence upon all the friends of the Government.

The difficulties of the command, with the large force of the enemy we have to meet, are in themselves embarrassing enough, but add to these the question of bread and all the various wants of an army, and you may understand the embarrassments of my position. I address myself directly to you, that you may have the proper correction applied. I have confidence that you will do so. It will require $300,000 to relieve the staff of its present debts due all over the country and with the banks for borrowed money. Please place this communication before the general.

{p.692}

The want of money has rendered it impossible for the commissary-general to carry out General Johnston’s instructions in regard to a supply of subsistence for the garrison and post at this place. We have on hand about thirty days’ rations for the whole force in this command. We did not know until three days since that there were supplies at Jackson. General Polk is still very unwell from the effects of his injury from the explosion. His system is greatly shocked, and there are strong indications of more serious results from it than was at first supposed. I doubt if he will be able to resume command at an early day.

I placed in the hands of General Polk my official report of the battle of Belmont some time since, but he has been so unwell, and having immediately turned over the command to me, I apprehend he has not forwarded it to you. I now, being in command of the department, transmit you a copy of the report.

Respectfully,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding Department.

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COLUMBUS, November 22, 1861.

Colonel MACKALL:

I shall want 600 stand-wanted for regiments at Fort Pillow; 600 for Smith’s Arkansas regiment at Island No. 10, and 800 for Campbell’s regiment at Union City and to supply the deficiency in Merrick’s Arkansas regiment, now with Bowen. Please let me have them and as quickly as possible.

I have ordered Williams’ regiment forward and Bradford to follow as soon as armed; have telegraphed Governor of Louisiana for help, and he has promised me several regiments. The Governor of Mississippi can send me an armed battalion, and would make it two regiments if he had arms. Commodore Hollins, whose fleet I have asked for of the Secretary of the Navy, is here with one of his boats; the whole, six in number, are expected in the next two or three days.

I am fortifying near Madrid, where I shall place 2,000 men in a few days. The Governor of Mississippi is sending me heavy guns and cannon powder, but we are still short of the force necessary to meet the enemy’s. We nevertheless propose, by God’s blessing, to give the best account of our command that we can. Have asked you for Scott’s Louisiana regiment of cavalry, which I suppose you can grant.

L. POLK.

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TUSCUMBIA, ALA., November 22, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: The undersigned were sent from North Alabama and North east Mississippi to the military commander at Columbus, Ky., to inquire if the defenses of the Tennessee River were safe, and to know if we could aid them in any manner. The answer from General Pillow, now commanding there, after conferring with General Polk, was that they were as good as the time allowed and the means afforded would permit, but that they were unsafe, and the force on that flank of the army resting on that river insufficient; that there was danger of the enemy ascending the Tennessee River and burning the railroad bridge {p.693} across it just above Fort Henry, and separating our army at Bowling Green from that at Columbus, and of destroying the Mobile and Ohio and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads, for it is only 18 miles from the Big Bend of the Tennessee to their junction at Corinth.

The undersigned then determined to make an effort to improve the works on that river, and send 5,000 volunteers, with their own guns, to garrison them. General Pillow, to facilitate the work, appointed General Weakley, our chairman, a volunteer aide-de-camp, and specially charged him with the organization of the force; Mr. William Dickson, quartermaster, and Mr. John T. Abernathy, commissary, for the force to be raised for this purpose. They are gentlemen of large wealth, patriotic, and energetic. And, moreover, General Pillow authorized Col. Thomas J. Foster to raise a regiment, to be armed with their own guns, for twelve months.

We shall proceed immediately to raise these volunteers. We propose to organize a company of old men, armed, in each county in North Alabama, for forty days. Our reasons for this are that they are not only in the general better marksmen than the generation now growing up, but the very fact of gray-headed men moving to the field will give an impetus to volunteering which we need just now; and, besides, very many of these old men will have their negro men laboring on the works, and their presence would be satisfactory to themselves and useful in furthering them. The volunteers liable to do military duty will be enrolled for twelve months.

From Columbus we requested the Governor of Alabama to ask the Legislature to pass a law for the purchase and impressment of arms similar to the one enacted in-the State of Tennessee, and presume it has been done before this time.

General Pillow has instructed Captain Dixon, military engineer, to make a survey to determine a proper location for a new work.

We hope we may have your approval of these arrangements for the public defense. The bonds of Mr. Dickson, as quartermaster, and Mr. Abernathy, as commissary, will be sent, with sureties worth a very large amount, under this date.

Direct, if you please, the-proper bureaus in your Department to write immediately to these officers, with such general or special instructions as may be necessary, for we shall need transportation for men and laborers down Tennessee River, some wagons and horses, some tools for rough work, provisions, medicines, &c., and if we have to await the progress of matters through formal channels we may be delayed in accomplishing the work in which we are engaged. Until we hear from the Department, however, we shall not hesitate to take such steps as we would in our private business.

B. D. WEAKLEY, Chairman. JAMES E. SAUNDERS, Secretary of Committee.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 1, New Orleans, La., November 23, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Western Division, Bowling Green, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: I send by steamer Morrison this morning the Thirteenth Louisiana Regiment, Colonel Gibson, over 700 strong, to Columbus.

{p.694}

They are armed with muskets, and have 100 rounds of ammunition per man.

I have recalled from Mississippi Sound the Third Mississippi Regiment, Colonel Deason, over 800 strong, and will send them forward to-morrow as soon as they arrive. This regiment is also armed, and has 100 rounds per man. Both regiments were in the act of receiving their clothing when ordered off; they will leave officers behind to bring it up.

I have sent these regiments to your aid rather hesitatingly, and only because I thought your danger more imminent than mine. This, however, is rather guess-work, for we cannot tell at what hour the enemy may appear off the mouth of our rivers and bayous. I write, therefore, to ask you to order both these regiments back at the very first moment that you think you will be able to replace them by other troops. Arms are being collected and imported which will enable you to equip other men to take the place of those I send. I can illy afford to spare them.

Governor Moore is trying to collect some artillerists to send you, but we find more trouble than we had anticipated. Shall do our best, and send them on by rail at the earliest possible moment.

I learn that there are 90 tons saltpeter at Nashville. I have powder-mills here, but a dearth of saltpeter. Can you spare me 30 tons of that at Nashville? If so, please order it sent by rail, or the mills here will have to stop by the end of next week. I wrote you some days since on this subject.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. LOVELL, Major-General, C. S. Army.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 23, 1861.

SAMUEL P. WALKER, Memphis, bun.:

Before taking the field it is absolutely necessary that the troops have tents and camp equipage. They cannot live without. To avoid confusion and conflict of authority between Governor Harris and myself it will be necessary that these companies be reported to Governor Harris, and get his authority for their being ordered here, as they will all be embraced in his call. I will advise Governor Harris of this necessity by telegram, and get his authority and advise you.

By order of Brigadier-General Pillow, commanding:

GUS. A. HENRY, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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TUSCUMBIA, ALA., November 23, 1861.

To our Fellow-Citizens of North Alabama and North Mississippi:

The undersigned were sent as delegates from a number of counties in North Alabama and Tishomingo County, Mississippi, to the camp at Columbus, Ky., to inquire of the military authorities there if they considered the defenses of the Tennessee River safe; and, if not, to tender material aid to make them so. Have just returned, and report their mission in the form of a circular. (We hope our editors will see the propriety of not publishing it in the papers.)

We had several interviews with General Pillow now commanding the department, in consequence of an injury to Major-General Polk {p.695} from the bursting of a gun. When asked if he considered the defenses of the Tennessee River safe, he answered, without hesitation, he did not. He said they were as good as could be constructed in the time allowed and with the means afforded, and most cheerfully accepted the tender of aid which we were sent to make. Order was sent to Captain Dixon, an able engineer, to project the works required, and we now come to you for several thousand volunteers, to be stationed on the Tennessee River-5,000, if they can be raised, and as many negro men as can be raised.

To give efficiency to our work, General Samuel D. Weakley, our chairman, has been appointed aide-de-camp to the commanding officer of the department and charged specially with the duty of mustering in the troops and serving as the military head until the corps shall be regularly organized.

We propose to raise a regiment of men past middle life to serve during the emergency, but the younger men will be enrolled for twelve months. The whole force we must arm with shot-guns and rifles, with which a strongly-fortified position can be defended as perfectly as with musket and bayonet, for the bayonet cannot be used there. We have applied to the Governor to have an act passed for the purchase of arms and their compressment when necessary, and giving power to impress negro men, when necessary, to labor on the public works.

We have no expectation that force will be necessary, however. We expect a community so patriotic as ours to furnish their private arms for the public service or become volunteers and use them. The impression that many men have that they will be more secure by retaining their arms for their personal defense is a great error. The true policy for Southern people is to keep the enemy at a distance. If he is suffered to penetrate into the interior we shall find our private arms of little benefit, and concerted action for self-defense becomes impracticable. In this hour of our peril the man who loves his family best provides for their safety by meeting the enemy on the threshold of the country.

The enemy is preparing a great expedition by land and water against our forces on the Mississippi River. The position of our army at Columbus is one of great strength, but unless it is properly sustained on its flanks and the communication on its rear preserved, the result might be a disaster involving the loss of our army there, with all its arms, artillery, and munitions, the consequences of which would be the command by the foe of this great river, the destruction of the towns upon it, the loss of immense property, and the isolation of all the States west of the Mississippi from us.

A strong work and competent force on the Tennessee River is considered by every general at Columbus as a measure of great importance, not only to the security of North Alabama and North Mississippi, but of the Memphis and Charleston and Mobile and Ohio Railroads, and also preserving communication between our forces at Bowling Green and Columbus, and that no time is to be lost in occupying the position. We purpose to do so and at once.

William Dickson, of Franklin County, has been appointed quartermaster, and John T. Abernathy, of Lawrence County, commissary, and the plan is fully matured, and the comfort of the volunteers and laborers will be provided for.

If our people at home were convinced, as we are, that a deadly struggle for our homes and property is impending, that the enemy in a few days will put forth his whole strength for our subjugation, they would rally en masse for the public defense.

{p.696}

Col. Thomas J. Foster, of Lawrence, is empowered by General Pillow to raise a regiment, and other gentlemen will rapidly follow in the noble work. The volunteers will be sent down the river as they are organized, and we invite the aid of our wives and daughters to prepare clothing and tents for them.

1st. Our young men at Columbus are not only enduring the hardships of the camp and meeting gallantly the hazards of the battle, but laboring in the trenches with spades and shovels now, and who are we that we should be exempt from the burdens imposed for the common defense?

Special orders from General Weakley will be published from time to time, giving direction to the movements.

SAMUEL D. WEAKLEY. JAMES E. SAUNDERS. THOMAS J. FOSTER. DAVID DESHLER. WM. DICKSON. WM. COOPER. B. B. TROUSDALE.

Dated Tuscumbia, Ala., November 23, 1861.

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CAMP HARDEE, Col. Wirt Adams’ Regiment Cavalry, November 23, 1861.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding First Division, C. S. Army, Ky.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to an order received through Colonel Adams from you, I made a scout on this day from Miller’s Ferry, on Barren River, to Hendrick’s Ferry, on Green River. There I found the ferry-flat sunk. I made the ferryman, Peter Amos, cross over to me in a skiff. He reported a visit from 30 Union men on the night of the 22d instant, under command of John S. Phelps, Simpson, and Niley Emory, men living 10 miles beyond Green River, on the Litchfield road, who sunk his boat, and ordered him to put no one across the river from this side. This party was armed with muskets (percussion locks) with bayonets.

I questioned a man by the name of J. H. Williams, who was taken prisoner by these men with his wagon, containing dry goods, belonging to Lewis Anderson, bath living across Green River. Williams was released by them on taking the oath of allegiance, but the goods were confiscated. Mr. Williams further reported, with much hesitation, that four regiments of the enemy were encamped at a place called Derbin, on the Litchfield road, this side of Blue River, and about 12 miles from Hendrick’s Ferry. This report was confirmed by several refugees from the other side of the river, some saying 3,000, some 4,000 men.

Phelps’ scout belonged to Hawkins’ command. One mile and a half below Hendrick’s Ferry is Samuel Young’s Ferry, where there are two flats on this side of the river not destroyed, though their destruction is apprehended. These flats are capable, each, of crossing eight horses. Between Young’s and Hendrick’s Ferries is another larger flat, on the other side of the river, filled with water, which can be used when bailed out. Several refugees reported also that a camp was being formed by the enemy 4 miles beyond Green River from Hendrick’s Ferry.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

PAUL RAVESIES, Capt. Comdg. Soon from Col. Wirt Adams’ Regt. Cavalry.

{p.697}

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Kentucky Line, near Albany, November 24, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Colonel Stanton’s regiment will probably camp at Monticello to-night; Colonel Murray’s about 12 miles distant from Monticello, towards Albany. They have with them five cavalry companies, with which they are ordered to seize the ferry-boats at the crossings of the Cumberland. Captain Sheliha and Captain Estell, engineer officers, have accompanied the cavalry to make reconnaissances. The command with which I left Jacksborough camps here to-night, 8 miles from Albany, through which place we will pass to-morrow. My information is that ferry-boats are used on the Cumberland River at Burkesville; at Creelsborough, 17 miles above Burkesville; at Rowena, 15 miles above Creelsborough; at Horse Shoe Bottom, 8 miles above Rowena; at Dorothea Landing, 16 miles (by land) above Horse Shoe Bottom; at Mill Springs, 8 miles above Dorothea Landing; and at three ferries within 4 1/2 miles below the forks of the Cumberland; that is, one immediately below the fork, Stegall’s Ferry, 1 1/2 miles below, and one just below Waitsborough. I think the ferry at Horse Shoe Bottom is the one called Greene’s Ferry, where it is rumored the enemy are probably concentrating.

The enemy have 1300 men at Camp Goggin, on the north bank of the river, opposite Waitsborough. My information leads me to suppose that there are now no forces of the enemy on this side of the river. Captain Estell, who has made a rapid reconnaissance, reports six pieces of artillery at Camp Goggin.

I have no later information than that alluded to two days ago, of the 2,000 men at Campbellsville, the 1,200 at Columbia, and the regiment at Lebanon. North of the river is to us yet as a terra incognito. At Mill Springs and Dorothea Landing the southern bank is bluff and the northern flat and low. At Creelsborough and Rowena this is reversed. At Horse Shoe Bottom the north bank is higher than the south; is timbered; the south bank is cleared. At Rowena the same as to timber. At Creelsborough no timber on either side; same at Burkesville. At Mill Springs no timber between the height on this side and the river. This information Captain Sheliha communicates, and he learns that the surrounding country is fertile and well stocked, and that there is a grist and a saw mill at Mill Springs. It is probable a good position may be found there for winter quarters.

We have the first snow-flakes for the season to-day; the weather cold and stormy for the last two days.

I wrote to Maj. V. K. Stevenson, assistant quartermaster-general, at Nashville, on the 10th, for 500 axes, 300 shovels, 200 picks, and other trenching tools; also for 200 pack-saddles, which are often needed to fit up dashing movements in a mountainous country impassable to wagon trains; but have heard from neither. I do not know how I can dispense with the tools, and fear I shall be seriously embarrassed for want of them.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

{p.698}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. C. BRECKINRIDGE, Commanding, &c., Russellville:

SIR: General Johnston directs you to return to this place with your brigade. You will leave one company of cavalry in the vicinity of Russellville for five or six days, with orders to gain all possible information of the movements of the enemy after your departure and then march for this place.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., November 24, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. West. Dept., Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: For the information of the commanding general I inclose a copy of a report just received from Lieutenant Joseph Dixon, C. S. Army, in charge of the defenses at Fort Donelson, with a copy of a telegram from General Pillow, commanding First Division, Western Department, ordering Lieutenant Dixon to proceed to Fort Henry, Tennessee River, and perform certain duties at that place, thereby calling him from the direction of the works (much needed) to which I had assigned him at Fort Donelson.

In regard to labor, I would suggest that the batteries at Fort Donelson can be completed sooner by the troops, perhaps, than if an effort were made to collect negroes for the purpose from the surrounding country. With re-enforcements proposed for the garrison the requisite amount of work can well be done by fatigue parties. In imminent danger, the brigadier-general commanding Forts Donelson and Henry might be authorized to press all neighborhood negro labor into service, but under other circumstances I do not think that the labor of troops and slaves can be combined to any advantage.

I must respectfully request that the commanding general will establish the channel through which orders and instructions must pass to all persons in the Western Department employed in the direction and construction of defenses. Except in pressing emergencies they should certainly be given through the chief engineer of the department, and the exceptional cases should be at once reported to that office.

With the least delay possible I will send a civil engineer to Fort Henry, who is familiar with the ground around the place and who has been employed heretofore at that work. The local duties can be intrusted to him (Mr. Hayden) by Lieutenant Dixon, who should certainly give his personal supervision to the defenses of the Lower Cumberland until they are in condition to make a respectable resistance.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer of Western Department.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

FORT DONELSON, TENN., November 21, 1861.

Major GILMER, Chief Engineer, Western Department, Bowling Green, Ky.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I have completed the new {p.699} battery on the river, and I am at present preparing to mount the pieces in it. I have also laid out a little work on the ridge about 100 yards back of the encampment, and have mounted the two 9-pounders there; I have had the trees felled around the encampment so as to form a very good abatis. That portion of the old field where the dragoons were encamped when you were here I will cause to be obstructed by digging trous-de-loup and dragging small trees over the open space. I wish you would get the general to give an order to press labor, for it cannot be obtained here in any other way.

There are not more than 200 troops here fit for duty; all the rest are sick or on leave of absence.

I have just received a telegraphic order from General Pillow. I would like to know whose orders I am to obey. I send inclosed a copy of General Pillow’s order. I will go to Fort Henry and see what is wanting, and return here and await your orders.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOSEPH DIXON, First Lieutenant, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 20, 1861.

Captain DIXON, Engineer, Fort Donelson:

You will proceed to Fort Henry and make necessary reconnaissances and surveys for an additional work on the Tennessee River.

A large force of slaves, with troops to protect them, from Alabama will report at Danville for this work, the construction of which you will superintend and push to completion as early as possible.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., November 24, 1861.

Lieut. JOSEPH DIXON, C. S. Army, Fort Donelson:

SIR: I have just received your letter of the 21st instant, reporting progress on the works at Fort Donelson, and the inclosed copy of a telegraphic order from General Pillow, directing you to repair to Fort Henry, thereby interrupting the progress of the work, I fear, committed to your charge by me at Fort Donelson.

I have just sent copies of your letter to me and of General Pillow’s telegram to you to General Johnston, with an earnest request that he will establish at once the channel through which you and all others engaged in the direction and construction of defenses in the Western Department shall receive their instructions. Certainly the chief engineer of the department furnishes the proper channel, and and exceptions be made in cases of emergency the exceptions should be reported forthwith to that officer. I will send Mr. Hayden, civil engineer, to Fort Henry. He can attend to the local duties there, as he has been employed on Fort Henry before, and is now here finishing the draw-bridge for that work, He is called Captain Hayden, having held that commission in the Tennessee service. You will please to give him your {p.700} instructions by letter, if possible, and require him to press forward any work you may decide upon as being necessary in addition to those already constructed at Fort Henry. I will have at least one more 32 pounder gun sent to Fort Donelson-if possible, two more. You will therefore prepare extensions of parapet sufficient for them by the time they can reach you.

You say nothing of the progress of Mr. T. J. Glenn, civil engineer, to whom I intrusted the placing of obstructions in the river under the guns of Fort Donelson. Please to supervise his progress and report to me, and have every aid given him that the garrison can afford. You will please report to me what you propose to do additional at Fort Henry.

Your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION C. A. Ky., Oakland, November 24, 1861.

Lieut. D. G. WHITE, SIR: I have since my courier left received the following information of the enemy’s movements in the direction of Elizabethtown:

His main body is still at Nolin. About 3,000 including infantry, artillery, and cavalry, are at Bacon Creek, under Rousseau. The railroad bridge across Bacon Creek has been rebuilt. The Yankees have there eight ferry-boats and a large quantity of bridge timbers. These they intend moving by railroad to Munfordville, with the view to cross part of their force in the boats and hold this bank of Green River while the bridge is being repaired. This information comes to me from P. H. Gardner, whom I have had heretofore in my employ as a spy. He will bear this letter. He learned from an abolitionist direct from Rousseau’s camp that the enemy’s loss at Brownsville in the skirmish before reported was 8 killed and 7 or 8 wounded.

Very respectfully,

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., November 25, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

The military authorities in command at this post have determined to try the bridge-burners and other men charged with treason by a court-martial. What shall I do? Answer.

J. C. RAMSAY, C. S. District Attorney for the District of Tennessee.

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RICHMOND, November 25, 1861.

J. C. RAMSAY, District Attorney, Knoxville:

I am very glad to hear of the action of the military authorities, and {p.701} hope to hear they have hung every bridge-burner at the end of the burned bridge.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 25, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: Your report of the 20th instant* is received, and I proceed to give you the desired instructions in relation to the prisoners taken by you amongst the traitors in East Tennessee:

1st. All such as can be identified as having been engaged in bridge-burning are to be tried summarily by drum-head court-martial, and, if found guilty, executed on the spot by hanging. It would be well to leave their bodies hanging in the vicinity of the burned bridges.

2d. All such as have not been so engaged are to be treated as prisoners of war, and sent with an armed guard to Tuscaloosa, Ala., there to be kept imprisoned at the depot selected by the Government for prisoners of war. Wherever you can discover that arms are concealed by these traitors you will send out detachments, search for and seize the arms. In no case is one of the men known to have been up in arms against the Government to be released on any pledge or oath of allegiance. The time for such measures is past. They are all to be held as prisoners of war, and held in jail till the end of the war. Such as come in voluntarily, take the oath of allegiance, and surrender their arms are alone to be treated with leniency.

Your vigilant execution of these orders is earnestly urged by the Government.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

P. S.-Judge Patterson, Colonel Pickens, and other ringleaders of the same class must be sent at once to Tuscaloosa to jail as prisoners of war.

[NOTE.-The same letter with a slight verbal alteration of the opening paragraph and the omission of the postscript, was sent at the same time to Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer, Jacksborough, Tenn., and Colonel Leadbetter, Jonesborough, Tenn.]

* See “Revolt of Unionists in East Tennessee,” Series I, Vol. IV, p. 250.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. H. CARROLL, Chattanooga, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of the 17th instant has been received,* and I have the honor to inform you, in reply, that the course you are pursuing {p.702} towards the traitors in East Tennessee does not meet the approval of this Department.

You will be pleased to observe the following instructions:**

...

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

* See Series I, Vol. IV, p. 245.

** These instructions were the same as those in Benjamin to Wood, of same date, p. 701.

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POUND GAP, November 25, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General C. S. A., Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I arrived at Colonel Williams’ camp yesterday. I hear, from sources deemed reliable, that the enemy have fallen back, how far I do not know, nor do I know from what cause, but I think it probable they will occupy the State road from the mouth of Sandy to the county seat of Bath (Owingsville), and thence along the mountain’s base, which is a considerable contraction of their circle. I have ordered my whole body of cavalry up from Clinch River, to which they had fallen back, and shall start them immediately to the front to ascertain the whereabouts of the enemy, and by their movements to inspirit our friends, who are said to be much dispirited by the insolent course of the enemy and their friends. Provisions are cheap on the other side of the mountains and forage in many places is abundant. I shall press forward cautiously, but sufficiently, I hope, to address myself successfully to the mountain people of Kentucky.

My infantry is all undrilled and very badly clad. I have sent my brigade quartermaster, Charles E. Marshall, to Richmond, to urge immediate supplies and to execute his bonds. I commend him to you as a gentleman of high business capacity and sterling integrity. He wants experience in army matters, and any assistance you can render him will be thankfully remembered by me.

I find that some misinformation has been given to you about the companies at Pound Gap destined to form a regiment for Colonel Moore. They were raised by order of General Zollicoffer, with a condition that they were to be kept in Scott and Wise Counties only to defend the mountain passes, and not to leave this State. They are under the command of Major Ward, who raised them at the instance of General Zollicoffer. They are unwilling to be placed in a regiment under Colonel Moore in any event, but especially refuse to be taken from their own officer or to change the term of their service from one special in its character to one which will be general. Colonel Moore has not moved any of his five companies from Abingdon yet. I think it highly probable he never will, and if he is not capable of responding more rapidly than he has done to my orders, it makes little difference if he never does. I have received your order to organize this battalion into a regiment, under Colonel Moore, but under the circumstances I deem it prudent to delay the execution of that order until you are possessed fully of all the facts of the case. Meanwhile the battalion will remain on duty subject to Major Ward. In any event, there will be required a reserve at this point to guard the pass and the line of supply, and these men will do very well for such service. I will cause them to build cabins and so arrange them as to fortify the gap, and it can be made a depot for supply to an army in front.

I have to urge you, general, to cause another battery to be sent forward {p.703} to me to this point. I shall then only have eight pieces of artillery. I have ordered Colonel Trigg to move forward on the Piketon road from his present position. I will communicate with him before he arrives at Piketon, if I am not there in person to receive him. I have several men raising recruits in Kentucky in the mountain counties and I do think the clothes and the food, the comforts of the soldier, will be indispensable as an auxiliary to this business of organization. You cannot expect men to be contented without blankets or overcoats or shoes in the snow and ice of a high mountain range. The physique overcomes the sentimental. I nominate Dr. Basil C. Duke as chief of the medical staff of this brigade and request his commission. This completes my staff.

I hope the Secretary will recognize the propriety of my request for another regiment, as it is now palpable I have only a part of one, under Colonel Trigg, and it is doubtful if Colonel Moore will ever come forward, or, if he does, that he will only have a battalion, and these all undrilled. It would be of very serious import should I be left with no force to advance, or with only such as to retreat again when a heavier force presents itself. The effect upon the people is of the worst character, and in this matter time is an element of the first consequence.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

H. MARSHALL Brigadier-General, C. S.

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CAMP HARDEE, Bowling Green, November 25, 1861.

Col. WIRT ADAMS, Commanding Regiment:

SIR: I have the honor to report that, in pursuance of your instructions, I proceeded at an early hour this morning with my company in the direction of Green River, for the purpose of gaining information of the enemy, reported as being in force at Hendrick’s Ferry. I visited all the ferries on Green River within a day’s march of this post, viz, Young’s, Hendrick’s, and Hanaker’s, without being able to discover any of the enemy’s force. From the most authentic information that could be obtained I am satisfied that no greater force than a detachment of 12 or 14 men have been for some time past in the vicinity of any of the ferries above named.

The ferry-boats at Hendrick’s and Hanaker’s have been destroyed by the enemy, and an attempt was made last night by them to decoy to the other side two boats now at Young’s.

The nearest point to Green River from this post being 13 miles, I beg leave to state that, owing to the condition of the roads, the march there and back in the same day cannot be made without serious injury to the horses.

I have to report also that the boat at Van Meter Ferry is in such condition as to make the passage of horses exceedingly dangerous.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. F. HARRISON, Captain, Wirt Adams’ Regiment Cavalry.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 25, 1861.

Governor HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:

Fifteen thousand re-enforcements of the enemy had reached Cairo, and others were at Saint Louis, awaiting transportation, on Saturday.

{p.704}

They commenced returning up the river to-day. We have information that General Price is advancing on Saint Louis. This explains the counter-movement, and I think it will prevent the threatened movement on this place until the winter will close in. We have about completed our defenses, making this place impregnable when sustained with gunboat fleet and with forces near Union City. You may now take time to organize your forces, gather your arms, and largely increase the volunteer forces, holding over the country the call for the militia. Many men will volunteer to avoid the odium of being forced into the service. I deem this important information for you to possess, that you may shape your course accordingly.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, November 26, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived here on Saturday last, by order of General Zollicoffer, and assumed command of this post on Sunday. I found stationed here Colonel Wood’s battalion and several companies of infantry and cavalry. There seemed to be much uneasiness and apprehension felt in reference to the disaffected portion of the population. I have put the city under military rule and have restored peace and security.

I have detailed and sent to the various districts where I had information there were any gatherings of disaffected citizens and had them dispersed, and in many instances the leaders arrested. As soon as possible, I dispatched companies of mounted men to scour the country, with instructions to arrest and send here all persons who were inciting rebellion or were found with arms, resisting the authorities. In all instances where there was no proof of disloyalty I have discharged the prisoners upon their taking the oath of allegiance.

There are now in custody here about 70 persons, many of whom, it is believed, were either directly or indirectly connected with the burning of the railroad bridges. Colonel Wood, who was in command here before my arrival, had in contemplation a court-martial for the trial of those upon whom proof of guilt seemed to be strong. I concurred with him, and ordered the meeting on the 28th. The board will be composed of some of the most intelligent officers within this post, and I have no doubt their action will be prudent and discreet.

It is important that steam-power should be secured for the purpose of driving the machinery necessary in the alteration of arms. I therefore took possession of the printing establishment of Brownlow. The steam-engine and building are suitable for our purposes, and it was the only one that could be procured here. Brownlow has left, and no certain information of his whereabouts can be obtained; it is, however, certain that he is aiding and abetting our enemies. I have assured his sons, who profess to have sold the establishment to a Mr. Baxter, that indemnity for the use of the establishment would be paid by the Government. I have every assurance that the sale to Baxter was a false one, and feel that Baxter is not reliable in his loyalty to our Government.

In obedience to your instructions, November 22, I have given orders {p.705} that all contracts for hogs or cattle made with the agents of the Confederate Government shall be complied with, and have dispatched several armed parties to see that it is properly executed.

There are 1,140 sacks of salt here. I have directed 400 sacks should be delivered to D. Morris & Co. and 400 sacks to Wilson & Johnson. This is sufficient to meet their present wants, and the balance will be returned, to meet such other demands as may arise. I will report to you again soon.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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COLUMBUS, November 26, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL:

In reply to telegram as to General Pillow’s signature to his letters, I have to say that since the accident to the gun my head has been in such a state I could not attend to duty, and General Pillow was placed in command; that, too, has been reason for not sending report of the battle. My report goes forward to-morrow, and I hope to resume command in a day or two.

L. POLK.

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RICHMOND, November 26, 1861. (Received, Bowling Green, November 27, 1861.)

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

The President desires you to suspend your order to muster out of service the twelve months’ unarmed Mississippi troops until Mr. E. L. Acee, of Mississippi, can have a little time to collect and arm a portion of them. Mr. Acee leaves here to-day for Mississippi for this purpose.

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General.

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Abstract from return of troops at Cumberland Gap, Tenn., Col. William M. Churchwell, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, commanding, for November 26, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
4th Tennessee Infantry, Colonel Churchwell39567731136
11th Tennessee Infantry, Colonel Rains36651793885
3d East Tennessee Battalion Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Brazelton19281300300
Grand total941,4991,8242,021

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HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, C. A. KY., Graham’s, November 27, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: My command has fallen back to this place. My pickets are {p.706} thrown out at distances of from 5 to 7 miles on the turnpike and road to Glasgow and Brownsville.

A rumor reached me yesterday, just before leaving Oakland, that the enemy was crossing in large force at Brownsville that morning. I think it probable there were 75 or 100 cavalry sent over to reconnoiter.

I have no information of the movements of the enemy in my front. The order of to-day, through General Hardee, to destroy railroad if your couriers report the enemy advancing, will be promptly executed.

Very respectfully,

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 27, 1861.

Major-General CRITTENDEN, Commanding, Morristown, Tenn.:

General Johnston directs me to inform you that the territorial limits of your command are as follows: East and Middle Tennessee, bounded on the west by the railroad from Chattanooga to Nashville; thence up the Cumberland River to the Tennessee line, with such portion of Kentucky as you may any time hold.

Your forces will consist of those under the orders of General Zollicoffer and Carroll, the Georgia regiment lately sent into the department, and all volunteers arriving and being mustered in.

If you are satisfied that the late attack upon East Tennessee has failed and is now abandoned by the enemy, as it appears to us, and that his effort will now be made by this more direct route on Nashville, the general wishes you to detach and send to Nashville all the forces you can spare without endangering the safety of your district. The force of the enemy in front far outnumbers us, and his intention to advance no longer admits of a doubt.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Thirteen miles west of Monticello, November 27, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Two regiments cross the river to-day at Mill Springs to endeavor to cut off 800 of the enemy at Waitsborough, 9 miles above. A mail from Columbia to Monticello has been captured, by which we learn that there are two battalions of cavalry and two regiments of infantry at Columbia. They had heard of my advance and heard my force was 9,000. This they doubt but think if it is true they will have to retreat for want of numbers. I learn that General Thomas is at Crab Orchard, but have no reliable intelligence of forces other than those at Columbia and Waitsborough. I have sent detachments of cavalry to examine the ferries at Burkesville and Creelsborough, 17 miles above Burkesville; also to get more particular information of the ferries and roads crossing at Dorothea Landing and Horse Shoe Bottom. It is now certain there is no enemy this side of the Cumberland. We have here an abundance {p.707} of beef, pork, and corn, at low prices. The better classes of citizens sympathize with us.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General

[Similar report to Lieutenant-Colonel Mackall.]

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 27, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: Two persons of respectability, both arriving from Louisville, having no knowledge of each other, have last night and to-day made statements to me concerning the enemy which go to show a continued increase of force of the different arms of service. I am assured by one of them that the force in my front has been augmented to thirty-seven regiments and others are expected. I suppose a change of the plan of operations has been made, and that the force intended for East Tennessee will now be combined with the force on this line, making an aggregate strength of probably more than 50,000 men to be arrayed against my force here.

If the forces of the enemy are maneuvered as I think they may be, I may be compelled to retire from this place to cover Nashville, with the aid of the volunteer force now being organized, which could in that way be brought in co-operation.

It is understood that General Halleck, who will command at Columbus, and General Buell, who is in command on this line, will make a simultaneous attack. I doubt if Buell will make a serious attack on my position here. I hope he may. I have requested General Crittenden to send a portion of his force to Nashville, if in his judgment it can be done without weakening his force too much.

A position of so much importance as Fort Pillow should be placed under the command of an able and experienced officer. I hope such a one will be selected and ordered to take command there at once. He should in reference to the garrison, have at least the grade of brigadier-general.

We still have a great many sick, but the measles, which so afflicted our troops, spreads much more slowly.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

The workmen of the enemy are rebuilding the railroad bridge over Green River.

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EN ROUTE FOR BOWLING GREEN, Distant about 25 miles, November 27, 1861-10.30 a.m.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt at this moment of the duplicate of your communication of November 24. The original I received late at night on the evening of the 25th, and in obedience to {p.708} its instructions commenced my return with my command to Bowling Green on the morning of the 26th, having detached the cavalry company to Russellville, with the proper orders.

Owing to the weather and the condition of the roads the progress of the command is necessarily slow. I hope, however, to reach Bowling Green to-morrow evening.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, Brig. Gen., Comdg. 1st Ky. Brig., 2d Div., Central Column.

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COLUMBUS, November 28, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

The following are extracts from dispatches I have received to-day-the first from General Frost, at Saint Louis, the second from a friend in Paducah:

First:

The enemy intend to make an attack on Columbus in twenty days, with a force of from 75,000 to 100,000 men. If you can repulse them, it will have a better effect than a defeat on the Potomac. There has been shipped from Saint Louis to Cairo a large amount of cannon and ammunition. In Saint Louis there [are] eight mortar boats and eight gunboats.

Second extract.:

They say when they do move on Columbus they expect to surround you and starve you into submission. I heard a responsible gentleman, who is perfectly acquainted with affairs in Paducah and Cairo, say that it is the calculation publicly expressed among the officers at Cairo.

These extracts shadow forth correctly their plans. Every effort should be made to prepare a strong force to meet him on my right and rear. No time should be lost.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF MISSISSIPPI, Ordnance Office, Jackson, Miss., November 28, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

DEAR GENERAL: I have just returned from Vicksburg, where I was ordered to inspect our fortifications and report their condition, and also to recommend the construction of such other works as are necessary for the defense of that point against the threatened descent of our enemy by the river to New Orleans.

I was compelled to report that I think it impossible to defend Vicksburg by any works we can construct on the left bank of the river unaided by fortifications on the Louisiana side. I have therefore written to Governor Moore (by authority of Governor Pettus), indicating the points necessary to be fortified on the right bank.

Unless fortifications are erected on the Arkansas side opposite those on the Tennessee shore, the Yankee armada can descend by Memphis. Batteries on the banks will hardly be able, even with a heavy converging fire from both banks, to arrest the passage of steamers and floating iron-clad batteries without the assistance of booms or other obstructions in the channel to hold them in check and under fire for a considerable length of time.

{p.709}

If we have only twenty-four guns to guard a point on the liver, it is best to divide them, and place twelve in position on either side, to make their service more efficient. I do not think it will be possible for you to stop the enemy at Columbus, even if you defend it successfully, unless you have the opposite bank fortified.

With the aid of piles driven in the river, trees lodged against them, and such booms, where the channel is deep, as the Chinese used when they defeated the British at the Pei-Ho forts, making a succession of obstructions extending across the river under your guns, the defense of Vicksburg and New Orleans may be made successfully by you at Columbus.

The plan of the enemy is obvious. Their object is to take New Orleans. If their armada can descend the river, with a land force of 20,000, capture and destroy our steamers and all our means of river transportation, and anchor above New Orleans, they can safely wait for the co-operation of their Gulf force. With the command of Lake Pontchartrain and the Passes and all the avenues of approach to the city, we cannot relieve it even with a force of 100,000 men. I think if they are defeated on land at Columbus, Memphis, Vicksburg, Natchez, Baton Rouge, and every other point above, they can run the gauntlet of our batteries with their armada down to New Orleans, unless we fortify both banks of the Mississippi at Columbus and the defensible points below.

Pardon the above which is written under a sense of duty, and with the highest regard for you as a general and as a man.

I, like yourself, have laid aside (almost) my pastoral staff for the sword, deploring this war, and endeavoring to bring it to an end by the Lord’s help. Educated for the army, I could not refuse my services as a soldier to my country in her severe trial.

Respectfully, your friend and obedient servant,

EDWARD FONTAINE, Lieutenant-Colonel and Chief of Ordnance, M. A.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., November 28, 1861.

Capt. M. H. WRIGHT, Ordnance Department, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: For the batteries at Fort Donelson and Clarksville, Cumberland River, you will please to make a requisition for the following additional guns, viz:

Four 8-inch columbiads, or, if these cannot be had, then four other guns of long range, four 32-pounder guns; all to be delivered at Clarksville, Tenn., with platforms, chassis, and carriages complete; also 50 rounds of ammunition.

Also for Fort Henry, Tennessee River, the following:

Four 8-inch columbiads, four other heavy guns of long range, four 32-pounder guns. These to be delivered at Tennessee Bridge, 20 miles above Fort Henry, with platforms, chassis, and carriages complete, and 50 rounds of ammunition.

By order of General Johnston:

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

{p.710}

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ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, November 28, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Western Dept., Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Last evening I received the following telegram from Mr. T. J. Glenn, civil engineer, employed by me in obstructing the Cumberland River, under the guns of Fort Donelson, with trees and timber, viz:

CUMBERLAND CITY, November 27, 1861.

Maj. J. F. GILMER, Saint Cloud Hotel:

General Tilghman has ordered me to suspend. Instruct me immediately.

T. J. GLENN.

To which I replied at once as follows:

You will continue the work for obstructing the Cumberland River.

J. F. GILMER, Major of Engineers.

The obstructing works on which Mr. Glenn is engaged are far advanced, and to be effective must be completed. It will be impossible for me to rely upon any work being done properly if each subordinate brigadier-general be allowed to suspend operations ordered by me. I must therefore earnestly request that the general commanding the Western Department hold Brigadier-General Tilghman responsible for the act now reported, and forbid the repetition of like interference for the future.

Your instructions of the 22d, in reference to requisitions for ordnance by Captain Wright, was not received until the afternoon of the 26th instant.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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JACKSON, [November] 28, 1861.

Maj. Gen. A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

I have ordered troops to assemble at Corinth and Grenada. Considerable armed force now at these rendezvous. Order supplies for them. I am arming the companies called out under your first requisition as fast as possible.

JOHN J. PETTUS.

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[NOVEMBER 28 (?), 1861.]

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:*

GENERAL: In conformity with your order to report to you on the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers at the time of my taking command in the West, I have to say that those defenses were at that time not included in my command, nor were they until after you assumed the charge of the Western Department. My command up to that time was limited on the north and east by the Tennessee River. Shortly after taking command of the Western Department Lieutenant Dixon, of the Corps of Engineers, was instructed by you to make an examination of the works at Forts Henry and Donelson and to report upon them. These instructions were complied with, and he reported {p.711} that the former fort, which was nearly completed, was built not at the most favorable position, but that it was a strong work, and instead of abandoning it and building at another place, he advised that it should be completed and other works constructed on the opposite side of the river, on the high lands just above the fort. Measures for the accomplishment of this work were adopted as rapidly as the means at our disposal would allow. A negro force which was offered by planters in Tennessee and North Alabama was employed on the work, and efforts were made to push it to completion as fast as the means at command would allow.

Lieutenant Dixon also made a similar reconnaissance on the Cumberland, and gave it as his opinion that, although a better position might have been chosen for the fortifications on that river, under the circumstances then surrounding our command it would be better to retain and strengthen the position chosen. He accordingly made surveys for additional outworks, and the service of a considerable slave force was obtained to construct them. This work was continued and kept under the supervision of Lieutenant Dixon. Lieutenant Dixon also advised the placing of obstructions in the Cumberland at a certain point below, where there was shoal water, so as to afford protection to the operatives engaged on the fortifications against the enemy’s gunboats. This was done, and it operated as a check to the navigation so long as the water continued low.

You are aware that efforts were made to obtain heavy ordnance to arm these forts, but as we had to rely on supplies from the Atlantic sea-coast, they came slowly, and it became necessary to divert a number of pieces intended for Columbus to the service of those forts.

The principal difficulty in the way of a successful defense of the rivers in question was the want of an adequate force-a force of infantry and a force of experienced artillerists. They were applied for by you and also by me, and the appeal was made earnestly to every quarter from whence relief might be hoped for. Why it was not furnished others must say. I believe the chief reason, so far as the infantry was concerned, was the want of arms. As to experienced artillerists, they were not in the country.

When General Tilghman was made brigadier-general he was assigned by you to the command of the defenses on the Tennessee and Cumberland. It was at a time when the operations of the enemy had begun to be active on those rivers, and the difficulty of communicating as rapidly as the exigencies of the service required, through the circuitous route to Columbus, made it expedient for him to place himself in direct communication to the general headquarters. Nevertheless, all the support I could give him in answer to his calls was afforded. He received from Columbus a detachment of artillery officers as instructors of his troops in that arm on two several occasions, and all the infantry at my command that could be spared from the defense of Columbus.

The importance of gunboats as an element of power in our military operations was frequently brought to the attention of the Government. One transport boat, the Eastport was ordered to be purchased, and converted into a gunboat on the Tennessee River, but it was unfortunately too late to be of any service.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* See pp. 923, 924.

{p.712}

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, November 28, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

I have received a note from Brownlow, stating that he would come in if I would guarantee no personal violence. He has not been with any armed troops. Will send copy of his letter.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Greenville, East Tenn., November 28, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond:

SIR: Since my last, dated at Johnson Station, Carter County, I have placed Captain McClellan, of the Tennessee cavalry, with his company, at Elizabethtown, the county town of Carter County, with a view to preserve order and hold the disaffected in check. He reports an improvement in the aspect of affairs in that neighborhood.

Captain White, of the Third Georgia Battalion, occupies the crossing of the Holston at Union, protecting the county bridge, so necessary since the burning of the other. A part of his company also guards the bridge over the Watauga at Carter Depot, and the remainder of it is at Johnson Station, or Haynesville, where there is a water-tank, now important, and generally a quantity of rolling stock.

The headquarters of the command has been removed to Greeneville, Greene County, hitherto regarded perhaps as the headquarters of insurrection. This county voted for the Union by four to one and continues much disturbed. On the 24th, soon after my arrival here, it was found that a party of 200 or 300 were in arms at a place called Chimney Top, in the northern part of the county, and it was thought advisable to disperse them at once. Stovall’s battalion being joined by two companies of Colonel Powell’s regiment (Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold) and half a company of Tennessee cavalry (Captain McLin), I marched the command in that direction on the morning of the 24th instant. In the course of the day we learned that a part of the insurgent force had crossed our road in the preceding night, but we kept on, hoping to find the main body. Toward night it was ascertained that it was the whole force which had retreated in the preceding night, and their absence was verified by our cavalry.

On the morning of the 25th we retraced our steps to the line of the insurgents’ retreat, when, being ill from weather and water, I turned over the command to Colonel Stovall, with orders to pursue as far as practicable. The cavalry had already been in pursuit since early morning. Colonel Stovall continued the pursuit to the Chucky River, in the neighborhood of Rheatown, where, finding no bridge nor ferry-boat, and a bad ford, he deemed it advisable to return with his immediate command to this place. Captain Yeiser, of the artillery, crossed, however, with his two pieces, and succeeded in capturing two insurgent prisoners, one holding the rank of captain (Waddell) in that body. Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold, having succeeded in mounting most of his two companies, also crossed the Chucky and joined the cavalry. This was on the 25th, and to-day he has sent in for re-enforcements, which have gone to him-something over a hundred men, under Major Rudler.

The insurgents appear to be making for Cocke and Sevier Counties, {p.713} where they are said to have many friends. To-day a messenger from Parrottsville, Cocke County, brings intelligence that insurgents were approaching that village this morning, and the inhabitants were in instant expectation of attack. On every hand we hear of similar movements, accounts often exaggerated, but there is really great commotion and hostility.

I think that we have effected something, have done some good; but whenever a foreign force enters this country, be it soon or late, three-fourths of this people will rise in arms to join them. At present they seem indisposed to fight, and the great difficulty is to reach them. Scattering in the mountain paths they can scarcely be caught; and as their arms are hidden when not in use, it is almost impossible to disarm them. Cavalry, though a bad force for fighting them in case they would fight, is yet the only force which can reach them. It is adequate, too, to disperse and capture them in their present state of morale. I am confident that a mounted regiment with two very light guns would do more to quiet this tier of counties than five times the number on foot. We could do something by pressing horses, but they are generally needed for the daily wants of the people. In default of regular mounted troops, 500 horses at least must be impressed, and perhaps 1,000. The people of Greeneville seem to be peaceful enough.

The bridge over Lick Creek, or rather the trestle work, has been finished for some days; that at the Holston is going on favorably. The company had proposed not to trestle the latter, but to rebuild the bridge-a work of some months. I thought it my duty to insist on the trestle work, which can be done in three weeks, at a cost of $1,500, and which will afford a passage and also be of great service in building the bridge itself. At the Hiawassee trestling is not feasible, owing to the great depth of water, the character of the bottom, and the sudden freshets of the stream. Lieutenant Mason, Virginia Engineers, reports that the work of rebuilding there is going on favorably.

Col. S. A. M. Wood, of the Seventh Alabama, having disposed a part of his regiment, as directed, for the protection of the bridges between Chattanooga and Knoxville, has his main body near the former place. He appears to have been very zealous and active against the insurgents and has captured some prisoners. He urges the importance of keeping the regiment in that immediate vicinity in order to repress disturbances, which are so prevalent. I understand that troops of Generals Zollicoffer and Carroll are stationed on some parts of the road and are building winter quarters. We are not likely to have too many troops, but I could wish the command to be a unit and not doubtful. I propose to pass over the whole line within a day or two from this date, to learn what dispositions are necessary for the winter. It is presumed that the troops of Generals Zollicoffer and Carroll are intended more especially for operations against the insurgents.

Twenty-two prisoners have been sent to Nashville from Carter County, and we have now in confinement some 5 or 6 known to have been in arms, and who will be sent to Tuscaloosa, under the order of the War Department dated the 25th instant.

Our men are much in want of blankets, the weather varying only from cold and wet to cold and dry. Many cases of pneumonia have already appeared. I am looking anxiously for the North Carolina regiment.

Very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel, P. A. C. S., Commanding.

{p.714}

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HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION, CENTRAL COLUMN OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., November 23, 1861.

Capt. JOHN H. MORGAN:

SIR: You will without delay join and take command of your squadron, now at or near Roan’s, on Green River. You will receive the two letters of instruction, dated the 26th instant, under which Capt. T. W. Allen is acting, and proceed to carry them out, except as herein altered. You will, should you deem it sufficiently safe, cross Green River, to get the cattle and hogs or to attack the Federal Home Guards’ force; but you will avoid carefully any movement which would involve considerable risk or serious delay. It is important that you should return, at furthest, by December 1, and as much earlier as possible.

By order of General Buckner:

G. B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosures.]

HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION, CENTRAL ARMY OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., November 26, 1861.

Capt. T. W. ALLEN, Comdg. Captain Morgan’s Cavalry Squadron:

SIR: You will proceed early to-morrow morning, with all the available force of your command, provided with one day’s rations, to the vicinity of George Roan’s, on Green River, and find about fifty head of fat cattle and a lot of hogs, belonging to a man in that neighborhood, who will be designated by a guide who will accompany you. You will drive the cattle and hogs into Bowling Green and deliver them to Major Williamson, assistant commissary-general. It is expected that a band of Federals, supposed to number about sixty, have been committing depredations in Roan’s neighborhood. You will, should you find, after thorough investigation, your force sufficient to overcome them, endeavor to capture them or their arms, &c., but you will not pursue them farther than is consistent with the safety of your command, and you will remain on this side of Green River. You will collect as much information as possible about the movements of the enemy and the disposition of the citizens. You will return as soon as these orders can be carried into effect. Should you be absent more than one day, you will make full reports by courier daily to these headquarters.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION, CENTRAL COLUMN OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., November 26, 1861.

Capt. T. W. ALLEN, Commanding Morgan’s Squadron:

SIR: I am directed by General Buckner to give you these further instructions: Your absence from here must not exceed two days. If {p.715} you cannot return to-morrow (Wednesday night) you must report by couriers. You must not bring the hogs if it will seriously delay your command, but bring the cattle. It is important that your command should return as soon as possible.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

G. B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Near Newbury, November 28, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I occupy a position midway between Mill Springs and Burkesville for a day or two, to perfect my knowledge of the topography, resources, &c., of the country, before selecting a position for quarters in severe weather and as a basis of action in mild weather this winter.

Mill Springs, 22 miles east is in a fertile region, with grist and saw mill, wood, water, and capable of easy defense, commanding the ferry. Geographically it is the best position on this side of the river for commanding the approaches to Cumberland Gap and Jacksborough. Burkesville or Creelsborough would better enable me to open the Cumberland and make secure our supply trains. During the winter, when the wagon roads are so bad, it would be far preferable to draw indispensable supplies direct from Nashville instead of Knoxville.

Brought to Gainesborough, between 40 and 50 miles from here, on boats, 50 or 60 miles of wagoning over bad roads would be saved between here and Knoxville. If the country north of the river between Burkesville and Gainesborough can be cleared of the enemy, they might subsequently be brought to the former place. Pork, corn beef, hay, or fodder, horses, &c., are abundant and cheap here. I think the supply of flour will be good.

This will be handed to you by Maj. Alex. Wynn, who visits you to obtain General Johnston’s assent to this arrangement, and, if obtained, to see the proper officers of the quartermaster and commissary departments at Nashville, and perfect the arrangements at as early a day as practicable.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-I am not yet aware that Major-General Crittenden has assumed command in this district.

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F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CAMP NEAR POUND GAP, WISE COUNTY, VIRGINIA, November 28, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: When I was on my way to take command of this column I informed you by letter, with a request for such instructions as you might have to communicate. The President directed two regiments from Virginia and a battery of four pieces to report to me, and directed {p.716} me to assume the command of all the troops at Prestonburg and in that vicinity,” for the protection and defense of that frontier.”

My appointment following certain political conversations, was accepted, with an understanding of the scope of what was expected. My authority to accept and raise companies, battalions, and regiments into the service of the Confederate States was made express and unlimited, and my separate command (only under your general direction, as military chief of the department) was assured in terms.

It was then rumored at Richmond that some 2,000 or 2,500 men were in Prestonburg and were being rapidly mustered into the service of the Confederate States, and it was the supposition of the Department of War that, with the two regiments from Virginia, I should have a force to commence my operations with of about 5,000 men or its equivalent. But the regiment of Colonel Trigg (Fifty-fourth Virginia) took the field with only 560 effective men, and the other, under Colonel Moore, of Abingdon, has not yet joined me with one of his wings, nor has that officer, as late as four days since, received his arms; so he reports by letter.

On my arrival here I found a force (which was intended to be joined to the Abingdon battalion, so as to make a regiment) stationed in Pound Gap, 350 strong, under Major Thompson, whereas James Giles was indicated as the person to be made major of Moore’s regiment when organized by me, as per order from the Adjutant-General. I found, moreover, that this battalion had been raised by order of Brigadier General Zollicoffer for twelve months, to answer a special service, to wit, to defend the mountain gaps and to be kept in the counties of Lee, Scott, and Wise, in the State of Virginia, and that the men were not willing to dispense with the condition expressed in their enlistment nor willing to pass into Kentucky.

Under these circumstances I deemed it most prudent not to attempt the organization of Moore’s regiment without further orders from the Adjutant-General, whom I advised of the state of facts in the case. I gave Colonel Moore orders to move the Abingdon battalion to this point as early as the 6th of November, and reported them in writing on the 9th of same month. He has not yet come up, for the reason already alluded to-want of arms, clothing, rations, and transportation. He has not reported to me the strength of the force immediately under his command, nor can I estimate it beforehand further than to say I suppose it will be from 350 to 400 men, making the whole Virginia force in this column some 1,200 to 1,300 men, or little more than one regiment, including the special-service men-little less than one full regiment, excluding them.

The infantry force under Col. John S. Williams is reported to me to be 799 or 835 in the aggregate of officers and men, and the mounted force at 400. So that from, the best knowledge I have, sir, I will state the total force subject to my orders to be, infantry, 2,100; mounted men, 400; battery, four pieces, 65 men. Yet in this estimate I count 400 under Moore, who have not yet left their homes at Abingdon, but it is reported they will move during this week. Say a total of all arms of 2,500 men, which is just half of the number I expected to take the field with.

The men under Colonel Williams are not yet in their winter clothing, though requisition after requisition has been made. I understand, however, some clothing, probably sufficient for the command, has arrived at Abingdon, and will be brought forward in a few days. This force under Colonel Williams has been so constantly pressed by the superior force of the enemy, that it has not been drilled at all, and is as unskilled in tactics as the common militia of the country. The officers seem well {p.717} disposed to learn, and I hope to be able at an early day to make the body effective as a regiment. The regiment under Trigg is tolerably well drilled in the school of the battalion-the, mounted force not yet drilled at all. They are generally armed with rifles or muskets or shot-guns. I have no regularly-armed cavalry as yet.

Finding that Colonel Williams was compelled to break up his camp at Prestonburg and was retreating on Piketon, I moved Trigg’s force as rapidly as I could in the direction of Piketon from Wytheville, and ordered Colonel Moore to move to the Pound Gap from Abingdon, intending to offer re-enforcements to Colonel Williams, no matter where he might be.

On arriving at Jeffersonville I ascertained by courier from Colonel Williams that he had abandoned Piketon and was retreating by a country cross-road to Pound Gap. The road from Sandy to Jeffersonville, to the Salt Works and the Lead Mines, was now entirely open to the enemy, 6,000 strong, at the Kentucky line. There was no defense; for, at 70 miles to my right, when at Jeffersonville, General Floyd was at the moment pressed back from Cotton Hill (the confluence of the Gauley and New Rivers) and was moving to Raleigh Court-House, on a line perpendicular to the route from Wytheville to Jeffersonville. His force was reported at 4,000, Rosecrans’ at 10,000. If Williams was able to reach Pound Gap and Moore should re-enforce him, he should have at the gap 1,800 or 2,000 men. Yet from the Abingdon road to the Tug Fork of Sandy there was not a single soldier except Trigg’s regiment of 560 men and Jeffress’ battery of four pieces.

In consequence of this I moved Trigg’s regiment and the battery to a point 18 miles northwest of Jeffersonville, which covers the roads leading to the Salt Works from Sandy River, as also the roads to Jeffersonville.

Leaving Trigg’s regiment there, to be sustained by the militia if necessary (for the brigadier-general in that brigade turned them all out to meet the supposed exigency after I declined to exert that authority) I came over to this point (about 80 miles), to look to the condition of affairs here and to organize the forces here for the defense of Pound Gap, as well as to fortify it, and then it was my intention to return and lead Trigg’s regiment on, if sufficiently re-enforced to promise any success.

I am gratified to say that on my arrival here reliable information was obtained that the enemy had retreated. I cannot give you any idea of the reasons which influenced the withdrawal of the enemy’s force from Pikeville. Their retreat was precipitate from all directions east of the Olympian Springs, according to rumor, but I have only ascertained satisfactorily that the force has been withdrawn from the upper valley of the Sandy. It may be withdrawn to the lower levels of the country for more pleasant winter quarters. The withdrawal, be it from what cause it may, is eminently fortunate for us, as the provisions for this part of the country are absolutely exhausted, while they are said to be cheap and plenty in Kentucky.

It is my purpose to move my mounted force into Kentucky immediately, and to throw it forward at least as far as West Liberty, and, if possible, as far as the line from Louisa to the Olympian Springs, while my infantry force will be located upon a line from Whitesburg, in Letcher County, to Prestonburg, on the Sandy. There is a passable road from the one point to the other.

Trigg’s regiment and the battery will occupy my right flank at Prestonburg, Williams on the head of Beaver Creek, and the regiment {p.718} of Moore at Whitesburg, with the special-service men in the Gap. I am not strong enough to go forward thus far to ascertain what the people of Kentucky will do, unless you should find it in your power to let me have two or three regiments, in which case I would propose to cover more of the country, so as to let out the provisions and men of the State. The people of the country are not very well affected, for the same insolent domineering has been carried on in the mountains as elsewhere.

The enemy suffered severely at the battle of Ivy, where 250 of this command were engaged against a column of 1,500 for one hour and ten minutes. We lost 5 killed and 13 wounded; the enemy lost over 300 killed and how many wounded we cannot say. The graves of the enemy are reported at 396. It was a success, brilliant in conception and execution, though the enemy recovered in time to outflank our men and they in turn withdrew from the ground without loss when their ground could no longer be maintained.

If you find this letter long and its report less formal than you would desire, it is yet the best account I am able now to give of affairs in this section.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 29, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith two letters, one from Gov. I. G. Harris, of Tennessee, and the other from Col. B. R. Johnson, late Chief of Engineers of the State.*

I have to state, in reference to the subject of Governor Harris’ letter to me, that a large force may now be expected to respond to his call for 30,000 men, of which I believe he desires all may; if possible, be volunteers. Should a large portion only be volunteers, a number of brigadier-generals will be required to command them.

Governor Harris has mentioned the names of several gentlemen who, in his opinion, are qualified to discharge the duties incidental to that grade, and whose appointment would contribute greatly to the public advantage and to him be a personal gratification. I have no acquaintance with the gentlemen proposed, except very slight with one (Colonel Johnson, whose education qualifies him for the office sought), but on account of the earnest zeal of the Governor for the cause, his courtesy and ready assistance on all occasions in which the public interest may be promoted, it affords me great pleasure to present his wishes with regard to the appointment of these gentlemen for the consideration of his excellency the President.

I have nothing worthy of mention to report since my last letter. We are making every possible effort to meet the force which the enemy will soon array against us, both on this line and at Columbus. Had the exigency for my call for 50,000 men in September been better comprehended and responded to, our preparations for this great emergency would now be complete.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

* Neither found.

{p.719}

BOWLING GREEN, November 29, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Bowling Green:

I have completed a thorough examination of Henry and Donelson and do not admire the aspect of things. I must have more heavy guns for both places at once, not less than four for each; one also of long range for each, say sixty-fours. Say to the general I have 1,000 unarmed men; no hope for any arms but from him. A message from Paducah and Columbus yesterday indicates a movement this way. Will he not let [me] have 1,000 arms from Nashville? I feel for the first time discouraged, but will not give up. Answer me at Clarksville.

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, November 29, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: Herewith please find copy of letter received from Dr. Brownlow, and my reply..

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

FRIDAY, November 22, 1861.

General W. H. CARROLL:

Having understood that you are to be placed in command of Knoxville in a few days, I desire to make a statement to you, the truth of which I am willing to swear to before any tribunal.

I left home on the 4th of this instant to attend the chancery court at Maryville and to go to Sevierville to collect fees due me for advertising, and I in part succeeded. I have only been in Blount and Sevier Counties. I have not been in any body of armed men or in any way connected with the arming of any man or getting up any force whatever. I left home and have remained away at the earnest and repeated solicitations of my family, who insisted they would be more secure in my absence. Certain troops came daily on my portico and in front of my house, drew out and flourished side-arms and sometimes presented muskets, threatening my life. I was told that they were under the command of an Alabama officer by the name of Wood, and that he was prejudiced against me. I don’t know how this is. As it regards bridge-burning, I never had an intimation of any such purpose from any quarter at any time, and when I heard of the burning of the bridges on the Saturday night after it occurred I was utterly astonished. I condemn the act most unqualifiedly, and regard it as an ill-timed measure, calculated to bring no good to any one or any party, but much harm to innocent men and to the public.

When I, together with fifteen or twenty other men signed a communication to General Zollicoffer, which was published in all the Tennessee papers, pledging ourselves to advise peace and to oppose all attempts at rebellion and such outrages as bridge-burning, I acted in good faith and I have kept that faith; and had a knowledge of any {p.720} purpose to burn the bridges been communicated to me, I should have felt bound in all honor and good conscience to have disclosed the fact to the chief officers of the roads; and if I were at liberty to bring out one issue of my paper I would state all these facts to the public more, in detail and more nervous terms. I am willing and ready at any time to stand a trial upon these or any other points before any civil tribunal but I protest against being turned over to an infuriated mob of armed men, filled with prejudices by my bitterest enemies.

This communication will be handed you by my friend Colonel Williams, who is favorably known to you.

I am, very respectfully, &c.,

W. G. BROWNLOW.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, November 28, 1861.

Rev. Dr. BROWNLOW:

SIR: It is my business here to afford protection to all citizens who are loyal to the Confederate States, and I shall use all the force at my command to that end. You may be fully assured that you will meet with no personal violence by returning to your home, and if you can establish what you say in your letter of the 22d instant, you shall have every opportunity to do so before the civil tribunal, if necessary, provided you have committed no act that will make’ it necessary for the military law to take cognizance. I desire that every loyal citizen, regardless of former political opinions, shall be fully protected in all his rights and privileges, to accomplish which I shall bend all my energies, and have no doubt I shall be successful.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, November 29, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond:

SIR: I am just in receipt of yours of 25th. Your instructions shall be strictly obeyed. I have not heretofore released any against whom there was proof that they had been engaged in any rebellious movements. It was only those who were arrested upon mere suspicion that I permitted to take the oath of allegiance. I telegraphed you to-day that Judge Humphreys had issued writs of habeas corpus in the cases of several prisoners who are beyond doubt guilty of burning the railroad bridges, predicated, as I understand, upon the affidavits of Baxter and other lawyers. Your instructions are fully understood and I shall not allow any interference in their execution.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 4.}

HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, November 29, 1861.

The Government of the Confederate States has not nor will it interfere with individuals on account of their political opinions. The President {p.721} of the Confederate States issued a proclamation, stating that all those who did not fully recognize their allegiance to the Government should dispose of or remove from its limits, with their effects, before October, 1861. Those persons who remained tacitly recognized the Government and are amenable to the laws.

The commanding general at this post will endeavor to fully carry out the policy of the Government. While he will afford ample protection to all citizens who peaceably pursue their ordinary occupations, he will order the arrest of all who may take up arms against the Government or who in any manner may aid or abet its enemies or incite rebellion, in order that they may be tried by military law.

By order of Brig. Gen. W. H. Carroll, commanding post:

G. H. MONSARRAT, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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KNOXVILLE, November 29, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

General W. H. Carroll, commanding this post, has ordered a general court-martial for the trial by the military authorities of persons charged with burning the bridges in East Tennessee and of the tories who have been recently captured with arms in their hands against the Government. The question as to the jurisdiction of courts-martial in such cases has been raised in the court, and it is insisted that the civil authorities have some jurisdiction of the persons in such offenses. Please instruct what course to pursue. A court-martial will be much more effective in ferreting out the offenders. Please answer at as early moment as possible, as it is very desirable to put these matters through rapidly. Writs of habeas corpus have been and will be issued.

R. F. LOONEY, Colonel, and President of Court.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., November 29, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, &c.:

SIR: Your satisfactory favor of the 12th was duly received.* The rebellion in East Tennessee is nearly smothered, but is far from being extinguished, and would burst forth with increased intensity had the enemy a commissioned Lincoln commander, quartermaster, and paymaster within our borders to form a nucleus around which our malcontent and disloyal people could rally. The stampede from Camp Dick Robinson has given to our Tennessee refugees an opportunity to desert the United States standard there, and many of them have sneaked home and are secreting themselves in the woods. They communicate occasionally with the disaffected of our citizens, and this has had a good effect in quieting some insurgents and those who sympathize in the incendiarism, bridge-burning, &c. I still think, however, that this calm may be only temporary. We need here commanders and officers who {p.722} have no sympathies with their Union and disloyal acquaintances and relatives and associates. A stern man from one of the cotton States, who has no knowledge of our people and their past political affinities, would be best able to control the conflicting elements out of which our population is constituted. Our mountain defenses have probably deterred the enemy from further invasion upon our northern border. His next effort may probably be directed through Lee, Russell, and Washington Counties, Virginia. At least there will be a feint there, to keep our East Tennessee forces unemployed, and thus prevent re-enforcements being sent from here to aid Zollicoffer or the Lower Cumberland.

I have the honor to be, yours, &c.,

J. G. M. RAMSEY.

* See Series I, Vol. IV, p. 540.

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CAMP AT CUMBERLAND GAP, November 29, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

GENERAL: Learning that Piketon had been evacuated by Colonel Williams, and that General Floyd had fallen back from Cotton Hill to Raleigh Court-House while I was at Jeffersonville, and that the force of the enemy at Piketon was about 6,000, I deemed it prudent to halt what force I had in hand at a point 18 miles from Jeffersonville, which at once guarded the roads from Sandy River to Jeffersonville and from Sandy to the Salt Works.

It may be as well to note particularly to you that the position at Claypole’s, where Trigg’s regiment has been posted, is the strongest strategical position in the whole country to cover the approaches from Sandy River to the interior of Virginia. I have studied the country and understand it. The position can only be turned by a force coming from the Gauley or from Cumberland Gap, and there are good roads for retreat from either. At 5 miles from that camp, directly to its rear, you fall into the main State road from Jeffersonville to Lebanon, and this cross-road is practicable for wagons I know, as I passed one over it myself. This cross-road is a gorge the whole way, presenting innumerable points for successful defense which might be used to delay an advancing foe. I mention this in case you should be suddenly called to look to this again.

The brigadier-general of the Tazewell militia turned out his brigade to defend that section. I declined to exert any authority over the militia or to call them out anywhere, preferring to submit my request for re-enforcements to you.

Anxious about the condition of things here, I traveled by Lebanon to this place-distant from Trigg’s camp to wit: From Trigg’s camp to Lebanon road, 5 miles; thence to Lebanon, 22 miles; Lebanon to Castlewood (Clinch River), 20 miles; Castlewood to Gladesville, 23 miles; Gladesville to Pound, 12 miles; Pound to Pound Gap, 5 miles; total, 87 miles-intending to see to the defenses proper for Pound Gap and to ascertain the exact condition of organization in this force.

I found the mounted corps had fallen back to Castlewood, behind Clinch River, to recruit and forage, there being no forage nearer to Pound Gap. The command was under captains, invested temporarily with the powers of lieutenant-colonel and major, by order of Colonel Williams. I determined to give the mounted force the organization of a battalion, and as it met the wishes both of the captains and the men, I requested that they would indicate their own preference as to who {p.723} should be appointed to command the battalion during its term of service. That indication was expressed in the recommendation of Hon. W. E.. Simms, and I concurred, of course, in asking the President to issue the commission to him.

I found 800 men here, acting as a regiment of infantry, badly clothed-indeed, miserably clad-very inexpert in the use of the gun, but brave and good looking. Colonel Williams had detailed Captain May to act as lieutenant-colonel and Captain Hawkins as major. He informed me that he had applied for appointments for them.

I have in a former letter given you the facts touching the force in the Gap. I now inclose a communication from Major Thompson* on that subject, by which the one condition of enlistment will be apparent. The battalion is very excellent in appearance, though it has gone through the measles. I think it had best be kept where it will be more within the conditions of its enlistment, and its officer I cannot commend as very attentive, energetic, and efficient.

I shall move my whole command into Kentucky within a day or two, and shall occupy the line from Prestonburg to Whitesburg.

I am, &c.,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

I omitted to report that the enemy has withdrawn beyond Prestonburg.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Donelson, November 29, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Western Department:

SIR: The defenses of both Forts Donelson and Henry demand that a light battery should be prepared at both places with the loss of as little time as possible.

At the former place I need nothing more than the horses,to equip the battery completely. At Fort Henry I have but one field gun, but with two spare pieces at Fort Donelson. I shall need only two 12-pounder howitzers to make up the complement.

The absolute necessity of our occupying an eminence on the opposite side of the river from Fort Henry involves, not only the erection of a small field work there, with several heavy guns, but also the occupation of an advanced point with a small force, aided by a field battery.

I am informed that the State of Alabama will send a full regiment to this point, with 500 negroes, for building the work. This information reaches me through Colonel Heiman, commanding post. The regiment is intended for the main work on what is called Stewart’s Hill, and will arrive in a few days (10 days). The advanced work spoken of was not contemplated when the agent of the State of Alabama was there on the 26th instant. It is essential, and the battalion of 500 men can be easily raised. This will involve the necessity of another light battery of four pieces, all of which will have to be furnished.

To equip these light batteries it will require six horses to each team at Fort Donelson, on account of the roads, and four for Henry and the works last spoken of; in all, 202 horses, at an average cost of $140, requiring the sum of *28,280. I deem the necessity so great, that I {p.724} have appointed agents to purchase, and they are now engaged in procuring horses for the battery at Donelson-Captain Maney’s.

If my views on the subject of what I deem necessary meet your approbation, I request the necessary instructions to the ordnance officer at Nashville be issued, and that the quartermaster handing you this (Captain Roberts, of the Fourteenth Tennessee) have his requisition for the funds necessary to carry out the object approved.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding, &c.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 29, 1861.

Maj. J. F. GILMER, Chief Engineer, Nashville:

General Johnston directs you to select a suitable point in the vicinity of Nashville for the assembling of the militia and volunteer force now arriving. He wishes it to be chosen in reference to the defense of the city, so that, should the army fall back from this point, the militia would be on the line of strength and at a point where they would resist the enemy without maneuvering.

I am further instructed to say that, having settled the point, you will notify it to Governor Harris, who will then be requested to assemble these forces upon it. Any strength you may be able to give to the position by field works should be done at once.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

CAMP BURNAM, November 30, 1861.

ALEX. CASSEDAY, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I have the honor to report that, in pursuance of orders, at 4 p.m. 28th instant I took charge of my squadron, that had been ordered to proceed to Roan’s, on Green River. When I found it, under command of Captain Allen, they had crossed with a portion of the command and gone into Butler County about 8 miles. They found at one house a Lincoln soldier, who was sick; took possession of an army overcoat and musket. He stated Colonel Hawkins was at Calhoun, with two infantry regiments and Colonel Jackson’s regiment of cavalry; he had also two skeleton regiments; he did not intend to move until they were filled. He said there were a great many cases of measles in camp; that in Edmonson County, at a place called Blue Ruin, there was a camp of 300 or 400 men. Captain Allen did not arrest this man, because he was so unwell that he feared it would endanger his life.

About 15 cattle were crossed to Roan’s that night. Late that evening I crossed Green River, with about 80 men, and proceeded into the interior of Butler County about 12 miles; found nearly all of the men absent from home; women said they had gone to the Army. Found at some houses 20 women, who were staying together while their husbands were absent. Stopped at a house where there was a sick Lincoln soldier, who died that night. No men being in the neighborhood, {p.725} his wife having no person to make a coffin or bury him, I detailed some men, who made a coffin.

The streams were rising so rapidly that my command had to fall back to Green River. Crossed about 40 cattle, which I left in charge of a sergeant and 15 men, who will be in on 1st December. Got no hogs, owing to the high stage of water in all the creeks. Some cattle which had been brought to the river had to be left, owing to the large quantity of drift which was running; could not be forced into the water. Arrived in camp at 5 p.m.

Respectfully,

JOHN H. MORGAN, Commanding Scouting Party.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Mill Springs, November 30, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I reached this point on the Cumberland River last evening. Recent rains have much swollen the river. Colonel Stanton, who was ordered forward from Camp McGinnis on the 20th, with his and Colonel Morroy’s [Murray’s] regiment and Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan’s cavalry, to seize the ferry-boats at different crossings, failed to secure any of the boats. I am now preparing to provide the means of crossing the river. The lumber and the saw-mill here will materially aid in constructing boats. The enemy’s camp, 9 miles above, on the right bank, appears to have been re-enforced, but to what extent I have not been able to ascertain. Our pickets sent up on this side (opposite) today were fired on. Colonel Stanton reported to me two days ago that he had secured two ferry-boats, but it appears they have got away. He was ordered to cross the river to endeavor to out off 800 of the enemy, then at Camp Goggin, 9 miles above. He failed to cross for want of boats. So soon as it is possible I will cross the river in force.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-The written report just received from the pickets fired on today up the river. The fire was returned. The enemy employed musketry and artillery-a 12 and a 6 pounder. One of our men wounded; one of theirs killed.

Respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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EXCHANGE HOTEL, Richmond, Va., November 30, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va., Present, &c.:

MY DEAR SIR: The object of the interview which I sought on yesterday, and which was so readily accorded to me by the President and yourself, in reference to affairs in East Tennessee, was to impress your {p.726} minds with the importance of dealing justly and generously with the Union element of that section as the best means of securing their affections and loyalty to this Government. The causes which have induced such obstinate adhesion to the Federal Government on the part of so many were frankly stated in our conversation. Until they are made to feel that they will be recognized as citizens, entitled to the same consideration and protection vouchsafed to those entertaining opposite views, they will not yield a willing allegiance or active and efficient support to the Confederate Government. Whilst the Government, therefore, with a steady purpose, inflicts just punishment on actual offenders by due course of law, it is essential that the Union men should be made to feel that they, in common with the adherents of this Government, are the objects of solicitude on the part of this Government, and that they will be protected against arrests for opinions merely, and against lawless exactions and unauthorized impressment of their private property by the soldiery stationed among them. This can be most successfully done by placing the civil and military power of that department in the hands of discreet men, with enlarged, liberal, and just views, who are capable of rising above the influence and demands of local combinations and cliques, with instructions to proceed at once and discharge such prisoners as are now held without sufficient cause (for in my opinion there are quite a number of this character), and to redress the wrongs of citizens whose property has been seized or improperly taken from them by the soldiery.

This policy will tend to repress violence and conciliate favor. By degrees their strong and deeply-seated hostility to this Government can be overcome. Followed by proper efforts, they can be induced to volunteer for active service, and so strongly committed and identified with the South as to render them useful and effective in achieving our independence and preventing the possibility of civil war in the event a Federal force should be able to force its way into East Tennessee.

If there is no good reason of public policy to the contrary, I would be pleased to carry back a passport for Brownlow to leave the country, as well as a copy of the instructions under which the military and civil authorities are required to act, because it is believed that if the spirit of the Government, as manifested by its executive officer, was better understood by the people of East Tennessee, it would exert a salutary influence, and remove some of the apprehensions which are now driving them to desperation and to violence.

It is my purpose to leave in the morning, and with your permission I will call at 2 o’clock to learn your pleasure in the premises.

Respectfully, &c.,

JNO. BAXTER.

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HEADQUARTERS, Greeneville, November 30, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Two insurgents have to-day been tried for bridge-burning, found guilty, and hanged.

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel.

{p.727}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 30, 1861.

Maj. A. J. SMITH, Principal Quartermaster:

A large armed force is being assembled at Corinth and Grenada, Miss. Make arrangements for furnishing supplies. I cannot state the number. You must appoint capable agents and give them large discretion.

Time presses. Act at once.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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Abstract from return of the First Division, Western Department, commanded by Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army, for November, 1861.*

[Headquarters at Columbus, Ky.]*

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st Division1993,2361929471734,416
2d Division2363,225212573744,527
3d Division1391,9991020462213,162
4th Division1792,7899160122124,265
Stewart’s command2834,2865,826
Totals1,03615,53559915521,05022,196

AGGREGATE PRESENT FOR DUTY.

Infantry16,571
Cavalry974
Artillery1,102
Grand aggregate18,647

* The returns from which this and the following abstract was made seem to be of the Same troops and for the same period, but the classification differs, and there is a discrepancy of 1,378 between the two aggregates of “present for duty.”

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Abstract from return of Division No. 1, Western Department, commanded by Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army, for November, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
Pillow’s command5458,788538161015512,416
Camp Beauregard1932,6683,713
Union City961,5631,705
Fort Pillow327136145984
Memphis1322,2302,362
Trenton48916964
Port Henry48816864
Island No. 1044865
Totals1,09817,742538161630023,073

{p.728}

AGGREGATE PRESENT FOR DUTY.

Infantry18,840
Cavalry869
Artillery318
Grand aggregate 20,025

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Abstract from return of Fourth Division, Western Department, Col. John S. Bowen, First Missouri Infantry, commanding, on November 30, 1861.

[Headquarters Camp Beauregard. Ky.]

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
First Brigade:
9th Arkansas35483611822
Kentucky Battalion12267324351
22d Mississippi38597795873
Watson battery594111124
Williams’ battery2434957
Total921,4841,8902,227
Second Brigade:
10th Arkansas35348649695
1st Mississippi Valley32563742787
1st Missouri27531663739
Hudson’s battery575105109
Cavalry battalion9160211237
Total1081,6772,3702,567
Grand total2003,1614,2604,794

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FORT PILLOW, December 1, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

SIR: In obedience to order of Colonel De Russy, received by telegram yesterday, I now report to you conditions of things at this post:

We have in all fifty-eight 32-pounder guns; fifty-seven of them are mounted and ready for use; the remaining one is not mounted, for want of a suitable carriage. Four of these guns are rifled and mounted in battery marked A on your map, in place of the red guns sent to Columbus. Two guns have been recently sent to Memphis to be rifled, and will be mounted in same battery.

We have platforms ready for sixteen guns and room for eighteen more platforms not yet built.

The parapet of entire back line, as laid off on your map, is finished, except a small amount of work on a heavy embankment which crosses the Fulton Road Valley. I had commenced work extending the north end of entrenched line from the top of the hill down to Cold Creek, but the hands were taken to New Madrid and did but little work on it. The remaining work to be done is about one mile of banquette, a half mile of clearing of timber, and the dressing up of the entire north or left flank.

The magazine in Battery B is finished; the work on the others was suspended for the want of timber. We now have timber sufficient {p.729} to build two, which are at this time being constructed and will be finished in a few days. Two more will be required, which will be built as soon as the timber can be had.

The pile-driving has progressed rather slow, for reasons out of my power to remedy. (My requisitions receive but little attention at Memphis.) I am now driving in the liver, and have progressed so far as to feel confident of success in my plan (which was condemned by many), but confess that I am anxiously waiting to witness the effect of high water upon them. I am driving them inclined upstream, and find that the drift, as it lodges, disappears under the water, and seems to remain at the bottom.

If the piles stand, the navigable width of the river will be reduced to about 600 yards, and I think will form as perfect hull-inspectors for boats coming down as do the Mississippi sawyers for boats going up. Now that my men, who were all novices at such work, have got the hang of it, I shall be able to progress very well, if the wind will ever stop blowing. We have but 42 negroes here now and I hear of no more coming. Colonel Williamson is yet absent.

I believe, sir, I have given a correct statement of affairs here, and feel confident that I would be able to give a more flattering one after a second visit to this place by yourself.

It would afford me much pleasure to be engaged mounting a few 32-pounder ship carronades on our rear line, and I understand there are plenty of them at Norfolk.

Most respectfully, &c.,

MONTGOMERY LYNCH, Captain, Corps Engineers.

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CAMP AT POUND GAP, December 1, 1861.

Maj. Gen. G. B. CRITTENDEN:

SIR: Since I dispatched yesterday your courier upon his return the Fifty-sixth Regiment of Virginia Volunteers, under Colonel Stuart, has been reported to me as at Abingdon, on its way to join my command. It is said to be 600 strong.

I learned yesterday that the enemy occupies Louisa (45 miles from Prestonburg), with a force of 3,000 men, and had signified his expectation to move back to Piketon whenever I moved in that direction. As my column on the Louisa Fork of Sandy River is in motion, and has been for some days, upon Piketon, I think it will be imprudent to send any force from this place to Nashville, and I have therefore countermanded the order for the regiment of Colonel Williams to march to Abingdon.

I shall move from this place to-day en route for Prestonburg, Ky., to which place my orders originally directed me, “to protect and defend that frontier.” You are already advised by me that the force present on the frontier consists of-

Williams’ regiment800
Trigg’s regiment560
Mounted battalion400
Jeffress’ battery60
1,820
There is ordered up Moore’s regiment or battalion, estimated at400
Stuart’s regiment600
1,000
Total2,820
{p.730}

In addition to these count a battalion of men, 350 strong, under Major Thompson, raised for special service of defending the Pound Gap or points in Scott, Lee, and Wise Counties, Virginia, but which cannot be moved beyond the boundary of this State, and we shall have a force in this quarter of 3,000 effective men, which at present constitutes my whole command.

It is the opinion of intelligent officers who have raised the companies belonging to Williams’ regiment that the execution of an order to them to march now to Nashville would bring the business of recruiting in the mountainous parts of Kentucky to a full stop, and do great injury to our cause. This opinion, connected with the fact that they are badly clothed-not provided with socks or hats or warm clothing-and that they are not drilled in the school of the battalion, and that the officers are countrymen, who have not studied tactics at all as yet, induced me not to send them west under General Johnston’s request, though I at first determined to do so and to leave my own orders unexecuted. Should you feel that the exigency demands me to place my command in risk of another retreat before superior numbers, I leave to your discretion the disposition of Stuart’s regiment, Fifty-sixth Virginia, in the direction of General Johnston’s call, and have ordered that officer forward, “unless he receives other orders at once from Major-General Crittenden at Knoxville.”

It is impossible to occupy this camp any longer. Forage cannot be procured for horses and the country is absolutely “stripped to its ruin” of all provisions. We are relying for flour and meal on hauling 55 miles through the deepest and worse sort of roads, and corn is not to be had for the horses engaged in transportation.

My main object in passing the mountains is, first, to obtain food and forage, which I learn may be had in Kentucky within a line drawn from Pound Gap to Prestonburg; second, to inspirit our friends in Kentucky, by resuming the position first occupied by the Kentucky Southern-rights men who fled from the interior of the State and from the unhallowed persecutions of the Federal power and its Kentucky allies.

In the effectuation of these objects my opinion is that there is not a man to be spared, Stuart’s regiment included, without risking the ruin of the whole command; still I defer to you upon this state of facts whether the regiment of Fifty-sixth Virginia (Stuart) shall be moved to respond to General Johnston’s call. It occurs to me that a telegraphic dispatch might enlighten you upon the point as to whether the exigency will continue to demand that force, and whether only one regiment of 600 would be of such importance to General Johnston as to compensate for the extreme risk to be incurred by its loss in this quarter.

I am much in need of another battery, and I learn there are six guns at Abingdon, but no horses or men. Would it not be well to move and equip that battery and let me have it? I should be greatly obliged for it, and if I make any movement towards the mouth of Sandy, on the frontier ruder my charge, shall find such addition to my artillery indispensable.

I am, truly,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

{p.731}

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 2, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: Occupying temporarily the command of your division, which you can resume at pleasure, I feel it my duty in all things relating to important movements of the command to take no action with out consulting your judgment. In this view of my position and of the courtesy due to yours, I have deferred to your wishes in regard to an advance upon the enemy’s position. If attacked now and his unarmed gunboats captured or destroyed, we can conceive of no movement so important, no victory so pregnant with great results to the cause of the Confederate Government, as that and the capture of Cairo. With Commodore Hollins’ fleet of gunboats and our land forces acting together and making simultaneous attacks by water and land we can take Bird’s Point and Fort Holt and capture or destroy his unarmed gunboats, and probably Cairo. If we stand still and await the ample preparations he is making and allow him to assail us with shells from fifty gun and mortar boats, and to throw around our position an army of 50,000 or 75,000 men, our position may become difficult to maintain. In other words, in my judgment, our safety, in a great measure, depends upon our attacking him before he is armed for the conflict or ready to move on our position. My convictions of duty in this important matter induces a distinct avowal of the determination, if left to the exercise of my own judgment, to make an early advance on the enemy’s position. Time is now of the highest importance; even a delay of five days might hazard the success of the enterprise. Saint Louis papers inform us that four of his unarmed gunboats seventy-two rifled cannon, and 3,000 loaded shell have arrived at Cairo. These as yet are unarmed, and three other gunboats at Mound City are afloat, but unarmed, Commodore Hollins is confident that with the co-operation of our land forces, attacking his batteries, we can capture and destroy these gunboats and batteries, and may possibly take Cairo itself. A successful attack upon these gunboats and batteries without support by our land forces is simply an impossible thing. I ask your approval of the movement.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., December 2, 1861.

Capt. E. D. BLAKE, Assistant Adjutant-General, First Div., West. Dept. Ky.:

SIR: In obedience to special orders from headquarters Western Department I have assumed command of the defenses of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers on the line of Forts Donelson and Henry and of the country immediately adjacent thereto. You will please say to the major-general commanding division that I have made a thorough examination of the whole line and will report as soon as practicable on the subject. I will state here, however, that it is but too plain that instant and powerful steps must be taken to strengthen not only the two forts in the way of work, but the armament must be increased materially in number of pieces of artillery as well as in weight of metal. I have communicated with General Johnston on the subject and learn {p.732} that my wishes will be complied with on that point. I shall require a stronger infantry force also on these points. I will communicate in detail so soon as I return to my headquarters, which for the present I shall make at Fort Donelson.

I would be glad to have the major-general commanding designate the number or style of my brigade, so that my orders and letters may bear some relation and proper designation.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, P. A. C. S., Commanding, &c.

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HDQRS. SECOND DIV., CENTRAL ARMY OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., December 2, 1861.

Colonel BIFFLE, Commanding Tennessee Cavalry:

SIR: I am directed by General Buckner to give you the following instructions:

You will start with your command at dawn of day to-morrow and proceed in the direction of Glasgow. The object of your expedition is to learn definitely whether there are or have been any of the enemy’s troops between Glasgow and Scottsville, or between Columbia and Edmonton, or in the neighboring country. It is reported that the enemy have been repairing the roads between the above places. You will be particular to ascertain the truth of this report. You will be governed by the information you receive on your route as to the best course to take to get full information as to the number, locality, and intentions of the enemy. Should you be able to send a courier to the neighborhood of Burkesville without great danger of his being captured, a citizen would be preferable. You will send full reports of the information you may acquire to General Zollicoffer. It is important that he should be fully informed. You will report by daily courier to these headquarters the progress and condition of your command and the information you may acquire. This daily report will be as full as possible.

When you shall have acquired definite and reliable information on these points you will return with your command to this place. You will spare no pains to prevent all lawlessness on the part of your troops, remembering that we can never win Kentucky to our cause by injuries to her people.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

G. B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Jackson, Miss., December 2, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Yours of the 21st ultimo to hand. I am now sending forward every twelve-months’ troops that I can arm and calling for troops for less time with arms in their hands. I think I will be able to send you a considerable force. My reason for calling for troops for less time {p.733} than twelve months is that I may get arms that I cannot otherwise get.

Yours, very respectfully,

JOHN J. PETTUS.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 2, 1861.

Hon. A. B. MOORE, Governor of Alabama:

SIR: I have to request that the military force of North Alabama which may be assembled under your late call for the service of the Confederate States shall be ordered as follows: The portion thereof which may come from the counties convenient to Florence to rendezvous at that place, where they will be mustered into service by companies, battalions, or regiments. As fast as they can be organized, equipped, and mustered in they will be transported down the Tennessee River to Fort Henry, Tenn.

I recommend that the slave laborers shall be sent forward from the same points with the troops in as large parties as can be provided for on their arrival at the works to be built. The appointment of General Sam. D. Weakley, aide-de-camp to General Pillow, as mustering officer, is confirmed, and I will order him to muster the companies, battalions, or regiments into the service of the Confederacy as rapidly as they are organized.

Ali the forces from North Alabama will be infantry, the companies to be composed of not less than 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 2 second lieutenants, 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 musicians, and 64 privates. The remaining force which may not be sent to Florence I request you to order to Nashville, Tenn., where they will be mustered into the Confederate service and receive orders from me.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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MORRISTOWN, December 2, 1861.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

I must inform you that in several instances the military authorities who are in command of troops and volunteers along the line of our road have taken possession of our road and trains and forced our engines and cars out of the face of regular schedules. This I will not submit to. I have been doing all any man can do to promote the interests of the Government and favor the speedy transportation of troops and army stores along our line.

If this course is persisted in by the military authorities any more, I shall on my part stop all of our engines and cars immediately, and then if the Government wishes to take possession of our road and control it, I shall not object in any way whatever. I think it is my duty to inform you of the facts. If we are permitted to manage and control our road, I think I can do so better than any other parties. Please answer.

JOHN R. BRANNER, President East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad.

{p.734}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 4, 1861.

Brigadier-General ZOLLICOFFER, Commanding:

GENERAL: Your dispatch of November 27 has been received and read by the general, as all heretofore received from you, with great satisfaction. Every move is entirely approved. He now suggests that the most essential route to be guarded on your front is that leading through Somerset and Monticello, as in his opinion more practicable for the enemy; but in this he defers to your better knowledge of the country.

He has directed the quartermaster at Nashville to send such stores as you require by steamer to Gainesborough at any time you may call on him, and notify to him your occupation of that point and such other places as will make the passage secure.

We have a battalion of cavalry at Glasgow observing the country to Columbia and to the right. Our information as to the enemy’s force corresponds with your own-less, if anything.

In making your calls on the quartermaster and commissary at Nashville let your quartermaster sign them first and then countersign them yourself.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 127.}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green [Ky.,] December 4, 1861.

The command of the Central Army of Kentucky is devolved upon Major-General Hardee. The district of operations of this army will embrace all that portion of the State of Tennessee lying north of the Cumberland River and all that portion of Kentucky lying west of a line drawn due north from the point where the Cumberland River enters Tennessee on the east and north of the Cumberland River. Officers in command at any points in the district will report direct to General Johnston any sudden movement of the enemy, but all other business will be submitted to the major-general alone.

The major-general will appoint a competent person to examine and decide on the giving of passports, and to examine and report to him upon all persons apprehended on suspicion of aiding and assisting the enemy, under special instructions. He will prescribe the appropriate duties of the provost-marshal and require their performance.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 4, 1861.

Lieut. JOSEPH DIXON, C. S. Army, Fort Henry, Tennessee River:

SIR: Your letter of the 1st instant has been received,* and I hasten to inform you that I will procure the picks, shovels, spades, axes, bars, &c., you need for the intrenchments, if it be possible to do so; also the {p.735} wheelbarrows, and have them forwarded to you at Fort Henry. I would much like to be able to meet you at Fort Henry and aid you in the location of the work or works for the high grounds on the opposite side of the river, but it is out of the question for me to go to the Tennessee now. You will please to exercise your best judgment in the location, bearing in mind that the object is to prevent our enemy from occupying ground dangerous to Fort Henry. Of course no guns designed for fire upon the river will be placed so high. Field guns will probably be sufficient for the armament, with proper provision for using the musket and rifle.

I much regret the interference of General Tilghman with the work trusted to Mr. Glenn. As he has been instructed not to interfere further with our operations, I will expect the agents I employ to execute my orders henceforth. I instructed Mr. Glenn to place the obstructions in the river at a distance of about 1,000 to 1,200 yards from the guns at Fort Donelson. I do not wish them farther away, else the command of them may not be perfect.

It has been decided to send the guns-the 32-pounders-at Clarksville to Donelson and Henry, two to each work. We hope to get other guns for each place at an early day. Please urge the mounting of the guns for commanding the river and have them in place as soon as possible.

I think the intrenchments for defense against a land attack important. It may be well to put a small redoubt for infantry fires on the high point just below Donelson across the creek, to prevent the enemy from occupying it.

Charge Mr. Glenn to get large and heavy anchors for the trees he is placing in the river; I mean heavy stones or other convenient weights. Also, not to quit the work until it is most thoroughly done, if a month more be required. Do not let his operations be interfered with by calling off the steamboat for any other purpose.

Your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

* Not found.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, December 4, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Under General Johnston’s instructions of the 29th ultimo, I have selected grounds in the city of Nashville for the assembling of a part of the volunteers and militia of the State of Tennessee now organizing. In my search for suitable grounds, reference being had to such a line as we can man a force to defend north of Edgefield, no one point sufficient in extent for encamping a large number of troops has been found. Hence several positions, with ready communications between, have been chosen, each furnishing space for two or three regiments. The first one selected is nearly due east from the center of the town of Edgefield and about 3 miles by a good road from the Chain Bridge over the Cumberland River. Near by is a good spring of water. The second camp proposed is on the Gallatin turnpike, just before reaching the first toll-gate, distant from the Chain Bridge about 2 miles. Water supplied by a brook close at hand. A third position is on the White Creek road, where it ascends from the valley of the Cumberland River. Water furnished {p.736} by a creek near at hand or by the river. The communication from the city of Nashville to each point selected is by a turnpike road. It will be necessary for the Quartermaster’s Department to purchase wood for encampments situated so near this city. To place the troops farther from Nashville will put them in advance of a line having limits that the probable available forces can defend.

The Adjutant-General of the State of Tennessee informs me that there is a favorable position in Maury County, directly on the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad, 36 miles from Nashville. An accommodation train passes twice each day-once in the morning and once in the evening; a through train and freight train daily; that there is a telegraph office at the town of Columbia, which is 10 miles by railroad and 6 miles by turnpike from the point; that there is a large open ground for drill; that the country around can furnish a large quantity of commissary supplies and other supplies for the troops that might be placed there; and that there is wood in proximity from which the camps can supply themselves. It is suggested by the Adjutant-General that the troops from the counties of Maury, Hickman, Lewis, Marshall, and Williamson, amounting to about twenty infantry companies and five cavalry companies, might be assembled at the point referred to with great economy to the Government, and still be at once ready for active service at Nashville or other point north of Nashville. The inconvenience and increased expense of assembling and encamping a very large force in the vicinity of this city induces me to suggest the propriety of establishing the camp in Maury County for the organization and instruction of the troops above named. These troops will be more easily controlled than they would be near a city as large as Nashville or even Edgefield.

I am informed by the Adjutant-General of the State that a part of the new troops have been sent already to Camp Trousdale. I have reported to Governor Harris the position of the camps in this vicinity, chosen with reference to the line of defense, which may be occupied in some strength by such force as may be available. For long-continued occupation the grounds within the line thus limited do not furnish suitable spaces unoccupied by house or private inclosure for encamping a very large force-say not more than six to eight regiments. For health, comfort, and economy, therefore, it may be desirable to encamp all others at points more distant.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 21.}

HDQRS. FIRST DIV., WEST. DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 4, 1861.

The undersigned hereby resumes command of the First Division, Western Department.

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 4, 1861.

General L. TILGHMAN, Clarksville:

SIR: It order that the Cumberland Iron Works may complete con tracts now on hand with parties working for the Confederate Government {p.737} and continue in efficient operation (these works being the only ones that can now supply the requisite material for the manufacture of small-arms and other munitions of war), it is absolutely indispensable that all the operatives (and wood-choppers), white and black, whose names will be furnished you by the proprietors, should be exempt from all military or militia duty. You will therefore issue such orders as will give effect to this requisite exemption.

As it is desirable that as large a force may be collected as is necessary for the rapid completion of the works now in progress and projected, it is suggested that you extend the limits of the district from which the laborers are to be obtained, in order that the demand may not operate too severely upon the smaller number that will otherwise be required to furnish this working force.

I am, very respectfully,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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Abstract from a report, December 4, 1861, of the First Division, Central Army of Kentucky commanded by Major-General Hardee, at Bowling Green.

Troops.Present for duty.Total present.Aggregate present.Total present and absent.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
Division staff888
1st (Hindman’s) Brigade1191,3861,8271,9692,2472,404
2d (Cleburne’s) Brigade1111,0882,0512,1872,8533,031
3d (Shaver’s) Brigade.1401,4242,3632,5483,3783,591
Adams’ cavalry regiment29400614650736778
Shoup’s artillery battalion8145197206211227
Total4074,4517,0527,5689,42510,039

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. CENTRAL ARMY OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., December 5, 1861.

In obedience to Special Orders, No. 127, dated Headquarters Western Department, Bowling Green, Ky., December 4, 1861, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the Central Army of Kentucky. The district of operation of this army will embrace all that portion of the State of Tennessee lying north of the Cumberland River and all that portion of Kentucky north of the Cumberland River lying west of a line drawn due north from the point where the Cumberland River enters the State of Tennessee on the east. Officers in command at any point of this district will make full returns of their commands to these headquarters immediately on the receipt of this order.

The following staff is announced, viz: Lieut. D. G. White, acting assistant adjutant-general; Maj. John Pope, chief quartermaster; Capt. W. E. Moore, chief commissary; Maj. F. A. Shoup, chief of artillery; Captain Chambliss, chief of ordnance; Col. St. John R. Liddell, volunteer aide, and Col. Hardin Perkins, volunteer aide.

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

{p.738}

KNOXVILLE, December 5, 1861.

SECRETARY OF WAR:

I learn that there are 1,250 rifles at Columbus not in use. Can I not get them? I have here 1,700 men, only 400 armed. Will report fully to-night.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, December 5, 1861.

General W. H. CARROLL, Knoxville:

The rifles at Columbus are at the disposal of General A. S. Johnston.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR: KNOXVILLE, December 5, 1861.

The following dispatch received this morning, dated from Bird’s Point:

Captain Cocke just in with two bridge-burners and other prisoners. Have no news from Colonel Leadbetter. Colonel Powell reports by special messenger that he has seen no gathering. Will hold his position. Will throw my forces over the river in the morning and report.

Dispatch from Morristown says courier in from Monsarrat. Cannonading and musketry at 8 o’clock. Tories have made a stand.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 6, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding First Division, Columbus, Ky.:

General Johnston has provided the means for commencing the building of the gunboat on the Tennessee. As you have been authorized by the War Department to build this boat, he desires you will make requisition in time for the additional funds and the liquidation of the expenditure he has made.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FOURTH DIVISION, Camp Beauregard, Ky., December 6, 1861.

Capt. E. D. BLAKE, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the citizens of Calloway County have made application to me to establish a command at Wadesborough or Murray, saying that they have ample surplus of provisions, especially pork, and quantities of forage, to sustain a command, and will sell cheap to the Confederacy-corn, 25 cents per bushel; wheat, 60 cents, &c.

There is a strong position immediately east of Murray (a mile, say), {p.739} with plenty of running water. Sixteen miles north and east of Murray is Eggner’s Ferry, a fine position on the Tennessee River. No force coming up the Cumberland can cross to the Tennessee and fall in rear of Eggner’s without building their road through a country of “ravines,” “backbones” and “lime-sinks,” unless they go up as high as Dover, on the Cumberland. There is a good road from Murray to Eggner’s Ferry not laid down on Colton’s map.

By reference to the maps it will be seen that by this disposition we will cover a great deal of the State now unprotected, and at the same time have a strong line of defense from the Mississippi to the Tennessee, covering successfully the left of the other division of the army. Whether it would be advisable to have General Tilghman’s command move up to Eggner’s Ferry and a brigade stationed at Murray must of course depend upon the disposable force. My position cannot be abandoned without opening the border of Weakley County, Tennessee, to Federal raids, even if it does not weaken Columbus by having the right and rear opened. I have passed through portions of the country alluded to and have endeavored to ascertain correctly all facts bearing upon the question of its occupation.

Very respectfully,

JNO. S. BOWEN, Colonel, Commanding Fourth Division.

P. S.-I have the honor to herewith inclose an extract from a Cincinnati paper of the 3d.*

* Not found.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Ten,.., December 6, 1861.

HUGH MCKREW, Esq., Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: I would impress on you the urgent necessity of procuring immediately laborers for constructing defenses in the vicinity of Nashville. As yet there have been but 7 reported for duty on Cockrill’s Hill, and we need at least 300, as with less than that number the work cannot go on with that expedition desired and expected. I would therefore direct that you use every exertion, you having been authorized and appointed by the Governor of Tennessee, to procure forthwith all the laboring force possible to report at Cockrill’s Hill Monday morning, December 9, 1861, or as soon thereafter as practicable. You will also direct that laborers living at great distances from the works (Cockrill’s Hill) bring with them bed-clothing, eating and cooking utensils. You will direct those living near (Cockrill’s Hill), whose masters and owners prefer their returning home at night, to bring their dinners, until preparations can be made for their eating at or near the work. We will want all and every laborer that can be had.

Your obedient servant,

G. O. WATTS, Acting Assistant Engineer.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Hopkinsville, December 6, 1861.

D. V. WOOLEY, Esq., Bowling Green:

DEAR SIR: I left Lexington some ten days since and am now en route to New Orleans. I left Louisville the night of the 28th ultimo. {p.740} Previous to taking my departure I was called on by a gentleman, whom I know to be truthful, who requested me to inform General Buckner that there were already at that time 80,000 Union troops in Kentucky; that Rosecrans, Schenck, and Benham (I think that is the name) were then on the line of march to Kentucky; that it was the aim of the Union generals to unite against and attack General Buckner at Bowling Green with a force of 120,000 troops; that on the 25th ultimo it was decided to make the attack as soon as the Green River Bridge was done. The gentleman who gave me this information stated that I might give his name to General Buckner. His name is John Caperton. He lives in Louisville, and certainly has a fine opportunity of hearing what is going on on the Union side, as he is a son-in-law to Mr. Guthrie.

If my opinion was asked, I would say that I didn’t believe the Union army in Kentucky was or could be so large. I will not, however, venture my opinion against Major Caperton’s, his advantages for information being much better than mine. I am now in General Clark’s room. He says that there will be no such force brought into Kentucky. I do trust that the commanding general at Bowling Green will be prepared against any number.

It was believed by many in Louisville that there would be a simultaneous attack on the Potomac and at Bowling Green. The reasons given were that it would prevent the withdrawing of troops from one post to the other.

I am late in getting this letter to you, but to prevent capture I ran a blockade, which was long and tedious.

I desire you to state these facts to General Buckner, as I was requested to communicate them to him as early as possible.*

Very respectfully,

WM. A. WELLS.

* Some personal details omitted.

[Indorsement.]

Respectfully forwarded to General Johnston. Mr. Wells, a very intelligent gentleman, is now in Bowling Green.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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KNOXVILLE, December 6, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

W. G. Brownlow arrested to-day for treason by a warrant issued by the Confederate States commissioner and drawn up by myself. Will write you the facts in full that prompted his arrest in a day or two. Hope you will postpone your decision until you hear them.

J. C. RAMSAY.

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KNOXVILLE, December 6, 1861.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL C. S. ARMY:

Will you please send me, without delay, the ten regiments promised by the President whilst I was in Richmond, and I will move into Kentucky at once?

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, Comdg. Eastern Division, District Kentucky.

{p.744}

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 7, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. West. Dept., Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: For the information of the commanding general I have to report that the agents employed under the sanction of Governor Harris to engage the services of negroes from their masters to work on the intrenchments for defending the city of Nashville against land approach have failed to procure a force at all adequate to the magnitude of the work contemplated. In fact, the number of hands is insignificant, and the agents report that it will be impracticable to procure them at this time, as the negroes in the vicinity of this city are hired out until the end of this year and not now under the control of their masters. It is not probable, therefore, that any material progress can be made in the construction of the proposed defenses during the present month unless other labor can be applied. It is to be feared, too, that the call for military service has taken so large a proportion of the laboring classes from this community that it will be difficult, if at all possible, to procure white laborers at any price that will be reasonable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, December 7, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Having resumed command of my division and surveyed the field of operations immediately before me, as well as the force now coming to my aid, I find I want more general officers. The time at my disposal is short, as I have good reason to believe the enemy will make his contemplated attack on my position between this and the 20th or 30th current.

I nominate General James Trudeau, of the Louisiana Legion, who is now with me in command of part of his force, as a brigadier-general. I have several regiments from Louisiana here and am expecting more. They are entitled to a brigade commander.

I also nominate General Frost, of the Missouri Army, now in my camp, for the office of brigadier-general. General Frost, as you may know, 18 a graduate of West Point, and served for near ten years in the Army in various arms. He is a man of military attainments, and would, I have reason to believe, fill the office named with ability. He was to have gone to General Price, but General Halleck failed to comply with the engagements made by the general with General Frémont to send him to Price’s army, and he was obliged to come here. His services would be valuable to me in the emergency before me.

The State of Arkansas has about twelve regiments in the field, many of them under my command, and is without a brigade commander. I nominate Col. E. W. Gantt as a suitable person for that office. So far as I know, he has more military capacity than any other of those who are in command of her regiments.

The force of my command at this point should not be less than 50,000, if it were at the disposal of the Government.

{p.742}

I am satisfied it is the purpose of the enemy to make a desperate struggle to crush the force concentrated in this division. It is this force that stands directly in his way down the Mississippi. If he is foiled in this, he will be foiled in one of the most cherished of his purposes and wishes. I hope the Government will not fail to see this, and will give us both troops and commanders to meet the emergency.

I am greatly in want of mortar batteries. I hear there is one of fifteen mortars at Pensacola that may be spared with less inconvenience than we can spare it here. Could you not let me have it? If so, it should come at once.

While on the subject of the condition of this army, may I not ask you earnestly to see that my requisition for funds is responded to? We are in great want of money and shall be more so as the force now concentrating here is increased.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-I beg leave also to submit the name of Col. S. F. Marks, who you know personally, and whose natural capacity and military experience (he was in service in Mexico), as well as gallant conduct in the late battle entitle him to the consideration of the Government and would make him an efficient commander. He is now in command of a brigade.

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KNOXVILLE, December 7, 1861.

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

Captain Monsarrat has dispersed the tories in Cocke County and captured 30 of the ringleaders.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., December 7, 1861.

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America:

SIR: I heartily concur in what is said in the accompanying letter by Dr. Ramsey and Mr. Tibbs, the member-elect to the permanent Congress from the third district of Tennessee. In addition to what is therein stated, I must be permitted to express my utter surprise at the fact that the Secretary of War should have ordered that Brownlow be permitted to leave East Tennessee and indentify himself more effectually with the forces of Lincoln in Kentucky. This surprise results more from the fact that but a day or two since I was in Richmond and had a full and frank conversation with Mr. Benjamin in reference to the state of affairs in East Tennessee, and he did in no manner allude to the propriety of granting such a passport to Brownlow.

I have but recently been elected to the permanent Congress from this (second) Congressional district (as Mr. Tibbs has been from the third), and upon my return from Richmond I found the citizens and soldiers almost unanimously indignant at this order in Brownlow’s behalf and to my utter astonishment the report prevailed that I while at Richmond had secured such an order.

{p.743}

My competitor, Mr. Baxter, who received not 500 votes in the district, was at Richmond while I was myself there, and it may be that his counsels prevailed in the matter, and the order for Brownlow’s passport was induced by his arguments or persuasions. I certainly advised no such policy.

A word or two more. In one county of East Tennessee (Scott) the Stars and Stripes have been hoisted within a few days past. Our few friends there have been seized and taken into Kentucky by emissaries from the Lincoln camps, and these emissaries were guided and directed by a man who was recently discharged at Nashville by Mr. Benjamin’s order, at the instance of Mr. Baxter and others, whose co-operation he was influential enough to secure. Will we never be done with such policy?

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. G. SWAN.

[Inclosure.]

KNOXVILLE, TENN., December 7, 1861.

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America:

SIR: The Confederate civil authorities here had Mr. Brownlow arrested last evening under a charge of treason. He is now in jail. It is understood that parties in this place are taking, or perhaps have already taken, measures to apply for executive clemency in his behalf and turn him at large or transfer him under a military escort to the enemy’s lines in Kentucky.

To this course we enter our most respectful but decided protest and remonstrance.

During the whole summer and fall the civil and military power of your Government has arrested, tried, convicted, and punished (in some cases capitally, in others with more leniency) the poor and insignificant dupes of Brownlow’s treasonable teachings and example. A car load of these ignorant tories were sent this morning to Tuscaloosa, Ala.; and now the proposition to release the prime mover and instigator of all this rebellion against the South and Tennessee and send him an authorized emissary to the headquarters of the enemy, dignified with an escort of our Tennessee soldiery, has startled this community, embracing in the number citizens and most of the army here. The feeling of indignation at the bare effort for his release is much intensified by the fact, which, as it may not be fully known at Richmond, we take leave to bring to your attention, viz, that the prisoner, shortly before the burning of our railroad bridges and other acts of incendiarism and disloyalty, had left town and visited Blount and Sevier Counties, the residence of the malcontents who are known as the incendiaries, and the suspicion is widely entertained that he prompted and instigated that and other atrocities. This peregrination into the most disloyal and disaffected neighborhoods makes him the more familiar with the extent of the disaffection-their plans, purposes, &c.

A more dangerous and more capable emissary could not be found in the Southern Confederacy to stimulate invasion of Tennessee and advise and carry into effect every kind of mischief. His arrival in Kentucky and Lincolndom generally would be hailed as a greater achievement than the capture of Zollicoffer and his brave troops.

We do not deem it necessary to enlarge further on the subject, but we earnestly advise against the proposed release and transportation to {p.744} Kentucky. Let the civil or military law take its course against the criminal leader in this atrocious rebellion, as it has already done to his deluded and ignorant followers.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

J. G. M. RAMSEY. WM. H. TIBBS.

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ATTORNEY-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 7, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I telegraphed you last night that I had caused Brownlow to be arrested by a warrant issued from the Confederate States commissioner, and I feel confident, when I inform you the grounds of his arrest you will approve of my course. I had intended to have him arrested in November last, at the regular term of the Confederate court at this place, but, in consequence of his absence and Judge Humphreys not being here to hold the court, his arrest was postponed. Shortly before the burning of the bridges Brownlow’s friends circulated a report that he was confined at home by a bleeding at the lungs. Notwithstanding this (the bridges being burned on Friday night, the 8th of November), he left home the Monday previous, and has remained absent a month or more, during inclement season, in the mountainous parts of the counties of Blount and Sevier, among the most hostile population to the Southern Confederacy that we have in East Tennessee. Information reached me that on his way to the mountains he had made use of expressions that showed he had knowledge of the designs of the enemy to penetrate into East Tennessee and the time the attempt would be made, and I was satisfied, from his well-known character for years for obtaining information, that he was not ignorant that the bridges would be burned. His newspaper has been the great cause of rebellion in this section, and most of those who have been arrested have been deluded by his gross distortion of facts and incited to take up arms by his inflammatory appeals to their passions and infamous libels upon the Confederate States. Under these circumstances it was the general sentiment of our people, and particularly of the military, that it would be great injustice to punish the ignorant men who had been deluded by one more cunning and hypocritical than themselves and suffer the master spirit to escape with impunity. Our soldiers, who have been guarding the mountain passes by night as well as by day, and have endured the hardest service to detect and arrest ignorant men who were straggling over into Kentucky to assist the enemy, the dupes of his teachings, became discouraged, and said they could see no use in such service, when Brownlow, who could do them more harm than a thousand men, was suffered to pass over to the enemy to give them information and incite our enemies to invade our country. So great was their objection to this course that I understand some of the officers said it would be difficult in such a contingency to restrain their men from laying down their arms and returning home; and I also understand that there were none of the military who did not feel it would be degrading service to escort him to the Kentucky line.

But desiring not to trespass upon your valuable time longer than it is absolutely necessary, I again repeat that it is the general desire of all friends to our cause in East Tennessee that his case should be investigated, to ascertain if he did not possess knowledge of the bridge-burning {p.745} and other designs of the enemy. Our most discreet and prudent men, both civil and military, familiar with the character of the man, think it imprudent to send him into the enemy’s country, as he is capable of doing us more injury than Johnson and Maynard both combined. I regret that he was not arrested by the military and sent to Tuscaloosa where many will no doubt be sent not half so guilty as he is; and and I urge you to that course now, as being the very best thing under all the circumstances that could be done. His friends cannot complain of his being sent to a more Southern climate, and it is a little singular that with the disease of which he is complaining he should desire to go North at this inclement season. Under all the circumstances I have thought it best for the country that he should be detained for trial or sent to Tuscaloosa. At least he should be detained until you should hear all the facts and circumstances of the case. He was permitted to come home without being arrested, as I understand, upon condition that he was to be answerable to the law for any offense he may have committed, and previous to his being arrested the commissioner had leave to do so from Major-General Crittenden if he thought proper, the general saying he would not interfere.

Again, Brownlow was aware of President Davis’ proclamation, giving all that desired to leave the Confederate States forty days to do so. If he desired to go North, he then had an opportunity to do so. He did not avail himself of the law, but remains here after he has done all the injury he can do to our country, and now asks that he be escorted to our enemies, there to give such information to the North as he may desire and inflame the minds of the people more bitterly against us. If that privilege is granted to him, will it not be a precedent for all others that may apply during the war? I fear that the moral effect of such a course will not only be bad in East Tennessee, but may be deleterious in the whole Confederate States.

I have thought proper to present you my view of the case, but will cheerfully conform to your own better judgment.

Yours, truly,

J. C. RAMSAY, C. S. District Attorney for District of Tennessee.

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RICHMOND, December 8, 1861.

Major-General CRITTENDEN, Knoxville:

The President desires that you return to Richmond and report to him without delay.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 8, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

I have the honor to state that on the 24th November I transmitted a letter from Captain Lindsay, stationed at Nashville, Tenn., reporting the arrival at that place of a steamer from Louisville, Ky., having on board all the machinery and appliances for spinning cotton, owned and intended to be put in operation at McMinnville, Tenn. He had taken {p.746} the crew, vessel, and cargo into his custody, to await instructions from me. I directed him to hold them under his charge until further orders. His letter, with an explanatory indorsement, was then transmitted to you, requesting your decision in the case. In that indorsement I stated that my permission had been solicited, some time previously to the arrival of the vessel, by the parties interested, to bring it up the Cumberland, but that I had refused to authorize the introduction of the vessel, and had referred them for authority to do so to the Department of War. There is much urgency for a decision of the case. On that account and on the supposition of a miscarriage of Captain Lindsay’s letter, I again respectfully submit the subject for your consideration and decision.

The enemy, from the best information I am able to obtain, have made no material change in the disposition of their forces in front or on either flank. Their advance in front is 6 miles north of Bacon Creek, near the Louisville Railroad; a large force at Nolin; and farther north, towards Louisville, they are massed in considerable force at different points convenient for concentrating them. I do not doubt that the Federal Government is augmenting their force in Kentucky in this direction to the extent of their ability.

The inclosed letter* will serve to show the disposition they are making of different army corps which have been elsewhere employed. As to the estimate of their forces, I suppose it is a gross exaggeration. With the addition of Nelson’s and Rosecrans’ columns, their force on this immediate line I believe ought not to be estimated over 65,000.

Our returns at this place show a force of between 18,000 and 19,000, of which about 5,000 are sick (about 3,600 at Nashville), and our effective force is under 13,000 men. The volunteers, I hear, are turning out well, but the time taken up in procuring arms has thus far prevented much accession to our force from that source.

I beg leave to remind you of your promise to place a secret-service fund at my disposition. There are now claims upon the Government unliquidated. I suggested that about $5,000 should be placed to my credit in one of the Nashville banks.

On the night of the 6th instant Captain Morgan, with his cavalry company, Helm’s Kentucky regiment, Buckner’s division, burned the railroad bridge over Bacon Creek (recently reconstructed by the enemy), 6 miles in advance of the enemy’s advance force.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

* Not found.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 8, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America:

Your letter of November 12,* in reply to mine on the subject of my resignation of the appointment of major-general in the Confederate Army, has been received. I appreciate the confidence you have been pleased to express in me.

After carefully considering all of my responsibilities in the premises and your deliberate judgment as to the necessities of the service, I have concluded to waive the pressing of my application for a release {p.747} from further service, and have determined to retain my office so long as I may be of service to our cause.

I remain, faithfully, your friend,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* See Series I, Vol. IV, p. 539.

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HEADQUARTERS, General S. COOPER, Greeneville, Tenn., December 8, 1861.

Adjutant and Inspector General:

SIR: At the date of my last letter a part of the force under my command was engaged in the pursuit of a party of insurgents moving from their camp, in the northern part of Greene, towards Cocke County. As usual, their force was dispersed and only some stragglers could be picked up. Among these prisoners were three who had been of the party that burned the Lick Creek Bridge. They were Henry Fry, Jacob M. Henshaw, and Hugh A. Self. All confessed their own and testified to the others’ guilt, and also gave, as correctly as they could remember, the names of the whole party engaged in that crime. Fry and Henshaw were tried by drum-head court-martial on the 30th ultimo and executed the same day by hanging. I have thought it my duty to ask of the Department that the punishment of Hugh A. Self be commuted to imprisonment. He is only sixteen years old, not very intelligent, and was led away on that occasion by his father and elder brother, both of whom I learn have now been captured by General Carroll’s troops.

Hearing that the insurgents had gathered in force at or near the bend of Chucky River, and thence to the neighborhood of Parrottsville and of Newport, on the French Broad, in Cocke County, I moved the Twenty-ninth North Carolina, with two companies of the Third Georgia Battalion, in that direction on the 3d instant. Hearing that General Carroll had troops on the line of railroad at Morristown, I arranged with them by telegraph to move into the enemy’s country at the same time and from opposite directions.

That country consists of a tumultuous mass of steep hills, wooded to the top, with execrable roads winding through the ravines and often occupying the beds of the water-courses. A few of the insurgent scouts were seen, pursued, and fired on. One was desperately wounded and left at a cabin near by.

At the farm houses along the more open valleys no men were to be seen, and it is believed that nearly the whole male population of the country were lurking in the hills on account of disaffection or fear. The women in some cases were greatly alarmed, throwing themselves on the ground and wailing like savages. Indeed, the population is savage.

The expedition lasted four days, and in the course of it we met Colonel Powell’s command deep in the mountains and our guns were responded to at no great distance by a force under Captain Monsarrat.

These people cannot be caught in that manner. As likely to be more effective, I have detached three companies of Colonel Vance’s regiment to Parrottsville, with instructions to impress horses from Union men and be active in seizing troublesome men in all directions. They will impress provisions, giving certificates therefor, with assurance that the amounts will be paid if the future loyalty of the sufferer shall {p.748} justify the clemency of the Government. The whole country is given to understand that this course will be pursued until quiet shall be restored to these distracted counties, and they can rely upon it that no prisoner will be pardoned so long as any Union men shall remain in arms. Three other companies of Colonel Vance’s command are on their way to Warrensburg, on the north side of Chucky, to remain there under similar instructions.

It is believed that we are making progress towards pacification. The Union men are taking the oath in pretty large numbers and arms are beginning to be brought in. Captain McClellan, of the Tennessee cavalry, stationed by me at Elizabethton, reports that Carter County is becoming very quiet, and that, with the aid of a company of infantry, he will enter Johnson County and disarm the people there. I shall send the company without delay.

The execution of the bridge-burners is producing the happiest effect. This, coupled with great kindness towards the inhabitants generally, inclines them to quietude. Insurgents will continue for yet a while in the mountains, but I trust that we have secured the outward obedience of the people.

Very respectfully, &c., your obedient servant,

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel, Commanding.

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FORT PILLOW, December 8, 1861. (Received, Columbus, December 8, 1861.)

Major-General POLK:

The C. S. floating battery passed at 8 o’clock a.m.

L. M. WALKER.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 9, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjutant-General, Western Department, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: On the question of constructing a gunboat for the defense of the Cumberland River, as proposed by Messrs. Shaw & Lawson, and referred to me by indorsement on the letter of Governor Harris, Gov. Neill S. Brown, and General W. G. Harding, I have the honor to report as follows:

If it were practicable to build a gunboat of proper description in the Cumberland it would aid much in the defense of the river, but I much fear that a common steamboat cannot be converted into an efficient one. The boilers and machinery can be but partially protected from shot, and the large side-wheels, having diameters varying from 30 to 34 feet, not at all. One shot striking the partially-protected machinery or the shaft or the large wheels might render such a gunboat totally helpless and place her at the mercy of the enemy, with crew, armament, and supplies.

It is probable the hull of a well-built river boat (and such a one is now laid up at this city) can be made in a measure shot-proof to a line below the water surface by covering her with false timber sides and bulwarks clad with thick iron. Railroad or other bars would have to be used for the purpose, as there is not plate iron in the whole Confederacy {p.749} sufficient to protect the hundredth part of the surface of one boat. This market will not furnish the requisite heavy timber for strengthening the sides of the boat or for constructing the inclined barricades or bulwarks, as proposed by Messrs. Shaw & Lawson. In course of many weeks it could be obtained, I presume, from forest and saw-mills of the surrounding country. The heavy additions of timber and iron would give the boat a draught too great for navigating the river except during the winter season and early spring.

Considering all the objections that exist to such a gunboat as proposed, the period of time that must elapse before one could be gotten ready for service, and the probable armament of guns we may hope to command, I am forced to the opinion that the best reliance for defense will be batteries ashore, in combination with such obstructions as may be devised in the channel under the guns of the works. I return the letters of Governors Harris and Brown and General Harding.*

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

*Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS RIFLE BRIGADE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 9, 1861.

Maj. Gen. G. B. CRITTENDEN, Knoxville:

SIR: I have the honor herewith to submit a report of the strength and condition of all the forces now in East Tennessee for the past few weeks acting under my command, together with their location, field of duty, &c. My immediate command, assigned by the Secretary of War, is as follows:

Senior (Thirty-eighth) Regiment: Colonel, Robert F. Looney; lieutenant-colonel, E. J. Golladay; major, D. H. Thrasher. Organized September 23, for twelve months. Stationed at Knoxville. This regiment is but imperfectly armed, having but 250 guns, consisting of rifles, double-barreled shot-guns, and muskets. Of these not more than 50 are perfect. This regiment is now stationed at this place, except one company, which is on detached service at Morristown. Strength of regiment, 988.

Second (Thirty-ninth) Regiment:* Colonel, Moses White; lieutenant-colonel, Hunter P. Moffit; major, W. M. Hunt (acting). Organized October 11, 1861, for twelve months. This regiment is also stationed at Knoxville, except one company, which is on detached service at Morristown. The arms of this regiment consist of about 200 rifles, shot-guns, and muskets, mostly unfit for use except in an emergency. Strength of regiment, 771.

In addition to the two regiments above mentioned there are seven companies that have been mustered into service that have heretofore been nominally under the command of Col. W. T. Avery which were also assigned me by the Secretary of War. These have not yet been organized into a regiment, for the reason that three of them which I left at a camp of instruction at Germantown were ordered to Fort Pillow by General Pillow, commanding at Columbus. The other four companies are in the neighborhood of Knoxville.

I have written to General Pillow, protesting against this interference {p.750} with my command, and requested him to order the three companies now at Fort Pillow to move immediately to this place. Should he do so, the regiment will be organized at once. Should he not do so, I shall appeal to the Secretary of War.

When I reached Chattanooga with my command, on the march to this point, I was joined by the following regiment:

[Thirty-second Regiment]: Colonel, E. C. Cook; lieutenant-colonel, W. P. Moore; major, Brownlow. Organized , for twelve months. This regiment is still at Chattanooga, awaiting further orders. It is armed with 500 flint-lock muskets, in good order. Strength of regiment, 850.

When Colonel Cook reported to me he informed me that he was assigned to no command and requested me to attach him to my brigade, which I did until such time as I should receive orders from you. Should it meet your approval, I should be glad to have him continued under my command. I would also suggest that he be ordered to this place, as there is no further necessity for the services of his regiment at the place where it now is, as every indication of a rebellion in that section of country has entirely disappeared.

Col. J. W. Gillespie, of this city, has reported to me the following companies, with the request that they should be organized into a regiment and attached to my brigade, viz:

Capt. A. J. Cawood, stationed at London, partially armed; Capt. S. T. Turner, stationed at London; Capt. L. Guthrie, stationed at Knoxville; Capt. John Goodman, stationed at Knoxville; Capt. D. Neff, stationed at Knoxville; Capt. W. J. Hill, stationed at Knoxville; Capt. A. W. Hodge, stationed at Knoxville; Capt. W. L. Lafferty, stationed at Calhoun; Capt. W. H. McKamy, stationed at Charleston; Capt. J. W. Phillips, stationed at Rogersville.

The strength of this regiment will reach about 850 men. Some of these companies are partially armed with old country rifles and shotguns. I have ordered all of them to rendezvous at Camp Key, in the vicinity of this city, and will organize them into a regiment early next week.

The following detached companies have also reported to me, viz:

Capt. W. D. Smith, stationed at Charleston; Capt. J. P. Brown, stationed at Madisonville; Capt. J. B. Cook, stationed at Athens; Capt. W. C. Nelson, stationed at Philadelphia; Capt. H. Harris, stationed at Sevierville; Capt. W. G. McCain, stationed at Knoxville.

These companies are also partially armed with such guns as could be secured in the surrounding country. So soon as these companies can be relieved from duty at the places where they are now stationed I will concentrate them at this or some other convenient point and organize them into a regiment.

Artillery.-Captain, George H. Monsarrat; first senior lieutenant, E. Baxter; first junior lieutenant, Brian; second senior lieutenant, Freeman; 140 men, 4 guns, 3 caissons, 103 horses.

This company is now stationed near this city; is under the command of one of the most active and efficient officers in the service. It is thoroughly drilled and disciplined. Six more guns will be obtained in a few days and the command increased to 250 men.

Cavalry.-The following cavalry companies have reported to me and have been acting under my orders, viz:

Captain McLin, stationed at Lick Creek; Captain Brock, stationed at Knoxville; Capt. J. F. White, stationed at Maryville; Capt. W. L. Brown, stationed at Cleveland; Capt. D. C. Gormus, stationed in

{p.751}

Cocke County; Capt. R. W. McCLary, stationed at Cleveland; Capt. F. Eldridge, stationed at London.

The foregoing comprised all the force attached to my immediate command. Other forces, however have reported to me and acted under my command, consisting of the following:

Col. W. B. Wood’s regiment; at present stationed near this place, numbering about 800 men, armed with flint-lock muskets. This regiment is attached to the brigade of Brigadier-General Zollicoffer.

Capt. H. L. W. McClung’s battery, consisting of two 6-pounder and two 12-pounder guns, with caissons, horses, &c., numbering about 100 men; Captain Gillespie’s cavalry, numbering about 100 men, armed with double-barreled shot-guns. Both these companies belong to the command of General Zollicoffer.

There are other forces stationed at various points in East Tennessee from the commanders of which I have received no official report and have no certain information concerning them. The following is the most reliable I have been able to obtain:

Col. Samuel Powell’s regiment, stationed at Greeneville. Of its strength, arms, &c., I have no knowledge, nor do I know to what command it is attached.

Col. S. A. M. Wood’s regiment is stationed 10 miles east of Chattanooga; is thoroughly equipped, and with Springfield muskets. This regiment belongs, I understand, to the command of Brigadier-General Bragg, and was sent by him from Pensacola to Chattanooga for temporary service until such time as I could reach there with my command.

Col. R. B. Vance’s regiment is stationed at Greeneville; numbers about 800 men, and is efficiently armed. I do not know to what command it is attached.

Col. D. Leadbetter is stationed, with his regiment, somewhere in the neighborhood of Morristown, on the line of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. I have no other information concerning his command.

Lieutenant-Colonel Stovall’s battalion is stationed at Greeneville, numbering 500 men, and is efficiently armed.

The foregoing is all the organized force of which I have any knowledge in East Tennessee, except Colonel Churchwell’s regiment, which I understand is a portion of General Zollicoffer’s command. I do not know its present location.

Another of General Zollicoffer’s regiments, commanded by Colonel Statham, is, I learn, stationed at Cumberland Gap.

There are various companies, I am informed, being organized in the surrounding counties, and should the necessity arise and arms could be procured I have no doubt but an additional force of 4,000 or 5,000 men could easily be brought into the field from East Tennessee.

RECAPITULATION.

Strength of my immediate command:

Infantry4,400
Cavalry450
Artillery150
Total5,000
Other forces in East Tennessee6,000
Whole amount of force in East Tennessee11,000
{p.752}

The foregoing report is as perfect a one as I am able to make with the meager information at present before me. My own command being as yet to a great extent unorganized and stationed in small detachments at so many different points, I have not been able to obtain regular and official reports. But in the main the above statement of its strength, condition, &c., is very nearly accurate in point of numbers, as well as in other particulars.

The other forces to which I have alluded were not under my command, and therefore I had no right to require the official information from them, but have had to rely upon such statements as were reported to me by others.

Respectfully,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

* Appears on Register as Thirty-seventh Regiment.

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[DECEMBER 10, 1861.-By an act of the Provisional Congress, Kentucky admitted as a member of the Confederate States of America.]

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 10, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding First Division, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: By direction of the general I give his views of the probable operations of the enemy and suggestions as to the means by which they are to be met and counteracted. He says:

Copies of letters to the Governor of Alabama and to General Weakley have informed you that you may anticipate an important accession to the force at Fort Henry, which I hope with the force now at Fort Donelson and that under General Clark at Hopkinsville will make your right secure from the enterprises of the enemy and compel him to divert a large portion of his force. Should he consider it expedient to attempt the reduction of those places or in carrying on operations in your immediate front, enforce upon him the necessity of employing a large force in observation to mask or cover his operations against you. I suppose they will adopt on your front three lines of operations: one from Cape Girardeau or Bird’s Point to New Madrid, which may be safely done, as the topography of the country evidently affords a perfect immunity from attack throughout the route. This contingency you are providing against. The force which will probably be sent on the Cape Girardeau route will no doubt be large. Another smaller force, I think, will descend the west bank of the Mississippi to a point below Columbus, establish batteries to cut off your supplies by the river, and co-operate with the force at Madrid. A third will endeavor to throw itself between Columbus and your re-enforcements and supplies, to effect which it will be necessary for them, if the routes should be as impracticable as they are represented at this season of the year, to use the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers for transportation of subsistence and other supplies, at least as far as the ferry, should they adopt the former route below Fort Henry, and thence by the road to Paris. This movement they would probably cover by a demonstration towards Columbus. Fort Columbus, now being completed, cannot, I think, be taken by assault; and, supplied with provisions and other stores for six months, would probably, if enveloped and thrown upon its own resources hold out some time.

Now, if this be true, your army outside is left free to maneuver in reference to the movements of the enemy, and ought to be so handled as to prevent, by its successive movements, the introduction of the enemy’s force into the country in such manner as to deprive you of support and supplies.

Should they deem it important to reduce the force at Columbus before advancing you would have it in your power to go to its relief. Should they, however, decide to prosecute their march into Tennessee, you will have it in your power, if your force should be adequate, to offer them battle on a field of your own choice or impede and harass them as they advance, and as their force must be reduced to keep up their line of communication, {p.753} engage them wherever there might be sufficient probability of decisive advantage.

These are suggestions for your consideration, and must be modified as circumstances require.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Beech Grove, Ky., December 10, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Your two dispatches of the 4th reached me late last night. Inclosed I send copy of letter addressed to you yesterday.* I infer from yours that I should not have crossed the river, but it is now too late. My means of recrossing is so limited, I could hardly accomplish it in face of the enemy. There are five infantry regiments, perhaps more, and one cavalry regiment at Somerset, 16 miles distant. Their pickets were yesterday within 9 miles. The precise force at Columbia I cannot ascertain. Our cavalry detachments south of the river, at Rowena, were fired upon from this side yesterday and to-day.

This camp is immediately opposite to Mill Springs, 1 1/4 mile, distant. The river protects our rear and flanks. We have about 1,200 yards fighting front to defend, which we are intrenching as rapidly as our few tools will allow; but a supply ordered by Maj. V. K. Stevenson, assistant quartermaster-general at Nashville, on the 10th, have not been heard from. Two hundred pack-saddles, ordered at same time, much needed, have not been heard from. I have relied on a reserve of one battalion of the Sixteenth Alabama Regiment, Colonel Powell’s regiment, and Captain McClung’s battery, left at Knoxville, and ordered forward soon after I started. I have expected them constantly; have been able to get no intelligence until to-day, and now learn (unofficially) that they are not on the way. This may very greatly endanger our position. I will endeavor to prevent the forces at Columbia and Somerset from uniting. The proximity of the terminus of the railroad at Lebanon would seem to give them the means of rapidly re-enforcing in my front.

The position I occupy north of the river is a fine basis for operations in front. It is a much stronger natural position for defense than that on the south bank. I think it should be held at all hazards, but I ought to have a stronger force. Could any feint by possibility be made upon Columbia from the west, it would probably save me from concentration in front until I could be strengthened. We will work day and night on the necessary defenses. Major-General Crittenden has assumed command, and is, I think, now at Knoxville.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

* See p. 10.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, December 10, 1861.

J. O. RAMSAY, Esq., C. S. District Attorney, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of 7th instant is received. I thank you for the information {p.754} it contains, and shall reserve your suggestions for proper consideration.

I should be obliged to you if you would give me an account of the circumstances of Brownlow’s arrest, &c., at your earliest convenience.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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KNOXVILLE, December 10, 1861.

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

The court-martial has sentenced A. C. Haun, bridge-burner, to be hung. Sentence approved. Ordered to be executed at 12 o’clock tomorrow. Requires the approval of the President. Please telegraph.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, December 10, 1861.

General W. H. CARROLL, Knoxville:

Execute the sentence of your court-martial on the bridge-burners. The law does not require any approval by the President, but he entirely approves my order to hang every bridge-burner you can catch and convict.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 262.}

ADJT. AND INSP. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, Va., December 10, 1861.

...

12. Brig. Gen. W. H. Carroll, Provisional Army, will immediately proceed, with all the armed men of his brigade, to report for duty to General F. K. Zollicoffer, leaving the unarmed portion of his command at Knoxville, Tenn., under the control of a suitable officer, until arms can be provided.

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 10, [1861].

Brig. Gen. HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Abingdon, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letters to General Johnston of November 5* and 28,** and to Major-General Crittenden of December 14 have been received. He directs me to reply as follows:

1. The general has received no instructions from the War Department {p.755} in relation to the force in East Kentucky (the district of Prestonburg), assigned to you, nor yet in relation to those forces you were authorized to raise. The object of giving you a force was announced to him by the Department, and the scope of your powers was learned from your letters.

2. From the powers with which you are invested and the full conversations you had with the general he presumed that the forces placed at your disposal and the unlimited power to raise additional forces would, as the Department hoped, be fully equal to the execution of the plans you had concerted with the Department.

3. He believed that the general intended you to have a wide discretion as to your movements and entire control over the administration of your forces, leaving to the general a supervisory power, with the authority to combine your movements with corps of the Army when the proper time arrived.

4. So believing, and finding that your force fell not only below your anticipations, but was so small as to render it doubtful whether they would insure the immediate object had in view, viz, the protection of the “frontier of Prestonburg and its vicinity,” he saw that the time had not yet arrived when it could be combined in the movement of any other corps of this army, and therefore gave you no orders.

5. He was satisfied that you were making yourself fully acquainted with the field of your operations, and that it would be inexpedient at this distance to make suggestions as to your movements, even had he been as fully advised as you were of the special views of the general as to the precise objects to be reached by it.

6. His order to General Crittenden was not intended to reach your command, nor, until the receipt of your letter last night, was he apprised of the fact that that general had taken your district under his command. He immediately telegraphed to General Carroll local commander of Knoxville, to return those you had put in march for this place.

7. At this distance your arrangements to place your infantry on the mountain line and cover a trail by the advance of your cavalry for subsistence seems judicious.***

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Series I, Vol. IV, p. 515.

** See pp. 715, 729.

*** See Marshall to Johnston, December 22, p. 40.

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HEADQUARTERS BRIGADE, Camp Recovery, 1 mile from Prestonburg, Ky., Dec. 10, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond:

GENERAL: I have the pleasure to inform you that I have been located here for several days, and to report to you that I have in camp Williams’ regiment, which is gradually being filled, and that Trigg’s regiment, with Jeffress’ battery, will arrive at Prestonburg to-day, they having advanced from the Richlands by the Louisa Fork of the Sandy and by the way of Piketon. I came by Whitesburg, in Letcher County, through the corner of Posey County, and so far through Floyd. I think I have established friends for the Confederate States on a sound basis wherever I have been. My effort has been to conciliate the people, and to teach them by example that the Army of the Confederate {p.756} States comes not to maraud and oppress, but to protect and to respect the constitutional rights of the people. The Army of the United States invited here to defend this people, halted at no excess. They burned and ravaged the towns, insulted females and violated their persons, stole wearing apparel, and killed stock, and frequently deprived poor people of the means of subsistence. I have sought to impress all that this course on their part was a true representation of the despotic principles their master seeks to establish on a permanent basis, while the respect I and my men pay to persons and property, without regard to mere opinion, is the reflex of the principles we represent. The effect has been exceedingly favorable, for the contrast is striking and visible to the commonest man in the community.

I found prisoners at Pound Gap arrested for their active pursuit of their opinions. I released them and sent them home after explaining to them the principles I advocate. They said the veil had been removed from their eyes, and I afterwards found them well disposed and active in getting recruits for my command.

I have advanced my cavalry to West Liberty, in Morgan County-not to station it, but to pass through the county, inspirit our friends, and to prevent the enemy from stripping the country of its stock.

I hear that Colonel Moore, with his Abingdon battalion, has actually started, but is making only 5 or 6 miles per day. This augurs badly for his efficiency in the future, but I will not despair. Colonel Stuart, at last advices, was waiting at Abingdon for transportation. Intelligence has reached me from various quarters that six field pieces are at Abingdon intended for this command, but I have received no dispatch informing me that such was its destination nor the amount of ammunition accompanying it. I have a hope that you will inform me, so that, if the battery is to be sent to me, it may be manned and equipped and moved at once, before the ice gathers, so as to make the mountains impassable.

I have a detachment making salt for the use of my command, and I also have possession of the Salt Works at Brashearsville, on the North Fork of the Kentucky River, 20 miles below Whitesburg. I hope through these to make 35 or 40 bushels of salt per week, so as not only to supply my current demand, but to enable me to pack as much meat ration as will serve this army for future purposes. The prices here and at Bristol for pork are as 4 1/2 to 5 is to 9 to 10, which you see is a vast difference.

I have seen several men from the interior of Kentucky, and I have secured a line of intelligence from my camp to Lexington. I shall in future know pretty well what is going on to the very center of the enemy’s operations in Kentucky, and will be perfectly guarded against surprise. I learn that the young men in the interior are beginning to learn my whereabouts and are moving. May I beg of the Government, if it is possible, to let me have good arms to put in their hands when they come to me. They have no arms; they can’t get them. Their rifles and shot-guns have been taken away from them by the Lincolnites. I think Mr. Benjamin should let me have at least the percussion muskets I turned over to him through Governor Letcher. I am gratified to say to you that my movement here altogether looks auspicious of good, and I have high hopes that the future may realize our hopes.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

{p.757}

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 11, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of the State of Tennessee, Nashville:

SIR: The agents heretofore employed to procure a laboring force for building fortifications for defending the approaches to this city have failed to get any more than a few negroes; a number quite insignificant when compared with the works to be undertaken. With a hope that a large force of negroes may yet be obtained by an appeal to the citizens of the vicinity and neighboring counties, I have prepared the form for the call upon them, which I submit for your indorsement. Having your indorsement, I have thought it might be advisable to have a number of copies printed and placed in the hands of some officers, say sheriffs and constables, with instructions to apply to every citizen within reach, and urge the necessity of a prompt compliance with the call.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

[Inclosure.]

C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 11, 1861.

It has been decided by the general commanding the Western Department to fortify the approaches to the city of Nashville, the better to protect your capital and State against the contingency of invasion by our relentless enemy. To this end a call is now made upon all citizens to contribute a part of the labor which they control to aid in the erection of the necessary works. It is necessary that each negro sent from a distance be furnished by his master with blankets or other bed-clothing sufficient to make him comfortable; also with cooking and messing utensils. It is essential that the number be assembled with the least practicable delay at Cockrill’s Hill and Foster’s Hill, near and north of the town of Edgefield, on the Goodlettsville turnpike. The force employed will be lodged at night either in tents or frame huts in the vicinity of the work, and as a care more satisfactory to the owners may be secured to their hands by placing them under the charge of some person or persons known in the neighborhood or county from which the negroes are sent, it is desired that this plan, by agreement among the citizens, be adopted. If subsistence be furnished by the owner, $1 per day for each hand will be paid by the Confederate States; if supplied by the Government, then 70 cents per day. Nothing but a great necessity causes this additional call upon the patriotism of the citizens, and a prompt response will the better insure protection to your property and your homes.

By direction and authority of General A. S. Johnston, commanding the Western Department:

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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JACKSON, MISS., December 11, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

I have ordered 3,000 troops to Union City. They need some tents {p.758} and ammunition and caps for shot-guns and rifles. Could you not order supply from Nashville?

JOHN J. PETTUS.

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Col. W. W. MACKALL: COLUMBUS, December 11, 1861.

General Polk has assumed command, but under your instructions to give you information of the movements of the enemy I feel it my duty to say that my opinion is that the enemy are preparing to move up the Tennessee River in force. I think they will simply make a demonstration against this position to hold the force here. Will use their large water power to capture Fort Henry and pass up and take possession of Tennessee bridge and separate your command and General Polk’s, and will then advance down that railroad on Memphis.

For a week their fortresses have been sealed, and their boats are running up the Ohio in the night-time alone. I may be wrong in my views, but such is my opinion of their purpose.

GID. J. PILLOW.

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HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION, C. A. KENTUCKY, December 11, 1861.

General HARDEE:

SIR: The following is a copy of part of a private letter written from Woodlawn on the 8th instant to a lady and handed to me. I transcribe it for the information of General Hardee:

... I think this one of the most important points now left open in the State. It is a point though which Tennessee might be invaded at the most dangerous point—Knoxville, the home of Brownlow & Co. If such a thing should happen, the same scenes may be enacted there as are enacted in Western Virginia. The road by here on to Columbia, and the road down Mockeson and by Beebe’s, leading to the same point, are the principal passways through which the tide flows from Tennessee to camp at Columbia and Campbellsville. They are passing daily, almost hourly. If this gap could be stopped it would check a host from joining the Lincoln Army. ...

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

[Endorsement.]

Respectfully referred to General Johnston. The within goes to sustain the importance of occupying Columbia by our forces.

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL ARMY KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, December 11, 1861.

Colonel W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Western Department:

COLONEL: In view of the arrival of a regiment of infantry last night and the certainty of an additional re-enforcement of 3,000 or 6,000 men within a few days, I beg to submit for your consideration the following movements against the enemy:

General Hindman was at Horse Well last night, which is within one day’s march of Woodsonville. He has with him 1,100 infantry, four pieces of artillery, and 500 cavalry. With this force he can keep the {p.759} enemy in check at Munfordville, and for this purpose can be ordered to take post at Woodsonville, with instructions to defend the passage of the river and to keep the enemy at bay.

With General Buckner’s division I propose to attack the forces of the enemy now at Columbia, and for this purpose would respectfully suggest the following dispositions of that division: On any day, as, say, the 13th instant, let one brigade of that division, together with the body of the cavalry, move to the position now occupied by General Hindman at Horse Well, arriving on the evening of the 14th.

On the morning of the 14th let the remainder of the division move from this point towards Glasgow, arriving on the evening of the 15th, when it should be joined by the brigade at Horse Well, except the cavalry, which should remain at that point until the next day. Measures should be taken to give the troops moving to Horse Well to understand that General Hindman is threatened in front, and that they are intended to sustain him. This impression would probably be reported to the enemy, and cause him to suspect that we intended to cross or defend the river in his front at Munfordville, and thus serve in some measure to blind our real movement against Columbia. The advance of General H. to Woodsonville would confirm him in this impression.

From Glasgow our forces should move with the greatest possible celerity upon the enemy at Columbia, while the cavalry at Horse Well should be instructed to move towards Greensburg on the 16th and ascertain the strength and character of the enemy at that point, and, if found to be inconsiderable, to disperse them, and then gain a position to act with the main body certainly by the evening of the 17th. If such a force be found at Greensburg as to render it inexpedient to risk an attack a small force should be left to observe it, while the remainder hastens to support the main body in its attack on Columbia.

If the enemy should attempt to retire from Columbia, the cavalry could harass him and probably cause him to take a position and give battle.

The greatest care should be taken to prevent the enemy from gaining information of the movement, and for that purpose all persons should be intercepted going in that direction.

If we can gain possession of this point, I think General Zollicoffer should be instructed to move to and hold it. We should thus gain a large district of country, filled with grain and provisions, of which we are much in need. In the mean time I think I risk nothing in undertaking to defend this place with the troops remaining from any attack of the enemy.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS RIFLE BRIGADE, Knoxville, December 11, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: In pursuance of your instructions by telegraph of yesterday, the sentence of death pronounced by court-martial upon A. C. Haun, the bridge burner, was executed by hanging at 12 o’clock to-day. The court-martial is still in session, engaged in the trial of a number of others charged with complicity in the same crime. I am not advised of the nature or extent of the proof that can be brought against them, {p.760} but should it be sufficient and the court find them guilty, the sentence, whatever it may be, will be promptly executed, unless otherwise directed by you. In addition to those suspected of burning the bridges I have now in confinement about 150 more prisoners, charged with taking up arms, giving aid and assistance to the enemy, inciting rebellion, &c. those among them who have been proven guilty of the offenses alleged against them I shall send to Tuscaloosa, in accordance with your instructions by letter of November 23. I have already sent there 48, to be held as prisoners.

I have been greatly annoyed by the interference of the civil authorities with what I conceive the proper and faithful discharge of the duties incumbent upon me in my capacity of military commander of this portion of East Tennessee. Several attempts have been made to take offenders out of my hands by judicial process to be tried by the civil tribunals, which trials I am satisfied would in many instances have resulted in the release of those who are guilty and should be punished. In order to avoid these embarrassments, I felt myself justified in placing the city under martial law until such time as all the prisoners charged with military offenses now in my custody can be tried by a military tribunal. If after this is done any should remain whose offenses come legitimately under the jurisdiction of the civil courts, I will turn them over to the proper officers to be disposed of in that way. I have only been prompted to venture upon this stringent course by strong conviction that the public good imperatively demanded it.

The traitorous conspiracy recently so extensive and formidable in East Tennessee is, I think, well-nigh broken up, as there is at present but little or no indication of another outbreak. I have small detachments of my force out in every direction, suppressing any rebellious spirit that may be manifested and arresting those who are known to have been in arms against the Government. I am daily receiving the most encouraging evidences that the people are beginning to return to a sense of duty and patriotism, as many of those who were heretofore unfriendly towards us are coming forward and giving every assurance of future fealty.

For a detailed account of the operations of my command since taking the field I respectfully invite your attention to my official report, this day forwarded to the Adjutant and Inspector General.

I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General.

[Enclosure.]

PROCLAMATION.

HEADQUARTERS RIFLE BRIGADE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 11, 1861.

The exigencies of the time requiring, as is believed, the adoption of the sternest measures of military policy, the commanding general feels called upon to suspend for a time the functions of the civil tribunals:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, William H. Carroll, brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, and commander of the post at Knoxville, do hereby proclaim martial law to exist in the city of Knoxville and the surrounding country to the distance of 1 mile from the corporate limits of said city.

By order of Brig. Gen. William H. Carroll:

H. C. YOUNG, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.761}

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HEADQUARTERS, Cave City, Ky., December 12, 1861-12 m.

Lieut. D. G. WHITE, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Yesterday morning information reached me, through Southern-rights men of Woodsonville and vicinity, that the enemy at Munfordville had commenced repairing the ferry-boat which had been sunk by Captain Morgan, and that parties of their mounted men had been seen trying the depth of the river at different points within a distance of half a mile above and below.

About the same time a spy, whom I had sent to Greensburg, returned with the report that Colonel Hobson was at that place with 600 men (500 infantry, 50 cavalry, and two pieces of artillery), and that all or nearly all the troops had left Campbellsville for Camp Nevin, near Nolin, the reason assigned being the intended advance upon Bowling Green by way of Munfordville.

Scouts sent to the burnt bridge, the point where the Glasgow and Bardstown road strikes the river, reported that a scouting party from Bacon Creek, between 30 and 50 strong, had appeared there, but without crossing. At 10 o’clock I sent a small party of Colonel Terry’s Rangers towards Munfordville, instructed to ascend Summerseat’s Knob, and observe the position and movements of the enemy. From that eminence, which overlooks Munfordville, they counted 150 Sibley tents, and saw smoke of camp-fires ascending from behind ridge which hid the tents there from view. The distance from Summerseat to Munfordville is about 2 miles; not more. The tents were counted by the use of a glass, and the number may have been a few more or less. No movement was observed; everything seemingly inactive.

At 1 p.m. I went in person, with a party of 10 men, to Rowlett’s Station, distant from Munfordville between half and three-quarters of a mile, intending to ascend Rowlett’s Knob and observe the enemy’s camp from that position. Before reaching there it became evident that that knob was occupied by Federal pickets. I distinctly saw 4 men on the projection which looks towards Horse Well. A good deal of time was lost in an unsuccessful attempt to cut them off, and the ascent of the knob was not made. I reached Rowlett’s Station at sunset. It is situated on the ridge that connects Somerset [?] and Rowlett’s Knobs, and which is most depressed where the railroad intersects it, forming, however, a bluff 100 feet higher than the level strip between its edge and the river. This intervening strip of level ground is about half a mile wide, and is heavily timbered next to the river, hiding all view of the opposite side, except the top of the knobs behind Munfordville. I ascertained that the ferry-boat had been completed. We had the pleasure of hearing Hail Columbia and Yankee Doodle played by General Johnson’s band during some half hoar or more.

Going towards Munfordville I traveled the Greensburg road, which is exceedingly rough, and in several places almost, if not quite, impassable for wagons. Cavalry may pass over it without difficulty. After leaving the vicinity of Horse Cave it winds along the hollow through which the railroad passes, and which becomes more and more narrow towards the river, knobs confining it on both sides.

Returning, I came upon this turnpike, which passes by the place and crosses the knob just above Woodland, about 2 1/2 miles from here. For a distance of 3 or 4 miles, coming in this direction, it is macadamized; the remainder is a good dirt road; an army might pass over it easily.

I returned to Horse Well about 10 o’clock last night. General Hardee’s {p.762} communication of yesterday reached me at 2 this morning. I have moved my command to this place as being a better position. The Texas Rangers are encamped at Woodland; the infantry half a mile this side; Swett’s artillery in wood at Middleton’s, and Phifer’s battalion in wood on Mammoth Cave road, just below this place. I have parties out in the direction of Mammoth Cave, Bear Wallow, and Frederick, to protect the agents of Bruce & Co. in collecting beeves, &c., and to collect and drive in what they may overlook. I find it difficult to get more forage than is necessary for my own command without using infantry for that purpose, which would scatter my force too much. I keep a party of observation constantly thrown out towards the enemy, and think I will certainly be apprised of any attempt to cross in force. Any such attempt might be successfully resisted if my force was upon the ridge at Rowlett’s Station, and I will probably be able to march them up in time from here. This is a much better region for forage and nearer to our supplies.

Very respectfully,

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding Advance.

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Abstract from return of Western Department, commanded by General A. S. Johnston, for December 12, 1861, as given by the latest return.

Stations. Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
Columbus Ky.Polk’s command1,14316,65921,83124,968
Bowling Green, Ky., and vicinity.Hardee’s division3183,3955,8909,531
Buckner’s division3916,0077,9879,538
Harper’s artillery4527477
Cavalry* (two regiments)242824551,339
Hopkinsville Ky.Clark’s command**3,500
Prestonburg, Ky.Marshall’s command**2,500
Wartburg, Tenn.Zollicoffer’s division2734,4285,7025,930
Nashville, Tenn.**100
Memphis, Tenn.**160
Camp Johnston, ArkMcCulloch’s division.1274,8495,5686,767
Troops en route**1,500
Various camps in Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee.Volunteers exclusive of militia**12,000
Total2,28035,67247,50777,908

* No return from one regiment, and Its aggregate present and absent estimated In original at 300.

** No returns. Estimated in the original as above.

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[HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT,] Bowling Green, December 13, 1861.

Gov. J. G. SHORTER, Montgomery, Ala.:

I beg you will send all the troops you may have assembled under my late call upon your excellency with dispatch to this place.

I except from this number all you may have ordered to Fort Henry or the Tennessee River. I have ordered the Seventh Alabama from {p.763} Chattanooga to this place, and will thank you to order one of the new regiments to take its place at Chattanooga to guard the railway.

Please inform me what number of troops I may expect to receive from my late call on North Alabama.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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RICHMOND, December 13, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I arrived at Knoxville about the 1st day of December, assumed command, and established my headquarters there. At that time Mr. W. G. Brownlow was absent from Knoxville, where he resides. Very soon some friend or friends of his approached me on the subject of his return to Knoxville, and I had several interviews with the son of Mr. Brownlow, who was interceding and acting for his father in the premises. During several days Mr. Brownlow’s son was very importunate in calling upon me and making solicitations in behalf of his father of some sort or another. In the beginning, the letter of Mr. Brownlow to General Carroll, dated November 22, and received about the time of my arrival, was handed to me and discussed between myself and the son of Mr. Brownlow. In this letter Mr. Brownlow stated that he was willing and ready at any time to stand a trial upon any points before any civil tribunal, but sought protection from troops and armed men on a return to Knoxville, denying at the same time having had any connection with arming men or with armed bodies of men or with bridge-burners or bridge-burning. General Carroll also handed to me his reply to this letter.

In the several interviews between the son of Mr. Brownlow and one or more of his friends and myself Mr. Brownlow’s innocence of any treasonable conduct was vouched as the basis of any disposition to be made towards him, and I stated to Mr. Brownlow’s son, who was acting for his father, that if he came to Knoxville he must submit to the civil authorities.

Finally, about the 4th or 5th of December, I think, Mr. Baxter, a friend of Mr. Brownlow, together with his son, called upon me, and Mr. Baxter delivered to me an open letter from yourself, brought by him, dated November 20, and referring to Mr. Brownlow’s departure beyond our lines. Thereupon, and on the solicitations made to me in behalf of Mr. Brownlow, I directed my assistant adjutant-general to inform Mr. Brownlow in writing that if he would come to Knoxville within a given time I would give him a passport and send him with an escort beyond our lines. I designed this escort to convey him directly through our lines, so that he could see nothing of our forces and fortifications. At the given time Mr. Brownlow came, and I made arrangements with him as to the time and manner of his departure, which were satisfactory to him. I designed sending him off the next day, but he desired to stay over a day, and on that day, before his departure, was arrested with a warrant by the civil authorities on a charge of treason.

Mr. Brownlow addressed a note to me stating his arrest, and that he had come home upon my invitation, and claimed to be under my protection. As I had stated explicitly to Mr. Brownlow’s son, who acted for his father, and who went after and did conduct his father into town, that if he came he must submit to the civil authorities, and as his innocence of any treasonable conduct was considered in the arrangements {p.764} for him, I directed one of my aides to reply to his note to tie effect that, in view of all the facts, I could not interfere with the civil authorities so as to protect him from an investigation by them of charges made in their tribunals against him, which I clearly understood from himself and his friends he would not seek to avoid.

Of course, if the civil authorities release Mr. Brownlow, I shall proceed at once to give him a passport and send him with an escort beyond our lines.

I remain, very respectfully, yours &c.

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., December 13, 1861.

Major-General CRITTENDEN, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: In accordance with the verbal instructions communicated to you by the President, you will proceed to Kentucky and assume command of all the forces now commanded by General Zollicoffer, including Carroll’s brigade and the different posts established by General Zollicoffer at Cumberland Gap and other mountain passes. You will report directly to General A. S. Johnston by letter. Unless otherwise ordered by General Johnston, your command will not include Eastern Tennessee, Colonel Leadbetter having been specially assigned by the President to the duty of maintaining the communications through that district of country, and ordered to assume the command of the troops necessary for guarding the line and dispersing the insurrectionists and bridge-burners; nor will your command include the forces under General Marshall, who has been ordered to report to General Johnston, unless this latter shall so direct.

If by chance you shall, however, be thrown into command in any part of East Tennessee, you will understand the policy of the Government to be to show no further clemency to rebels in arms. All actually engaged in bridge-burning should be tried summarily, and executed, if convicted, by military authority. All others captured with arms or proven to have taken up arms against the Government are to be sent to Tuscaloosa as prisoners of war. All such inhabitants as are known to have been in league with the traitors may be pardoned if they promptly deliver up their arms and take the oath of allegiance to this Government. In such event they are to be protected in their persons and property; otherwise they should be arrested wherever found and treated as prisoners of war, and especially should care be taken to allow none of them to remain armed. These are the instructions substantially that have been given to Colonel Leadbetter, under which he has been acting.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., December 13, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Your order to me of the 10th instant to join General Zollicoffer immediately with all my armed force reached me last night. I immediately {p.765} set about making the necessary arrangements to carry the same into effect, as indeed I had been doing for some days previous under instructions from General Zollicoffer himself. A portion if not all of my command would now have been on the march for General Zollicoffer’s present position but for the unsettled condition of affairs in East Tennessee, together with other obstacles that I have been utterly unable to overcome, though I have made every possible exertion to that effect, but as yet without success.

In justice to myself I feel that I may very properly lay before you the nature and extent of the embarrassments under which I have labored ever since I assumed my present command. When the President did me the honor to appoint me a brigadier-general in the Provisional Army I confidently expected to have had my entire brigade thoroughly armed within twenty days at furthest from that time, as I have taken every precaution to secure sufficient arms for that purpose while raising and organizing the regiments which I now have the honor to command. Early in the month of September I procured about 2,000 ordinary country rifles, and placed them in the Government armories at Memphis, Nashville, and Murfreesborough, in order to have them altered-made of uniform length and caliber, and fitted with a sword-bayonet. At that time I was assured by the armory officers at those places that these guns would be repaired and ready for use by the middle of October. On the 26th of that month you telegraphed to them to lay aside all other guns and put their whole force at work upon mine. This they informed me they did; but when I received your orders of the 3d of November to advance to this place and report to General Zollicoffer not a single gun had been completed.

The indications of an extensive outbreak in East Tennessee at that time were so alarming, that I deemed it unsafe to move my command through that country wholly unarmed. I therefore made application in every direction for guns of any description, to serve me until my own should be ready for use. I finally, after much annoyance, succeeded in getting from the arsenal at Memphis about 400 flint-lock muskets, rifles, and double-barreled shot-guns. With these, imperfect and almost worthless as they were, I advanced to Chattanooga, and halted my forces for a few days, for the purpose of dispersing the different bands of traitors who were gathering in that vicinity. This object being accomplished, I moved on to this point. When I reached here I found a general feeling of alarm and uneasiness prevailing throughout the surrounding country. Information every day reached me from all points that recreant Tennesseeans, with a few miscreants from other States, were organizing themselves into predatory bands in the counties of Blount, Sevier, Cocke, Hancock, Scott, Campbell, and other counties bordering on the North Carolina and Kentucky line. I immediately sent out scouting parties of cavalry, together with such small detachments of infantry as I could arm, to protect and assist the loyal citizens of these counties in driving these base ingrates from their midst. These various parties have succeeded in arresting many of the rebellious and disaffected, and bringing them to this place for trial. Out of the number thus arrested I have sent and will send about 100, as prisoners of war, to Tuscaloosa. I have for some days past been receiving information, front sources entitled to much credit, that a considerable force of the enemy were threatening a descent from the Kentucky border upon the counties of Campbell and Scott, by way of a small pass in the mountains above Cumberland Gap.

{p.766}

To-day I am in receipt of information, which apparently admits of no doubt, that a body of the enemy, some 500 strong, had attacked the town of Huntsville, and captured a company of cavalry stationed at that place. Other less reliable reports place the number of the enemy at 2,000. I have therefore made arrangements to dispatch Colonel White there with all the armed force I can command, with orders to attack them if not too strong, and if the numbers are too great to fall back until I can re-enforce him. The country abounds in mountain passes and ravines, and a position well selected can be easily held against largely superior numbers. This movement will not delay the prompt execution of your order, as the place mentioned is near my line of march to join General Zollicoffer. During the time I have been here I have continued my exertions to procure arms from every source where they were likely to be obtained, though almost entirely without success. A few days ago I dispatched one of my officers to General Johnston, at Bowling Green, with a statement of my condition, and an urgent appeal for arms of some description, if he should have any at his disposal; but he dispatches me that none are to be had. I have also sent a competent armory officer to Memphis upon a similar mission. From him I learn that 500 of my rifles will be ready by Monday next. These will be forwarded immediately. He further informs me that the remainder will soon be repaired and sent on, as they are being pushed forward as rapidly as possible. Two hundred of those left at Nashville were sent me some days ago, but so imperfectly repaired as to be wholly unfit for use, as you will see from the inclosed report from the ordnance officer at this place. The repairs on these I am having completed here, and will have them finished as soon as possible.

I have here now three regiments fully organized and another in process of formation, besides seven companies of cavalry, amounting in all to about 4,000 men, who could be brought immediately into the field if I could only supply them with arms. Out of my entire force I could not muster more than 300 men efficiently armed. A few hundred more have old hunting guns, but they are of little or no service in their present condition. I still hope that all my guns will be ready in a very short time. I send to Richmond Lieut. Col. E. J. Golladay, one of my best-informed and most discreet officers, to represent to you more fully the true condition of my command. His suggestions may perhaps be of service in shaping the policy proper to pursue in the region of country of which I have spoken.

For a detailed statement of the operations of my command since taking the field, together with an account of all the other forces now in East Tennessee, I beg to call your attention to my report made to Maj. Gen. G. B. Crittenden on the 9th instant, and by him forwarded to the office of the Adjutant and Inspector General. Colonel Golladay can also give you much valuable information of the strength, condition, &c., of the different commands in this portion of the State, together with the state of public feeling and real condition of the country here.

I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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KNOXVILLE, December 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. H. CARROLL:

SIR: I have to report that the rifles, about 200 in number, which were left with me to have the bayonets attached are unfit for duty, for {p.767} the following reasons: They are different size bore, which renders it impossible to get ammunition suitable. Many of the locks are in bad order; some entirely worthless; some without rammers, and none of them fit for use. The springs upon the bayonets are worthless, being made of iron, when they ought to be steel They will have to be almost entirely refitted.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. WARREN, Ordnance Officer.

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PRESTONBURG, Ky., December 13, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report to you that I have arrived at this place, now some days since, and have encamped in this vicinity with the small command under my charge. I stated in my first letter to you that it was the design of the Department of War, in giving me this command, that it should be a separate command, subject only to your own orders, and that I was instructed to report to you for instructions. Subsequently I received from Major-General Crittenden a brief notification that he assumed command of these forces &c. I applied through a friend to the Department to know if the understanding with me was so soon set aside, and I learn in reply that-

It was not the instruction of the Department to assign your (my) district to the command of Major-General Crittenden. You (I) were to report to General A. S. Johnston, to be subject to his orders, and to the orders of no other general, unless they came through or from him. ... You are to obey no orders from any other officer of superior rank except Johnston, unless first notified by the Department of your being put under his command. I am informed by Mr. Benjamin that the appointment of Major-General Crittenden was not intended to interfere with your sphere of duty or efficiency in accomplishing your object. It is the wish of the Department that you (I) should strengthen your column to the utmost of your ability, &c.

The foregoing extracts are from a letter to me written by Hon. A. H. Stephens, Vice-President, as the result of his conversations with the Secretary of War touching my position here and the conditions under which I was placed here. I may as well remark here, general, that had I been offered a commission of brigadier in a column of Major-General Crittenden I should not have accepted it; and my entry was upon the basis that I was to have the conduct of a column subject to your orders, which subalternship was perfectly agreeable to me.

I hope with this frank explanation that it will be agreeable to you to permit me to increase the capacity of this column to the utmost of my ability, assured that it will always afford me satisfaction to co-operate with Major-General Crittenden, or any other officer having charge of the public interest, in promoting the welfare of the service.

I received, through Major-General Crittenden, your telegram asking for all the men I could spare without stripping the command to its ruin, and I placed the Fifty-sixth Virginia Regiment at the discretion of General Crittenden, though in extreme risk of ruining the command, whether it is actually employed or not, and to the utter prevention of any large enterprise on my part. I have now only about 1,250 men with me. Moore’s regiment has not yet passed Clinch River, and it is said will not unless the men are first paid. I think it is a great pity that I have not strength enough to penetrate to Mount Sterling and hold it. It would at once call off from your line a much larger number of men than I employ. If you can let Colonel Stuart’s regiment return I {p.768} will be much obliged to you for it, and also for any other regiments you can spare to aid me in developing this column.

I am, truly, &c.,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., December 13, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

DEAR SIR: My letter to you of the 3d instant was hastily and inconsiderately written, and I regret the strong and intemperate language used; and inasmuch as no exceptions, except the most mild and gentlemanly terms, have been taken to that letter, I feel myself under the more obligations to make an apology.

I have been peculiarly situated here in East Tennessee. My fight with the Lincolnites for the last eight months has been as severe a conflict as any this war will record. I have not only held possession of the East Tennessee and Georgia Road against the will of the Lincoln portion of my stockholders, and for a long time guarded our bridges with troops in our own pay, but I have worked the road all the time in the face of this violent and threatening opposition, and never once failed to carry through both troops and munitions and provisions without delay. Moreover, when the East Tennessee and Virginia completely broke down, I did not hesitate to shoulder that responsibility, and by superhuman efforts operated it also, to what advantage to the Army you are aware. Under all these circumstances, worn down by excitement and labor, I am sometimes thrown off my guard. When the Hessians burned my bridges, Colonel Myers immediately wrote me to know what aid I needed. Not wanting to tax any one with my work, I answered promptly, “None other than to send me funds due for work done for the Confederate States.” Colonel Ashe came along; I gave him the same answer, and he assured me our money should be paid, and on his arrival at Richmond telegraphed me to send McClung immediately for our money. I sent McClung, and was astonished to receive by telegraph from him the news that Colonel Myers not only repudiated Ashe’s contract with the roads, but it would be days before he would be able to send me money. This, in addition to the fact that captains, majors, colonels, &c., were ordering our trains in and out, hazarding life and property, and leaving me no control of either road or ferries, and then the order from Richmond to guard Brownlow, the prince of bridge-burning Lincolnites, over the mountains in safety, all conspired to put out of humor much more even-tempered men than myself. The truth is I felt that under such circumstances I would retire and let others take my place. So you see I have some excuse for my bad letter.

I regret that I have had hard thoughts towards Colonel Myers, for I will say that he has all the time treated me with great kindness and courtesy.

I will not bore you further. Suffice it to say that I am all right again, and at your service in any honorable way my poor abilities can be used.

In two weeks I will have a better bridge than the one destroyed.

Truly, yours,

C. WALLACE.

{p.769}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 16, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: Our force has been augmented to-day by the arrival of 2000 sixty-days’ men from Mississippi, under the command of General R. Davis, making our force about 15,500 effective men.

The enemy have rebuilt Bacon Creek Bridge, and their trains now come to Green River, where a large number of workmen are employed in rebuilding the railroad bridge.

Our pickets are pushed forward to the river. Hindman, with about 1,200 men, and Terry’s cavalry are at Cave City, covering the collection of cattle and forage. The enemy in considerable force occupy the north bank of Green River, but show no disposition to cross yet. They will, I think, await the completion of the bridge. They are also concentrating at Greensburg and Columbia. Terry’s scouts yesterday, near Munfordville, captured 3 men of the enemy’s pickets, wounding 2 severely.

Governor Harris was here yesterday. He informed me that there are now organized in the vicinity of Nashville about seven regiments ready to take the field, but some delay will occur in arming them, on account of the condition of the arms which have been collected in the country. I will send him all the gunsmiths I can find in our ranks.

I desire to know if the Government will pay $3,000 per month for a continuation of leaders in two influential journals at Louisville opposing the emancipation of slaves. It is suggested that this arrangement may be accomplished. It may be worth the trial. Answer yes or no by telegram. I keep no copy of this.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 16, 1861.

[General POLK ?]:

GENERAL: In compliance with your instructions to report the knowledge I possess of troops lying in the country to our rear I report as follows:

Three companies of cavalry, commanded by Major Clinton, Grenada, Miss.; Captain Stock’s company of cavalry, Paris, Tenn.; Captain Clay’s company of cavalry, ordered by me to Union City, Tenn.; Captain Robertson’s company of cavalry, in Brownsville; three thousand infantry at Grenada, Miss., reported to me as armed and equipped; several thousand in North Alabama. General Samuel D. Weakley, the mustering officer, appointed by myself and approved by General Johnston, or Colonel Foster, can give the force. His (Weakley’s) address is Florence or Tuscumbia, Ala.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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KNOXVILLE, December 16, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

General Zollicoffer is threatened by a much superior force in front and one nearly equal on his left lank, He has been ordered by me to {p.770} recross the river. He asks for six pieces, 24-pounders or 8-inch howitzers. Colonel Powell’s regiment has been ordered from the railroad to join Zollicoffer immediately, and Colonel Leadbetter informed, so that he can replace the guard it withdraws. To make General Carroll’s brigade effective it is necessary to obtain 800 muskets, which are known to be in ordnance office at Memphis. Please order William R. Hunt, ordnance officer at that point, to forward them immediately to this place, subject to my order.*

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General.

* So ordered same day.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 16, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I am directed by the major-general commanding to say that he wishes to know what action he shall take with regard to the Branch Bank of Kentucky at this place. He has caused a statement of the affairs of the bank to be made to him by the cashier, and there is at this time in the vaults of the bank, in coin and bank notes, nearly $50,000. The State of Kentucky owns one-fourth of the stock of the bank, and to that extent, even had the stockholders taken no action, the assets of the bank would have been subject to the law applicable to alien enemies; but the bank itself, as you, perhaps, are aware, [advanced?] $5,000,000 to carry on the Lincoln war. The general, under these circumstances, desires instructions from the Department, and would be pleased to have them by telegraph.

By command of Major-General Polk:

W. B. RICHMOND, Aide-de-Camp, C. S. Army.

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MONTGOMERY, December 16, 1861.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

General A. S. Johnston has made requisition on Alabama for troops, which can be armed with rifles or shot-guns. State arms exhausted. Our people won’t give up private arms without compensation, which we have no authority to make. Will Confederate Government make such compensation? How and when paid?

JNO. GILL SHORTER.

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RICHMOND, VA., December 16, 1861.

Governor SHORTER, Montgomery, Ala.:

This Government will pay for all small-arms, rifles, and shot-guns that may be brought into service at fair valuations, made by our ordnance officers, on the delivery of the arms or on the muster of the troops into service for the war. We will not pay for arms for twelve-months’ men.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

{p.771}

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GRENADA, MISS., December 16, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

Whole force, 1,850 infantry, 56 cavalry, mostly armed with double-barrel guns, but few cartridge-boxes, haversacks, or knapsacks; poorly supplied with ammunition; some guns out or order, but have a smith. One regiment now at Union City. Confederate commissary refuses to subsist them; start another regiment with cavalry to-morrow; another next day, if I succeed in getting tents and transportation. Will you direct the subsistence of my command at Union City. This must be done at once, as the regiment there have no means.

J. L. ALCORN, [Brigadier-General, Army of Mississippi.]

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 273.}

HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, C. A. KY., Bowling Green, December 17, 1861.

During the temporary absence of General S. B. Buckner General J. C. Breckinridge assumes command of this division.

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, Brigadier-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, December 17, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. H. CARROLL, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of the 13th instant, containing an account of the difficulties which have hitherto prevented the movement of your brigade, has been handed to me by Lieutenant-Colonel Golladay. The principal difficulty seems to be that your regiments are unarmed, and I am unable to discover from your statements that you are much nearer a capacity for movement now than you were two months ago. Your troops are enlisted but for twelve months, and to such troops we never furnish arms. At least one-fourth of the term of your men has passed away, and nearly the entire expenditure of the Government is a dead loss up to the present time. It is impossible for us to carry on a war at such an enormous expenditure as is involved in receiving twelve-months’ men without arms. I will allow you till the 10th of January to complete the armament of your regiments, and at that date I shall order all unarmed companies and regiments to be disbanded. Lieutenant-Colonel Golladay has inquired of me in relation to obtaining arms from this Government, but we give none whatever to any but troops enlisted for the war. If your men will now enlist for the war they will be entitled to receive the bounty of $50 allowed by Congress, and I will endeavor to aid in arming them; but, if not, all that are unarmed must be disbanded on the 10th of January.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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ATTORNEY-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 17, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I received your letter dated the 10th, and would have answered it sooner, but have been waiting until I received a statement from {p.772} Colonel Toole, which came to hand to-day, which I inclose to you. Colonel Toole is a gentleman of high standing, and his statement can be fully relied upon. It will be seen from his note to me that the conversation was had with Brownlow on the first Monday of November, and that was before the bridges were burned. It also shows that he must have had some knowledge of the intention of the enemy to invade Tennessee. I also send you a copy of his paper of May 21 with the article marked. You will see from reading it that if certain things are done he advises that the railroads should be destroyed. I think he was the first man in East Tennessee that made the suggestion in regard to the destruction of the railroads. I also send you the last paper he issued, with the article marked. You will see from his editorial that he retracts nothing he has said, but indorses all that he heretofore had written. I also inclose you the Republican Banner, marked, containing a letter written after he stopped the publication of his paper. You will see from this letter that he has gone to Blount, Sevier, Cocke, and Granger Counties, for the purpose of collecting accounts, when in point of fact he only went into Blount and Sevier, and there remained with the most disloyal citizens until after the bridges were burned, and did not return until the rebellion was to a great extent crushed out. So far as I have been able to learn his arrest has been approved of by the public, and in my opinion it has had a good effect. As an index to public sentiment I send you the Knoxville Register, containing extracts from other papers about his arrest. I still think (as I stated to you in my last letter) that it would be proper that he should be sent to Tuscaloosa, but will cheerfully dispose of the case according to your own better judgment. You will please return the newspapers when you are done with them.

Yours, truly,

J. C. RAMSAY, C. S. District Attorney.

[Inclosure.]

MARYVILLE, December 17, 1861.

General J. C. RAMSAY:

DEAR SIR: At your request I state that in conversation with William G. Brownlow, on the first Monday of November -, at the ford of Little River, in Blount County, I asked him for the news at Knoxville. He remarked that his son John had just returned from Nashville, and that the Federals had entire possession of Missouri; that Jeff. Thompson was in Memphis; that they (the Federals) would soon have possession of Nashville and Clarksville, and Knoxville would be destroyed. The above is the purport, and, as well as I now recollect, the language used.

Your friend,

JAS. M. TOOLE.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Beech Grove, Ky., December 17, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Your messenger was started back on the 13th instant, via Burkesville and Glasgow, with an escort of 60 cavalrymen, directed to go to the latter place. He bore a dispatch giving you a list of 33 prisoners I send to Nashville, to be disposed of as General Johnston may {p.773} direct. I have no advices from Major Wynn, but suppose the steamer to arrive at Waitsborough on the 18th will be freighted with stores for us. Have sent a large train of wagons and made ample arrangements for a guard. Ten of the prisoners captured were taken on the 11th instant by an expedition I sent down to Louisville, on the north side of the river, and about 30 miles from here. Our party killed 3 others. The enemy had posted a small body of men there behind a breastwork and with a flag flying, who had annoyed our cavalry across the river at Rowena when patrolling in that direction. Louisville is 15 miles from Columbia. Our only loss was one man accidentally drowned.

The river is now low and fordable in many places. There are now known to be seven infantry regiments at Somerset. The enemy has advanced strong posts to Fishing Creek, and their scouting parties approach to within a few miles of our camp. The stage of the river and the value of our supply trains render it necessary, in my opinion, to keep two regiments on the Mill Springs side of the river. I therefore have but four and a half regiments on this bank. Had the reserve of Powell’s regiment, Wood’s battalion, and McClung’s battery been sent on, as I ordered, I could have advanced. But I can hear nothing official from Knoxville of them. For a day or two past my information leads to the suspicion that the enemy contemplate an early attack upon this position.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 18, 1861.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding Central Army of Kentucky:

GENERAL: General Johnston resumes the immediate military command of this army. The administration is devolved on the commanders of divisions.

Please make a return of the troops as they stand to-day.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

NOTE.-The formal order will be issued. You will please notify General Buckner.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 18, 1861.

General POLK, Columbus:

Send to this place 5,000 of your best infantry by rail direct. If it will facilitate, send a portion by Nashville. Telegraph to Nashville and Memphis for transportation. Answer.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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COLUMBUS, KY., December -, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

I have barely 12,000 men at this post. I have been working day and night to put it in a condition to enable me to hold it against the heavy {p.774} force now concentrated at Cairo and threatening to attack me in the next four days. I have information to that effect just from Cairo within the last hour. I was on the eve of calling upon you to send me 3,000 men immediately to enable [me] to hold my position. It will take that to make the position safe. I am fully posted as to the strength of the enemy. To send the force ordered would be to sacrifice this command and to throw open the valley of the Mississippi. Generals Pillow, Cheatham, and McCown are all present and unite with me in this opinion. Answer.

L. POLK.

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BOWLING GREEN, December 19, 1861.

General POLK:

Your dispatch received. My order to you is revoked. Acknowledge.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Bowling Green, December 19, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjutant-General, Western Department, Bowling Green:

SIR: In compliance with General Johnston’s verbal orders to determine what would be a proper strength for the garrisons of the works at this place and report the same to him I have to propose the following for the works, viz:

Men.Men.
On College Hill1,000On Price’s Hill50
On Baker’s Hill700On Buckner’s Hill100
On Webb’s Hill300On ___ Hill.75
On Vinegar Hill150For a reserve1,475
On Grider’s Hill75Making a total of4,000
On Underwood’s Hill 75

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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KNOXVILLE, December 19, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General:

On inspecting the arms of White’s regiment of Carroll’s brigade, preparatory to its marching, more than half were found wholly unserviceable and most of the remainder unfit for service. This was the first regiment ordered forward, and consequently cannot go.

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General.

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ATTORNEY-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 19, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Since I last wrote you I have received a letter from J. G. Wallace, esq., of Blount County, in regard to Brownlow’s recent trip. {p.775} I consider the letter of importance, and have thought it proper to send it to you. Mr. Wallace is a gentleman of high standing, and his statements can be fully relied upon.

Yours, truly,

J. C. RAMSAY, C. & District Attorney.

[Inclosure.]

MARYVILLE, December 18, 1861.

General J. C. RAMSAY:

DEAR SIR: I take occasion now to answer the inquiries contained in your letter of the 14th instant.

After Brownlow came to this county we availed ourselves of every opportunity to find out about his sayings and doings, but he so covered over his trail that we have been able to ascertain but little concerning him. On the first Monday of November, the Monday immediately preceding the bridge-burning, some 300 to 500 persons were in town, most all of whom were Union men. It was the day of our quorum county court, at which not more than a score or two of persons usually attend. We did not understand the occasion of so many persons, and especially Union men, assembling, and at first supposed they had mistaken the day Baxter was to speak, and had come to hear him. Upon making inquiry, we found that that was not the case; that they knew he was to speak the next day, and, furthermore, we learned for the first time that they were not going to vote for Baxter, but still we could not ascertain on what business or for what purpose they had all come to town.

About 11 o’clock Brownlow and old Parson Cummings came in and put up at Rev. Mr. Dowel’s. Immediately after their arrival there was a general going to see them at Dowell’s by the Unionites. Caucuses and private conferences were the order of that day and night. We could learn nothing that Brownlow was saying. His companion (Cummings), however, in the course of the day told a friend of his, a Union man and a brother in the church, that the Federal Army would be at Knoxville the last of that week; that Brownlow had left Knoxville until its arrival, and that as soon as the Army reached there he was going back and resume the publication of his paper. He assured his friend that this might be relied on; that he had received it from a reliable source, and there was no doubt of it. Whatever might have been the occasion of the assemblage, we discovered very clearly that there was something going on that pleased the Union men exceedingly. They seemed in very good spirits, and more confident and defiant than they had been for months.

The next morning the news was brought to town-at least we Southern men heard it then for the first time-that the Federal Army was at Jamestown, 12,000 strong, and coming on to Knoxville. About 10 o’clock that morning Brownlow and Cummings and a man by the name of Mainis left town for the mountains. They went that night to Snider’s, in Tuckaleeche Cove. The next day they went into Weir’s Cove, in Sevier County. There they parted, Brownlow remaining in the cove, and Cummings and Mainis going over toward Waldron’s Creek. On that day Mainis told a man by the name of Waters substantially the same thing Cummings had told Jennings. I have no doubt they told the same thing to many others, but we have tried them long enough in {p.776} similar cases to know that the Union men will give no evidence against each other, and especially against their leaders.

On the Monday morning after the bridges were burned the news was circulated in our town. Shortly thereafter Dowell, at whose house Brownlow had staid, left for the coves, and the next day or the day after Mainis, who in the mean time had returned left also. He afterward sent back after his family, and has never returned. One remarkable fact and coincidence is that very many of those who were in town the day Brownlow was here were engaged in the raid to Sevier County on the Monday and Tuesday after the burning of the bridges.

Another circumstance I will mention. On the Monday morning the news was circulating in town of the bridges being burned a Mr. Sesler, a respectable citizen of the place, was telling the news in his family. A servant girl, a white woman, living in his family, instantly remarked, “La me! Phœbe Smith told me at the spring last Wednesday that the bridges were to be burned Friday night, but I didn’t believe it.” Upon inquiry of Mr. Sesler she related the following facts: She was at the spring on the Wednesday before the bridges were burned. There she met Phœbe Smith, a white servant girl living in Mr. Dowell’s family. Phebe remarked, “They were all going to the mountains shortly.” “What for?” “The Northern Army is coming.” “How do you know?” “Mr. Brownlow and Mr. Cummings and some other gentlemen were at our house the other day, and Mr. Dowell had some papers in his hand, and asked me to go out of the room. I went out, and they locked the door. I went back and put my ear to the key-hole, and heard Mr. Dowell reading something about the Federal Army coming and about the bridges going to be burned Friday night.”

Mr. Sesler came back up in town and very foolishly made these facts public. In a short time Dowell came down the street and gave notice that the girl Phœbe Smith denied having made any such statement, and in an hour or two Dowell left town, as before stated. The girl Phebe has since been seen and talked to on the subject. She continues to deny the truth of the statement of the girl at Sesler’s, the latter, however, still asserting most positively that they did have such a conversation. The characters of the two girls are equally good. They are both obscure, and nothing much ever having been known or said about either, neither one of them, I presume, could be impeached. Whether there is truth in the statement it is not necessary for me to express an opinion. It is very difficult to imagine how an ignorant servant girl could instantly manufacture such a tale, and make, as it were, a spontaneous expression of it upon hearing the news Sesler was telling, while we might imagine how the other girl could be procured or induced to make a denial of it. I believe that the sentiment of our community is that the girl at Sesler’s tells the facts as they occurred. The matter is in just such a fix that no legal evidence can be made of it, as I doubt not but that Dowell’s girl will deny it upon oath.

This is about all the information I can give you on the subjects of your inquiries. We have tried to get facts out of the Union men, but they will not divulge, and I do not believe they would tell anything prejudicial to Brownlow on oath. They seem to understand the object of all inquiries addressed to them, and they also seem determined to screen their leaders.

Very respectfully,

JESSE G. WALLACE.

{p.777}

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HEADQUARTERS CARROLL’S BRIGADE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 19, 1861.

Hon. D. M. CURRIN, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: I regret to trouble you with this communication, but feel myself called upon to do so by a sense of duty both to the Confederate Government and to the people of East Tennessee. It might, perhaps, have been more properly done by some one higher in authority than myself. At the instance, however, of a number of leading citizens, together with many officers of the Army, I have concluded to undertake the task of laying truthfully before some one connected with the administration of the Government a fair and truthful statement of the present unhappy condition of affairs in this portion of the State, believing as I do that when laid properly before the heads of the Government it will induce a thorough and most salutary change in the policy now being pursued in reference to that deluded portion of our people who have heretofore been unfriendly to the present revolution.

There are some very important facts connected with the recent political history of East Tennessee which apparently have not yet come to the knowledge of the Government or have been entirely overlooked, while others of less importance have been greatly exaggerated. To these I beg to call your attention. In the beginning of the present contest between the North and South the attitude assumed by East Tennessee was a very doubtful one, and it was deemed best by those fully acquainted with the temper and sentiment of the people to pursue a conciliatory policy towards them. Mr. Davis himself, I believe, adopted this view of the case, and for a time pursued the mild course thus indicated. The result was a very great change in the public mind touching questions at issue between the Northern and Southern Governments.

In September Major-General Polk sent General W. H. Carroll here for the purpose of endeavoring to being the people over to the support of the Confederate Government and to enlist one or more regiments for the Army. General Carroll succeeded beyond his expectations, raising and organizing in a very short time a full regiment-coming, too, mostly from those counties where in June the heaviest vote had been polled against the separation of Tennessee from the Federal Government. Subsequently about thirty companies more have reported and joined his command from the same section, and composed principally of the same class of people; so that now we have in all nearly 10,000 [?] effective soldiers in the field that in June were almost unanimous in opposition to us. This gratifying result I am satisfied is attributable almost entirely to the liberal and conciliatory policy of which I have spoken; but notwithstanding this large accession to our Army, and the still greater number who had been converted from enemies into friends and allies, there were still left a few leading miscreants and a handful of ignorant and deluded followers, who were wicked enough for the commission of any crime, however detestable. By these, and these alone, were the bridges burned and other depredations committed, while the mass of the people were entirely ignorant of their designs and utterly opposed to any such wickedness and folly. The numbers engaged in these outrages have, I know, been greatly overestimated, as facts have been developed in the investigations that have been made by the court-martial now in session at this place which satisfy me beyond doubt that there were not, at the time the bridges were burned 500 men in all East Tennessee who knew anything of it, or who contemplated any organized opposition to the Government.

{p.778}

The excitement arising from this circumstance created more alarm among the Union men than among those who were loyal to the South, for they very justly supposed that it would be a signal for the advance of a large Southern army in their midst, and in the first paroxysm of fear which these apprehensions induced hundreds fled hastily from their homes, some taking refuge in the mountains and others going into Kentucky. Colonels Leadbetter and Vance moved their commands into that portion of the State bordering on the Virginia and Kentucky line, while General Carroll and Colonel Wood moved from the west in the direction of Chattanooga and Knoxville. Scouting parties were sent out in every direction, who arrested hundreds suspected of disloyalty, and incarcerated them in prison, until almost every jail in the eastern end of the State was filled with poor, ignorant, and for the most part harmless men, who had been guilty of no crime save that of lending a too credulous ear to the corrupt demagogues whose counsels have led them astray. Among those thus captured were a number of bridge-burners. These latter were tried and promptly executed.

The rigorous measures adopted by the military commanders here struck still greater terror into those who had before been Union men, and to avoid arrest and, as they thought, subsequent punishment, concealed themselves, thus giving the semblance of guilt to actions innocent in fact, and entirely natural under the circumstances which surrounded them. About 400 of the poor victims of designing leaders have been sent to Tuscaloosa as prisoners of war, leaving in many instances their families in a helpless and destitute condition. The greatest distress prevails throughout the entire country in consequence of the various arrests that have been made, together with the facts that the horses and the other property of the parties that have been arrested have been seized by the soldiers, and in many cases appropriated to personal uses or wantonly destroyed.

Old political animosities and private grudges have been revived, and bad men among our friends are availing themselves of the opportunity afforded them by bringing Southern men to hunt down with the ferocity of bloodhounds all those against whom they entertain any feeling of dislike. The officers in command here have used every effort to restrain the soldiery from all acts of lawless violence. The scattered and distracted nature of the service in a great measure neutralizes their efforts. My position in the Army enables me to speak advisedly of these things, and I venture to say that if assurances of safety were given to those persons who have fled from their homes under apprehensions of danger they would return and be good and loyal citizens. The wretched condition of these unfortunate people appeals to the sympathy and commiseration of every humane man. When in Richmond a short time since I was present at an interview with the President, and feel assured that he has no disposition to exercise any unnecessary severity towards these deluded dupes. Those best acquainted with affairs here are fully impressed with the belief that if the proper course were pursued all East Tennessee could be united in support of the Confederate Government. Strong appeals have been made from all sections to General Carroll to release those now in prison here and the return of those sent to Tuscaloosa; but, under the instructions from the Secretary of War, by which he is governed, he does not feel at liberty to do so. My first intention was to have addressed this letter to the Secretary of War, but on reflection concluded that a representation from you would have far more influence; besides, as I am an {p.779} officer in the Army, it would perhaps not be proper for me to make any suggestions to Mr. Benjamin unless they should be called for.

Col. H. R. Austin visits Richmond for the purpose of impressing these views upon the President. Col. Landon C. Haynes will follow in a few days for the same purpose. These gentlemen can inform you more fully touching the subject of which I have written. I beg you to give them every assistance you can in bringing this important matter before the President and Secretary of War.

Respectfully, your friend,

H. C. YOUNG.

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BOWLING GREEN, December 20, 1861.

J. P. BENJAMIN:

The enemy are crossing Green River at many points in overwhelming numbers. Their bridges are laid. I cannot meet them with more than 10,000 men between Green River and Nashville. Can Floyd be sent on here? Answer by telegraph.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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RICHMOND, December 20, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

General Floyd’s command will reach you by Christmas, but there are only about 2 500 men left in it. The Southern troops were sent to General Lee at Charleston, where the enemy are moving with heavy force.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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[HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT,] Bowling Green, December 20, [1861].

Governor HARRIS, Nashville:

The enemy in overwhelming numbers are crossing Green River. Their bridges are now laid or being laid. Every exertion, Governor, to get your regiments put into the field is now a necessity.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 42.}

HDQRS. CENTRAL ARMY KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, December 20, 1861.

I. General Davis, Mississippi Volunteers, is hereby assigned to the command of the fortifications in and about the town of Bowling Green. He will assign garrisons to the several works as follows:

To College Hill, 1,000 men; Baker’s Hill, 500 men; Webb’s Hill, 250 men; Underwood’s Hill, one company; works on Vinegar Hill, one company each; Buckner’s Hill, two companies; Price’s Hill, one company.

The remainder of his forces will be held in reserve near Vinegar Hill. If he should not at present have a sufficient number of troops to furnish the garrisons as above, he will distribute his forces as near as may be, according to the ratio indicated. Biffle’s cavalry, Captain Graves’ and {p.780} Captain Eldridge’s batteries are assigned to General Davis’ command, General Davis will prosecute to completion the work still unfinished.

II. Captain Graves is appointed chief of the artillery under the command of General Davis. He is charged with the control of all ordnance and ordnance stores in the several works in and about this post. He will organize and instruct artillerists from General Davis’ command for the efficient service of the artillery in the fortifications. He will hold his own battery in reserve, to be placed as occasion may require. He will take immediate measures to place ammunition and all necessary artillery stores in the above fortifications.

By order of Major-General Hardee:

D. G. WHITE, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, December 20, 1861.

NATHAN Ross, Esq., Springfield, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of the 13th is received. The Government would gladly supply the needed arms if possible, but it is not in our power to do so at present; but the Government will pay for all arms furnished by troops, upon inspection and valuation by a Government officer, when the troops are mustered into service. The Department hopes that your efforts in enlisting troops in Kentucky may not necessarily be impeded by this difficulty, and will lend every encouragement in its power to promote your success.

Respectfully,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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KNOXVILLE, December 20, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General:

SIR: Various applications are made to me for information as to the acceptance of troops (infantry) from East Tennessee. I wish to inquire how many regiments of infantry the Government will receive.

There are here and near here seven independent companies of cavalry which have been mustered into service-Captains White’s, McLin’s, Gormus’, Brown’s, McLary’s, McKenzie’s, and Brock’s. These are now and have been doing service in East Tennessee. Would it not be well to organize these into a battalion, and am I to consider them as belonging to my command.

On yesterday I inspected the arms of White’s regiment, of Carroll’s brigade, which I had ordered to join Zollicoffer, and found its arms in such condition that I could not let it go. The men had some old flintlock muskets, some squirrel rifles with saber-bayonets and some without, and some shot-guns, almost all out of fix and wholly unfit for service. I telegraphed you to this effect. This regiment of the brigade I had ordered to move first. Colonel Powell’s regiment, of Zollicoffer’s brigade, goes forward to-morrow. General Zollicoffer has not been heard from for the past three days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.781}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 21, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: The movements of the enemy indicate the design to turn my right by the turnpike road from Glasgow, through Scottsville to Gallatin and Nashville. They are concentrating in great force at Munfordville, on Green River, and at Columbia are rapidly increasing the number of their regiments.

Breckinridge’s brigade, of Buckner’s division, stationed on the railroad towards Munfordville, at Oakland, and Dripping Springs, will march to-morrow (22d) through Rocky Hill Village to Skegg’s Creek, where the Glasgow road to Nashville crosses it, 23 miles.

General Buckner will also to-morrow march with the remainder of his division to the crossing of the Great Barren River, and take a position on the west side of the bridge, 7 1/2 miles southwest of Skegg’s Creek, passing en route through Rocky Hill Village (33 miles from this place to Skegg’s Creek).

Major-General Hardee will march to-morrow with one of his brigades to the Great Barren River Bridge, leaving here on the route on the west side of the Great Barren River and passing through Scottsville (35 miles from this place to the bridge).

These movements will be completed in less than two days.

General Hindman’s brigade, of Hardee’s division, will continue to occupy his present position at Cave City until obliged by the superior force of the enemy to retire; he will then march through Rocky Hill Village to unite his brigade with the division. Rocky Hill is 18 miles from Cave City, which is 9 miles from Munfordville.

The Texas cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Harrison (Colonel Lubbock is ill with typhoid fever at Nashville), and Phifer’s battalion of cavalry cover Hindman’s front.

Helm’s regiment of cavalry keeps the country under observation towards Columbia from Glasgow.

Our forces of all arms, when concentrated on the Glasgow and Nashville turnpike road, will make an aggregate of 11,200 men.

The garrison I shall leave here is 4,160 men, composed of the Mississippi sixty days’ men and one of Hardee’s brigades, under the command of Maj. Gen. R. Davis.

The day after to-morrow (23d) two Tennessee regiments from Camp Trousdale will re-enforce the garrison of this place, and on the 24th another is promised. These troops are uninstructed, but can be soon prepared for service.

The weather has been very fine for some weeks and the roads of every kind are excellent. I think a change is about to take place. It is now cold and cloudy, and snow and rain we hope will soon make the country roads very difficult to travel over, which would be greatly to our advantage. A slight rise of the Barren River would make the line of the Barren one of great strength.

I have made every effort to gain time to strengthen our defenses here and increase my force; in a few days more my force may be materially increased by the arrival of General Floyd’s command and from other sources.

The enemy threaten an immediate move on Hopkinsville from Calhoun, on Green River, on the road from Owensborough to Hopkinsville; our force there is insufficient, but General Clark can, if beaten at Hopkinsville, {p.782} retire to Clarksville, where defensive works are being constructed.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 21, 1861.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding:

General Johnston directs you to move Brigadier-General Breckinridge’s brigade to-day through Rocky Hill Village (10 miles east of Rocky Hill Station) to Skegg’s Creek, and post it on the Scottsville and Glasgow road, on the Scottsville side of the creek, 7 1/2 miles from the bridge over the Barren.

Send General Buckner with the rest of his division through Rocky Hill Village by the point where the Scottsville and Glasgow road crosses Skegg’s Creek, and thence to the bridge on the Barren, on the road where he will take post.

Order General Hindman, if forced to retire by superior forces, to retreat through Rocky Hill Village, where the Glasgow and Scottsville road crosses Skegg’s Creek. Order him (Hindman) to send pickets at once in front of Brownsville, to relieve General Breckinridge’s pickets, and order General Breckinridge not to relieve his pickets in front of Brownsville till they are replaced by Hindman.

Notify Hindman of the new position taken by Breckinridge and Buckner, Major-General Hardee will march with Claiborne’s [Cleburne?] brigade to the crossing of the Scottsville and Glasgow pike over the Barren. The route will be by the Drake’s Creek Bridge direct to Scottsville.

The movement of Generals Hardee and Buckner will take place at daylight to-morrow.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSISSIPPI BRIGADE, Columbus, Ky., December 21, 1861.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: On or about the 1st instant Brig. Gen. G. J. Pillow, C. S. Army, then temporarily in command of this department of the Confederate Army, dispatched his excellency the Governor of the State of Mississippi, urging speedy re-enforcements to be sent from Mississippi in support of your position, then supposed to be threatened by an attack from the enemy gathering in force at Cairo and Paducah. Mississippi had already sent to the battle-field 25,000 of her brave sons, mostly armed and equipped by herself. She was but a few days since promptly responding to a call of General A. S. Johnston upon her for an additional 2,000 twelve-months’ volunteers, to be armed by the Confederate Government. These troops were being disbanded by order of General Johnston, for want of arms, at the very moment the intelligence here referred to was received.

{p.783}

The intelligence of the call was promptly communicated by the Governor to the Legislature, then in session, when that authority as promptly made an appropriation of $500,000 in money, and authorized the Governor, with the means provided, to call 10,000 volunteers to the field, bringing with them their own arms, their own blankets and cooking utensils, for a service of sixty days. The same act authorized the Governor to appoint generals to command the forces thus called out.

The military board of Mississippi, then sitting, ordered the troops to rendezvous at Grenada and at Corinth, Miss. Those rendezvousing at Corinth were placed by the Governor under the command of General Reuben Davis; those at Grenada under the command of the undersigned. I had organized three regiments, numbered by me First, Second, and Third when I was ordered to report to you at Union City and subsequently at this place. I am now here in obedience to that order. I have with me the three regiments mentioned, the First under the command of Colonel Percy, the Second under command of Colonel Bartlett, and the Third under command of Colonel Rozell. I have, in addition, a company of mounted men, commanded by Capt. C. McLawner; also two other companies of infantry; and expect the arrival within the next five days of volunteers in numbers sufficient to organize a fourth regiment of infantry.

My command is mostly armed with double-barrel sporting pieces of a good class. I have ammunition for two-thirds of the command, and expect soon to be supplied. Shall ask a small requisition of ammunition and a few tents from the Confederate Government, but ask it only as a loan, to be replaced within a few days. I shall endeavor to ask nothing of the Confederate Government but subsistence for my troops, hospitals for my sick, lumber to protect my men from the chilling earth, and the privilege of fighting as a Mississippi brigade with its general officer, who shall, with the command, be subject alone to the orders of the major-general commanding. I have a brigade quartermaster (Capt. R. W. T. Daniel), who will make requisitions, signed by myself, for the wants of the command, and endeavor so to keep his accounts as to avoid complication. The troops will be paid by the State of Mississippi, the accounts being left for future adjustment between the Confederate Government and the State.

I have on hand a supply of subsistence stores, which, with your permission, I will order turned over to the Confederate Government, and draw my supplies as other troops. My brigade surgeon, Major Compton, is well supplied with drugs, but should he require any requisitions of the medical director of this post we will account for the same.

I refer you to the certified report of my adjutant, Maj. J. N. Davis (now being prepared), for the strength of my command, its officers, &c.

Awaiting your orders, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General, Army of Mississippi.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, December 22, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letters of the 4th, 8th, and 16th instant.

1st. In relation to the horses of the artillery company of Captain {p.784} Harper: By law the horses of artillery companies are paid for by the Government. No allowance is made for their use and risk, as in the case of cavalry. These horses are therefore to be paid for as ordered by you, and they thus become the property of the Government. This payment is to be made to those who furnished them as borne on the muster rolls, according to the valuation. The amount paid by the Governor of Mississippi will form the subject of settlement between that State and the General Government, although in strictness the payment, having been erroneously made by the Governor, does not constitute a legal claim against the Confederacy.

2d. The sum of $5,000 has been placed to your credit in Nashville for secret-service money, as requested in your letter of the 8th instant.

3d. I shall to-morrow order you a further remittance of $16,000 for secret service. You will thus have it in your power to make the arrangements you suggest about having leading articles inserted in certain influential journals. Of the propriety of making this expenditure I leave you to judge at your discretion. I know you will use the money to the best of your judgment for the public service, and I will not undertake to advise you at this distance, confident as I am that your own judgment is much more likely to be correct than any that I could form.

I have been very much puzzled by a dispatch received from you on the 20th instant in these words:

The enemy are crossing Green River at many points in overwhelming numbers. Their bridges are laid. I cannot meet them with more than 10,000 men between Green River and Nashville. Can Floyd be sent on here?

I contented myself with responding by telegraph that Floyd would be with you by the 25th, but I cannot for my life understand the statement about your force. Your letter of the 16th announced your effective force to be 15,500. Your return to the Adjutant-General, dated the 12th, I think (I have not the paper before me), stated your forces under Hardee, Buckner, Clark, and others, not including any of Polk’s or Zollicoffer’s command, at about 17,000 present, and this was prior to the arrival of the Mississippians under General R. Davis. There must surely be an error in the dispatch, but it has made me very uneasy, and the President and General Cooper are equally at a loss to make out how the matter stands.

Zollicoffer reports himself in almost undisputed possession of the banks of the Cumberland from the fork near Somerset all the way down to the Tennessee line and seems able to guard your right flank, so that your front alone appears to be seriously threatened, and I have hoped that you had sufficient force in your intrenched line to defy almost any front attack.

I have not, unfortunately, another musket to send you. We have an immensely valuable cargo of arms and powder in Nassau, blockaded there by a Yankee gunboat, that I am trying to get out, but if we succeed it will be too late for your present needs, and in the interval we must put our trust in our just cause and such means as we have in hand. We know that whatever can be done will be done by you, and rest content.

Yours, &c.,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War,

{p.785}

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CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, War Department, Richmond, December 22, 1861.

J. C. RAMSAY, Esq., C. S. District Attorney, Knoxville:

SIR: Your letters of the 17th and 19th instant have been received. In relation to Brownlow’s ease the facts are simply these: Brownlow being concealed somewhere in the mountains, made application to General Crittenden for protection against what he called a military mob or military tribunal if he came to Knoxville, professing his willingness to undergo a civil trial, i.e., a trial before a civil court, as distinguished from court-martial, and, as I understand, General Crittenden promised to protect him from any violence and from any trial before a military tribunal.

In the mean time Mr. Baxter came here and represented that Brownlow, who was entirely beyond our power and so concealed that no one could get possession of his person, was willing to leave the country and go into exile, to avoid any further trouble in East Tennessee, and proffered that Brownlow would come in and deliver himself up to be conveyed out of East Tennessee if the Government would agree to let him do so and to protect him in his exit. If Brownlow had been in our hands we might not have accepted this proposition, but deeming it better to have him as an open enemy on the other side of the line than a secret enemy within the lines, authority was given to General Crittenden to assure him of protection across the border if he came into Knoxville. It was not in our power, nor that of any one else, to prevent his being taken by process of law, and I confess it did not occur to me that any attempt would be made to take him out of the hands of the military authority. This has been done, however, and it is only regretted in one point of view-that is, color is given to the suspicion that Brownlow has been entrapped and has given himself up under promise of protection which has not been firmly kept. General Crittenden feels sensitive on this point and I share his feeling. Better that any, the most dangerous enemy, however criminal, should escape, than that the honor and good faith of the Government should be impugned or even suspected. General Crittenden gave his word only that Brownlow should not be tried by the court-martial, and I gave authority to promise him protection if he would surrender, to be conveyed across the border. We have both kept our words as far as was in our power, but every one must see that Brownlow would now be safe and at large if he had not supposed that his reliance on the promises made him would insure his safe departure from East Tennessee.

Under all the circumstances, therefore, if Brownlow is exposed to harm from his arrest, I shall deem the honor of the Government so far compromised as to consider it my duty to urge on the President a pardon for any offense of which he may be found guilty, and I repeat the expression of my regret that he was prosecuted, however evident may be his guilt.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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ORDNANCE OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 23, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I have the honor to report to the general commanding the {p.786} department the entire loss of my office and store-house, in which were all the supplies of equipments, &c., of the ordnance department in this city, together with all my papers, books, and vouchers. The cashbook and vouchers are saved in a damaged condition from the safe.

The fire originated about 3.30 o’clock this morning, but how or exactly where I have not yet been able to ascertain. I had a sentinel at either door-house fronted on both streets-and a private watch inside. The watch inside reports that the first he knew of it the house was in flames, shortly after which an explosion occurred of some caps and friction primers and ease of rockets, showing conclusively to my mind that it was the work of an incendiary. I have ordered the arrest of both sentinels and watch for an investigation.

The loss is very heavy-between 400 and 600 sets of artillery harness, 10,000 to 12,000 sets of accouterments and equipments, 300 cavalry saddles, 2,000,000 percussion caps, 6,000 friction primers, besides numerous articles of supplies, which will be enumerated in as accurate detail as possible in another report.

I have the honor to request that the general appoint a board of survey to investigate the case.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. H. WRIGHT, First Lieutenant, Artillery and Ordnance.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Beech Grove, Ky., December 23, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I feel it my duty frankly to say that the failure to receive the reserves and supplies I ordered up a month ago, and upon which in part the plan of campaign was predicated, has given and is likely to give serious embarrassment. I now receive no responses to communications addressed to Knoxville connected with the most important details. I have five regiments north of the river and two south. The strength of the enemy is unknown, but it is reported by the country people to be very large. There are now, I learn, in East Tennessee, besides the force at Cumberland Gap, eight full regiments and the Georgia battalion, a battery of artillery, and eight cavalry companies. I beg respectfully to say that it cannot be that half this force is required there. On the other hand, were this column strengthened properly the enemy could not venture to pass London to attack Cumberland Gap. We could open the Cumberland and drive the enemy from Somerset and Columbia.

I trouble you with these suggestions about which I feel the deepest concern, because I learn that Major-General Crittenden has gone to Richmond.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-Inclosed I send copies of a general order* and a proclamation I have deemed it expedient to print and circulate.

* Order not found.

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[Inclosure.]

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Beech Grove, Ky., December 16, 1861.

To the People of Southeastern Kentucky:

The brigade I have the honor to command is here for no purpose of war upon Kentuckians, but to repel those Northern hordes who, with arms in their hands, are attempting the subjugation of a sister Southern State. They have closed your rivers embargoed your railroads, cut off your natural and proper markets, left your stock and produce on hand almost valueless, and thereby almost destroyed the value of your lands and labor. We have come to open again your rivers, to restore the ancient markets for your produce, and thereby to return to you the accustomed value of your lands and labor. They have represented us as murderers and outlaws. We have come to convince you that we truly respect the laws, revere justice, and mean to give security to your personal and property rights. They have forced many of you to take up arms against us. We come to take you by the hand as heretofore-as friends and brothers. Their Government has laid heavy taxes on you to carry on this unnatural war, one object of which is openly avowed to be to set at liberty your slaves, and the ensuing steps in which will be to put arms in their hands and give them political and social equality with yourselves. We saw these things in the beginning, and are offering our heart’s blood to avert those dreadful evils which we saw the abolition leaders had deliberately planned for the South. “All men must have the ballot or none; all men must have the bullet or none,” said Mr. Seward, the present Federal Secretary of State.

How long will Kentuckians close their eyes to the contemplated ruin of their present structure of society? How long will they continue to raise their arms against brothers of the South struggling for those rights and for that independence common to us all, and which was guaranteed to all by the Constitution of 1787? For many long years we remonstrated against the encroachments on the rights and the insecurity to that property thus guaranteed, which these Northern hordes so remorselessly inflicted upon us. They became deaf to our remonstrances because they believed they had the power and felt in every fiber the will to “whip us in.” We have disappointed them. We have broken their columns in almost every conflict. We have early acquired a prestige of success which has stricken terror into the Northern heart. Their “grand armies have been held in check by comparatively few but stern-hearted men, and now they would invoke Kentucky valor to aid them in beating down the true sons of the South who have stood the shock, and in bringing common ruin upon Kentucky and her kindred people. Will you play this unnatural part, Kentuckians? Heaven forbid! The memories of the past forbid! The honor of your wives and daughters, your past renown, and the fair name of your posterity forbid that you should strike for Lincoln and the abolition of slavery against those struggling for the rights and independence of your kindred race. Strike with us for independence and the preservation of your property, and those Northern invaders of your soil will soon be driven across the Ohio.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 24, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN J. PETTUS, Governor of Mississippi:

SIR: On assuming command of this department it was my chief object to collect a sufficient force to shield the valley of the Mississippi from the enemy and assure its safety. Calls were made by me upon the Governor of Mississippi and other States of the Confederacy for troops, but, notwithstanding the patriotic efforts of the Governors, the response has not been such as the emergency demands, and in consequence there is not now a force at my disposition equal to the exigency of my situation.

It was apprehended by me that the enemy (would] attempt to assail the South not only by boats and troops moving down the river, to be assembled during the fall and winter, but by columns marching inland, threatening Tennessee by endeavoring to burn the defenses at Columbus. Further observation confirms me in this opinion, but I think the means employed for the defense of the river will probably render it comparatively secure.

The enemy will energetically push towards Nashville the heavy masses of troops now assembled between Louisville and this place.

The general position of Bowling Green is good and commanding, but the peculiar topography of the place and the length of the line of the Barren River as a line of defense, though strong, requires a large force to defend it.

There is no equally defensible position as this place, nor line of defense as the Barren River, between the Barren and the Cumberland, at Nashville, so that this place cannot be abandoned without exposing Tennessee and giving vastly the vantage ground to the enemy.

It is manifest that the Northern generals appreciate this, and by withdrawing their forces from Western Virginia and Eastern Kentucky they have managed to add them to the new levies from Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and to concentrate a force in front of me variously estimated at from 60,000 to 100,000 men and which I believe will number 75,000.

To maintain my position I have only about 17,000 men in this neighborhood. It is impossible for me to obtain additions to my strength from Columbus. The generals in command of that quarter consider that it would imperil that point to diminish their force and open Tennessee to the enemy.

General Zollicoffer cannot join me, as he guards the Cumberland and prevents the invasion and possible revolt of East Tennessee. Notwithstanding these adverse circumstances, relying upon the firm purpose that animates the hearts of my troops to maintain the cause of the country, I will not relinquish my position without a battle, and your excellency can well conceive the momentous importance of my situation. If troops are given to me, if the people can be made to feel how much suffering and calamity would be avoided by the presence now in my camp of 10,000 on 15,000 more brave men, so that I could attack the enemy, and not from a disparity of force be compelled to await it, it seems to me that the same generous ardor that induced them to embark in the great struggle for our independence would give me such success that victory would be certain. I therefore ask that for the coming struggle every man should be sent forward. A decisive battle will probably be fought on this line, and a company on that day will be more than a regiment next year. If the enemy does not attack, the North, embarrassed at home and menaced with war by England, will shrink, foiled, {p.789} from the conflict, and the freedom of the South will be forever established. If, however, the battle of independence is to be fought here, the history of Mississippi and the character of her gallant people compel me to believe that they would be among the first and staunchest to stand by their brethren in arms.

I have intrusted this letter to the care of the honorable the chief justice of your State, Judge Smith, to deliver, with my request to inform your excellency of all such details as are of importance, and to urge upon you the necessity of sending forward to this place every armed man that can be spared from Mississippi at the earliest moment.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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NAVY DEPARTMENT, Richmond, December 24, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Forces at Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: The completion of the iron-clad gunboats at Memphis by Mr. Shirly is regarded as highly important to the defenses of the Mississippi. One of them at Columbus would have enabled you to complete the annihilation of the enemy. Had I not supposed that every facility for obtaining carpenters from the army near Memphis would have been extended to the enterprise, I would not have felt authorized to have commenced their construction there, as it was evident that ruinous delays must ensue if deprived of obtaining mechanics in this way. These vessels will be armed with very heavy guns and will be iron-clad, and with such aid as mechanics under your command can afford they may be completed, I am assured, in sixty days. May I ask, therefore, that you will extend to this Department the necessary aid? The men may be furloughed for this special service, and the highest current wages will be paid them.

The Department, to induce the construction of the boats, has to be in advance to Mr. Shirly, and the Government may be said to be exclusively interested in their speedy completion.

I have also to ask that, if practicable, a guard be assigned to protect these vessels. Though Mr. Shirly stands in the light of a contractor, he seems to have been guided alone by patriotism and an unselfish desire to do all in his power to serve us, and has undertaken to construct the vessels at our own estimates.

Unless mechanics can be obtained from the forces under your command the completion of these vessels will be a matter of uncertainty, and the Government will lose their services and sustain all the pecuniary loss.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy.

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COLUMBUS, Ky., December 24, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

It has been several months since a large portion of this army has received any pay, and a number of regiments have never received a dollar since entering the service. They are getting very sore under {p.790} this state of affairs, and I respectfully entreat that the necessary funds to pay this army be at once forwarded or placed to my credit at the earliest practicable moment.

L. POLK.

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COLUMBUS, December 24, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

Do you still want support? Answer.

L. POLK.

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[DECEMBER 24, 1861.]

[LEONIDAS POLK:]

Yes. Ten thousand or more, if possible, without delay of a day.

[A. S. JOHNSTON.]

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COLUMBUS, December 24, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

I have resolved to send you Bowen’s command of infantry, about 5,000 strong, and have to-day issued orders to him to move at once. He will divide his force into two parts; one-half will go by wagons to Paris, the other half via Union City and Humboldt. I retain his cavalry and two batteries of artillery, and will replace his forces at Feliciana by four regiments sixty-days’ men from Mississippi.

I keep the cavalry and artillery because I suppose you do not want them.

L. POLK.

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BOWLING GREEN, December 24, 1861.

General POLK, Columbus:

Order the troops to this place. Send the troops first; send the wagon transportation as soon as possible after them. If you can spare artillery, send it.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, December 24, 1861.

Maj. Gen. G. B. CRITTENDEN, Knoxville:

SIR: Your letter of 20th instant has been received. You are authorized to organize into a battalion the seven companies of cavalry mentioned in your letter, and you are requested to have the muster rolls forwarded to this Department, and to recommend proper officers for lieutenant-colonel and major of the battalion, and to attach it to your command. You are further authorized to receive and muster into the Confederate service all the troops that are tendered in East Tennessee for the war, as well as all twelve-months’ men that furnish their own arms. You are requested to advise the Department of all troops received and to forward muster rolls as fast as possible, taking care to receive into the service no unarmed twelve-months’ volunteers.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., December 24, 1861.

To the ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL C. S. A., Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Upon a conference with Colonel Leadbetter I have become satisfied that the unorganized companies serving in East Tennessee form a part of my command. I have therefore deemed it advisable, in anticipation of a reply to the letter I wrote to the Department some days since, to order them to rendezvous at Knoxville, Tenn., in order that they may be organized. I believe that under existing circumstances the President appoints the field officers, &c. Colonel Leadbetter and I concur in the opinion that in their present unorganized and to a great extent irresponsible condition they are doing as much harm as good to the service. Therefore their being ordered to rendezvous here will work no injury to the service in any event; that is to say, whether they belong to my command or that of Colonel Leadbetter.

Colonel Powell’s regiment marched to-day for Brigadier-General Zollicoffer’s headquarters. Brigadier-General Carroll’s will march to-morrow and next day. I myself will leave to-morrow.

I have been much embarrassed by the difficulty of procuring serviceable arms and the necessary transportation for General Carroll’s brigade.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, Commanding.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., December 24, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond:

SIR: I inclose slip from the Knoxville Register of this date, the substance of which has been confirmed to me in conversation by Dr. Abernathy. He states that these emissaries were surprised at night and their clothes were captured, consisting of the Regular United States uniform. That they are emissaries from Kentucky and the enemy cannot be doubted.

I am now disposing the troops of my command along the railroad throughout, so as to protect the important bridges, and the Department is aware that the number of men is none too great for that especial service. In the northern counties-such as Scott, Morgan, and Campbell-disturbances are frequent, and Southern men are much exposed. Notwithstanding the favorable aspect of things generally in East Tennessee the country is held by a slight tenure, and the approach of an enemy would lead to prompt insurrection of an aggravated character. It should be constantly kept in awe by the presence of a respectable force.

I understand my command to embrace only the railroad line and that portion of the country adjacent from which it is or may be threatened by insurgent bands.

My headquarters are now at Knoxville.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel, Commanding.

{p.792}

[Inclosure.]

FROM LOUDON.-Dr. Abernathy, surgeon of the post at Loudon, arrived in town last night, and reports that a party of three of Byrd’s men had been seen near that place, and that on Saturday night a party of citizens attempted to capture them but did not succeed. They succeeded, however, in getting their guns, bayonets, &c., which they threw away, after firing on the attacking party, to facilitate their flight. The citizens returned the fire, but “nobody was hurt on either side.” The Lincolnites told a supposed friend that they were off on detailed duty, to be ready to burn bridges, &c., as soon as the grand Union Army makes its appearance in East Tennessee, which they say Colonel Byrd assured them it would surely do, 50,000 strong, in two weeks at furthest, and he bade them tell the Unionists here “to be of good cheer, and take the oath as often as required of them.” They also state that their party consists of 100 men. Our military authorities would do well to look to this matter.

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BOWLING GREEN, December 25, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Let nothing prevent Floyd’s brigade from coming here immediately.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 25, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War C. S.:

SIR: The recent movements of the enemy and the concentration of heavy masses of troops indicated an early advance, and the weather, which has been unusually fine, resembling the fall rather than winter, rendered it probable that a battle would be fought in this vicinity.

Information from various sources shows that every effort has been made by General Buell to concentrate all his strength for a movement upon Tennessee through Central Kentucky, and that not less than 75,000 men are assembled in front of me, while I have not more than 17,000 men for active operations. After a careful examination I have found the line of the Barren River the only good defensible one between Green River and Nashville. Bowling Green from its topography is naturally a strong position, and gives command over Central Kentucky south of Green River, and has easy communication by railroad to Clarksville and by rail and turnpike to Nashville. Its local advantages for defense are good, though requiring a large force for that purpose, as it is situated in an amphitheater of some extent. The place has been strengthened by good defensive works, requiring about 4,000 men for their defense and to be supported by a large force. I have as a further precaution ordered intrenchments to be thrown up under the direction of the chief engineer, Major Gilmer, at Nashville. These arrangements are such that they perhaps double the efficiency of my force for the defense of this line.

The enemy have recently reconstructed the bridges between Louisville and Green River, and have thrown forward a strong advance to {p.793} Woodsonville, with which Terry’s cavalry had a successful encounter on the 17th instant, in which we had the misfortune to lose the gallant leader of it. Their forces in heavy masses are stationed at Woodsonville, Bacon Creek, Nolin, &c. There is also a corps of about 6,000 men at Columbia, which is being rapidly re-enforced. There is another considerable force at Lebanon, at the terminus of the Louisville Railroad, and another at Somerset. The banks of the Green River from Munfordville down are unoccupied, as the country is quite rugged, except by a force under General T. [L.] Crittenden. These dispositions of their troops are in accordance with information received from several sources, and lead to the belief that a forward movement will very soon be made in this direction, but at present I can only conjecture whether they will make their attack here or turn my right, or, relying upon their superiority of numbers, attempt both at the same time.

If Floyd’s brigade, from Virginia, and Bowen’s division, en route from Columbus, reach here, as I expect, in a few days, they will be compelled to attack me here. With my force thus considerably increased I do not think they will attempt to turn my position.

General Hindman, with his brigade of Hardee’s division, is at Bell’s, on the railroad and pike, with Swett’s battery. His front is covered with the Texas and Arkansas cavalry. Breckinridge, with his brigade of Buckner’s division, is at Oakland, 10 miles in rear of Hindman, with Morgan’s cavalry in the direction of Brownsville. Helm, with his regiment of Kentucky cavalry, has been ordered back to Skegg’s Creek Bridge and the Barren Bridge, on the route from Scottsville to Glasgow. His scouts keep the country under observation towards Woodsonville and Columbia. Should the enemy move in force on this route, the bridges across the Barren and other streams towards Glasgow will be burned. The remainder of the divisions of Hardee and Buckner, and the sixty days’ State troops of Mississippi, recently arrived, under the command of Maj. Gen. R. Davis, are stationed here, my whole force amounting, as before remarked, to 17,000 men. A brigade under General Clark is posted at Hopkinsville to guard against the movements of the enemy on Lower Green River,towards Clarksville,and to follow their movement should they attempt to co-operate with the movements of the enemy in my front. His force should be much greater for these purposes.

The measures adopted at Columbus render that place comparatively secure from any immediate attempt of the enemy. The position of General Zollicoffer on the Cumberland holds in check the meditated invasion and hoped-for revolt in East Tennessee, but I can neither order Zollicoffer to join me here nor withdraw any more force from Columbus without imperiling our communications towards Richmond or endangering Tennessee and the Mississippi Valley. This I have resolved not to do, but have chosen, on the contrary, to post my inadequate force in such a manner as to hold the enemy in check, guard the frontier, and hold the Barren till the winter terminates the campaign, or, if any fault in their movements is committed or his lines become exposed when his force is developed, to attack him as opportunity offers. If the campaign closes without any striking success to their arms and without any impression on our territory, the North must shrink disheartened from the contest, and, with embarrassed relations, if not hostile attitude, towards England, the first great step towards our independence is gained. The contest here must be relinquished for the winter by the enemy or a decisive blow soon struck; to make the latter is their true policy.

{p.794}

Efforts have been incessantly made by me for the last four months to augment my force in the different army corps to an adequate degree of strength, but while the Governors of States have seconded my appeals, the response has been feeble, perhaps because the people did not feel or understand the great exigency that exists. I have again today urged most earnestly the Governors of Mississippi and Tennessee to send me re-enforcements, for a company now is worth a regiment next year, and if our force can be increased to one-half of that of the enemy the frontier of Tennessee will be safe and shall be successfully defended here.

In conclusion, I would respectfully request that the Government will earnestly and zealously aid me in my efforts to procure additional re-enforcements by communications addressed to the Governors of Tennessee and Mississippi and elsewhere, and that every influence should be brought to bear to convince them and their gallant people that a decisive battle must probably be fought here for the freedom of the South, and that every man sent forward here is of importance to the Confederacy.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 25, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee:

SIR: The present situation of affairs is such that I deem it necessary to call the attention of your excellency to it in connection with the movements which the enemy meditate towards Tennessee. My information continues to convince me that a heavy concentration of force on this line has been made to invade Tennessee on the route to Nashville.

The troops of Western Virginia and Eastern Kentucky have been withdrawn and ordered upon the line in my front. These regiments, with large re-enforcements from Ohio, Indian a, and other Northwestern States, have been assembled, and the estimates from the most reliable sources show that General Buell has about 75,000 men, probably more, at his disposition, while the effective force here at my command does not exceed 17,000 men. In order to render these equal to the duty of preserving our frontier and protecting Nashville, I have used every precaution, and feel sanguine that by the dispositions of the last few months they can be made to hold in check double their number. Bowling Green, naturally strong, has been well intrenched. Columbus Fort, with its garrison and troops on that front guarding the Mississippi, renders the lower valley comparatively secure, and General Zollicoffer, on the Cumberland, protects East Tennessee from invasion and possible revolt, which would destroy our communications between the Mississippi and Atlantic States and inflict great injury.

These dispositions will foil the designs of the enemy on East Tennessee and defeat or retard his design to descend the Mississippi this winter. The vulnerable point is by the line from Louisville towards Nashville, and the Northern generals are evidently aware of it. In order to obtain additional strength I ordered Major Gilmer, my chief engineer, to go to Nashville and arrange defensive works for its protection, {p.795} and have provided a sufficient armament. I will endeavor to render them unnecessary by defending Nashville here, but a proper forecast should induce all to join in their immediate construction, and I therefore ask you to have them completed or take effective measures to furnish the necessary labor for their execution as soon as possible. The country between this place and Nashville offers no good defensible line, and the works I have ordered should not be neglected.

Such being the situation of affairs, the cue my will be compelled to move against Tennessee by this route or submit to the humiliation of closing a campaign without result or impression upon us in this quarter.

The news from Europe, as well as the dissatisfaction in the North, force them to advance now or admit the independence of the Confederacy virtually established. The disparity of my force is very great, and exposes our cause to a hazard that it is most unwise to continue to incur. Ten or fifteen thousand additional troops would make me feel assured of victory. With this additional force I could avail myself of every fault of their movements. Without them, I must be a spectator, without power to seize the opportunities. Foreseeing all this, for the last four months I have endeavored to obtain additional forces from Tennessee and other States, but notwithstanding the efforts of your excellency and other governors, the response has been feeble and the forces inadequate to the momentous interests involved.

If the people could be properly impressed with the vast exigency all would be safe, the designs of the enemy thwarted, and the Northern mind become dispirited and anxious for peace. A company now is worth to the South a regiment next year.

Under these circumstances, I once more invoke your excellency to impress upon your people these views and solicit you to forward to me here every man at your disposition. If well re-enforced now, Tennessee, the valley of the Mississippi, and the Confederacy is safe.

Returning to your excellency my sincere thanks for the energetic and efficient co-operation which I have received from you and Tennessee since I assumed command, I have the honor to subscribe myself, with great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

Five thousand men, Bowen’s division, will leave Columbus for this place to-day.

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RICHMOND, December 25, 1861.

Maj. W. R. HUNT, Memphis, Tenn.:

Arms belonging to the Government cannot be issued to twelve-months’ volunteers until the volunteers for the war are first supplied. There are war regiments now waiting to be armed, and if there are Government arms at Memphis for issue, unarmed war regiments will be sent to Tennessee to receive them. This restriction is not intended to apply to the arms belonging to the twelve-months’ regiments waiting repair or alteration which can be made at the armories; and such was the case in respect to General Carroll’s arms, which were sent to Memphis to be put in order.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.796}

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RICHMOND, December 26, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

Floyd’s brigade started in part yesterday; rest leaves to-day and tomorrow.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, VA., December 26, 1861.

General LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

The funds in the Branch Bank of Kentucky are to be held by you subject to the orders of Governor Johnson, of Kentucky.*

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

* See Richmond to Benjamin, December 16, p. 770.

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RICHMOND, VA., December 26, 1861.

General LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus:

I am using every exertion to get the pay forwarded to your army. Hope to have it on the way to you to-morrow or next day.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, December 26, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: In making provision for the subsistence of the Army in your department great difficulties exist, arising from the indisposition of many parties in the border States to receive the Treasury notes or bonds of the Government in payment for supplies. This is a war for national existence, and the Army must be fed, and it is impossible to pay for its food otherwise than in our national currency. True friends to our cause will nowhere refuse to receive that currency, and our enemies, whom, under the laws of war we have a right to lay under contribution, cannot, of course, be listened to when they ask that our currency be sold at a heavy discount in order to pay them in gold. Major Jackson, your chief commissary, informs the Department that in some cases parties have succeeded in extorting a discount of 40 per cent. Von will at once perceive that a submission to such demands is equivalent to laying down our arms. I have, therefore, to request that you give orders in your department that all subsistence stores and supplies be paid for in the currency of the Government, and that, if prices are advanced for the purpose of covering any discount, you allow to parties from whom purchases are made only such price as would be the fair value in gold of what they sell. In other words, let the necessary supplies be impressed, if not otherwise attainable, and paid for at their cash coin value in Confederate notes. I inclose you extract of a letter written to Major Jackson by the Commissary-General some six weeks ago, in which the same view is taken. I see no other resource.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

{p.797}

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COLUMBUS, December 26, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

In the opinion expressed in General Polk’s dispatch, early last week, I concurred. Since then the forces in our front are known to have been reduced to 15,000 men. Now we could spare, until your conflict is over, 3,000 men, to be promptly returned. The forces in our front have gone against Price. This is my opinion, under the altered condition of the enemy’s force.

GID. J. PILLOW.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Beech Grove, Ky., December 26, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I sent to Gainesborough two trains of wagons, amounting to about 150, to receive army stores brought by the boats. I infer from what is reported to me that 80 or 100 more wagon loads remain on board. I cannot spare more wagons now. The river being very low, the boats did not get higher than Carthage. The trains will probably not return before the last of the month.

I desire very much to bring one of the boats up to this point; it would contribute much to our security in more than one way, and if it can be brought up with its freight will save us much wagoning.

This morning I sent down on the north side of the river 650 cavalrymen, under Lieutenant-Colonels McNairy, Branner, and McClellan, with instructions to observe the enemy at and near Columbia and descend to Burkesville by to-morrow evening, giving me by express messenger information of all they saw and heard. They are instructed to send forward a detachment to communicate with the boat at Celina, and the boat is ordered to steam up to Celina by the evening of the 28th, to receive the news to be communicated by the cavalry. If deemed safe, the boat is ordered to ascend to Mill Springs and the cavalry is instructed to return on the north bank in such way as to give it security. If my information seems to make it necessary, I will make with infantry and artillery such demonstration towards Jamestown, Ky., and Columbia as will tend to keep the enemy away from the river. I doubt the success of the enterprise, but I consider it so desirable to bring the boat up, that I will spare no effort to accomplish it.

Colonel Wood’s battalion and Captain McClung’s battery have arrived, and I am advised that Colonel Powell’s regiment has been ordered to follow.

Letters from Major-General Crittenden and Brigadier-General Carroll, of 15th, 17th, and 18th instant, have just been received, by which I am advised that they will be here in a few days, and that a part of General Carroll’s brigade is ready to march to this point.

I have deemed it proper within the last few days to permit the forces to commence building huts, to shield them from the rigors of winter. I have not yet completed and still work daily some force on the earthwork defenses in front of the position occupied. No pickets of the enemy have crossed Fishing Creek for some days. I have no recent reliable information of their movements, but suppose they are not likely to attack me in the strong position I hold. For a few days at least I will not be prepared to hunt them up.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General

{p.798}

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COLUMBUS, Ky., December 27, 1861.

General COOPER:

I am informed that you instructed the ordnance officer at Memphis to issue no arms to twelve-months’ volunteers. I have eight or ten regiments of that description of troops now at hand and not one for the war. These troops both General Johnston and myself are in pressing need of. Cannot the exigency authorize the suspension of your rule? Please answer immediately.

L. POLK.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 27, 1861.

To the PRESIDENT:

SIR: The bearers, Captains Townsend and Montgomery, come to me most highly recommended, and from the character of their indorsers I am induced to place great confidence in their judgment and full reliance in their statements.

The nature of their proposed enterprise I leave to their verbal communication for a better development and more perfect understanding. In view, however, of the immense flotilla of gunboats and mortar batteries, so thoroughly armed and equipped and so perfect in all its appointments, with which the enemy are prepared to descend the Mississippi, I deem it highly important that we should resort to any and every scheme that is at all feasible to thwart their purposes and defeat their designs.

Such is the emergency in which I find myself at this time placed that I can but advise the careful consideration of any enterprise which purposes for its end our relief from their force afloat.

With the enemy in possession of the river the injury we shall sustain is incalculable, and I can conceive no men more capable of coping with such a force than the boatmen of the Mississippi.

With your knowledge of the daring and bravery of the captains, pilots, and men that live on this river, I think you will sustain me in this opinion. These gentlemen propose to organize a considerable force of these people, and with such material to execute their designs I think most favorable results can be anticipated.

Their views in regard to an independent organization and action, in order to give greater efficiency to the undertaking, has impressed me very strongly, and I can but urge the reasonableness of their demand and the adoption of their views in this respect.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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KNOXVILLE December 27, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

Ramsay entered a nolle prosequi in Brownlow’s case. I hold him in custody by advice of Colonel Leadbetter, to be sent beyond our lines or otherwise as you may instruct.

G. H. MONSARRAT, Captain Artillery, Commanding Post.

Approved:

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel, P. A. C. S.

{p.799}

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[Received War Department, December 28, 1861.]

President DAVIS:

SIR: At the request of many of our most reliable friends in East Tennessee I have come to Richmond, to lay before you a faithful account of East Tennessee matters.

The conflicting views of your friends in that quarter have been calculated to perplex your mind in regard to the policy best adapted to the peculiar condition of East Tennessee.

Regarding the conversion of East Tennessee to our cause an object of vast importance, I have for the last four months devoted my efforts chiefly to that end; and the statements of facts to which I ask your attention are founded on my personal observation and investigation, unbiased by party prejudices or personal animosities, which have done more than everything else to keep alive in East Tennessee the prejudices of the people against the Confederate Government.

It is the opinion of the best informed and most reliable men in East Tennessee that all the Confederate troops now employed in guarding the railroads and suppressing rebellion in East Tennessee, except one regiment, might be safely sent to other points, where troops are really needed; and that if proper measures were immediately adopted to bring back to their families all innocent men who have been carried or frightened away from their homes, it would restore peace and a sense of security to the people, and put an end to all appearances of disloyalty to the Confederate Government in East Tennessee. And I believe that the wrongs they have suffered, if properly explained and promptly relieved, will afford an occasion for a striking display of the justice, wisdom, and power of the Confederate Government, which will do more to insure the fidelity of the people of East Tennessee than all the severity of punishment advised by the violent partisans of that section, who have provoked the prejudices of the people against themselves, and consequently against the Government, of which they were supposed to be the true exponents.

Respectfully, &c.,

H. R. AUSTIN.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., December 28, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 22d instant, addressed to J. C. Ramsay, esq., Confederate States district attorney, in relation to Brownlow’s case, which appears in the Knoxville Register of this morning, may make an erroneous impression on the public mind as to the part which I took in procuring a passport for him. The careless reader may suppose that the Government intended to arrest him, and abandoned the purpose and consented to his leaving the Confederate States on the ground of my representation that he was so concealed as to be entirely beyond its power. So far as I knew or believed no officer of the Government at Richmond contemplated his arrest. The application for him to leave was promptly assented to by you, and in answer to an objection by President Davis that it appeared to be discriminating in favor of Brownlow, conferring upon him a privilege not accorded to others, &c., you replied that you were willing for all to go that wanted to, and you spoke of making a proclamation to this effect, showing conclusively that you were not controlled in your action upon this matter by the belief that Brownlow was beyond your power.

These impressions, which may be made from a casual reading of {p.800} your letter-though I presume it was not so intended-are calculated to do me injustice, and I would beg you to set me right in reference to these particulars. I acted in good faith to the Government and to everybody concerned, and I am willing to take upon myself all the responsibility which properly attaches to my acts or declarations. Your decision in the premises I consider wise, just, and magnanimous, and it is capable of a full and complete vindication. The results which will follow his departure from East Tennessee will be ample for this purpose; but I am unwilling to be placed before the country in the attitude of having induced the Government to abandon any intention of arresting Brownlow, by representing that he was concealed and entirely beyond its power. Such was probably not the fact. What I stated was substantially this: “That from fear of personal violence Brownlow had left home; was supposed to be concealed in the mountains of Sevier or Blount; that I had not seen him; had no authority from him to act for him; but that his wife had informed me that he desired to quit the Confederate States, and that she desired me to procure a passport for him if one could be obtained.” Upon this statement your letter to General Crittenden was prepared. It was not imperative. The question was referred to General Crittenden to decide whether he should go or not. He was here on the ground; knew all the facts; was cognizant of the views and wishes of the Government; had the means of determining whether Brownlow was beyond the reach of the Government or not, and this question he decided for himself, uninfluenced by any suggestion of mine whatever.

You will pardon me, I hope, for adding that there is no necessity for the Government to apologize for this official act. It disappointed some persons who thirsted for his blood, and who had cherished the hope that he would fall a victim to this revolution, and they excited some feeling among the soldiery here. But the more enlightened, liberal, and brave Southern men among us take a different view. When the revolution is over you will have no occasion to regret the course which you have pursued in reference to Brownlow’s case.

Respectfully, yours,

JNO. BAXTER.

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HEADQUARTERS, Kelly’s Station, Tenn., December 28, 1861.

THE ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the West, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Your telegram reached me two days out from Knoxville, on my way to General Zollicoffer’s headquarters, and for that reason I am compelled to confine myself to an informal statement of the troops under my command.

There are two regiments of infantry at Cumberland Gap and Brazelton’s battalion of cavalry, two companies of which are serving with Zollicoffer. The command numbers 1,500 men for duty; aggregate, a little over 2,000.

General Carroll’s brigade consists of two regiments at Knoxville or vicinity, one armed and on the road to General Zollicoffer, one unarmed still in Knoxville, and Colonel Avery’s regiment (incomplete) at Bowling Green. Captain Monsarrat’s battery, consisting of ten pieces, is also attached to the brigade, but the company is not yet filled up, the intention being to augment it to 250 men. Colonel Gillespie’s regiment, lately organized, is at Knoxville, but as yet assigned to no brigade, {p.801} and I do not know whether it is to be considered under my command or not.

In addition to the forces mentioned there are seven independent companies (mounted), which have been serving in East Tennessee, collecting arms, suppressing insurrections, &c. I have ordered them all to Knoxville (considering them under my command) for the purpose of their more complete organization, and have written to that effect to the Adjutant-General, it being my opinion that under existing circumstances the President has the power on their organization into a battalion to appoint the field officers.

In conclusion, this report excludes General Zollicoffer’s immediate command. As soon as possible after my arrival in Kentucky I will furnish a full and detailed account of my entire command.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, December 29, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus:

If in your opinion you can now spare more troops than you have ordered, they will be very useful if only sent as far as Clarksville.

Report says the transportation for Bowen, Campbell, and Reynolds has been detained. Transportation is limited here, and the wagon transportation should be sent here as soon as possible.

By order of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., December 29, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States of America:

SIR: The suggestions contained in the inclosed letter of the Hon. William Preston are in my opinion eminently wise, and I urged him to communicate them to Your Excellency, with the hope that you would concur and issue a proclamation, which must spread dismay among the troops of various States now arrayed against us in the State of Kentucky.

With great regard, I remain, your obedient servant,

GEORGE W. JOHNSON.

[Inclosure.]

BOWLING GREEN, Ky., December 28, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States of America:

SIR: Recent events in Congress show that the extreme Republican party will force the administration to confiscate or enfranchise the slaves, and that New England will compel the Government to adopt her policy or abandon the war. Since the report of Mr. Cameron and the message of Mr. Lincoln great discontents have been manifested among the Union men in Kentucky. The Louisville Journal, the Democrat, {p.802} and all the other journals of the State, denounced the policy in bitter terms, but now are awed and silenced by the Government. Universal dissatisfaction prevails, and information from various sources proves that the Kentucky troops in the Federal service are discontented and distrusted. The officers have been invoked to resign in such an event by the press, and many have announced their intention to do so if the anti-slavery measures before Congress should pass. Major Phifer, who bore a flag of truce from General Hindman to General Johnson, now commanding the advanced corps of the Federals, after the skirmish in which Terry fell, told me that General Johnson, who is a Kentuckian and former comrade, said openly that an avowal of such a policy would cause him and others instantly to resign and abandon the Federal service. It is said that Generals Ward, Rousseau, and Crittenden are discontented and distrusted; that Ward has resigned, Rousseau has been ordered from the advance to the rear, and that Crittenden is no longer in command at Calhoun. Colonel Jackson, a member of Congress, has expressed his intention to resist any attempt at anti-slavery legislation, and the resolution before the Legislature at Frankfort shows that in the Union party there is a vast majority determined to oppose all plans of emancipation by Congress.

Under these circumstances it seems to me that it is a matter of great importance to augment to the utmost this dissatisfaction. The chief obstacle to the redemption of Kentucky is the fear of the leaders who have adhered to Lincoln that they have gone so far that in the event of Southern success they will be forever proscribed and persecuted. There are now some 20,000 troops from Kentucky in the Federal service. The legislators and officers tremble before the changing opinions of the people, who have been deceived by their illusory promises that the war was conducted in no spirit of hostility to the institution of slavery. The mask is laid aside and the true character of the contest is revealed.

In this posture of affairs I venture to suggest the expediency of holding out every inducement to the discontented to abandon the cause of the North and to fraternize with the South. In my judgment a proclamation containing a guarantee from Your Excellency that they would be welcomed and received as brethren, that their organizations would be recognized, and that their officers would be assured the same rank, pay, and command would exercise a most powerful effect and induce many to abandon the service of the North, or engender such distrust between the Southern and Northern troops and officers as to paralyze their confidence and impair fatally their efficiency. The proclamation would be in accordance with the order setting forth the reasons for entering Kentucky, and could hold out the strongest reasons to induce men of honor and patriots to resist the contemplated destruction of their rights by the Federal Government, the forfeiture of its promises, and the humiliation of Kentucky by an abolition Congress. Such a paper emanating from you would produce a great and salutary effect. It cannot come from any other quarter carrying with it such influence. The leading men attached to the South in Kentucky are few in number and powerless to tempt the ambitious into the path of honor and patriotism.

I trust that you will pardon me for taking up your time, but these suggestions are offered from the belief that a golden opportunity exists, which may induce many to act with us hereafter and to unsettle and perplex our enemies in this quarter for the present.

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

W. PRESTON.

{p.803}

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Beauregard, December 29, 1861-9 p.m.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: I have information that the enemy are advancing on this post and are now 5 miles south of Mayfield. I have taken the liberty of sending a courier to Moscow, requesting the officer in command to give me support, leaving a guard at his encampment.

The information of which I am possessed runs as follows:

Courier from Major King at 7 o’clock p.m.:

Enemy’s cavalry, reported 200 strong, now at Mayfield.

Eight o’clock:

Enemy 5 miles this side of Mayfield. Road blockaded with wagons in rear. Cavalry supposed to be accompanied by infantry. Force not known.

I have sent forward 250 cavalry to meet the enemy, with orders to advance with caution, and if enemy is in large force to skirmish with and retard their progress. My command, you are aware, is weak, illy prepared for a battle. Re-enforcements may be necessary. Two pieces of my artillery (the two howitzers) are without ammunition. The lieutenant commanding states that he has often applied for the ammunition, but it has not been furnished. I have been somewhat disappointed in the supposed fortifications at this place. A few rifle pits, full of water, which I am having leveled down, and a lot of fallen timber, compose the defenses. Should the enemy attack us, we are in feeble condition, but the best defense of which we are capable will be made. I leave the subject of my re-enforcement with you, but would suggest my early re-enforcement. I am busy in preparation.

Your obedient servant.

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, December 29, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: In accordance with your letter of instructions Mr. Ramsay, the district attorney, entered a nol. pros. in Brownlow’s case. As commander of this post, in order that your future instructions might be complied with, I caused Brownlow to be remanded to prison. This measure was necessary even for his own safety and in order that the public peace might not be violated. I infer from your letter to the district attorney that Brownlow is entitled to a safe-conduct beyond our lines, and with reference to this I await your further instructions.

I have just been appointed commandant of this post, and have already discovered numberless abuses that should be corrected. Marauding bands of armed men go through the country, representing themselves to be the authorized agents of the State or Confederate Government; they “impress” into “service” horses and men; they plunder the helpless, and especially the quondam supporters of Johnson, Maynard, and Brownlow; they force men to enlist by the representation that otherwise they will be incarcerated at Tuscaloosa; they force the people to feed and care for themselves and horses without compensation. I would {p.804} gladly have instructions as to the mode of correcting these abuses and the character of punishment to be inflicted upon those guilty of such offenses.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. H. MONSARRAT, Captain Artillery, Commanding Post.

–––

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS,* President of the Confederate States of America:

The undersigned begs leave to lay before Your Excellency the following statement and accompanying documents:

He had, for reasons that need not here be stated, opposed the secession of Tennessee, and was, while the question was pending and undecided before the people of the State, a zealous advocate of the Union; but after the ordinance of secession had been confirmed by the vote of the citizens of the State, and the permanent Constitution of the Confederate States had in like manner been adopted, the undersigned, with others who had become prominent by reason of their opposition to those measures, voluntarily addressed a communication to Brigadier-General Zollicoffer, in which they pledged themselves to use whatever influence they might possess to promote the peace of East Tennessee and obedience to the constituted authorities, State and Confederate, on the part of her people. That pledge was made with a sincere determination, so far as the undersigned was concerned, to fulfil it according to its letter and spirit, and he has done so; and while General Zollicoffer remained at Knoxville with his command the undersigned and all other law-abiding citizens were protected; but after his departure he soon became convinced that the undersigned and his family were in danger of violence from the soldiers stationed at that place, under the command of Col. William B. Wood. Certain of those soldiers were in the daily habit of coming to the residence of the undersigned, flourishing their knives, pointing their muskets at the windows, and uttering threats to take his life. The undersigned firmly believes that the soldiers were incited to act in that manner by his bitter personal enemies, who sought to make the military the instruments of their private revenge. However this may be, he and his family believed that his life was in danger, and that his presence at home imperiled instead of securing the safety of his wife and children. He therefore yielded to the entreaties of his friends to leave home for a time, and he consented to do so the more readily as he had business in adjoining counties which needed his attention. He accordingly left his home, and during his absence heard of the late burning of the bridges on the railroads in East Tennessee, and also heard about the same time that he was charged with complicity in that crime and outrage. The undersigned knew that the most intense excitement prevailed in the country; that the passions of the citizens and soldiery were fully aroused, and his knowledge of the history of mankind in the past taught him that in such seasons of high excitement the innocent and the guilty would suffer together. Prudence, therefore, dictated that he should for a time-until the passions of men should have time to cool and reason to reassume her sway-conceal himself; that no occasion should occur for violence to his person.

The undersigned asserts his entire innocence of the several charges {p.805} which have been invented by his enemies. He has not since the date of the letter to General Zollicoffer, before referred to, done aught inconsistent with the pledge it contains. He has not furnished guns to men in arms against the Confederate States, as has been untruly charged by some of the newspapers in the country. He had no knowledge of the project to burn the bridges whatever, and here declares that had such a design been communicated to him he would at once have given information of it to the proper parties. In a word he has done nothing which malice itself could strain into a crime against the laws of Tennessee or of the Confederate States. Nevertheless he did, for the reason before stated, secrete himself where he believes he was perfectly secure from discovery. While he was thus safely concealed he was informed that John Baxter, esq., who was on a visit to the city of Richmond, applied to the War Department for permission to the undersigned to leave the territory of the Confederate States.

He is informed further that, after an interview with Your Excellency and the Secretary of War, a letter was written by the latter to Maj. Gen. George B. Crittenden, a correct copy of which is submitted herewith, marked A, and thereupon General Crittenden directed a letter to be sent to the undersigned, a correct copy of which, marked B, accompanies this statement. The undersigned, relying upon the promise of a passport into Kentucky and the protection of a military escort which it contains, and trusting to the good faith of Your Excellency, the Secretary of War, and General Crittenden, immediately upon its reception left his place of concealment, returned to Knoxville, and within the time appointed called at headquarters, and obtained a renewal of the promise of the passport and escort. This occurred on the afternoon of the 5th instant. The morning of the 7th was fixed upon for the departure of the undersigned from Knoxville. Before that time arrived he was arrested upon a warrant for treason, issued by R. B. Reynolds, commissioner, &c., a correct copy of which, marked C, is herewith submitted, and, bail and an examination having been refused, was confined in the common jail of the county.

The undersigned has been always opposed in politics to Your Excellency; has resisted with his whole strength the revolution which Your Excellency is now conducting, but at no time has political prejudice or party feeling caused him to believe that you will sanction what he is compelled to denounce as a gross breach of faith. He has not permitted himself to believe that you would direct the military authorities to make a promise, and after that promise had been accepted and acted upon would permit another set of authorities to violate it. He appeals to you as the executive of a Government representing twelve millions of people to protect the honor of that Government against so foul a stain. This application is the last resource left to the undersigned. Immediately after his arrest he addressed the note marked D to General Crittenden, and received in reply the note marked E.

It is unnecessary to add that the warrant issued by the commissioner contains no charge of treason. The publication of a newspaper, however objectionable its matter might be, cannot amount to treason. The undersigned has therefore no reason to fear the result of a judicial investigation of his conduct; but bail, though offered for any amount, has been refused him. He has been subjected to close confinement in an uncomfortable jail while in weak health, and, in fact, suffering from hemorrhage of the lungs. Until very recently he has intended to continue a citizen of the Confederate States, but the events of the last three weeks have convinced him that the laws can afford no protection to {p.806} himself or family. He now desires to withdraw himself and family from the jurisdiction of those States. He makes this application, not as a petitioner for any grace or favor, but as a demand of right, and with full confidence that the public faith will in the premises be observed.

Respectfully, &c.,

W. G. BROWNLOW.

* Without date, indorsed “Received January 2, 1862.”

[Inclosure A.]

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 20, 1861.

Major-General CRITTENDEN, Cumberland Gap:

DEAR SIR: I have been asked to grant a passport for Mr. Brownlow to leave the State of Tennessee. He is said to have secreted himself, fearing violence to his person, and to be anxious to depart from the State. I cannot give him a formal passport, though I would greatly prefer seeing him on the other side of our lines as an avowed enemy. I wish, however, to say that I would be glad to learn that he has left Tennessee, and have no objection to interpose to his leaving if you are willing to let him pass.

Yours, truly,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

[Inclosure B.]

Knoxville, HEADQUARTERS, Tenn., December 4, 1861.

W. G. BROWNLOW, Esq.:

SIR: The major-general commanding directs me to say that upon calling at his headquarters within twenty-four hours you can get a passport to go into Kentucky, accompanied by a military escort, the route to be designated by General Crittenden.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. CUNNINGHAM, Assistant Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure C.]

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, District of Tennessee:

To the MARSHAL OF SAID DISTRICT:

J. C. Ramsay, Confederate States district attorney for said district, having made oath before me that he is informed and believes that William G. Brownlow, a citizen of said district and owing allegiance and fidelity to the Confederate States, but being moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil and not having the fear of God before his eyes, did, willfully, knowingly, and with malice aforethought and feloniously, commit the crime of treason against the Confederate States by then and there, with in said district and since the 10th day of June last, publishing a weekly and tri-weekly paper known as Brownlow’s Knoxville Whig; said paper had a large circulation in said district and also circulated in the United States, and contained weekly divers of editorials written by the said Brownlow, which said editorials were treasonable against the Confederate States of America, and did then and there commit treason and prompt others to commit treason, by speech {p.807} as well as publication did as aforesaid commit treason, and did give aid and comfort to the United States, both of said Governments being in a state of war with each other. You are therefore commanded to arrest the said Brownlow and bring him before me, to be dealt with as the law directs.

R. B. REYNOLDS, Commissioner, &c.

DECEMBER 6, 1861.

[Inclosure D.]

KNOXVILLE, December 6, 1861.

Major-General CRITTENDEN:

I am now under an arrest, upon a warrant signed by Messrs. Reynolds and Ramsay, upon a charge of treason, founded upon sundry articles published in the Knoxville Whig since June last. I am here upon your invitation and promise of passports, and claiming your protection, as I do, I shall await your early response.

Very respectfully,

W. G. BROWNLOW.

[Inclosure E.]

KNOXVILLE, December 7, 1861.

W. G. BROWNLOW:

SIR: Your note stating that you were under an arrest upon a warrant upon a charge of treason, &c., has been handed to General Crittenden. He desires me to say in reply that in view of all the facts of the case (which need not be recapitulated here, for you are familiar with them), he does not consider that you are here upon his invitation in such manner as to claim his protection from an investigation by the civil authorities of the charges against you, which he clearly understood from yourself and your friends you would not seek to avoid.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

HARRY I. THORNTON, Aide-de-Camp.

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RICHMOND, December 30, 1861.

General LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

We have a plenty of war men who could be sent to you, and for whom we have no arms. Pray cease accepting unarmed twelve-months’ men, who are immensely expensive and utterly useless.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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BOWLING GREEN (via CHATTANOOGA), December 30, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

The citizens of Nashville believe, and so represent, that the city is in danger from incendiaries sent in by the Federalists or engaged from the disloyal of their own citizens. They wish a strong military police under a general officer, and recommend General R. C. Foster, from his knowledge of the city, the people, his firmness, and experience, as the {p.808} most proper person. In this representation and recommendation the Governor concurs and in the recommendation I also concur, and hope it will receive attention.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

–––

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., December 30, 1861.

General JOHNSTON, C. S. Army, Bowling Green:

GENERAL: I have sent forward to you all of the infantry of Colonel Bowen’s command, as also Colonel Reynolds’ regiment. I also ordered Colonel Campbell’s regiment to go forward, but find he is very deficient in arms, and am waiting a day or two to see if he cannot be supplied. He will be sent if you desire it. I have also ordered Hudson’s battery, a very fine one. This has gone forward. I also ordered to-day Beltzhoover’s (Watson*) to follow. These I supposed-for it has been very difficult to get accurate returns-would make the force about 5,000. I wish I could make it 10,000. I shall be obliged in consequence of this movement to break up Camp Beauregard, and remove the Mississippi sixty-day troops from there to Union City. I shall substitute for this force a cavalry force on the Tennessee and Kentucky lines as the best and only thing left me. They will guard that line and operate freely in both Kentucky and Tennessee, and will keep down the Union feeling in both States.

I am informed by the gentleman who takes this, and an officer of his army, that General McCulloch’s force in Arkansas is 10,000 strong, and is in winter quarters. It is certain now that no movement will be made by the enemy in Southwestern Missouri until spring. I beg leave respectfully to submit that in that case this force might with great, very great, advantage be employed in Southeastern Missouri during the emergency immediately before us, and therefore ask that it may be ordered to the defense of New Madrid and the region round about. Those forces there have all disbanded, and I have no reason to hope that they can again be enlisted in [a] very short time. This leaves me to provide force for the defense of New Madrid, and my resources for that purpose are very limited. I have had a fort constructed there, and armed it strongly with heavy guns. I have placed for its defense two Arkansas regiments, under Colonel Gantt, one of these imperfectly armed, but I should [prefer] that side of the river have a much stronger force, and I know not where it is to come from, if not from General McCulloch’s force.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* The Watson Battery.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP DESHA, Moscow, Ky., December 30, 1861-4 a.m.

Major-General POLK, C. S. Army, Commanding, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: I have this moment received the following note from General Alcorn:

SIR: I have information that the enemy are advancing on this post and are now 5 {p.809} miles south of Mayfield. I have no authority to order you, but would like to have you march in haste to my support with such strength as you can command, leaving a guard in support of your camp.

Very respectfully,

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

I will move with all my force towards Mayfield, supposing it will be right, and will of course obey any order you may send me.

Respectfully,

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Post.

–––

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., December 30, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch of the 22d instant.

The enemy have made no forward movement since my last communication, nor have I any information of any change in the position of their troops since then. The positions of our troops as heretofore indicated remain unchanged, except the substitution of Biffle’s battalion of Tennessee cavalry for the Eighth Regiment Texas Cavalry (late Terry’s), which it was necessary to withdraw to rest and improve the condition of their horses and put the regiment in a better condition. They have been reduced to less than half their original number by deaths, sickness, &c. Their ranks at their new camp, 10 miles south of this, will fill up rapidly by the men returning to duty from the hospital.

I have this morning received the Treasurer’s draft for $16,000, in addition to $5,000 heretofore received.

In explanation of the ambiguous telegram received by you, I have to say that the number of troops mentioned were intended to indicate all that could possibly be available for any movement against the enemy after leaving a force for the defense of this place, about 5,000, which, from the extended circuit of our works, is too small. They require a large force to support them. The troops from Columbus are beginning to arrive, viz: Colonel Martin’s First Mississippi* 496 aggregate; Colonel Williams’ Twenty-seventh Tennessee, 580 aggregate; Colonel Schaller’s Twenty-second Mississippi, 519 aggregate; Major Hardcastle’s Mississippi battalion, three companies, 235 aggregate; Captain Miller’s company (I) artillery, 70 aggregate; Captain Brien’s company, 120 aggregate; Captain Hunt’s company, 79; 2,099 total aggregate. These troops are now encamped here. My force is about 19,000, of all arms.

I inclose to you, I do not doubt, an accurate statement of the troops under General Buell’s command, brought to me the day before yesterday from Louisville. It was much defaced, but the most important matter is legible. I also inclose copy of telegram from General Clark, stationed at Hopkinsville, reporting a conflict between a detachment of Colonel Forrest’s cavalry and a cavalry force of the enemy on the 28th instant, which resulted in the defeat of the enemy, as detailed in the telegram.**

{p.810}

Colonel Bowen has just arrived with part of his own regiment, the First Missouri. The remainder of his regiment and division (Ninth and Tenth Arkansas Regiments) will arrive by to-morrow night.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. army.

* Probably Twenty-fifth Mississippi, afterwards known as the Second Confederate Regiment.

** Not found, but see p. 64.

[Inclosure A.]

Memorandum of the number and name of regiments arrived and to arrive in this department.

Thirty-third Indiana, Seventeenth Ohio, Twelfth Kentucky, Thirty-eighth Ohio, Fourth Kentucky, Fourteenth Ohio, Tenth Indiana, Tenth Kentucky, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, Second Minnesota, Thirty-fifth and Ninth Ohio, Sixth Indiana, First Ohio, Fifth Kentucky, Fifteenth and Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Indiana, Thirty-fourth Illinois Seventy-seventh, Seventy-eighth, and Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Thirty-ninth and Thirty-second Indiana, Fifteenth and Forty-ninth Ohio, Thirty-eighth Indiana, First Wisconsin, Nineteenth Illinois, First Michigan, Fifteenth and Thirteenth Kentucky, Tenth and Eighteenth Ohio, Twenty-fourth Illinois, Thirty-seventh Indiana, Thirty-third Ohio, Tenth Wisconsin, Twenty-first, Third, and Sixth Ohio, Thirty-sixth Indiana, Twenty-fourth Ohio, Thirty-fourth Indiana, Second and Fifty-ninth Ohio, Ninth and First Kentucky, First and Second Tennessee Sixth Kentucky, Thirty-first Ohio, Thirty-first Indiana, Seventeenth Kentucky, Forty-fourth, Forty-second, and Forty-third Indiana Eleventh Kentucky, Seventeenth and Fifteenth Indiana, Forty-first and Fifth Ohio, Third Minnesota, Fourteenth Kentucky, Forty-ninth Indiana, and Eleventh Michigan.

The above are already here.

To arrive:

Forty-sixth, Forty-seventh, Fiftieth, and Thirty-fifth Indiana, Forty-eighth, Forty-fourth, Sixteenth, Fortieth (in Lexington), and Forty-second Ohio, Fifty-first Indiana, First and Fourth Ohio Cavalry, Forty-first Indiana, and six regiments and squadrons of cavalry, one battery (six pieces), thirteen battalions of artillery, and about five or six more Kentucky regiments not yet consolidated will make three or five full regiments.

Arrived since above was taken from General Buell’s books:

Sixty-fourth Ohio (ordered to Paris), Fifty-second Ohio, Second and Fifth Ohio Cavalry, and First Ohio Battery.

We consider the effective force of the Department of the Cumberland to amount to 75,000 men.

DEAR -: The above has been written by a friend under my supervision, and you can depend upon the information, as the bearer can tell you how it was obtained, and from my association and acquaintance I think I can give you almost any information you want at any time. If you receive any communications signed Rex they will be reliable.

Our cause is steadily gaining here, and we feel very sanguine as to the success of your division. There is a great deal of sickness among Federal soldiers-some little small-pox, though not much; mostly diarrhea, typhoid fever, and measles. There are seventeen hospitals here, and about 3,000 patients in them. While writing, the Sixty-fifth Ohio passes down street-about 610 men, besides officers. The hospitals are {p.811} so full here they are sending a great many sick to Cincinnati. Your family and friends are well. I will try and send you a paper very often. There are eight regiments at Lebanon and six at Columbia. Manson moves to-day, 20th December, to Glasgow (this is certainly reliable) with 25,000 men. It is thought by best-informed friends here that Zollicoffer should be heavily re-enforced, so as to break their backbone. Watch Big Hatchie and Obion Bridges, on Memphis Branch. Men left Cincinnati last night for the avowed purpose of burning them. This and all I write is reliable, as Charley Johnson can tell, from whom he borrowed a vest on mail-boat. ... It is said that 25,000 or 30,000 reserve forces are in Washington that could be thrown into Kentucky* ...

* The stars represent illegible portions of the original.

[Indorsement.]

HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, CENTRAL ARMY, Bowling Green, December 30, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

This information was obtained from the books of General Buell. As relates to the number and names of regiments it is beyond a doubt reliable. Since receiving it, I have had occasion to compare the list with partial lists contained in the letters of various correspondents of the Northern papers in reference to the troops at Columbia; at Crab Orchard, in the command of General Schoepf; at Lexington, and in General Nelson’s force. In every instance I have found the regiments alluded to in those letters mentioned in the inclosed list.

Respectfully,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, Commanding Second Division.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, Tenn., December 31, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of a letter of 25th instant. Upon its receipt I immediately appointed energetic agents to collect laborers in this and adjoining counties to construct the fortifications near Nashville, but I must say that the response to my appeal for laborers has not thus far been as flattering as I had wanted and expected. I shall have within a very few days some 200 negro men at this work, and hope soon to increase this number to 500 or 600. Telegraphed you the same day your letter came to hand, asking how many laborers you thought necessary, about what length of time they would be employed, and what engineer would supervise and control the work, answers to which would have aided me in securing the laborers, but have as yet received no reply.

I fully appreciate the exigencies by which you are surrounded, and, as I have heretofore, I shall continue to use every effort within my power and all resources at my command to strengthen your position and to secure the country from invasion. In order, however, that the present resources of the State may not be overestimated, it is proper that I give you at least an approximate idea of them and some of the difficulties which I encounter at every step.

Tennessee has now organized and in the field, in addition to some independent companies, fifty-two infantry regiments and one battalion, {p.812} nine battalions of cavalry, and two regiments of artillery. Volunteer companies are now in camp, under orders to move to rendezvous, sufficient to form six additional infantry regiments and two battalions of cavalry, making the whole force about sixty-six regiments. This force, large as it is, is drawn almost entirely from two divisions from the State, the unfortunate political dissensions in East Tennessee, with near one-third of the voting population of the State, having almost paralyzed that section, but I am pleased to state that these divisions and dissensions are rapidly disappearing, and I hope soon to see a united people in Tennessee, when we may reasonably expect re-enforcements from that section; but with the immense tax upon the population of Middle and West Tennessee to make up the force already referred to I do not hope for any considerable number of volunteers from either of these divisions, unless it be upon pressing emergency, when I feel assured that a patriotic response will be made by almost our whole people to meet such emergency.

But the difficulty is not, nor has it been, in obtaining men. The inadequate supply of arms has been and is the chief obstacle which I encounter in promptly furnishing to you any reasonable number of re-enforcements. With the greatest possible energy it takes time to collect and repair the private arms of the country, and this is the only means I have of arming the force now called to the field. I have spared neither effort, pains, nor expense in expediting the work, and yet it has been and is impossible to proceed with it rapidly.

In furnishing arms to the large force above referred to the State has heretofore drawn from the hands of her citizens their most effective private arms. Almost every gun that we get at this time must necessarily pass through the hands of the smiths before it is fit for service, and in this connection it is well to remark that Tennessee, less fortunate than some of her sister States, had no United States arsenal or depository of arms within her limits from which, her troops might have been supplied; that but comparatively a small number of her force have been armed independent of the State, and that upon assuming connection with the Confederate States all of her contracts for the manufacture of arms and other materials of war were assigned and transferred to the Confederate Government.

I am sure, general, you will appreciate and make due allowance for the difficulties that lie in my way in the work of arming the forces of Tennessee under these circumstances. I trust I shall be able, with the inferior arms of the country, to arm the volunteers now in, and that many will hereafter come into camp.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Beauregard, December 31, 1861.

Colonel MILLER, Commanding at Moscow:

DEAR SIR: A courier just arrived says the enemy, under General Paine, with cavalry, 500; artillery, several pieces; and infantry in considerable numbers, are now south of Mayfield, and will he here early to-morrow morning to make an attack upon me. I presume there can be no doubt of the truth that the enemy are in numbers south of Mayfield and that they have considerable artillery. I therefore ask you to come to my support without delay, for I assure you that if half {p.813} what is said in relation to the enemy’s force is true I shall need you by the time you can reach me.

Yours, very truly and respectfully,

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

I have sent courier to Columbus and urged permanent re-enforcements. I have but 1,700 infantry and cavalry combined ready for duty. I should not be left in this exposed condition.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Beauregard, December 31, 1861-10 p.m.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: S. M. Kennedy looks to be, and is said to be, a reliable Southern man; has this moment paid me a most hurried visit, and states, as a fact beyond a question, that the enemy are now south of Mayfield, with 500 cavalry, several pieces of artillery, and a force of infantry, number not known; have made a forced march to-day, and hope to be here by sunrise to-morrow to make an attack upon me. I urge that you shall send to re-enforce me. I think the report cannot be untrue, but it may be exaggerated. I have by my [returns] to-day 1,700 privates, including infantry and cavalry, ready for duty. This force of inexperienced shot-gun militia is not sufficient to hold this place against the number which daily threatens it. The scouting and picket duty is necessarily so heavy, in order to prevent a surprise, that we are kept worn down.

I have sent to Colonel Miller again to-night; hope he will respond. We will seek to discharge our duty, but are in bad plight for a heavy fight. I hope the courier now sent will have a more speedy journey than the one sent a few days since.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General.

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Abstract from return of Western Department, General A. S. Johnston, commanding.

[Date about December 31, 1861*]

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.Remarks.
Officers.Men.
Polk’s command, Columbus, Ky.1,27519,71725,70928,531
Central Army of Kentucky, Bowling Green1,55021,11030,79938,943Major-General Hardee.
Floyd’s brigade, Bowling GreenNo returns.
Bowen’s brigade Bowling GreenDo.
Clark’s brigade, HopkinsvilleDo.
East Tennessee Army2985,0786,2927,732Major-General Crittenden.
Carroll’s brigade4,015Aggregate only reported.
Arkansas Army, Fort Smith1274,8495,5686,767Major-General Van Dorn.
Volunteers in camp in Tennessee6,000
Total3,25050,75468,36891,988

* Tue original return not dated and otherwise Imperfect.

{p.814}

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Abstract from consolidated report of the Central Army of Kentucky, Major-General Hardee, C. S. Army, commanding, for December 31, 1861.

(BOWLING GREEN, KY.)

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st (Hardee’s) Division4125,53752544193956,95911,429
2d (Buckner’s) Division4075,97253655376887,81211,761
4th (Bowen’s) Division2033,4933,6964,806
Clark’s brigade1451,617384952,2953,550
Davis’ brigade (sixty-days’ volunteers)531,1641,2171,636
Miscellaneous17257274615
Total1,23718,0401431,694561,08322,27233,816

AGGREGATE PRESENT FOR DUTY.

Infantry19,277
Cavalry1,837
Artillery1,139
Grand aggregate 22,253

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Abstract from the weekly returns of the troops commanded fry Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer, C. S. Army, for December 31, 1861.

(BEECH GROVE, KY.)

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present and absent.Number of guns.
Officers.Men.
Infantry*2384,5156,550
Cavalry**701,0951,644
Artillery***1022625714
Total3185,8368,45114

* The Sixteenth Alabama, Fifteenth Mississippi, and Seventeenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-fifth, and Twenty-eighth Tennessee Regiments.

* The First, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Tennessee Battalions, and two independent companies.

*** McClung’s and Rutledge’s batteries.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 1, 1862.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding:

GENERAL: General Johnston directs that notice be given to the residents of this city that a conflict is to be expected here, and advise that they remove from the scene.

You will further have notice given to all persons residing within {p.815} range of the guns of our works to remove at once, as their houses will be used as a part of the defense or removed to make the defense more perfect.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, January 1, 1862.

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: My brigade is composed partly of companies organized in East Tennessee and in part of West Tennesseans. Colonel White’s regiment, composed exclusively of East Tennesseans, is well equipped, having muskets. This regiment is very near General Zollicoffer’s encampment in Southeastern Kentucky. Another regiment, four companies of which were organized by myself, and ordered to Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi, below Columbus, by order of General Pillow, are well armed. Colonel Looney’s regiment, made up of Eastern and Western Tennessee companies, is at this post, under orders to march on to-morrow to join General Zollicoffer. Many of this regiment are on the sick list. I have arms enough for all who are able to march.

When I organized these regiments I advised the War Department that I had 1,620 Tennessee rifles, and requested an order upon the ordnance departments of Nashville and Memphis to have these weapons remodeled. Of these guns, upon the orders issued in September last, I have received 520 with the saber bayonet attached. I have in addition to the above 200 muskets. These will complete the equipment of Colonel Looney’s regiment, which has orders to move on, as before stated. I will have enough guns to equip Colonel Gillespie’s regiment within thirty days.

I have assurances from Colonel Hunt, of the Memphis ordnance department, that my guns shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible. The Government shops in this place are now actively employed in repairing the guns collected at this post.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General.

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RICHMOND, January 1, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General C. S. Army:

SIR: As suggested by you in a conversation on yesterday, I briefly commit to writing the views then presented by me touching General H. Marshall’s command in Eastern Kentucky.

The forces present and expected of General Marshall are about as follows:

Battalion Kentucky mounted men450
Col. John S. Williams’ Kentucky infantry900
Colonel Trigg’s Virginia infantry regiment750
Battery artillery, four pieces, 60 men60
In the field at Paintsville00
On Sandy2,160

This force was located as follows when I left headquarters on the 20th December:

{p.816}

Captain Cardell’s company, Williams’ Kentucky infantry, 135 men, at Whitesburg. Letcher County, on North Fork Kentucky River.

Captain Worsham’s company, Williams’ Kentucky infantry, 100 men, at Prestonburg.

Two hundred Kentucky cavalry, under command of Captain Shawhan (?), at Salyersville and West Liberty, about 40 miles in advance of General Marshall’s headquarters at Paintsville.

Our base of supplies is Abingdon, Va., or Wytheville, the former about 130 and the latter 150 miles from Prestonburg.

The operations of our army may be viewed as defensive, offensive, or both:

First. As a force to defend the mountain passes against inroads upon the railroad at Wytheville or Abingdon or forays on the northwest of Virginia we have very ample forces.

Second. As an assailing force our army is too weak, except by means of sudden and rapid marches of cavalry, acting in concert with our friends in Bourbon, Fayette, Harrison, Montgomery, Bath, and other contiguous counties. We hear of no enemy nearer than mouth of Sandy, at Catlettsburg, and Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky.

These may be stated as the bases of the operations of the enemy Catlettsburg, 60 or 70 miles from our headquarters, and Paris, on the Covington and Lexington Railroad, about 80 or 90 miles.

If we advance with our small force into Bath, Montgomery and Bourbon, the railroad would in two or three days enable the enemy to concentrate an overwhelming force to meet us. The transportation on Sandy River by steamboats from Catlettsburg is only available to the enemy in high water.

The only offensive operations we could effect would be by rapid marches of cavalry, in concert with our friends, into Bath, Montgomery, Bourbon, and Harrison; first, burning the bridges on the Covington and Lexington Railroad; second, opening the way for our friends to join our army and giving us civil and political strength; third, in opening a road for the fat hogs, bacon, and fat cattle of Kentucky.

It is my deliberate judgment, from a pretty accurate knowledge of the topography of the country and the party strength of our friends in front of our army, that with the prompt aid of 1,000 cavalry trained to mountain service we could accomplish the important objects above stated. But the work can only be done by the utmost expenditure.

When I left camp on the 20th the thing was certain if we had the force. I believe now it is practicable, but in a month from this time it would be unavailable.

The actual or threatened movement above indicated, even if it failed, would attract and engage a very large force of the enemy, and if we were faced by a superior force we could make good our stand and defense in the mountains of Sandy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. HAWES, Major, and Brig. Commissary C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Beauregard, January 2, 1862.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I obey the dispatch received last evening, and will start my march towards Union City this evening. I delayed yesterday after {p.817} learning that Colonel Russell’s command intended to march to this place, feeling quite sure that if the most exaggerated reports were true I could nevertheless hold the place until the re-enforcements would come up. I regret that I am to leave here and regret to go to Union City, and most respectfully beg to have my command disbanded. The troops have but thirty days more to serve, and I do not suppose that there exists a probability of our services being required at Union City within the period of enlistment. If, however, you prefer that I shall remain, I shall yield a prompt obedience; in truth I yield the obedience without further communication, and make a suggestion which would personally oblige me, and I think would not injure the public.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. L. ALCORN.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fort Donelson, January 2, 1862.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus:

SIR: In transmitting weekly report (ending 31st) of the troops under my command I am happy to be able to report a favorable progress in all matters connected with the command. The large difference in the weekly report between “Present for duty” and “Total present and absent” will I hope be cured in a few days.

The regiments of Colonels Bailey and Stacker have only just organized, and freed now somewhat from feeling themselves bound to court the good-will of their men in order to secure their election, aided by a positive order against granting any furloughs, I hope to be able to restore matters to a more wholesome status.

I have still near 2,000 unarmed men in my command. I have not men enough armed at this post to man one-half the lines within the fortification, much less to effect anything at points which command my whole work. I beg you to call the attention of the general commanding division to this unvarnished state of things.

A most satisfactory progress has been made in the main fortification, an inclosed work. A very few more days will close up the gap and give us a very good work.

The heavy batteries are progressing rapidly and will be very efficient. I shall be ready to place all the guns in position as fast as they arrive. I am straining a point to make the armament sufficient to answer the aim we have in view. I look for some of the heavy guns to-morrow. My entire command is now comfortably housed for the winter. The houses are admirably built, well situated, and present an appearance of real comfort that will compare favorably with any command in the field.

On yesterday I reviewed and inspected the entire command at Fort Henry, and am gratified at being able to report the entire command in a most admirable state of efficiency. Everything will be ready to receive the additional armament now on its way. A heavy rifled gun (82-pounder) arrived at the fort on yesterday and will be in place to-day.

As shown by weekly report, I have had an addition to the force at Fort Henry in the Alabama troops; seven companies are now on the ground; the remaining three will be in place on Saturday. The companies are tolerably armed. Five of them only were inspected, the others arriving this morning. These troops are, as I understand it, for the work south of the Tennessee River {p.818}

The negro force (500) will be here in a few days. I have had no instructions on this point, and desire to know fully the views of the general commanding. I have conversed with major Gilmer once on the subject, but deem it prudent to ask for further instructions.

I will present to the general commanding division a statement of advantages to arise to the Government from the covering of the immense rolling-mills owned by Hillman & Bro., below this place. These mills have become an absolute necessity to the whole country. I hope he may find it practicable to protect it, and shall examine the river just below the mills with a view to this object and report.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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BOWLING GREEN, January 2, 1862.

Maj. A. J. SMITH, Post Quartermaster, &c.:

DEAR SIR: I will leave Bowling Green to-morrow, to be absent on indispensable business for a few days.

Before going, I take occasion to represent to you the present demands for transportation on the roads now in my charge, their capacity, and to make suggestions as to their future workings, which are respectfully commended to your careful consideration, and through you, if necessary, to General Johnston.

We have in running order ten engines, all of which are of limited or ordinary capacity, only four of which are new and reliable for continuous service. These four are the property of the Memphis, Clarksville and Louisville Railroad.

We have in all, box cars, 120; flat cars, 55; total number of cars, 175. These cars include all owned by the Louisville and Nashville, Memphis Branch, and Memphis, Clarksville and Louisville Roads.

The whole length of road operated by this machinery, including the road north of Bowling Green up to Glasgow Junction, is 225 miles.

The ordinary quotum of equipment for such a length of railroad would be, engines, 22; cars, 300. Deficit in engines, 10; deficit in cars, 125.

Within ten days we depend on having three more engines ready for service, but then we will need seven more.

The equipment we have will afford one train daily northward from Bowling Green, capable of moving ten carloads of corn, &c.; one freight train daily, each way, between Nashville and Bowling Green, carrying thirteen cars each way; one freight train daily between Paris and Bowling Green with twelve cars; one passenger train each way on the main stem and Memphis Branch. This is the maximum capacity of the roads. Should there be any extraordinary demand upon both stems at the same time, both will require help from other roads. If made on one stem, the regular business of the other must stop to meet it.

The present demand is, as I now understand, for the army alone, from Paris, 800,000 pounds; from Clarksville, 1,000,000 pounds; from Nashville, 1 500,000 pounds.

In addition to the above, at every station there is a large accumulation of freight, consisting of hogs, corn, flour, &c. The passenger travel is also large. In addition to all, troops move in great numbers. In a word, the entire road is crowded with business to an extent unprecedented in the history of any branch of it.

I suggest that the superintendent may be allowed to establish a schedale {p.819} best adapted for the speedy, safe, and certain final accomplishment of all work, and that the public shall be notified that this schedule shall remain undisturbed, save under the requisition of some one officer of the army, or that a requisition shall be made upon other roads for the amount of machinery required to meet the business.

Should this course be adopted, the funds now in hands, the earnings of the main stem and branch, will pay a large proportion of the value of machinery required, and perhaps the Memphis, Clarksville and Louisville Railroad Company would make an advance sufficient to pay the balance. This property might-would largely increase the earnings of the road, and at the same time meet the difficulties before us. I know of no remedy better than the last suggested, but without this the first plan suggested is the only one under which I can promise to do justice to the army, the stockholders, or myself.

Very respectfully, &c.,

G. B. FLEECE, Superintendent.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., January 3, 1862.

Capt. G. H. MONSARRAT, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 29th ultimo, the Secretary of War directs me to say that Brownlow is to be escorted out of the country by a military force sufficient to protect him from violence, in accordance with the pledge given by General Crittenden.

In relation to the abuses mentioned, the Secretary expects you to be vigilant and energetic in suppressing them. Colonel Leadbetter who commands on the line of the railroad and the adjacent country, will give you particular instructions.

Respectfully,

A. T. BLEDSOE, Chief Bureau of War.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., January 4, 1862.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: Your letter in relation to the Branch Bank of Kentucky, in which you say that you hold possession under seal of the assets of said bank,and ask me to indicate the manner in which you shall proceed to turn the same over to the civil authorities of Kentucky, was delivered to me by Mr. Owens, the cashier.

The Provisional Government have some time since directed me to take possession of all the banks within our lines, with the intention to hold the assets for future disposition by the Government, as justice to all parties might demand. I wish you to continue your possession in our name until I write you. If the president, directors, and cashier will enter into such legal and moral obligation to me as will insure through them the continued safe possession of the assets, I will place the bank in their control; otherwise not.

With great respect,

GEORGE W. JOHNSON.

P. S.-SIR: Since writing the within I have come to a conclusion with Mr. Owens, the basis of which will be shown you by him. Mr. {p.820} Owens will, however return to this place in a week or ten days, and until we conclude our arrangements as to the assets of the bank I wish you to hold possession of them in the name of the Provisional Government of Kentucky.

With great respect,

GEORGE W. JOHNSON.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., January 5, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 26th ultimo.

The positions of the enemy’s forces and those of the Confederacy stand relatively as reported in my last letter. Since then the force here has been re-enforced by the arrival of the remainder of General Floyd’s brigade (except the batteries and two regiments which are at Nashville), and my whole force here may now be estimated at 23,000. I hope after a while, when the officers shall have the opportunity to learn their duties, to be able to send accurate returns as often as may be desirable.

I desire to ask your attention to the vast and methodized preparation of the Northern Government to carry on the war against the Confederacy with a purpose as inflexible as malignant. Their large and well-appointed army, only now held back till the highest point of efficiency is attained by instruction and discipline, must make every patriot contemplate its forward movement with apprehension for the safety of the country, unless awakened to the peril which menaces it, we make a corresponding effort to meet their force and beat them back by an immediate development and application of all the military resources of the country, both of material and men, to that purpose. The rapid and energetic concentration of the power of the country to meet the mighty exigencies of the present moment must be brought to bear to sustain our cause, which every one feels will justify every sacrifice for its attainment.

In the great question of liberty and national existence the magnitude of them will I hope suggest to the wisdom of the representatives (of the people) the necessity of augmenting the executive authority sufficiently to meet the occasion which now urgently calls for its exercise.

If necessary, let us convert our country into one vast camp of instruction for the field of every man able to bear arms, and fix oar military establishment upon a permanent basis. Whenever a people will make the necessary sacrifices to maintain their liberty they need have no fear of losing it.

General Polk asks to be re-enforced by McCulloch’s command, which he thinks is necessary to replace Thompson’s force at New Madrid, which he says is disbanded. He says McCulloch’s force is 10,000 men, now in winter quarters. I have been unable to obtain any reports from that command, and do not know its number and condition, and therefore, instead of giving any orders myself, request (presuming the Department informed) that, if McCulloch’s force cannot be employed in co-operation with General Price’s, which the severity of the winter in North Missouri would probably prevent, one-half of the force be ordered to New Madrid.

The occupation of New Madrid by the enemy would enable him to turn our defenses at Island No. 10, &c., a movement which could be {p.821} made by them with perfect security from Cape Girardeau, on account of the peculiar topography of the country, the route being on a ridge nearly the whole way, bounded on the sides by large and impassable swamps; it is also intersected by the railroad from Bird’s Point.

General Polk’s force is now reduced to about 13,000 men, as he reports, by sending Bowen’s division here, the Third Mississippi to the coast (asked for by General Lovell, who, I may say, loaned this and a Louisiana regiment for the defense of Columbus last month), and the disbanding of Thompson’s command. On account of these reductions it would be judicious to re-enforce him.

Instructions with regard to the purchase of supplies for the commissary and quartermaster’s department have been given in conformity to your orders. The prices asked for beef are more moderate than they have been. Major Jackson informs me that at Hopkinsville and Gallatin it may be had at 3 3/4 to 4 cents. The price for corn is 40 cents. We have not been able to accumulate a sufficiency of corn for the supply of this place on account of the difficulty of bringing it in from the country, our means of transportation being not much more than is needed for the troops.

Apprehending that there might, notwithstanding the efforts of the quartermasters, be a deficiency, I have ordered the quartermaster at Nashville to send up 50,000 bushels. The price there is 60 cents, but I could not permit a sufficiency of supply to remain a matter of doubt.

For the same reason I have ordered the Government agents to kill and pack here from 5,000 to 8,000 hogs, besides salt beef and pork to be brought from Nashville and Clarksville, to make a supply for four months.

There has been among these people a great disinclination to take the Confederate currency, and this may have been the result of a hostile feeling towards the Confederacy, but at no time has this distrust been greater or different from that which always manifests itself among a rural population on the introduction of a paper currency of the value of which they have but limited means of acquainting themselves. They are certainly not responsible for the sudden fall of the currency, and I presume have not asked a greater discount than was established in our own cities.

The discount on the State and Confederate money may be presumed to have in a great measure been produced by the competition of our agents for purchasing meat in the buying of gold in Charleston, Savannah, Richmond, and New Orleans, in which cities it rose from November to 20th December from 15 to 38 per cent. It then fell to 22.

I beg leave to represent that the good policy of impressing supplies is not sustained by custom or experience. Whether among friends or foes it has always resulted prejudicially to the public interests. In an enemy’s country they would place their supplies beyond reach or destroy them. To levy contributions in an enemy’s country and purchase from the people at customary rates I should think the better course. Whenever the raising of supplies among our friends by impressment has been attempted it has always resulted in indiscriminate robbery by pretended agents of the Government. The pork purchased by Government agents has cost largely above the ordinary rates, and it is hoped they have secured an adequate supply. The high price offered by exciting the cupidity of those who are awaiting the result of the contest to take sides has induced them both within and beyond our lines to fatten their hogs and bring them to market, which they would not have done for the customary rates.

{p.822}

The fine weather which prevailed till within two or three days past has been succeeded by rain, which usually falls here in sufficient quantities when the winter sets in to make the unpaved roads difficult and for large trains impassable.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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JANUARY 5, 1862.

Major-General POLK, Columbus:

You need not send forward Campbell’s regiment, if in your opinion it is at all necessary to retain it.

I have asked for half of McCulloch’s force to be sent to you.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 6, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond:

I respectfully refer to you two papers, marked 1 and 2, which will explain themselves. The paper marked 3 I desire to call your attention to. It refers to the law of promotion in the artillery corps in the State of Tennessee, and is a paper from Lieutenant-Colonel Haynes, of that corps.*

The law of Tennessee, you will see, in the case of that corps, placed the power of appointment originally and the power to fill vacancies in the hands of the Governor of the State.

The question is, Does the transfer of that army to the Confederate Government transfer the power of the Governor to the President? I suppose it does, but to avoid complication I prefer to submit the question to the War Department. If it does, then it becomes necessary that the offices of colonel and major of that corps should be filled, and the exigencies of the service require this to be done without delay.

My opinion is that it would be best to make two corps of these companies, the number being too great to be comprised in one with advantage; there would thus be a brigade of artillery.

A large part of this force is under my command at Columbus and at other forts in my immediate division. At this point chiefly, where I have in fixed and field guns of various caliber 150 in different positions, you will at once see that the control of this large armament and its efficiency of condition demand a specific supervision. It should be under the direction of a single mind, of adequate capacity, resources, and energy. This is indispensable to make that arm tell as it should in our combinations for defense. It was for that service chiefly I nominated James Trudeau, of Louisiana, as brigadier-general. General Trudeau, who you know to be in command of the Louisiana Legion, is a highly accomplished artillery officer, educated in France, and has devoted special attention to the artillery branch of military service. He has been with me now for the last month, aiding in placing the guns and arranging generally all the details necessary for puffing this position in its present effective condition. A better appointment could not be made, and the services of such an officer are required to make the {p.823} most of our resources. I hope the Government may see no reason for declining this appointment.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* Inclosures omitted as of no present importance.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 1, New Orleans, La., January 7, 1862.

Major-General POLK, Commanding, Columbus, &c.:

SIR: I was somewhat surprised to receive notice at this late hour of your intention not to send me the troops which were ordered to join you some weeks since at your pressing call. When these men were sent I distinctly notified General Johnston and yourself that when the enemy made his appearance here I should require them to be returned, and the two regiments were received by you with that implied understanding. If not, you should have given me notice at the time, and I should have made other provisions against an emergency. I did not expect that when I called for them the matter would be referred to the Secretary of War. The Third Mississippi Regiment is composed largely of men born and bred on the coast, thoroughly acquainted with all the inlets, bayous, and soundings of that peculiar country, and are absolutely necessary to me. They cannot be replaced by any other men that can be sent, and I must be permitted to insist that they be returned here. Many of them are fishermen and residents of the coast, and left their families there unprovided and unprotected, with the understanding that when the enemy should make his appearance I would recall them. They were lent you with that understanding and it would reflect unjustly upon me if they were retained, to say nothing of the prejudice to the public service by retaining at Columbus (when other troops would do as well) a regiment peculiarly adapted and indeed raised mainly for the defense of the intricate coast of Mississippi Sound.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. LOVELL, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 7, 1862.

His Excellency JOHN J. PETTUS, Governor of Mississippi, Jackson:

Your excellency’s telegram, asking me to send all companies now in Mississippi, raised under your (my) call, to report to General Lovell for Mississippi sea-coast defenses, has been received.

Most solicitous for the safety of our coast and always anxious, Governor, to meet your wishes in the prompt manner in which you have always responded to mine, it is with regret I must here hesitate in complying, and for the following reasons, viz:

1. The circumstances making my call a necessity for the defense of this frontier are unchanged, and here the most dangerous attack can be made on Mississippi, and here the stoutest resistance should be opposed to it.

2. I have sent to General Lovell more than the troops he has asked, in view of the landing on your coast.

{p.824}

3. I do not feel at liberty, so long as he is on the ground, fully advised of the movements of the enemy and acquainted with his means of resistance, to anticipate his wants, were this possible.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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Abstract from return of troops at Columbus, Ky., for the week ending January 7, 1862, Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, commanding.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
1st Division2953,9634,2586,519
2d Division2522,9843,2365,149
3d Division2032,7522,9554,589
Fort Columbus1191,4621,5812,418
Total86911,16112,03018,675

Weekly return of the command of Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer, Camp Beech Grove, Ky.

Troops.Officers present for duty.Rank and file present for duty.Aggregate present and absent.
Col. W. B. Wood, Sixteenth Alabama Regiment22356880
Col. W. S. Statham, Fifteenth Mississippi Regiment348201,025
Col. T. W. Newman, Seventeenth Tennessee Regiment31307920
Col. D. R. Cummings, Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment31645973
Col. S. A. Battle, Twentieth Tennessee Regiment32662916
Col. S. S. Stanton, Twenty-fifth Tennessee Regiment30653949
Col. S. Powell, Twenty-ninth Tennessee Regiment31462854
Col. J. P. Murray, Twenty-eighth Tennessee Regiment44704892
Lieutenant-Colonel McNairy First Battalion Tennessee15197329
Lieutenant-colonel Brazelton, two companies of Third Battalion Tennessee6133169
Lieutenant-colonel Branner Fourth Battalion Tennessee22314580
Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan, five companies Fifth Tennessee18297469
Capt. T. C. Sanders’ independent cavalry company467101
Capt. W. S. Bledsoe’s independent cavalry company48097
Capt. A. M. Rutledge’s artillery company5135157
Capt. H. L. W. McClung’s artillery company479106
3336,1119,417

For the week ending January 7, 1862.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., January 8, 1862. (Received January 15, 1862.)

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN Secretary of War:

SIR: The calls made upon the Government from every assailable point on our frontier for additional force would make me hesitate to add to your embarrassment by asking for re-enforcements, were the {p.825} gravity of the occasion less which urges me to press upon your attention the effort about to be made by the Federal Government, with a large army (estimated on reliable data at not less than 80,000), to invade the Confederacy through Central Kentucky towards Tennessee. They have justly comprehended that the seat of vitality of the Confederacy, if to be reached at all, is by this route. It is now palpable that all the resources of that Government will, if necessary, be employed to assure success on this line. The line of the Barren affords the means of a strong defense, but my force is not sufficient to enable me to avail myself of it (23,000). I do not ask that my force shall be made equal to that of the enemy, but, if possible, it should be raised to 50,000 men.

I have hoped to be able to raise an adequate force by the aid of the Governors of the several States of this department, but notwithstanding zealous efforts on their part, thus far I have been able to draw to this place only a force which, when compared in number to the enemy, must be regarded as insufficient. There are three or four regiments still to come forward from Tennessee, armed with arms collected from the people, and some others waiting for their arms. These men are reaching us too late for instruction, and liable to measles, &c. They are as likely to be an element of weakness as of strength.

If the public service would permit, I beg leave to suggest that a few regiments might be detached from the several armies in the field and ordered here, to be replaced by new levies. No doubt the strongest attack the enemy is capable of making will be made against this place, and we ought not surely to put in jeopardy the result by failing to meet it with a force sufficient to place success beyond hazard.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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[HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT,] January 8, 1862.

Brigadier-General CARROLL, Knoxville:

Send forward at once to this place all the men who [are] armed and ready for duty of the regiments of Colonels Looney and Gillespie. If they are part of your brigade, and it is not inconsistent with orders in East Tennessee, you will accompany the regiments here.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 11, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: I herewith send you by express the return of this division for the month of December as complete as it can be made at present.

My available force is greatly reduced by sickness and absences. I have resisted all applications for leaves and furloughs as strongly as possible and have issued orders to bring back all absentees.

There are many regiments in my division who are without arms and several poorly armed. The unarmed regiments are stationed at Forts Pillow, Donelson, and Henry, at Trenton, Union City, and Henderson Station.

{p.826}

In my return you will find embraced the brigade of Brigadier-General Alcorn. His men are sixty-days’ troops from Mississippi, who are armed with every variety of weapon. They are sick with measles, raw, and undisciplined. This brigade cannot be expected to be very effective.

I also send you a weekly report of the troops at this post,* and am sorry to remark that they have been much reduced by sickness.

My effective force is now, as you will see, only about 12,000.

I have the honor to be, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

Abstract from return of the First Division, Western Department, Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army, commanding, for December, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st Division, Columbus2774,37071865,7026,519
2d Division, Columbus2223,0632128851074,6025,147
3d Division, Columbus.1662,60115244143554,2924,589
Stewart’s command, Columbus881,259274312,2662,418
Fort Pillow, Henderson, and Trenton.2053,0143,8704,357
Fort Henry591,13651008891,6551,820
Fort Thompson304187129817931
Camp Beauregard1341,540314292,5772,831
Total1,18117,401721,039631,27725,78128,612

AGGREGATE PRESENT FOR DUTY.

Infantry18,582
Cavalry1,111
Artillery1,340
Grand aggregate21,033

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, January 12, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I have the honor of acknowledging receipt of your letter of 5th instant.

I refrain from answering it in detail, because our views will be fully disclosed to Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, just assigned to the command of the Trans-Mississippi District, of your department, with orders to re port to you in person on his way to the West.

He will give you information relative to the condition of the army of General McCulloch and will of course receive your orders in relation to the movement of forces to New Madrid, as suggested in your letter.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

{p.827}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 12, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: Adjutant-General Whitthorne, of Tennessee, has inclosed to me a copy of the order issued by Acting Assistant Adjutant-General Groner, directing that no twelve-months’ volunteer company, battalion, or regiment shall be mustered into the service of the Confederate States unless armed, and also giving notice that General Carroll had been directed to muster out of service Colonel Gillespie’s regiment.

Believing as I do that the public interest requires that the department over which you preside should fully comprehend the practical operation of this order, I beg leave to state the facts in the midst of which I have had to discharge the duties of a commander in raising forces to repel the threatened invasion.

Tennessee is generally sparsely populated. For this reason it is often impracticable to raise even whole companies in the same neighborhood; hence squads have sometimes to be transported to some common point to form a company. The people, too, are both unwilling and often unable to subsist themselves at their own expense after they have left their homes as volunteers and are awaiting organization and arms; nor will volunteers long remain together unless put under the control of law. This fact is attested by the experience of every one who has commanded volunteers.

For these reasons it was sometimes necessary to transport, subsist, and muster into service volunteers as they presented themselves. Neither the Confederate Government nor the State of Tennessee were in possession of public arms to put in the hands of the men, so as to make the arming and mustering-in coincident. Indeed, in the great scarcity of public arms, the Legislature of Tennessee found it necessary to pass an act by which the private arms in the State could be impressed and afterwards paid for. The Governor of that State and myself conferred together upon the subject, and both concluded there was but one mode by which it was possible to get the volunteers and arm them, and I am happy to say that both the Governor and the Legislature of Tennessee have most zealously and patriotically co-operated with me.

These arms have been and still are being gathered in from the people. Those fit for use are at once put in the hands of organized volunteers, and those arms requiring repairs have been and are being repaired with all possible dispatch. Whilst this was going on the volunteers were being collected at the rendezvous for the purpose of being organized and armed.

These squads, companies, and battalions were not brought together as independent organizations, but with the distinct understanding and for the express purpose of consolidation, organization, and arming.

The Government thus secured their services; otherwise they could not have been procured, and the time between mustering in and arming was profitably employed in giving the men all practicable instructions in their duties as soldiers. This it will readily be perceived was quite as necessary to their efficiency in the field as placing arms in their hands.

If the mustering-in of these volunteers had been postponed in every instance till arms were ready to be placed in their hands or such regiments as had been mustered in without arms had been on that account mustered out of service and disbanded, we would to-day have been without {p.828} a force to check the advance of the enemy, and our borders would have been open to the invaders.

In reference to Colonel Gillespie’s regiment it is proper to state that General Carroll had reported it to me as armed and I had ordered it to this place, and it is earnestly hoped that neither this or any other regiment will be ordered to be disbanded for the reason that they have not at the day of mustering arms in their hands.

The Governor of Tennessee is using every exertion to arm all the men who volunteer, and he informs me that he has every prospect of success.

In view, therefore, of these facts and that the enemy are immediately in my front in great numbers and that we need every man it is possible to get, I reiterate a respectful but earnest hope that the order will not be enforced by the department.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 12, 1862.

Col. W. S. STATHAM, Comdg. Fifteenth Regt. Miss. Vols., Hdqrs. Gen. Zollicoffer, Upper Cumberland:

COLONEL: Your application for the removal of your regiment to this place has been received by General Johnston.

Fully appreciating both the past hardships of your regiment and the motives which induced the application he cannot comply at this time.

The position of General Zollicoffer is too important and too exposed to permit of any reduction of force, particularly so great a reduction as the removal of your regiment would be.

The general is satisfied that you will soon have an opportunity under General Z. of contributing to turn back the invaders of the South.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 12, 1862.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

The time for the enemy’s attack on this post, for which he has been making such formidable preparations, is at hand. I have reason to believe he will attack by land and water in a few days. His flotilla is composed of the gunboats, mortar boats, and transports enumerated in the accompanying slip. This is taken from one of their own publications and verified substantially by other information.

This flotilla is to be supported by a land force. Of the number composing this force we have no certain information, but we have reason to believe it will reach from 30,000 to 50,000.

Since taking possession of this place in September I have been actively engaged in putting it in so complete a condition of defense as the means at my disposal would allow. These means have been far less than I desired. The work, however, is one of decided strength, and it will offer a stern resistance to any attack that may be made upon it.

I regret to say that my force is much below what is required for the {p.829} work before it. I inclose a return* just furnished by the adjutant-general, so far as this post is concerned. I have only three regiments-Mississippi sixty-days’ men-that might be looked to for support. These are at Union City, under the command of Brigadier-General Alcorn, armed with every description of fire-arms.

I within the last fortnight, under a call from General Johnston, felt obliged to send him between 4,000 and 5,000 men, which I could not well spare. I have called upon the Governors of the States below us for aid. The aid has not been furnished as the necessities of my position demand it. We shall, however, make the best defense our circumstances will allow.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 12, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Western Department, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: I think it proper to say to you that the preparations of the enemy which have been so long on foot for an attack on this place seem now to have been completed, and I am advised of his purpose to make that attack in the next three or four days.

Of the character of his preparations for an attack by water you will judge by the report of his force contained in the accompanying slip, which I am advised is reliable. I am also advised that he has concentrated a large force at and around Cairo for a land attack. This force is made up chiefly of that which has been occupied with General Price in Missouri, and which, since he has fallen back on Arkansas, they feel at liberty to withdraw. This land force is estimated at 40,000.

My information is that they intend to move on New Madrid with one column, on Union City, via Feliciana, with another, and on this place with a third; landing his troops in Puntney’s Bend, on this side the river. This information I believe is reliable.

As to the force at my disposal I have kept you constantly advised. I have not failed to use every exertion practicable to have it strengthened by calls upon the Governors of the States below us and upon the General Government.

I regret to say that these calls have not been responded to as I desired or as the necessities of my position demanded; especially as it became necessary to detach a portion of my force to aid you in your recent emergency. As things now stand I have two regiments of infantry and two companies of artillery posted in a well-constructed closed work at New Madrid, mounting twelve guns. They are Arkansas troops.

Thompson’s men have been disbanded and not yet re-enlisted. At Camp Beauregard I have about 1,000 cavalry; at Union City three regiments of sixty-days’ men, under General Alcorn.

My own force at this place, you will see, amounts to about 12,800 men ready for duty. You will see we require support. If you could give it, it would be timely and acceptable.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.830}

[Inclosure.]

Enemy’s flotilla, under command of Commodore Foote: Thirty-eight mortar boats, with one 13-inch mortar each; twenty-eight transports; twelve gunboats, fifteen guns, 32 and 48 pounders, except the Benton, which has an armament of eighteen guns, two of which are 9-inch Dahlgren’s, the others 32 and 48 pounders.

The armament is distributed to fire on either side, three in the bow and two at the stern.

The mortar boats have no propelling power, but are towed into position by small tug-boats.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 12, 1862.

Maj. A. O. MYERS, Quartermaster-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of December 17, and in regard to it have to say that as there appears to be, from your communication to the Secretary of War, some misconception of the circumstances under which the amount passed to my credit, viz, $390,010, was expended, that an explanation in regard to it should at this time be made.

It has so happened at various times that the quartermaster at Memphis, Major Anderson, was without funds, and was by the department prohibited from borrowing. In consequence of the failure of the quartermaster’s department at Memphis to meet its obligations purchases necessary for the support and efficiency of this army could not be made on a promise to pay. My division quartermasters and commissaries could not carry on their respective departments without funds, and under these circumstances I did not hesitate to call on the banks of Memphis for aid. They responded to that call to the amount of $200,000, $100,000 of which was placed in the hands of Quartermaster J. G. Finnie, whose receipt therefor is herewith inclosed, and who will account for the disbursement thereof to your department. The other $100,000 was placed in the hands of Maj. W. W. Guy, commissary, whose receipt is also inclosed. The remaining $190,010 was, as you justly remarked to Mr. Benjamin, expended by quartermaster Maj. Thomas Peters previous to the arrival of Major Anderson at Memphis. Vouchers for this amount he has, and I will, with the necessary statement of its expenditure, forward them to you as soon as it can be made out, which will be now in the course of a very few days.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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CAMP NEAR BARREN RIVER, January 12, 1862.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding Confederate Army, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: The scouting party sent out under Lieutenant-Colonel Woodward have returned to Glasgow. The enemy are not advancing in this direction; they, however, report that several regiments have left Columbia for Burkesville. I have also learned from another reliable source that from 2,500 to 3,000 of the enemy have left Columbia {p.831} for Burkesville; that two or three more regiments have left the same place, under Colonel Bramlette, with the intention of marching to some point on the Cumberland River above the position occupied by General Zollicoffer.

I understand that General Zollicoffer’s force is at Mill Creek, about 5 miles above Creelsborough and 20 miles above Burkesville. If such is the case, the enemy have gone to Burkesville for the purpose of cutting off his supplies up the Cumberland River. The force left at Columbia is small.

I have this morning employed a good man as a spy. I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

B. H. HELM, Colonel, Commanding First Regiment Kentucky Cavalry.

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[HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT,] Bowling Green, January 13, 1862.

Maj. Y. K. STEVENSON, Quartermaster, Nashville:

From information just received the enemy are perhaps advancing on Burkesville. Don’t let a steamboat go above Gainesborough.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CAMP BEAUREGARD, January 14, 1862-6 a.m.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General:

My scouts have reported the enemy 6000 strong at Mayfield. The locomotive is at Fulton, entirely out of order. My transportation is limited.

R. H. BREWER, Major, Commanding.

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FORT HENRY, January 14, 1862-(via Danville).

General POLK:

A messenger reached here just now from Paducah with information, from a reliable source, that a division of 60,000 men, supported by eleven gunboats and thirty mortar boats, carrying not less than 160 guns, will move up Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers on next Thursday. I sent copy of letter by mail.

A. HEIMAN, Colonel, Commanding Fort Henry.

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BOWLING GREEN, January 14, 1862.

General POLK, Columbus:

Have received information this morning that great preparations are making to attack Columbus. All the gunboats ordered to Cairo. One of General Polk’s men deserted, and now at Paducah. They say Pillow has resigned, and that the bulk of your force has left for this place.

Force at Paducah ordered to be ready to move.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.832}

–––

Abstract from weekly report of the Central Army of Kentucky, Major-General Hardee, commanding, for January 14, 1862.

[Headquarters Bowling Green, Ky.]

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st (Hardee’s) Division4535,88727321102166,01411,135
2d (Buckner’s) Division4676,99045477203258,32412,390
3d (Floyd’s) Division941,53691521,7913,436
Bowen’s brigade2033,210132193,6455,229
Clark’s brigade1271,3773350461582,2053,712
Lewis’ brigade1001,1341,2341,692
Total1,44420,1341051,302581,07024,11337,592

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 15, 1862.

Major-General LOVELL, New Orleans:

SIR: I am in receipt of your letter of the 7th, on the subject of the return of the Third Mississippi Regiment Volunteers and the Thirteenth Louisiana, and I regret very much to find that events have placed both myself and you in a very embarrassing position in regard to them, In your letter of the 23d of November you expressed a wish that as soon as you (I) are able to replace these regiments by others you will return them in pursuance of that wish. I have not failed to attempt a compliance with that request, and had General Johnston not felt himself so pressed as to make it necessary to draw on me for re-enforcements (about 5,000), I could have sent these regiments to you. Having no reason to believe at the time that force was sent forward that I should be called on very soon, perhaps not at all, for these regiments, I thought it proper to count on retaining them, at least until I could get relief elsewhere; therefore I regret to say I have been disappointed. My force, when the re-enforcement was sent to General Johnston, was reduced to a minimum, and it has not since been increased. The enemy in the mean time is within three hours of my position; has been concentrating a large force for an attack upon it, and, as my information is, has now about completed his plans of preparations for that purpose. Today and to-morrow are the days fixed upon for that attack. 1 trust, therefore, that my call upon the Secretary of War to know if he could not relieve you by sending you other regiments will not be construed into the least indisposition on my part to restore them to your command, but only an effort through the proper department to secure relief to our common cause all around.

I have to say, in conclusion, that the first moment I can do so with safety to my position I will send this force to you with pleasure.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.833}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., January 15, 1862.

Brigadier-General TILGHMAN, Commanding Forts Henry and Donelson:

GENERAL: Your letter of January 14 has been received.* The information is most important. The general desires me to say that we now require vigilance and energy, and he is satisfied that in these you will not fail. He hopes to stop the movement for some time on this line, and that Generals Polk and Tilghman will delay them on the others.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, January 16, 1862.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge your favors of 5th, 6th, and 8th instant, the last offering to the Department, as your contribution to its trophies, a flag captured at the glorious battle of Belmont. Please accept my most grateful thanks, and be assured that it occupies already the conspicuous place in the adornment of the office of the head of the Department which is eminently due to the memories associated with it.

I now revert to the details of business presented in your letters.

I. I would take great pleasure in acceding to the request of Colonel Burch in relation to his proposed method of raising a regiment if I had the power by law. My views entirely coincide with yours and his but the present state of legislation does not permit me to yield to his wishes. I am happy, however, to say that a bill is now pending in Congress, and, if passed, as I hope, I shall be able to do what Colonel Burch desires.

II. I have, as requested by you, ordered the promotion of Captain Finnie to the rank of quartermaster of brigade, with grade of major.

III. The questions presented by the organization of the Corps of Artillery in Tennessee are complicated and embarrassing, owing to the condition of the legislation of Congress on the subject. I have brought the matter to the attention of that body in my report at the commencement of the present session, and am told that in a day or two a law will be passed authorizing promotions in that arm of the service, for which at present there seems to be no warrant. I have not now the time to point out the difficulties which lie in the way of adopting the course suggested by Lieutenant-Colonel Haynes, and hope that by the passage of the law just referred to I may be able to do all that he desires. I will simply suggest, as the first of all difficulties, that there is no law authorizing or recognizing any organization of artillery in the Provisional Army or in the volunteer forces other than by regiments and battalions.

IV. I shall order the necessary funds forwarded at once for the Eastport.

V. The whole of the difficulties in the Western (Trans-Mississippi) Department will now, I trust, be at an end, as General Earl Van Dorn has been assigned to its command, and is now on his way to report to General {p.834} A. S. Johnston. This renders unnecessary any response to your communications to the President and myself relative to the aid required from the troops now in Arkansas.

I am, yours, very respectfully,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., January 16, 1862.

General W. C. WHITTHORNE, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 8th instant. You are right in supposing that I was not aware of the facts in relation to the regiment of Colonel Gillespie when I ordered it to be disbanded, and I am gratified that you retained the order without execution till you could hear from me. I thought the regiment was one raised by Colonel Gillespie and tendered directly to the Confederate States; and my orders had been so explicit and unconditional that he could receive no unarmed twelve-months’ men, that I at once directed it to be disbanded. If I had been aware that it was raised by Governor Harris, and that he had undertaken to arm it within a reasonable time, I should certainly have been satisfied with his assurance, and would never have been guilty of the discourtesy of evincing any doubt of his intention to arm the regiment by requiring that the arms should be given in advance. Pray present this apology to Governor Harris, and tell him that if he knew the incessant and ingenious attempts to force by indirection the acceptance of twelve-months’ unarmed men against the steady refusal of the Department, he would not be surprised at any effort to repress promptly such disingenuous practices.

I am, respectfully,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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FORT DONELSON, January 16, 1862.

Major WILLIAMSON:

The following telegram received:

Colonel QUARLES, Commanding at Clarksville.

Information has just reached me, from a source that I consider reliable, that the enemy at Calhoun intend to move most of its force to the Ohio; thence by boat up the Cumberland to Canton; thence on you at Donelson, and General Clark at Hopkinsville. The force to move from Calhoun to be 12,000 strong. The movement to be made from Calhoun on Saturday next.

This information is from a wealthy gentleman who lives near Trenton, Ky., and who at his own expense keeps up a system of espionage on the enemy at Calhoun. He sends me word by his courier that he is in communication with an officer of high rank in the enemy’s camp at that place.

POWHATAN ELLIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT DONELSON, January 16, 1862.

Brigadier-General TILGHMAN, Fort Henry:

DEAR SIR: All orders have been promptly obeyed. There was no delay that I am advised of in executing order in regard to ammunition All things are ready. I have thrown out pickets below; have had {p.835} them stationed so as to give us the earliest possible information. I have had the whole command turned out and put to cutting timber and preparing rifle pits, so as to protect the approaches. Everything will be done that can be accomplished by energy and industry. The men are cool and determined. Most of the sick were sent off yesterday.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

J. M. HEAD, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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COLUMBUS, Ky., January 17, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

The enemy has commenced his movement on Columbus. I require strong re-enforcements. I will send the Third Mississippi forward so soon as the relief you promised shall arrive.

L. POLK.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 17, 1862-7 p.m.

General POLK, Columbus:

General Johnston places under your command the two regiments at Henderson Station; one is armed, the other will be in a few days. They will probably be needed at Fort Henry.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT HENRY, January 17, 1862-4 a.m.

Major WILLIAMSON:

We have four gunboats, one transport, and I think one mortar boat just below us. I am prepared for this much. Will report further.

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General.

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FORT HENRY, January 17, 1862-930 a.m.

Colonel WILLIAMSON:

Three of the gunboats have opened on us out of their own range. I have not returned the fire, but proceed with my preparations. Men very cool.

TILGHMAN.

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HEADQUARTERS FORT DONELSON, January 17, 1862.

Brig. Gen. LLOYD TILGHMAN:

SIR: Eight boxes of guns arrived here yesterday and two the day before. Seven of them were sent down to the fort this morning, and Colonel Head has been informed that the other three are in the ordnance office. Knapsacks, haversacks, and canteens also arrived, and a great proportion of them distributed. Upon information that it was wanted, have telegraphed Captain Wright to send 50 shell for the 8-inch howitzer and different ammunition for small-arms. I also telegraphed {p.836} Governor Harris, asking him, if possible, to send two unarmed companies to assist in working heavy guns; have also instructed Major Jones to telegraph for tarpaulins to cover ammunition. No indications of approach of the enemy as yet. All of the guns mounted, and plenty of ammunition for all, with the exception of the shells alluded to above. Ten days’ provisions and forage will be sent into camp to-morrow. Captain Dixon and Colonel Head both report that every preparation to meet an attack has progressed favorably to-day. The military board promised Dr. Maxwell the male college as a hospital for our sick, but to-night they telegraph that Dr. Lyles insists upon taking it for sick that he expected from Hopkinsville. I have telegraphed the facts in the case to Colonel Mackall and asked him to instruct the military board what to do. The sick left here this morning on the General Anderson. I instructed Major Jones to telegraph Major Stevenson for the horses and mules due on his requisition of December 24 and for three ambulances and thirty litters.

Very respectfully,

POWHATAN ELLIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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MOSCOW, January 17, 1862.

Major-General POLK:

My night scouts have just returned from Clinton and report 15,000 of the enemy at Milburn, and they are waiting for others to come up.

T. H. LOGWOOD, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.

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CAMP DESHA, Moscow, January 17, 1862-6 p.m.

Major-General POLK:

The bridge on Obion, between Clinton and Milburn, was destroyed last night. I took my command to that point; learned the enemy had left Milburn going east, whether to Camp Beauregard or to Paducah I could not learn, but think the latter. All safe here. Other scouts will report to you to-night.

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Post.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., January 17, 1862.

General CLARK, Hopkinsville:

Dispatches for you sent this morning. In no event allow the enemy to anticipate you at Clarksville. Make arrangements accordingly. Confidential.

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

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COLUMBUS, Ky., January 17, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

I have in my camp a regiment without a gun. I understand that a {p.837} quantity of the arms from the Gladiator have been brought in. Will you not send me a sufficient number to arm this regiment?

L. POLK.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, January 17, 1862.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I write for the information of the general to say that the enemy is in motion to attack this place, as I have already advised. He is concentrating a force at Milburn, made up of that from Paducah and a force from Cairo, and my scouts bring the intelligence that it is now 15,000 strong and awaiting accessions. A force also is being concentrated on Mayfield Creek above, to compose another column.

My effective force, as you will see by the return sent you yesterday, is a fraction less than 13,000.

The plan of the enemy, from information received, is to make a demonstration with the former force, and draw out so much of my command as they may induce to leave my defenses, then to drop down their flotilla and shell the post heavily, so as to demoralize it as much as possible; then to make an assault with the column from Mayfield Creek. Their whole force is reported to be 40,000.

In view of the paramount importance of holding this position, which is the key to the whole Mississippi Valley, it has appeared to me that my first duty was to make everything bend to the accomplishment of that object. This will require me to take no risk which may involve its loss.

To comply with the enemy’s programme, as above indicated, would in my judgment be to take that risk. In view, then, of the smallness of my force, I see nothing left me but to strengthen my position and await his coming, making only such diversions as may be attempted with safety, throwing the responsibility of taking care of such force as we cannot dispose of on the War Department and the people of the States around us generally.

It is an alternative I should gladly have avoided, but the inadequacy of the force at my disposal leaves me none other. The soundness of this position, in my judgment, cannot be disputed, especially as I have provisions enough in store within my lines to last a force of 25,000 men one hundred and twenty days.

I have resolved, therefore, to stand a siege, and look to the general for such aid as the War Department and the country may afford him for relief. We will, in maintaining our position, of course hope that the support required will be furnished as early as practicable.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-These views are submitted as the result of my reflections on the facts as now presented. You will of course be advised from day to day.

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BOWLING GREEN, January 18, 1862.

Captain WRIGHT, Ordnance, Nashville:

General Tilghman telegraphs from Fort Henry that he wants ammunition, large and small. He gives the following statement of his armament, {p.838} viz: Nine 32s and one rifled 24-pounder, one smooth-bore 24-pounder, one 12-pounder, one 10-inch, with no ammunition and no loading fixtures.

If you have requisitions of General Tilghman fill them; if you have none, see from the above statement and your books what is necessary and send it. Answer.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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NASHVILLE, January 18, 1862.

Col. W. W. MACKALL:

Complete set of implements went with 10-inch columbiad to Henry and 100 rounds ammunition for same sent two days ago. They have there 782 rounds complete for 32-pounders; 274 12-pounder, fixed; 300 for 6-pounder, fixed; 100 rounds for 24-pounder rifled gun; 150,000 small-arm ammunition, besides lead, powder, and caps. At Donelson 904 rounds complete for 32-pounder; 165 12-pounder; 100 10-inch columbiad; 250 12-pounder howitzer; 190 6-pounder; 72,000 small-arm; besides lead, powder, and caps.

M. H. WRIGHT, Captain, Artillery, Ordnance Officer.

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BOWLING GREEN, January 18, 1862.

Col. W. R. SMITH, Tuscumbia, Ala.:

COLONEL: Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, is attacked. General Johnston directs you to move all the efficient men of your regiment by railway to the crossing of the Tennessee and thence to Fort Henry. Answer.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST REGIMENT KENTUCKY CAVALRY, Camp at Skegg’s Creek, January 18, 1862.

Brigadier-General BUCKNER, Commanding Second Division, Bowling Green:

GENERAL: I am satisfied that the enemy are concentrating a large force to attack General Zollicoffer. From the best information I can get not less than fifteen regiments have passed through Columbia. Lieutenant-Colonel Woodward will hand you this dispatch; he went in command of a scouting party within 15 miles of Columbia, and can give you information about the movements of the enemy on General Zollicoffer.

I fear that the enemy do not intend to attack the army at Bowling Green, but will quietly send forces in the direction of General Zollicoffer, both above and below him, on the Cumberland River, and by that means get a large force into East Tennessee. I do not know the strength of General Zollicoffer’s division, and I fear the enemy are moving on him in such numbers as to overwhelm him. It seems to me that if we permit the enemy to get into East Tennessee it will be a serious blow to our cause.

{p.839}

I understand that Major Hays is ordered to draw money to pay the soldiers of your division from the 1st of November. Two companies of my regiment have pay due them from the 1st of October and several from the 5th of October. Can you not alter the order so that Major Hays will pay my regiment from the 1st of October?

I am, truly, tours,

B. H. HELM, Colonel, Commanding First Regiment Kentucky Cavalry.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., January 19, 1862.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

I desire the Government, if it be possible, to send a strong force to Nashville and another to Memphis. The movements of the enemy indicate his intention to turn General Polk’s right by the Memphis and Ohio Railroad. Their preparations to attack General Polk in front and on his flank seem to be of immense magnitude. Since my last report the enemy have established themselves on my right at Burkesville, about 40 miles below General Zollicoffer, on the Cumberland. This Burkesville force is estimated from 2,500 to 3,000.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 19, 1862.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond:

SIR: On the 17th Fort Henry, on Tennessee, was attacked by three gunboats, accompanied by transports. They did not approach near enough for their shot to reach; our batteries, though ready, did not reply. They have certainly landed troops and wagons from their transports a few miles below the fort, on the west side of the river.

Reports from Paris last night report a mixed column of 6,000 men 8 miles west of Murray, marching on Fort Henry, and a column of 2,000 marching on Murray from a point on the Tennessee north and east of Murray.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 19, 1862.

Major-General POLK, Columbus:

GENERAL: Did you receive my letters of December 10? General Johnston wishes to know.

The enemy are advanced near Murray; Paris their probable destination. The general calls your attention to the suggestions made in that letter.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.840}

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CAMP NEWBERN, Greene County, Alabama, January 19, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: Since addressing you a few days ago I have been credibly informed that another company of Union men are secretly organizing, and have elected their officers, in adjoining county to the one where the 300 are encamped I wrote you about, which it is supposed are intended to act in concert with them. They are avowed Union men, and have never declared what their intentions were. The superintendent of the military institution at Tuscaloosa is inclined to believe their intentions are to secure the prisoners at Tuscaloosa. I have the promise of one field piece and can get another and half the State Cadets, if necessary, to disperse them, if it is your order to do so. I am having their movements closely watched, and will keep you advised of them if you think it necessary. I am satisfied something serious is intended from all I can gather. The Governor does not feel authorized to issue orders to me, as we are intended for the Confederacy, but is willing for half the Cadets to act with me. I would be pleased to have an order to co-operate with any other troops that might be ordered there.

I am having the shot-gun and country rifle altered so as to carry the Minie ball with as much precision and effect as the true Minie rifle, and a few will excel it in accuracy and range. I am succeeding very well with my battalion; have good quarters, and getting them pretty well drilled. I am trying to induce them to re-enlist for the war, and think I will succeed after a while. Be glad you would send me authority under your hand to receive them for the war. I am giving all my attention to these matters.

Yours, with great respect,

ROBT. P. BLOUNT, Commanding Battalion.

P. S.-The officers are getting anxious about their commissions. I have accepted and mustered the three companies I sent you according to the law in your circular. The other companies have not the legal number to be mustered yet.

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COLUMBUS, KY., [January] 19, 1862-4 p.m.

General TILGHMAN:

Your dispatch of 18th, 11 p.m., received. Am informed column [of] 4,000 infantry, 600 cavalry, and two batteries of artillery were moving from Farmington towards Murray. Have sent 1,000 cavalry to attack their column in rear and to harass them; will send also two regiments infantry from the rear [as] soon as they can be put in motion. Keep me advised.

L. POLK.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 20, 1862.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding Central Army of Kentucky:

GENERAL: I am instructed by General Johnston to say you will detach from the corps at this place a body of 8,000 men (due proportions of the three arms), consisting of General Floyd’s brigade and so much of Buckner’s as will bring the number up to 8,000.

{p.841}

This command will proceed to Russellville, the infantry and its baggage by rail and the artillery guns, the cavalry and artillery horses marching together.

General Floyd will receive all information you have in relation to the enemy on Green River; be instructed to protect our line from this point by rail to Clarksville.

He must judge from after information whether he shall march straight upon the enemy, now reported at South Carrollton, or wait for further developments of his intentions.

It is sufficient to say he must get the best information of the movements of the enemy southward from the river, and beat them at the earliest possible opportunity.

Respectfully, &c.,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Beauregard, January 21, 1862-7 o’clock.

Major-General POLK, Commanding C. S. Army, Western Department:

GENERAL: The accompanying dispatches* you will read with painful interest. My command is mostly in; but few of our wagons have arrived. We are now here for the winter, as the roads are almost impassable. Our arrangements should be made accordingly. Can nothing, general, be done to stop the invader? It will be a dark day when the soil of Tennessee is polluted by his footstep. 0, for a brigade now here to fall upon him! My command is distressingly small, as our late scouting and moving through sleet, snow, and ice has sickened men and crippled unshod horses.

I will do what I can to harass and cripple the enemy. Cannot two good regiments of infantry be called from below somewhere and placed here under a practical, judicious brigade officer? With them and the advantage of the roads and season (which is equal to two regiments) we can stop the ruthless invader. You must devise, and subordinates execute. I will keep you constantly advised of the movements of the enemy and will try to do my duty.

Yours, most respectfully,

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Post.

P. S.-I have no pen, ink, or envelopes. Please send the post-boy.

* Not found.

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CLARKSVILLE, January 21, 1862.

Maj. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, Bowling Green:

MY DEAR SIR: Our forts are still in an unfinished condition, and will remain so, unless the 2,000 men who are now here are ordered to work on them immediately; if necessary, night and day. As yet no work has been done by the soldiers, and if half we hear is true we have no time to lose. There is a great deal of work done on the forts, but they are unfinished, and in the present condition do no earthly good, and are no more effective for defense than if they were in their original condition before a spade of-dirt was removed. More energy must be infused into the work of preparation here for defense, or we {p.842} will be unprepared, if the enemy should pass Fort Donelson and march around it. We hear the enemy are in force 6,000 strong at Murray, about 25 miles north of Paris. We don’t know the truth of this report, but the people of Paris are in a great state of excitement about it. They believe the report to be true.

I understand the authorities here have again sent out over the country to collect in the negroes to finish these forts. This will necessarily produce delay, though none could be finished before the negro force can be assembled if the soldiers were detailed for the work. Last night twelve companies arrived here from Nashville, and we have now here two regiments, one under Colonel Quarles, and the other under the command of Colonel Voorhies.

I need not apologize for my urgency, for I cannot and ought not, in the position I occupy, to stand still in such a moment as this.

Ever your friend and obedient servant,

GUS. A. HENRY.

[Indorsement.]

ENGINEER’S OFFICE, January 25, 1862.

I have just received a telegraphic report from Mr. Edward B. Sayer, assistant engineer at Clarksville, in which he says “work progressing very well now; 200 slaves and 50 soldiers at work; 24-pounders mounted; one 12-pounder also mounted.”

I have directed him to mount the 32s in the water battery at mouth of Red River.

[J. F. GILMER,] Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., January 21, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: The troops under my command are now stationed as follows:

Of the Georgia Third Battalion, one company is at Union, where the bridge over the Holston River is being rebuilt; one company guarding the bridge at Carter’s Station; one company at Elizabethton, the county seat of Carter County; and four companies, much reduced by sickness, are at Greeneville.

The North Carolina Twenty-ninth, Colonel Vance, are distributed thus: One company at Midway; one at Lick Creek Bridge; one at Morristown; one at Strawberry Plains; one at Flat Creek; two at London; one at Charleston, Tenn., and two at Chattanooga.

Outwardly the country remains sufficiently quiet, but it is filled with Union men, who continue to talk sedition, and who are evidently waiting only for a safe opportunity to act out their rebellious sentiments. If such men are arrested by the military, the Confederate and State courts take them by writ of habeas corpus, and they are released under bond to keep the peace; all which is satisfactory in a theoretical point of view, but practically fatal to the influence of military authority and to the peace of the country. It seems not unlikely that every prisoner now in our hands might or will be thus released by the Confederate court, even after being condemned by court-martial to be held as prisoners of war.

It is reported to-day that several fragmentary companies recruiting in different counties ostensibly for the service of the Confederate States have suddenly disappeared; gone to Kentucky.

{p.843}

It is confidently hoped that the bridge over the Holston at Union will be completed in the current month.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel, Commanding.

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Extract from weekly report of troops stationed at Forts Donelson and Henry (Fourth Division, Western Department), under command of Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, C. S. Army.

...

RECAPITULATION.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present and absent.Remarks.
Officers.Men.
Fort Henry1022,0372,185 Last week’s report; re-enforced by Colonel Stacker’s regiment-say 600 men.
Add Colonel Stacker38461847 Last week’s report
Fort Donelson891,1032,175 Present report.
Grand total.2293,6015,210

POWHATAN ELLIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

FORT DONELSON, January 21, 1862.

–––

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON:

SIR: General Tilghman is absent at Fort Henry. General Bushrod R. Johnson is in command of this post. This morning, after the above report was made out, Lieutenant Clayton, who reported here this morning, was sent over to Fort Henry with a 12-pounder brass howitzer and a detachment of 15 men from Captain Maney’s light battery. Thirteen guns were fired on the Tennessee River this afternoon, supposed to be at or near Fort Henry.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

POWHATAN ELLIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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Abstract from weekly return of the command at Cumberland Gap, commanded by Col. James E. Rain., for January 21, 1862.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
4th Tennessee Infantry, Colonel Churchwell25496756
11th Tennessee Infantry, Colonel Rains29685875
Mileham’s independent company infantry47983
3d East Tennessee Battalion Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Brazelton12207283
Burroughs’ artillery company25472
Engineer Corps224
Grand total741,5232,073
{p.844}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., January 22, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General:

SIR: I have ordered Major-General Hardee to detach 8,000 troops, of infantry, artillery, and cavalry, to Russellville, and the movement is now going on. The infantry and artillery, with baggage, camp equipage, subsistence, &c., by railroad. The wagon train unloaded and artillery horses, guarded by the cavalry, will move on the common road.

The enemy have moved from Calhoun and Rumsey, on Green River, to South Carrollton, and General Smith, commanding enemy’s forces on the Tennessee, turned yesterday from Murray towards Pine Bluff, on Tennessee River 10 miles below Fort Henry.

General Polk Lad ordered a movement of 1,000 cavalry and two regiments of infantry towards the rear of the enemy. The badness of the roads on the route to Paris and the movement on his rear has made him relinquish his march to the railroad at Paris, which it is presumed he desired to cut before investing Forts Henry and Donelson.

The roads can only be traveled over with great difficulty in most localities on account of the great quantity of rain which has fallen, but should the ground freeze, the force which is going to Russellville will seize the first favorable opportunity to attack the enemy at South Carrollton, unless a movement in force up the Cumberland should make it necessary to go to the support of Clarksville. At Russellville, 28 miles hence, they will be in a position to act effectively in either direction.

I will send to Tilghman at Fort Henry two regiments of volunteers from Henderson Station, 15 miles from Jackson, Tenn. (on the route from Humboldt to Corinth), so soon as they receive their arms, which are now ready for them at Jackson.

If the Burnside expedition goes elsewhere than New Orleans or on the coast of that region, troops may temporarily be spared from New Orleans. General Lovell and the Governor, I understand in that event, would be willing to send them. I hear of no movement of the enemy on my front here.

I have just received a telegram from General Hindman, commanding the advance from this position, announcing the defeat and death of General Zollicoffer at Webb’s Cross-Roads, on the road from his position to Columbia. I inclose a copy of the telegram. If my right is thus broken as stated, East Tennessee is open to invasion, or if the plan of the enemy be a combined movement upon Nashville, it is in jeopardy, unless a force can be placed to oppose a movement from Burkesville (100 miles from Nashville) towards Nashville. Movements on my left, threatening Forts Henry, Donelson, and Clarksville, have, I do not doubt, for their ultimate object the occupation of Nashville. I have already detached 8,000 men to make Clarksville secure and drive the enemy back, with the aid of the force at Clarksville and Hopkinsville. But to make another large detachment towards my right would leave this place untenable. The road through this place is indispensable to the enemy to enable them to advance with their main body. They must have river or railroad means of transportation to invade with a large force. While it is of vital importance to keep back the main body, it is palpable this great object cannot be accomplished if detachments can turn my position and attack and occupy Nashville and the interior of the State, which it is the special object to defend.

A reserve at Nashville seems now absolutely necessary to enable me to maintain this position. A successful movement of the enemy on my {p.845} right would carry with it all the consequences which could be expected by the enemy here if they could break through my defenses. If I had the forces to prevent a flank movement they would be compelled [to] attack this position, which we doubt not can make a successful defense.

If force cannot be spared from other army corps the country must now be roused to make the greatest effort that they will be called upon to make during the contest. No matter what the sacrifice may be, it must be made, and without loss of time. Our people do not comprehend the magnitude of the danger that threatens. Let it be impressed upon them.

The enemy will probably undertake no active operations in Missouri, and may be content to hold our force fast in their position on the Potomac for the remainder of the winter; but to suppose with the facilities of movement by water which the well-filled rivers of the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee give for active operations, that they will suspend them in Tennessee and Kentucky during the winter months is a delusion.

All the resources of the Confederacy are now needed for the defense of Tennessee.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

[A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army:]

Louisville Democrat of 21st instant, just brought down by Captain Morgan, from Rowlett’s, contains account of fight between Zollicoffer and Thomas and Zollicoffer’s defeat and death. It says:

Zollicoffer, learning from his spies that Thomas was marching down from Columbia with between 5,000 and 6,000 men, determined to take him by surprise, and, attacking him with a superior force, cut him off before re-enforcements reached him. Taking 10 000 men he marched out of his intrenchments and at 6 o’clock Sunday morning commenced the fight. Battle raged hotly and furiously until about noon, when the rebel forces were put to flight in disorder, leaving 200 killed and wounded on the field. Among the killed was Bailie Peyton jr., on Zollicoffer’s staff, and among the wounded, who shortly afterwards died, was Zollicoffer himself; found in a wagon. The loss of Federal side estimated at 70 killed and wounded-probably more. Rebel force fled to their intrenchments, and Thomas waited until Monday morning to attack and capture or cut them to pieces, but rebels had crossed the Cumberland during the night, leaving everything behind them, without even destroying anything.

The fight is reported as having occurred at Webb’s Cross-Roads. The first news received at Louisville was by dispatch from General Thomas himself. The number of the enemy engaged is not stated, but among the others were the Ninth Ohio, Tenth Indiana, and Nineteenth Regulars. Will send you paper by train this evening.

T. C. HINDMAN.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 22, [1862].

Governor HARRIS, Nashville:

General Tilghman telegraphs that enemy is marching from Murray to Pine Bluff at 2 p.m. yesterday. Bad roads and Polk’s movements upon his rear, with 1,000 cavalry and some regiments infantry, have changed enemy’s course. Arm the two regiments at Henderson Station. Lieutenant Wright will furnish ammunition and powder-horns, if he has them. They will receive orders as soon as I am notified that this is done.

A. S. JOHNSTON,

{p.846}

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 22, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: The movement in regard to the re-enlistment of troops for the war is one which must impress us all with its paramount importance, and I have already taken measures to inaugurate that movement in this division.

The attention of my army is now being fixed in this direction, and I earnestly hope that no impediment will be permitted to remain in the way of its successful consummation. As the tide of patriotic feeling rises it should be promptly met by the Government. There is but one way in which this can be done. In the very incipiency of this movement I should be placed in possession of a sufficient amount of funds with which to discharge the bounty claims of those re-enlisting. This rising feeling should not be permitted to cool, and I beg leave respectfully to ask that I be immediately so pecuniarily placed as to enable me to secure for the war the services of those who are now ready to re-enlist, as well as those who are daily manifesting a desire to do so.

You will from your knowledge of the strength of the force at my command judge of the amount that should be remitted.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 22, 1862.

His Excellency Governor PETTUS:

GOVERNOR: I am in receipt of your dispatch promising me such support as you can afford. It is of the utmost importance that the South, the whole South, should put forth its strength at this juncture in Kentucky. A strong, bold and determined effort now will go far towards settling our future for us. I have developed my views to General Alcorn very fully, and beg to refer you to him for them. We have the men to do the work demanded, but I am profoundly impressed with the fact that our people are not alive to the critical condition of things before us and around us. We should have, and must have, an additional force of at least 30,000 men to put the Kentucky frontier in a condition of effectual defense. If we can have this aid shortly we can settle this war, and I hope we who are bearing the burden of the common defense will be sustained by our countrymen in the States around us.

Referring you to General Alcorn for the details of my views, I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 23, 1862.

Major-General LOVELL, New Orleans:

I am out of lead. Crittenden defeated and falling back. Send supply by passenger train to Captain Wright, Nashville, if possible.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

{p.847}

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, January 24, 1862.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I have kept you advised by telegraph of the condition of things and the course of events here since the enemy made his late demonstration.

What the particular object of it was has not clearly transpired. That it was intended to make a demonstration on Tennessee River seems the only thing which has been made plain. I am advised also that General Grant, who was with the column above Mayfield Creek stated that they (his column) returned because the support he expected from Saint Louis was prevented from reaching him by the ice.

I have been constantly advised of the position and movements of the enemy and the condition of his troops. General Smith moved from Paducah to Mayfield with a column of infantry, artillery, and cavalry, in all about 5,000; thence to Murray, where he turned part of his force towards Tennessee River. My last information is (up to yesterday) that the rest of his force was moving “west,” which means, I suppose, towards Mayfield.

I have ordered Cram’s field battery and Gee’s Arkansas regiment from Memphis to Tennessee River Bridge; also Lea’s regiment from Henderson Station; also Browder’s, from the same station to the same point, so soon as armed. I also ordered about 1,000 cavalry to move upon his flank. These are of my immediate command. I am perfectly satisfied that to do the work before us as it should be done we ought to have an additional force between this and the Tennessee River of at least 40,000 men, and the sooner we get this force and get it in position the better; and now is the time to make the preparation necessary. Let it not be postponed until we shall have them to deal with, but do it beforehand.

I hope the measures necessary to prepare this force may be inaugurated as early as possible. We have the men and the resources, and they should be employed.

I am continuing to strengthen the defenses of this post.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 24, 1862.

Captain M. H. WRIGHT, Ordnance, C. S. Army, Nashville:

SIR: You will send to General Crittenden, by the Cumberland River, for Monsarrat’s battery composed of three 6-pounders smooth bore and one 8-pounder rifled cannon, a supply of spherical case for 6s and shell for the rifled gun. I understand there is no deficiency except in these particulars.

There will be also needed a full supply of ammunition for 4,000 muskets-about 2,500 Harper’s Ferry percussion and 1,500 flint-lock, old pattern and perhaps some small supply for shot-guns.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

{p.848}

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Abstract from weekly report, January 25, 1862, of troops at Columbus, Ky., Major-General Folk, commanding.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
1st Division2694,0344,3035,675
2d Division2834,4564,7896,002
3d Division2093,2413,4504,718
General Stewart’s command1361,4461,5822,448
Captain wood’s company4545876
Total90113,28114,13218,919

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, January 26, 1862.

General S. COOPER. Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: It is thought here that the fugitives from General Crittenden’s army may not exceed a thousand total. The general is understood to have fallen back on Livingston, and thence to be in communication with Nashville, through Gainesborough and the river. In this case we can readily restore to him, via Nashville, some 200 fugitives already arrived at this place. If re-enforced there by General Floyd, as rumored, he will effectually threaten the enemy’s flank, and if in sufficient force, will doubtless prevent an advance on Knoxville; but the people here are anxious lest the two regiments of East Tennessee known to be with the enemy should enter the northern counties of Scott, Campbell, &c., all disloyal, raise those counties in more open rebellion, destroy the bridges, and inaugurate a civil war. Those regiments, broken up into companies, might move from Somerset without commissariat, and through the mountain paths, as they always have done in the opposite direction. The moment they get into the State they are surrounded by friends, and the railroad line and the Government packing establishments are endangered.

We have on the line of the road a regiment and a battalion, four or five companies of which might possibly be spared for field service. At Knoxville is Gillespie’s regiment, not well armed, and scarcely more than sufficient to guard the Government establishments. Two battalions are also here unarmed, unorganized, and not fusible into a regiment.

Just before the defeat of General Crittenden’s army I had dispatched all the cavalry available, some 400, to Scott County, under orders to destroy the rebels in arms there, and they had only reached Montgomery when the fugitives of the army were met. I have directed them to report for orders to General Crittenden, and, if not needed by him, to carry out their original instructions.

The Department is well aware of my opinion as to the political condition of East Tennessee. Only a little aid and comfort are needed to place it in open hostility to the Government.

If troops can by possibility be spared, two or three additional regiments should be held disposable here, or be so placed as to hold the northern counties in check.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. LEADBETTER, Colonel, Commanding.

{p.849}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, January 27, 1862.

Colonel GORGAS, Chief of Ordnance, Richmond, Va.:

Wanted at once for Fort Henry, Tennessee River, two 10-inch columbiads, with carriages, chassis, and implements complete.

For defense of Nashville, as soon as practicable: Three field batteries, of Anderson’s guns, if possible; twenty-five 12-pounders, siege carriages; twenty 18-pounders, siege carriages; twenty 24-pounders, siege carriages; six columbiads, 10-inch or 8-inch, and six 32-pounder guns, with barbette carriages, chassis and implements complete for all.

For defense of Clarksville, Tenn.: Two columbiads 10 or 8 inch and two 32-pounders, with barbette carriages, and all complete; one field battery, six 12-pounders, six 18-pounders, and four 24-pounders, with siege carriages complete; a field battery of Anderson guns to fill the place of those lost by General Crittenden.

Can you supply carriages for the eight 24-pounder carronades sent to Nashville and for the five 42-pounders sent to Clarksville, Tenn.?

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., January 27, 1862.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America:

SIR: The Army of the Cumberland is utterly routed and demoralized. The result is regarded with the profoundest solicitude. Confidence is gone in the ranks and among the people. It must be restored. I am confident it cannot be done under Generals Crittenden and Carroll. There is now no impediment whatever but bad roads and natural obstacles to prevent the enemy from entering East Tennessee and destroying the railroads and putting East Tennessee in a flame of revolution.

Nothing but the appointment to the command of a brave, skillful, and able general, who has the popular confidence, will restore tone and discipline to the army, and confidence to the people. I do not propose to inquire whether the loss of public confidence in Generals Crittenden and Carroll is ill or well founded. It is sufficient that all is lost.

General Humphrey Marshall, General Floyd, General Pillow, General Smith, or General Loring would restore tone to the army and reinspire the public confidence. I must think, as everybody else does, that there has been a great mistake made. Every movement is important. Can not you, Mr. President, right the wrong by the immediate presence of a new and able man?

Yours, truly,

LANDON C. HAYNES.

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NASHVILLE, January 27, 1862.

J. D. C. ATKINS, Member Congress:

Crittenden can never rally troops [in] East Tennessee. Some other general must be sent there. Federals advanced from Murray on Fort Henry. Before reaching Henry they retreated back to Paducah. All safe in that country.

ISHAM G. HARRIS. {p.850}

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 28, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

I send to you Mr. N. R. Jennings, of this army, for the purpose of placing before you certain facts with regard to the condition of the defenses of that part of our frontier with which I am charged.

Since I have been in command I have not ceased to press upon the State and Confederate Government the inadequacy of the force at my disposal for the service assigned me. These repeated representations have been met by occasional spasmodic efforts, which have fallen far short of our necessities. I have made use of the force at my command in placing this post in a condition of strong defense, by that means endeavoring to compensate for the want of numbers, but strong as it confessedly is, it will require troops to hold it, and these troops must be in numbers proportionate to the force to be brought against it. The enemy regard it as the main obstacle to their reduction of the Mississippi Valley, and are making preparations for that purpose proportionate to the importance of that object. We must have more force to enable us to hold it, and more force to enable us to take care of our flanks. I have fully discussed our wants with Mr. N. R. Jennings, who is perfectly master of the whole subject, and to whom I beg leave respectfully to refer you for particulars.

Whatever is done must be done quickly and must be done effectually.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., January 30, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Some painful rumors have reached the Department attributing the disaster to our arms at Somerset to the intemperance of General Crittenden, the commander of the army.

The President can scarcely believe these rumors to be well founded; but we are at too great a distance to inquire into facts. Many letters are also received here, by members of Congress and others, representing that the army under General Crittenden and the people of East Tennessee have lost confidence in him, and that the morale of the army will be utterly destroyed by his remaining in command.

All such rumors are frequent in case of disaster, and for the most part unjust and unfounded; but the public service requires that they should at all times be sufficiently investigated to ascertain what foundation exists for them. I have therefore to request that you will institute such inquiry into the facts and into the condition of that part of your command as may suffice to guide your own judgment; and, if the necessity exists, that you assign some other general to the command of the army under General Crittenden, relieving him from his present duties and making such further orders in relation to him as in your judgment shall seem advisable for the good of the service.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN Secretary of War.

{p.851}

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., January 31, 1862.

His Excellency Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS:

I send to you and to the Legislature of Tennessee General Cheatham, for the purpose of placing before you certain facts with regard to the condition of defenses of that part of the frontier with which I am charged. Since I have been in command I have not ceased to press upon the State and Confederate Governments the insufficiency of the force at my disposal for the service assigned me. These repeated representations have been met by occasional spasmodic efforts, which have fallen far short of our necessities.

I have made use of the force at my command in placing this post in a condition of strong defense, thereby endeavoring to compensate for the lack of numbers. But strong as it confessedly is, it will require troops to hold it, and these troops must be in numbers proportionate to the force to be brought against it. The enemy regard it as the main obstacle to their reduction of the Mississippi Valley, and are making preparations commensurate with the importance of that object. There need not be any undue solicitude in regard to the ultimate result. I regard this position in the condition of defense in which it has been placed as well-nigh impregnable, but we need a strong supporting force to take care of our center as it should be cared for, and to protect our flanks. It is entirely within the power of the General Government and of the States immediately interested to supply this force, and in numbers sufficient to enable us to defy effectually every assault I have fully discussed our wants with General Cheatham, who is perfectly master of the whole subject, and to whom I beg leave to refer you.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Jackson, Miss., Jan. 31, 1862.

Maj. Gen. A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

SIR: I have to-day, in virtue of an act of the Legislature approved on the 29th instant, issued my proclamation, calling for 10,000 volunteers to serve for the term of two years. I trust that it will be promptly responded to. The act authorizes me to designate the times and places of rendezvous within the limits of the State.

Owing to the fact that the account between the State of Mississippi and the Confederate Government remains unadjusted, and that other resources have been exhausted, I am without the means of subsisting the troops which may respond to my proclamation.

I desire to know immediately whether you will not furnish provisions from the time they arrive at the places of rendezvous, of the designation of which you will be hereafter informed.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours,

JOHN J. PETTUS.

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BOWLING GREEN, January 31, 1862.

Captain MONSARRAT, Knoxville:

Use every effort to bring together the stragglers from General Crittenden’s command, officers and men. Send them to Nashville to report to Captain Lindsay for orders.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.852}

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Abstract from return of the Central Army of Kentucky, Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee, commanding, for January, 1862.

[Headquarters Bowling Green, Ky.]

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st (Hardee’s) Division4305,4851021,190194137,63912,412
2d (Buckner’s) Division3906,64950686163008,10012,425
Floyd’s division1472,06481562,3814,355
Bowen’s brigade1973,004213763,6045,220
Clark’s brigade1461,5583493281612,8505,136
Total1,31918,7601862,808721,406*24,57439,548

* Another return of these forces for the same period gives an “Aggregate present” of 30,781.

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Organization of the Central Army of Kentucky, Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee, commanding, January 31, 1862.

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Abstract from return of the First Division, Western Department, Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, commanding, for January, 1862.

[Headquarters Columbus, Ky.]

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st Division2153,329773*4,2674,797
2d Division2884,193270213546,1676,813
3d Division1592,52613234193584,2624,667
Columbus garrison871,035304292,2252,429
Miscellaneous**2052,560721,0486905,1406,077
Total***95413,643871,35283 1,30422,06124,783

* Including General Polk’s staff.

** At Camp Beauregard, Fort Pillow, Island No. 10, Moscow, New Madrid, Paris, and Trenton.

*** A return of the troops of the western Department, commanded by Major-General Polk, for the same period, gives the following “recapitulation:”

Stations.Effective total.
Infantry.Artillery.Cavalry.
Columbus12,0611,260307
Fort Pillow1,064
Island No. 10207
Trenton458
New Madrid1,036120
Paris1,093
Total14,8261,3801,400
{p.854}

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Organization of the First Division, Western Department, commanded by Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army, January, 1862.*

  • FIRST DIVISION.
    • 2d Tennessee.
    • 12th Tennessee.
    • 13th Tennessee.
    • 15th Tennessee.
    • 21st Tennessee.
    • 22d Tennessee.
    • Jackson’s battery.
  • SECOND DIVISION.
    • 13th Arkansas.
    • 7th Kentucky.
    • 13th Louisiana.
    • Mississippi regiment (Blythe’s).
    • 6th Tennessee.
    • 9th Tennessee.
    • 33d Tennessee.
    • 154th (senior) Tennessee.
    • Montgomery’s cavalry.
    • Polk’s battery.
    • Rucker’s artillery company.
    • Smith’s battery.
    • Stanford’s battery.
    • Williams’ battery.
  • THIRD DIVISION.
    • 5th Louisiana battalion.
    • 11th Louisiana.
    • 12th Louisiana.
    • 4th Tennessee.
    • 31st Tennessee.
    • Haywood’s cavalry (one company).
    • Hudson’s squadron.
    • Neely’s company (cavalry).
    • Bankhead’s battalion light artillery.
    • Stewart’s battery.
    • Johnson’s siege battery.
  • STEWART’s BRIGADE.
    Brig. Gen. A. P. STEWART, commanding.
    • 4th Arkansas, battalion.
    • 5th Tennessee.
    • West Tennessee battalion.
    • Heavy artillery.
    • Stewart’s artillery company.
    • Upton’s artillery company.
  • FORT PILLOW.
    • 1st Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee.
    • 40th Tennessee.
  • ISLAND NO. 10.
    • 46th Tennessee.
  • TRENTON, TENN.
    • 47th Tennessee.
  • NEW MADRID.
    • 11th Arkansas.
    • 12th Arkansas.
  • PARIS, TENN.
    • Brewer’s battalion (cavalry).
    • King’s Kentucky battalion (cavalry).
    • 1st Mississippi Battalion (cavalry).
    • Captain Stock’s company (cavalry).
    • 6th Tennessee Battalion (cavalry).

* Commanders of divisions not given on the return. The First, Second, and Third Divisions and Stewart’s brigade were stationed at Columbus, Ky.

{p.855}

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Abstract from weekly report of the Fourth Division, Brag, Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, commanding, for January 31, 1862.

Stations.Present for duty.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
Fort Henry1582,8453,959
Fort Donelson1611,7953,586
Total3494,6407,466

DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Gainesborough, Tenn., February 1, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Department of the West:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I am unable as yet to make out and transmit to you my detailed report of the engagement on the 19th of January. This delay is owing to the delay of the officers of the command in sending up their reports.

I would suggest that this command be re-enforced by several well-drilled regiments at au early day.

Inclosed I send you a sketch of the section of the country.* You will see that this position of Gainesborough can be turned by the enemy, and in many respects it is an unfavorable point. I cannot occupy Livingston or any point on the road from Livingston to the Walton road for want of transportation to carry supplies to the camp from the river.

I submit to you, then, the propriety of occupying Chestnut Mound. To that point supplies can be easily hauled from river landings, and it is connected with Nashville, and also with Carthage, by a turnpike. Supplies of corn are abundant on Caney Fork, and could be brought down to a landing on the turnpike near to Chestnut Mound.

I feel some embarrassment with regard to the course to be pursued towards those privates absent without leave from this command. The non-commissioned officers absent without leave I shall reduce to the ranks, and I will have the officers so absent proceeded against with the utmost rigor.

Captain Morgan, a volunteer aide on my staff bears this to you. He also bears an order from me, for publication in the journals of Nashville and Knoxville, commanding all absent from this command without leave to report themselves at these headquarters immediately.

Being fully aware of the charges which have been made against me by fugitives from this command I have demanded a court of inquiry, and feel satisfied that an investigation will establish the facts that the battle of Fishing Creek and the subsequent movement were military necessities, for which I am not responsible. I feel assured that I shall have no difficulty in defending my conduct throughout these affairs.

I remain, yours, &c.,

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

{p.856}

FEBRUARY 2, 1862.

Brigadier-General HINDMAN:

I have the honor to report that on the morning of the 31st ultimo I proceeded, in obedience to your orders, to a point on Green River known as Camp Lynn, which is 6 miles above the Burned Bridge, where the Glasgow and Louisville turnpike crosses Green River.

I reached Camp Lynn at 7 o’clock p.m. on the evening of the 31st, and the next morning commenced the work of felling trees and constructing the raft.

When I endeavored to procure assistance from the people in the vicinity I found that they had taken the alarm, and that most of them (whites and negroes) had concealed themselves.

The river during the previous night had fallen so much that the islands were beginning to appear, and the drift which had been running was lodging upon them and upon the banks. Fearing, therefore, that during the time which would elapse while a raft of sufficient breadth to lodge, as was desired, was building, the water would become too low to float it the required distance, I turned the timber loose into the stream.

I left the neighborhood at 2 o’clock p.m. February 1, and proceeded to the Burned Bridge, where I had learned that Federal pickets were stationed.

Having gotten within a short distance of the southern bank of the river I discovered 6 or 8 men in blue uniforms standing upon and near the abutment on the farther side. When fired upon they retreated in considerable confusion, but shortly rallied and commenced a spirited fire in return the effect of which myself and party under my charge did not remain to observe after hearing the rattling of the artillery, which was hurried towards the bridge immediately upon the commencement of the firing.

On the morning of the 2d instant I went by the Burkesville and Woodsonville road towards the latter place. When within a mile and a quarter of Woodsonville some soldiers (either pickets or stragglers visiting the houses of the neighborhood) discovered us and ran towards camp. After moving cautiously along the road for perhaps a mile farther I came in sight of 2 cavalry pickets; in a few minutes they were joined by 8 or 10 footmen and about the same number made their appearance in the wood upon each side. Thinking it impossible to avoid these men and get closer to the camp I ordered the party I commanded to fire upon them, and drew several shots from them in return.

I returned to camp through Horse Cave, and could discern no Federals in that vicinity.

Very respectfully,

B. W. DUKE, Lieutenant, Commanding Detail.

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[FEBRUARY 2, 1862.-Requisitions made by the Confederate Government for eleven “war regiments” from Alabama, twelve from Georgia, seven from Mississippi, and thirty-two from Tennessee.*]

* Requisition will be found in Series IV, Vol. I.

{p.857}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., February 3, 1862.

G. W. JOHNSON, Governor of Kentucky, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Congress has recently passed a law entitled “An act to authorize the President to call upon the several States for troops, to serve for three years or during the war.” In accordance with its provisions I have been instructed by the President to make a call on the several States for a number of men, to be enlisted for the war, sufficient to fill up a quota equal to 6 per cent. of the entire white population.

Under these instructions the number of troops required from your State would be about 46,000 men, or about fifty-eight regiments, averaging 800 men each. Under the peculiar circumstances in which Kentucky is placed and the difficulties which embarrass her authorities I cannot hope that you will be able at present to meet this call, which it is, however, my duty to make. I therefore respectfully call upon Your Excellency to have raised and mustered into the Confederate service the above-named number of regiments or as many thereof as may be possible for you to obtain.

These regiments, as formed, will be mustered into the Confederate service, and will report, as fast as mustered, to General A. S. Johnston, at his headquarters. They will be clothed, subsisted, and armed at the expense of the Confederate States, and each man will be entitled, when his company is mustered into service, to receive a bounty of $50 and transportation from his home to the place of rendezvous.

It is earnestly hoped that Your Excellency will spare no pains to have your troops ready for the field as promptly as possible. They will be joined by large re-enforcements from your sister States, and it is confidently believed that but a short period will elapse ere the soil of Kentucky will be freed from the oppression of the invader, and your whole people will be enabled to unite in a common effort for securing the blessings of peace and independence.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 17.}

HDQRS. FIRST DIV., WEST. DEPT., Columbus, Ky., February 3, 1862.

I. Colonel Wickliffe, Seventh Regiment Kentucky Volunteers, is hereby relieved from duty as military governor of the town of Columbus, and will report, with his regiment, to Colonel Stephens, commanding Second Brigade of the Second Division.

II. Lieut. Col. M. J. Wright, of the One hundred and fifty-fourth Senior Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, is hereby appointed military governor of Columbus, and he will be obeyed accordingly.

III. Lieut. Col. M. J. Wright is hereby vested with the power to adopt such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary for the preservation of the good order of Columbus as a military post, subject to the approval of the major-general commanding, and on making public these rules and regulations they must be obeyed and enforced.

IV. Lieutenant-Colonel Wright will adopt such measures as he may deem necessary to prevent the egress and ingress of citizens and other persons not belonging to the army at this post and will issue orders accordingly.

{p.858}

V. The commanding officer of the Second Division will furnish the military governor with such details for guard duty as he may require. Other details that may become necessary will be made from these headquarters on the application of the military governor.

VI. Daily reports will be made to general headquarters by the military governor, giving a list of arrests and prisoners, together with such remarks as may show the condition of the police of the town.

VII. All steamboats arriving at Columbus, before discharging their freights or permitting any of their passengers to land, shall furnish the military governor with a list of passengers for this post and with their manifests. All steamboat captains will be held to a strict accountability for any infraction of this order.

VIII. No citizens or soldiers belonging to other armies shall be permitted to leave Columbus without a passport from the military governor, and all persons not belonging to this army, on their arrival at Columbus, shall register their names and places of residence at the office of the military governor, and obtain from him a permission to remain in town.

IX. Capt. W. J. Whitsitt, of Company A, One hundred and fifty-fourth Senior Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, is hereby appointed provost-marshal of this post, and will immediately report for duty and instructions to Lieut. Col. M. J. Wright.

By command of Major-General Polk:

R. N. SNOWDEN, Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT HENRY, February 4, 1862-5 p.m. (Received Columbus, February 5, 1862.)

General POLK:

The enemy is landing troops in large forces on this side of the river, within 3 miles of the fort. Their advance cavalry is at Boyd’s, 3 miles from here.

I have sent the Dunbar to the mouth of Sandy after the two regiments there and the Appleton Belle is gone to the bridge after the remaining companies. There are eight gunboats and nine transports in the river. I have three pieces of light battery and two companies in a good position at the outer works on the Dover road, with directions to move one of the pieces, if necessary, to Major Garvin’s position. They are not landing on the opposite bank and it will perhaps be prudent to bring some of the troops over here, but I will await your orders, or, what I would more desire, your presence. Come not without a large escort. I have sent Milton company to meet you, should you come this evening.

Above dispatch received from A. Heiman.

TILGHMAN.

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FORT HENRY, February 5, 1862-11 a.m. (Received February 6.)

Colonel MACKALL:

If you can re-enforce strongly and quickly we have a glorious chance to overwhelm the enemy. Move by Clarksville to Donelson and across, and to Danville, where transports will be ready.

Enemy said to be entrenching below.

My plans are to concentrate closely in and under Henry.

TILGHMAN.

{p.859}

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FORT HENRY, February 6-12 m.

General POLK:

Your dispatches of 5th instant to hand.* Thank you for cavalry, but had rather have disciplined infantry. I must have two regiments, thoroughly armed and equipped, from you. Enemy strong 3 miles below, fortifying. They were re-enforced yesterday. Scouting parties engaged enemy’s pickets yesterday and our cavalry retired; lost one man. I re-enforced, and enemy retired.

Don’t trust to Johnston’s re-enforcing me; we need all. I don’t want raw troops who are just organized; they are in my way. Act promptly, and don’t trust to any one.

TILGHMAN.

* Not found.

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HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, C. A. KENTUCKY, Russellville, Ky., February 6, 1862.

Captain DERRICK, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: In accordance with the order received this morning, Captain Porter’s battery has been selected to report to General Pillow. It is my duty, however, to call the attention of the commanding general to the following facts:

My division consists of three large brigades, one of which, with a battery attached (except one large regiment which is with me), is in advance of Bowling Green. Another battery has been detached to serve in the fortifications at Bowling Green.

I have with me at this place two brigades of infantry and a large regiment of another brigade-in all eight regiments, or more than 5,000 infantry. The absence of Porter’s battery will leave one brigade without a battery, there being only two batteries with me, including Porter’s, while I understand there are three or four batteries attached to the division of General Floyd at this place, constituting only about half the strength of the infantry of my division now here. I therefore respectfully request that the detail of Captain Porter’s battery be replaced by a detail of one of the batteries of the other division.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, Commanding Second Division.

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CLARKSVILLE, February 6, 1862, (Received Bowling Green, February 6, 1862.)

Capt. W. D. PICKETT:

I have gone around and examined the works in front of this place. None of them are completed.

The only work with good command of the river will be submerged by it full river. This rise will probably put it under; But four heavy guns here and not one ready for use. No ammunition for any of the guns.

General Clark left Hopkinsville this morning. No news to-day from below; river full and rising rapidly.

Orders should go to Nashville to meet my requisitions promptly by {p.860} telegraph. General Johnston may rely upon my doing all that is possible. No artillerists here. Say to General Johnston that it is of the highest importance for defense of this place that he order Capt. W. H. Jackson’s battery here, and exchange with me some of the old regiments at Columbus of my division.

Information of constant fighting going on at Fort Donelson. We hear firing to this place constantly. I am about dispatching special couriers.

It would be well, I think, to order to this place as promptly as possible additional force. If Donelson should be overcome, we can make no successful stand without larger force.

Clark cannot reach here before 12 to-morrow, and will then be broken down by march.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Gainesborough, Tenn., February 6, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Department of the West:

SIR: I had the honor some days since to address you a communication by my volunteer aide, Captain Morgan, suggesting the removal of my command from this point to Chestnut Mound. Besides being a bad position in a military point of view, Gainesborough is exceedingly unhealthy and an uncomfortable camping place, with no ground for drilling the troops.

I have now the honor to inform you that, anticipating your orders on the subject, I am moving the division to Chestnut Mound. That is an elevated, healthy, and well-watered locality, where there is ground for drilling the regiments, of which they are very much in need. It is near to landings on the Cumberland River and Caney Fork, and connected with them by turnpike roads, and it connects with Livingston by a good ridge road.

I leave for a few days the regiments of Colonels Murray and Stanton at this place with supplies for one month, and after a few days I shall order these regiments to Livingston, where, with supplies drawn from this point, they may be subsisted. I have ordered McNairy’s cavalry battalion to proceed to-morrow to Livingston and to remain there. I had left Captain McHenry’s cavalry company at Livingston to picket and guard the roads leading from Kentucky, and to-day received information from Captain McHenry that two companies of Federal cavalry were on the Kentucky side Obey River.

I will have the stores, except those to be left for the regiments of Murray and Stanton, removed from this point to the most convenient landing for the camp at Chestnut Mound by steamboat.

My headquarters will henceforth be at Chestnut Mound.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General, Commanding.

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NASHVILLE, February 7, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

Fort Henry fell yesterday Memphis and Clarksville Railroad bridge over Tennessee destroyed. Lost all the artillery and stores at Henry. {p.861} General Tilghman, Major Gilmer, and about 80 men taken prisoners; balance of force fell back to Fort Donelson, on Cumberland River.

A large increase of force to defend this [State] from Cumberland Gap to Columbus is an absolute and imperative necessity. If not successfully defended the injury is irreparable.

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., February 7, 1862.

General POLK:

[You] will destroy the railroad bridges from Paris to Humboldt as far as practicable.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., February 7, 1862.

[Memorandum.]

At a meeting held to-day at my quarters (Covington House) by Generals Johnston, Hardee, and myself (Colonel Mackall being present part of the time) it was determined that, Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, having fallen yesterday into the hands of the enemy, and Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River, not being long tenable, preparations should at once be made for the removal of this army to Nashville, in rear of the Cumberland River, a strong point some miles below that city being fortified forthwith, to defend the river from the passage of gunboats and transports.

The troops at present at Clarksville should cross over to the south side of that river, leaving only a sufficient force in that town to protect the manufactories and other property, in the saving of which the Confederate Government is interested.

From Nashville, should any further retrograde movement become necessary, it will be made to Stevenson, and thence according to circumstances.

It was also determined that the possession of the Tennessee River by the enemy, resulting from the fall of Fort Henry, separates the army at Bowling Green from the one at Columbus, Ky., which must henceforth act independently of each other until they can again be brought together, the first one having for object the defense of the State of Tennessee, along its line of operation, as already stated; and the other one of that part of the State lying between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi. But as the possession of the former river by the enemy renders the lines of communication of the army at Columbus liable to be cut off at any time from the Tennessee River as a base by an overpowering force of the enemy rapidly concentrated from various points on the Ohio, it becomes necessary, to prevent such a calamity, that the main body of that army should fall back to Humboldt; and thence, if necessary, to Grand Junction, so as to protect Memphis from either point, and still have a line of retreat to the latter place or to Grenada, Miss., and, if necessary, to Jackson, Miss.

At Columbus, Ky., will be left only a sufficient garrison for the defense of the works there, assisted by Hollins’ gunboats, for the purpose of making a desperate defense of the river at that point. A sufficient number of transports will be kept near that place for the removal of the {p.862} garrison therefrom when no longer tenable in the opinion of the commanding officer. Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow will likewise be defended to the last extremity, aided also by Hollins’ gunboats, which will then retire to the vicinity of Memphis, where another bold stand will be made.

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Army.

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

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[FEBRUARY 8, 1862.-For Benjamin to Bragg and Lovell in reference to re-enforcements for General A. S. Johnston, see Series 1, Vol. VI, pp. 823,824.]

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, February 8, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

SIR: The condition of your department in consequence of the largely superior forces of the enemy has filled us with solicitude, and we have used every possible exertion to organize some means for your relief.

With this view the following orders have been issued to-day and the following measures adopted:

1st. We have ordered to Knoxville three Tennessee regiments-Vaughn’s, Maney’s, and Bate’s-the First Georgia Regiment and four regiments from General Bragg’s command to be forwarded by him. This will give you in East Tennessee the following force, viz: As above, eight regiments. Add Gillespie’s Tennessee, one regiment; Vaughn’s North Carolina, one regiment;* one regiment cavalry; Stovall’s battalion and another from North Carolina, together one regiment-total, twelve regiments, besides Churchwell’s command at Cumberland Gap, the other forces stationed at different passes by General Zollicoffer, and a number of independent companies.

The whole force in East Tennessee will thus amount, as we think, to at least fifteen regiments, and the President desires that you assign the command to General Buckner.

2d. The formation of this new army for Eastern Tennessee will leave General Crittenden’s army (augmented by Chalmers’ regiment and two or three batteries of field pieces already sent to him) free to act with your center.

Colonel Chalmers will be nominated to-morrow brigadier-general. You might assign a brigade to him at once.

The President thinks it best to break up the army of General Crittenden, demoralized by its defeat, and that you should distribute the forces composing it among other troops. You can form a new command for General Crittenden, connected with your own corps, in such manner as you may deem best.

General Crittenden has demanded a court of inquiry, and it has been ordered; but from all the accounts which now reach us we have no reason to doubt his skill or conduct in his recent movements, and feel {p.863} convinced that it is not to any fault of his that the disaster at Somerset is to be attributed.

3d. To aid General Beauregard at Columbus I send orders to General Lovell to forward to him at once five or six regiments of his best troops at New Orleans.

4th. I have sent to Memphis arms for Looney’s regiment; to Knoxville 800 percussion muskets; to Colonel Chalmers 800 Enfield rifles for his regiment, and to you 1,200 Enfield rifles. The Enfield rifles will be accompanied by a full supply of fixed ammunition. They form part of a small cargo recently received by us, and of the whole number (6,000) one-third is thus sent to you, besides which we send 1,600 to Van Dorn.

5th. We have called on all the States for a levy of men for the war, and think that in very few weeks we shall be able to give you heavy re-enforcements, although we may not be able to arm them with good weapons. But we have another small cargo of Enfield rifles close by, and hope to have some 10,000 or 12,000 safe in port within the next two or three weeks.

I forgot to say that the rifles already received may not reach you for eight or ten days, as they were introduced at a port quite far south.

I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

* The records show no Vaughn’s North Carolina regiment. Probably R. B. Vance’s Twenty-ninth North Carolina.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., February 8, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: No reliable particulars of the loss of Fort Henry have yet reached me. This much, however, is known, that nearly all of the force at Fort Henry retreated to Fort Donelson, and it is said that General Tilghman and about 80 officers and men surrendered in the fort.

The capture of that fort by the enemy gives them the control of the navigation of the Tennessee River, and their gunboats are now ascending the river to Florence, Operations against Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland, are about to be commenced, and that work will soon be attacked. The slight resistance at Fort Henry indicates that the best open earthworks are not reliable to meet successfully a vigorous attack of iron-clad gunboats, and, although now supported by a considerable force, I think the gunboats of the enemy will probably take Fort Donelson without the necessity of employing their land force in co-operation, as seems to have been done at Fort Henry.

Our force at Fort Donelson, including the force from Fort Henry and three regiments of General Floyd’s command, is about 7,000 men, not well armed or drilled, except Heiman’s regiment and the regiments of Floyd’s command. General Floyd’s command and the force from Hopkinsville is arriving at Clarksville, and can, if necessary, reach Donelson in four hours by steamers which are there.

Should Fort Donelson be taken, it will open the route to the enemy to Nashville, giving them the means of breaking the bridges and destroying the ferry-boats on the river as far as navigable.

The occurrence of the misfortune of losing the fort will cut off the communication of the force here under General Hardee from the south bank of the Cumberland. To avoid the disastrous consequences of such {p.864} an event I ordered General Hardee yesterday to make, as promptly as it could be done, preparations to fall back to Nashville and cross the river.

The movements of the enemy on my right flank would have made a retrograde in that direction to confront the enemy indispensable in a short time. But the probability of having the ferriage of this army corps across the Cumberland intercepted by the gunboats of the enemy admits of no delay in making the movement.

Generals Beauregard and Hardee are equally with myself, impressed with the necessity of withdrawing our force from this line at once.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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BOWLING GREEN, February 8, 1862.

General POLK:

Destroy every bridge and trestle on the railroad from Tennessee Crossing to Paris. Send all telegrams by way of Montgomery and not via Florence.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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PARIS, TENN., February 8, 1862-11 p.m.

Major-General POLK:

No further news from Donelson. Three of our steamers, viz, the Orr, Appleton Belle, and Lynn Boyd, were burned yesterday morning by our men to prevent them from falling into the hands of the enemy; all on board escaped safely. Five hundred Federal infantry and three transport boats are at the bridge, burning and destroying all the houses this side of the river. The bridge is now on fire. The condition of the roads prevented our bringing but few tents, without flies, but few cooking utensils, no extra clothing. The lives and health of the men require that we should have some more necessaries if we are to remain here long. We leave in the morning and will camp a few miles east of this place, and will scout continually towards the river. The rolling stock on the railroad all safe.

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel.

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RUSSELLVILLE, February 8, 1862-12 p.m.

Capt. W. D. PICKETT:

In a communication from Green River to 12 o’clock yesterday no troops on this side; many deserters daily; troops considerably demoralized; about 300 men supposed to have gone to Henderson; remainder in vicinity of Calhoun.

Messenger just in from Louisville. Opinion there that expedition up Cumberland and Tennessee chiefly a diversion, derived from opinion of a member of Buell’s staff. A reliable person, whose source of information is from clerk of Cairo and Evansville boats, says entire fleet has left Cairo; that five gunboats have gone up Tennessee River, and that the remaining gunboats and transports, to the number of sixteen, up the Cumberland, {p.865} and that the entire land force on the two rivers was estimated at 12,000.

Trains arriving from Clarksville. Hope to get all my troops to Clarksville by daylight.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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CLARKSVILLE, February 8, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

SIR: I received your order after night of the 6th and succeeded in getting nearly the whole command here by daylight this morning.

A large proportion of the force has been sent forward to Fort Donelson, and the balance intended for that place are going there as fast as they arrive.

I will take every possible means at my command to ascertain the general plan of approach of the enemy; but we may not hope for much information upon that point beyond what can be gathered from general deduction.

If the best information I can gather about these iron-clad boats be true they are nearly invulnerable, and therefore they can probably go wherever sufficient fuel and depth of water can be found, unless met by opposing gunboats.

Unless I am misinformed as to these boats, the enemy will attempt to come up this river and destroy the towns upon its banks and every bridge across it. They can, to be sure, be kept confined to the rivers, but this will be done at heavy cost and inconvenience with the obstructed transportation we will have.

I have ordered the large supplies of pork and other Government stores at this point to be sent to Nashville and deposited far enough from the river to be safe.

The defenses here amount to about nothing. I think they have mistaken the location of the work upon the river hill about 200 yards, whilst the one in the bottom is nearly submerged. I think the works should be strengthened here. This place is capable of being made very strong indeed.

I wish it was convenient to send here at once a good engineer officer and a sufficient supply of intrenching tools.

I wish, if possible, you would come down here, if it were only for a single day. I think in that time you might determine the policy and lines of defense. I will, however, do the best I can and all I can with the means at hand.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. FLOYD, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

P. S.-I send you the inclosed copy of a communication from the engineer in charge,* that you may see the state of things in the work on the river hill.

* Not found.

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CORINTH, February 8, 1862.

General POLK:

Have just arrived here. News from Iuka since I passed that two gunboats were landing troops at the mouth of Bear Creek. I have {p.866} sent Colonel Chalmers up; he has but 200 guns. I cannot reach Columbus until to-morrow evening. Three o’clock the gunboats in sight of Florence.

B. F. CHEATHAM, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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GLADESVILLE, WISE COUNTY VIRGINIA, February 8, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General C. S. Army:

GENERAL: In obedience to your orders my force has fallen back to Pound Gap from the points selected by me on the Kentucky River for occupation.

This country is more difficult than the Kentucky side of the mountains. Corn is at this village hauled 30 miles for common uses, and is selling at $2 per bushel, or $10 per barrel. I have therefore suffered the two Virginia regiments to pass behind Clinch River, and have directed Colonel Simms to forage his mounted battalion in the county of Scott or Lee, some 30 miles from this place. The Kentucky regiment of Colonel Williams and Ratcliffe’s company I have directed to come no farther in this direction than the Pound (4 miles this side of Pound Gap), and I have given liberty to the colonel, should he prefer it, to occupy the Kentucky side of the mountains, in Letcher, Harlan, or Pike keeping these two points in view: 1st, subsistence, its possibility and cheapness; 2d, the protection of Pound Gap and Stone Gap. The head of the Poor Fork of the Cumberland is just against the Stone Gap on the other side. The Pound River flows from this side of the same point. I learn that wagons pass from that part of the Cumberland through here to the Salt Works near Abingdon.

In fact, general, each day opens to me a more minute acquaintance with the frontier, and persuades me that I must examine it far more critically than has yet been done by any one to determine accurately what is required for its military defense. I shall improve the time during which I shall be detained in this vicinity by putting a substantial defense at Pound Gap. With little comparative expense a fortification to hold 2,000 men can be established there. I will visit Stone Gap and make careful reconnaissances of the position. I will observe, though, that this country, like all mountainous countries, has much more feasibility for military passages than unskilled men give it credit for. I have seen no position from this to Paintsville (unless it shall prove so on the Cumberland Range) that cannot be turned within 10 miles of its center.

Major Bonner is preparing accurate maps of this section so far as we have gathered knowledge, which I trust will be very acceptable to you, and which I hope to bring with me to the Department.

I have understood my official dispatch containing an account of the battle at the fork of Middle Creek never reached you. Is this true?

I hear the enemy is ploying upon London, Ky. I mention it lest it may not come to you from Cumberland Gap, but do not vouch for any accuracy in the rumor.

I am, very respectfully, &c.,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

{p.867}

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RICHMOND, February 9, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

Large re-enforcements have been ordered to join you, and 5,000 men have been ordered up from New Orleans to Columbus. I write you in full by to-day’s mail.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, February 9, 1862.

G. B. BEVINE, Huntsville, Ala.:

Your dispatch received.* Chalmers’ regiment, two field batteries, and part of Looney’s regiment have been ordered to Tuscumbia. Unite with them all who with their own arms will go to meet the enemy.

The number of men who can have been transported by four gunboats should never be allowed to tread upon our soil and return. I hope you may also capture the gunboats.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

* Not found

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COLUMBUS, February 9, 1862.

General POLK:

Mr. Powers, the operator at Tuscumbia, informs me that the enemy took possession of the telegraph office in Florence and found out nearly everything that was passing over the line before he was informed of their having landed. He then immediately disconnected the Florence line from his office and cut them off. They had operators and instruments with them. They informed the citizens of Florence that it was their intention to return in a day or so with a force sufficiently large to take and hold their position at that place; that it was not their intention to harm the citizens who would willingly submit and to those who were loyal to the United States.

Respectfully,

W. P. JOHNSON, Operator.

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RUSSELLVILLE, February 9, 1862.

General JOHNSTON:

Following message just received of Major Casseday, at Clarksville:

A messenger, sent by reliable men at Lexington, Ky., brings a dispatch, dated 29th ultimo, which says that 900 wagons are being loaded with guns, army stores, &c., at Lexington, and sent to London, Ky. They learn movement into East Tennessee to be made with large force through London.

All our troops here have gone on to Donelson by boats.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS, Dover, Tenn., February 9, 1862.

Brigadier-General Pillow assumes command of the forces at this place. He relies with confidence upon the courage and fidelity of the {p.868} brave officers and men under his command to maintain the post. Drive back the ruthless invader from our soil and again raise the Confederate flag over Fort Henry. He expects every man to do his duty. With God’s help we will accomplish our purpose. Our battle cry, “Liberty or death.”

By order of Brigadier-General Pillow:

GUS. A. HENRY, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. ARMY AT FORT DONELSON, February 9, 1862.

The forces at this post are for the present arranged as follows:

General Buckner’s division will retain its present organization and be commanded by him.

The regiments of Colonels Head, Bailey, and Sugg will form a brigade, and be commanded by Colonel Head. It will occupy its present position for the protection of the river batteries. In the event of an attack on these batteries these regiments will take shelter under the faces of the wall or outer works on the eastern side. The regiments of Colonels Heiman, Voorhies, and Hughes will constitute a brigade, and be commanded by Colonel Heiman.

The regiments of Colonels Davidson, Simonton, Gregg, and Major Henry’s battalion and the field battery of Captain Ross will form a brigade, and be commanded by Colonel Davidson.

Captain Maney will occupy, with his field battery, the hollow through which the main Fort Henry road passes.

Captain Culbertson will take command of the main battery on the river side, and Captain Stankieuriz will take command of the three-gun battery.

The regiments of Colonel Drake and Gee will constitute a brigade, and be commanded by Colonel Drake.

The Fifty-first and Fifty-sixth Virginia Regiments will constitute a brigade, and be commanded by Colonel Wharton.

Captain Dixon, of the Engineer Corps, will remain in charge of the works, and report to these headquarters, [as] directed by Major Gilmer, of General Johnston’s staff, while he remains here.

Maj. J. W. Jones is assigned to duty as post quartermaster, and will report to these headquarters.

Major Dallam is assigned to duty as commissary of the post, and will report to these headquarters.

The brigades commanded by Colonels Heiman, Davidson and Drake will form a division, and be under the command of Brigadier-General Johnson.

By command of Brigadier-General G. J. Pillow:

GUS A. HENRY, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, February 9, 1862. (Received Columbus, February 10, 1862.)

General LEONIDAS POLK:

Your dispatch received. Five thousand troops have been ordered {p.869} up to re-enforce you from New Orleans. Other re-enforcements have been sent to General Johnston and to Eastern Tennessee.

J. P. BENJAMIN.

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[FEBRUARY 10, 1862.-For Bragg to Benjamin, in reference to re-enforcements for General A. S. Johnston, see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 424.]

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NASHVILLE, February 10, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

We need for immediate service 10,000 muskets, with bayonets, if possible to furnish them. The men can be put in the field instantly; without them Nashville is in great danger.

ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor.

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FORT DONELSON, February 10, 1862.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

The attack expected here is a combined one; gunboats by water and a land force in the rear.

The greatest danger, in my opinion, is from the gunboats, which appear to be well protected from our shot. The effect of our shot at Fort Henry was not sufficient to disable them, or any one of them, so far as I have been able to ascertain. This was due, I think, in a great measure, to the want of skill in the men who served the guns, and not to the invulnerability of the boats themselves.

I saw five gunboats during the attack on Fort Henry, each firing three heavy guns from ports in the bow. It has been reported from various sources that there were seven boats in the Tennessee River at the time of the attack. Only five were engaged at any one time, in my opinion.

With the preparations that are now being made here I feel much confidence that we can make a successful resistance against a land attack. The attack by water will be more difficult to meet; still I hope for success here also.

The force landed by the enemy on the right bank of the Tennessee River is probably a large one, consisting in part of forces driven from Cairo, Fort Holt, and Bird’s Point by high water. General Pillow has information to this effect from a person recently from Smithland. I do not think it practicable to establish a boom across the Cumberland River during the freshet that now exists.

If Captain Nocquet has no employment for Captain Cox, he may be discharged. I think he might well be employed assisting Mr. Crump in completing the map of Bowling Green and the vicinity.

We are making herculean efforts to strengthen our parapets-making narrow embrasures with sand bags, and if we can have ten days we hope to make bomb-proofs over the guns.

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

{p.870}

The river has now commenced falling, and often falls from 5 to 6 feet in twenty-four hours. If it runs down rapidly, as I hope it will from the cold weather, we will not be attacked this rise; before another rise I will have the works safe. This position can be made stronger than Columbus now by water if we had more heavy artillery; the great advantage it has is in the narrowness of the stream and the necessity of the boats approaching our works by straight and narrow channel for 1 1/2 miles. No more than three boats could possibly bring their guns to act upon our position at once. This makes the field of fire required for the guns so very narrow, that it admits of the construction of very narrow embrasures, which we are now constructing. We ought to have two more heavy guns; the works are ready for them, and if the enemy gives me time I will order two 42-pounder guns from Clarksville, with the approval of General Johnston.

I refer to my letter to General Floyd for fuller information.

Respectfully,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS FORT DONELSON, February 10, 1862.

General FLOYD:

I am apprehensive, from the large accumulations of the enemy’s forces in the neighborhood of Fort Henry, that he will attempt to cross the country south of my position and cut my communication by river, thus depriving me of supplies from above. The country south of me is exceedingly broken and rugged, so much so as to be nearly impracticable for a march, but they may possibly make it passable. His difficulty will be in procuring supplies for his forces, which is one almost, if not altogether, insurmountable. I think that is my safety.

The conflict yesterday between our cavalry and that of the enemy resulted in 3 of ours wounded and 20 taken prisoners by being thrown from their horses and in 3 of the enemy killed and 6 mortally wounded. Three of their gunboats have gone up Tennessee River above the bridge. The steamer Eastport, which we were converting into a gunboat, was burned and sunk, as was the steamer Sam. Orr, by our friends, to keep them from falling into the hands of the enemy. They have destroyed the high trestle work on the west bank of Tennessee River, but have not damaged the bridge.

I am pushing the work on my river batteries day and night; also on my field works and defensive line in the rear. In a week’s time, if I am allowed that much, I will try very hard to make my batteries bombproof. I am now raising the parapets and strengthening them. I got my heavy rifle gun, 32-pounder, and my 10-inch columbiad in position to-day, and tried them and the other guns in battery. The trial was most satisfactory. I need two additional heavy guns very much, and if I am not engaged by the enemy in three or four days I shall apply for the 42-pounders at Clarksville.

It is certain that if I cannot hold this place, the two 42-pounders at Clarksville will not arrest his movement by Clarksville. Upon one thing you may rest assured, viz, that I will never surrender the position, and with God’s help I mean to maintain it.

I send up the Hillman for a boat load of flour and meat. Let her bring a full load. You will please give orders accordingly to the commissary {p.871} of your post. I shall continue to draw supplies of subsistence to this place until I have a heavy store on hand.

I have established a line of vedettes on the east bank of the Cumberland to within 8 miles of Smithland, so that I will-be posted as to the movements and advance of the enemy.

I hope you will order forward at once the tents and baggage of the troops of General Buckner’s command, as they are suffering very much for most of them this cold weather.

I must request that you will forward this letter after reading it to General Johnston. My engagements and duties press me so much that I cannot address you both and, knowing his anxiety, I am anxious to place before him the intelligence contained in this letter.

With great respect,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIX MILES EAST OF PARIS, February 10, 1862.

Major-General POLK:

Your dispatch to destroy the bridges and trestle between Paris and Danville is just received. The bridge across the Tennessee River is not destroyed. Do you still order to destroy the bridges and trestle work? I do not yet think it is necessary.

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.

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CAMP TWELVE MILES EAST OF PARIS, February 10, 1862-1 p.m.

Major-General POLK:

SIR: One hundred feet of the trestle work on each side of the bridge over the Tennessee River has been destroyed by the enemy. Heavy firing has been heard this morning in the direction of Fort Donelson. I am now on my way to execute your orders in respect to the bridges and trestle work between Paris and the river. I still think it unnecessary, as we could destroy it at any moment. A large quantity of wheat and flour can yet be gotten away, and the people are relying upon the railroad to remove their things. Please reply immediately.

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 33.}

ADJT. AND INSP. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, February 10, 1862.

...

II. On the application of Maj. Gen. George B. Crittenden, a court of inquiry, to consist of three members and a recorder, to be detailed by General A. S. Johnston, commanding Department No. 2, will assemble at such time and place as in the judgment of that commander the interests of the service will permit, to examine into all the circumstances relating to the battle of Fishing Creek and the movements subsequent to that event.

{p.872}

The court will report the facts, together with their opinion, for the information of the President.*

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Reports not found.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 31.}

HDQRS. DEPT. OF ALA. AND W. FLA., Mobile, Ala., February 10, 1862.

...

II. Brig. Gen. L. P. Walker, P. A., is assigned to the command of the troops in North Alabama, whither he will immediately proceed and assume the control of military operations. He will call to his assistance all the resources of the country, with a view of preserving our important railroad connections, now threatened by the enemy.

...

By command of Major-General Bragg:

FRANCIS S. PARKER, JR., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, February 11, 1862.

Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville:

I have sent 800 muskets to Looney’s regiment, 800 more to Knoxville, 800 Enfield rifles to Chalmers’ regiment, and 1,200 Enfield rifles to General A. S. Johnston, making 3,600 stand of arms.

I have also sent a fine regiment to Decatur from Pensacola, and have ordered three Tennessee regiments and one Georgia regiment from Virginia to Knoxville.

I will try and send more arms. Do your best and we will spare no effort.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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GLADESVILLE, VA., February 11, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen. C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I have reliable information that the enemy has moved several thousand men (estimated at 6,000 to 7,000) to Piketon within a few days past. He is moving supplies for sixty to seventy-five days by boat up the Sandy to same point for a very large force. It is supposed he has 6,000 men in Piketon by this time. Forage for horses, wagons, harness, shelled corn, and oats, hay, &c., are all brought forward, and he has ordered 50 flat-boats to be built so as to transport by water when the tide in the Sandy abates.

One of my informants is from Louisa; the other from Prestonburg. The former has two sons in Colonel Williams’ regiment; the latter is said by his acquaintances to be very reliable. They say six or seven steamers of larger size than usually ply on the Sandy are daily run fling up to Prestonburg and Piketon, and that the officer commanding at Paintsville says “he is complained of as being slow on his line, but {p.873} it takes time to move a heavy force.” This looks like a combined move and correspondence with some other column.

I have a rumor that Theophilus T. Garrard, with a heavy force, is moving up the Poor Fork of Cumberland River. This may be the movement with which Colonel Garfield expects to combine his advance, and it portends a heavy and immediate assault upon Pound Gap, for it is but 37 miles from Piketon to Pound Gap, and the road from the Stone Gap, over which one travels to the Poor Fork of Cumberland debouches into the road from Pound Gap to Gladesville directly at the Pound, 4 miles on this side of the Gap. Thus a move from Piketon on one side of the range and from Stone Gap on the other side of the range assails Pound Gap in front and rear. This can only be prevented by holding Stone Gap, and preventing a force from that direction from coming out of the valley of the Cumberland. It may be that Garrard is at Cumberland Ford only to press on Cumberland Gap. That is beyond the jurisdiction of my command, and I offer no suggestions about its defense, but I mention only that I hear that forces are ploying in front of it. They become of interest to me because a lateral movement will precipitate them upon me. It is about 75 miles from the Pound to Cumberland Ford, and I hear of Olinger’s Gap and Crank’s Gap, between Stone Gap and Cumberland Gap, through either of which cavalry and infantry can pass. Mule trains will enable a force to move rapidly and to pass any of these gaps. So there are several passes between Pound Gap and Piketon.

You informed me that the Department could not re-enforce me at present. You are advised by me that Colonel Trigg and Colonel Moore have fallen back to Clinch River for supplies. You are advised that my battalion of mounted men has fallen off 55 miles from Pound Gap to obtain food and forage. I have now at Pound Gap Major Thompson, with 350 “special-service” men, and at the Pound Colonel Williams, with about 500 men fit for duty, and the enemy has from 5,000 to 6,000 within 37 miles of me, and he gives out that he means to take Pound Gap and then afterwards to come into Virginia.

You are now advised that there is not a soldier between Pound Gap and the Louisa Fork, or even to the mouth of the Gauley, and that large public interests which exists between those points is to-day solely relying for defense upon such of its inhabitants as remain at their own homes.

I have no remark to offer upon this condition of affairs, but I must observe that I have no force which can successfully resist or repel the masses which propose to concentrate, and how speedily I cannot tell, upon this frontier. I have no quartermaster to this brigade; I never have had one. My commissary of brigade is an old man sixty-four years of age, now sick in bed,and has resigned at that, and I am in a country where there is nothing to eat, and where one cannot supply a force without the greatest energy and at the largest expense. In these circumstances what is to be done?

My advice is to send here at least 10,000 men, and to move instantly so as to destroy the force at Piketon, break up that column, and drive it into the Ohio River, so as to free your frontier and cripple the enemy before he cripples you. My advice is to do this swiftly, and you can then restore the regiments to their places at other points. My advice is, if nothing else can be done, that this force shall destroy everything within 20 miles of the Sandy River and drive off all the people who are not our friends; that the sequestration law shall be put into active force against our enemies, and that our friends may be compelled to {p.874} join the Army, so the war may be hurried to the banks of the Ohio. It cannot rest here with any safety to us.

I hope you will telegraph me what you can do-what you will do. My advice is emphatic and earnest to you to hold Pound Gap and Stone Gap at any expense of men and means. If you do not, expeditions will be formed behind the mountains which will constantly threaten the very heart of the Confederacy; if you do not, Kentucky must pass from your hands in all probability. If you do, she can never be safe in their hands, and your expeditions may be prepared here and move into Kentucky at any time and season that will suit your convenience.

I hope the Department will weigh well these suggestions, and that some mode will be adopted without delay to enable me to take a decisive stand. In my letters I write freely because I feel earnestly. I think the existing condition of things should not be tolerated. I have asked several questions from time to time without eliciting a reply:

1st. Have I, as brigadier-general of the Confederate States Army, a right, without direction from the Department, to call out the militia of the neighborhood or surrounding States when, in my judgment, the emergency demands it?

2d. Have I the right to prevent supplies which are necessary to my army from passing out of the country I occupy by exchange or sale between private persons?

3d. Have I the right to prevent individuals professing friendship to the Southern Confederacy from passing into Virginia from Kentucky, or vice versa, now that Kentucky is one of the Confederate States?

I await your reply, general, and am ready to obey your orders.

Meanwhile I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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CAMP NEAR CARTHAGE, TENN., February 11, 1862.

Capt. A. J. LINDSAY:

SIR: I have duly received your note with Assistant Adjutant-General Mackall’s dispatch. You will please telegraph General Johnston that I am encamped between Chestnut Mound and Carthage, having two regiments, Stanton’s and Murray’s, with a company of cavalry at Gainesborough, with orders to take post at Stanton [Livingston] immediately. Should this disposition not suit the general’s views, he will inform me. I will take position a few miles back, at Chestnut Mound, on to-morrow.

I have no news of the enemy that can be relied on. It is reported that two or three companies of the enemy’s cavalry made their appearance on the north bank of Obey River a few days since. This may not be true. I will keep the general duly informed as far as practicable of the enemy’s movements.

In haste, yours,

G. B. CRITTENDEN, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS NEAR CARTHAGE, Division Commissary Office, February 11, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

GENERAL: At the time of leaving Mill Springs, on the 19th of January, the army under your command was entirely destitute of supplies {p.875} except in the article of beef cattle. Those on hand were driven ahead of the troops by my order; agents were also sent ahead in the direction of the intended march to engage and purchase every article of subsistence that could be procured. No pains were spared, no endeavors left unmade.

Without means of transportation, however, only those supplies could be procured which were immediately contiguous to the line of retreat; but I can safely say that there was nothing along that line which could be purchased which was not.

I furnished Major Holland, acting commissary of subsistence to General Carroll’s brigade, on the night of the 19th, and on simple memorandum, with $5,000, to enable him to procure at once everything that he might meet with, while my immediate agents were also ahead, and upon each side, for the same purpose and with full authority.

The army suffered much, notwithstanding all endeavors, until it reached Obey River, on Thursday, January 23.

During the intervening time about 60 head of cattle, the same number of sheep, and perhaps 20 head of hogs, with what bacon, flour, meal, &c., could be procured along the route, were the main subsistence of the troops, so far as my utmost endeavors could effect.

About 6 miles west of Obey River I received a lot of 90 head of cattle which had been stopped there by my agents, and also in the same vicinity as large a supply of meal and flour as the limited transportation facilities of the various regiments would allow of being brought to camp. The freest latitude was given to regimental commissaries to purchase whatever was necessary, it being one of those exigencies where I felt at liberty to entirely overstep rules and formalities, and trust to the future liberality of the Department to sanction and approve my action.

The army spent Saturday, 25th, near Livingston. At that place I purchased in addition about 13,000 pounds net of fresh beef and 225 head of hogs, estimated at upwards of 39,000 pounds net; distributing to each regiment what it desired, together with all the bacon, meal, flour, potatoes, &c., that could be procured there, and also a liberal supply of salt, and had the remainder of the cattle on hand (nearly 80 head of beef and all the hogs) driven with the army the next day towards New Columbus, 3 miles east of Gainesborough.

The head of the column arrived at New Columbus late on Sunday evening, January 26, and the rest of the army the next day. I fortunately found there a large supply of flour, rice, and molasses. Directions were at once given to the brigade commissaries to take from that store whatever they deemed sufficient and necessary, receipting for the same to a commissary sergeant placed temporarily in charge. The entire drove of cattle and hogs was at the same time turned over to them, with the advice to kill the latter and salt down temporarily what was not at once issued. These directions were fully complied with, commissaries of all grades receiving at once, without formality of requisition or anything but a pencil memorandum or receipt, whatever they chose to demand.

On Tuesday, 28th January, the steamer Charter arrived at Gainesborough, with supplies of jowls, coffee, rye, sugar, candles, soap, salt, molasses, and vinegar, Lieutenant Jackson having been, at my suggestion, detailed to take charge of these stores at the landing as post commissary. The next day the steamer Commerce arrived, with upwards of 600 barrels of flour, followed by the steamer Umpire, on the 1st instant, with a large supply of corn meal and mess beef.

{p.876}

Advantage was taken of this latter steamer going to Nashville with the sick, and having taken from her nearly half her corn meal, and placed on board about 200 barrels of flour and 130 barrels of molasses, pork, and vinegar, she was sent, by order of General Crittenden, first to Carthage, to land her stores there, as a depot for the troops in their future camps between Chestnut Mound and that place.

The steamer Charter, on her arrival, was ordered to New Columbus to unload, but only partially did so, the entire absence of any unoccupied shed there and the rapid rise of the river rendering such unloading wasteful and dangerous, while the removal of the army from New Columbus, on the east side of Roaring River, to Gainesborough and its vicinity, on its west side, on Wednesday and Thursday, January 29 and 30th, rendered it unnecessary.

The further fact that constant working parties had to be detailed at both landings to roll stores up endangered by the rapid rise of the water will show the difficulty and hazard that an immediate landing of the stores would have caused.

At Gainesborough, situated more than a mile back from the river, it was impossible to procure a store-house. The only one not used by the sick was occupied by the quartermaster, while the division commissary was glad to occupy, for such portions of his stores as were light and most perishable, a portion of a small log cabin, used for hospital stores, and a small smoke-house of a private citizen. Every building, house, and cabin seemed to be filled with the sick and wounded.

The warehouse at the landing had been taken possession of and filled with stores by my direction, and the steamers having been detained, by order of General Crittenden, to furnish transportation for the sick to Nashville, advantage was taken of their presence, and they were made temporary depots and store-houses for issuance of supplies to the troops. In the mean time and immediately upon notice of the arrival of the supplies word had been sent to the brigade commissaries of their presence, with request for immediate requisitions for stores, and instructions given simultaneously to Lieutenant Jackson, in charge of the Gainesborough depot, and to Sergeant Landers, in charge of the New Columbus depot, to deliver and issue, without formality, anything asked for upon simple receipt of brigade or regimental commissaries.

These instructions were carried out in their full spirit and with great zeal and fidelity by those officers. Unsheltered and almost unfed, in rain and mud, without the means of making the transaction of business pleasant or even comfortable, they performed their duty, and, I believe and understand, to the entire satisfaction of every officer and man with whom they came in contact.

With regard to the single article of sugar there may have been some delay in issuance, but the fault does not lie at the door of this office or its agents. Without weights, scales, or measures, I could only issue in bulk, and had to request brigade commissaries to take their sugar by the hogshead and divide it afterwards by flour-barrels full among the regiments. There were no means, no room, no shelter to do other wise. It may be possible that for a day or two some one or more regiments may not have obtained their proper share of that article; but I hold the full receipts of brigade and regimental commissaries for what ever they asked for in the articles of flour, rice, salt, and molasses, besides fresh beef and pork, on the 27th and 28th January (Monday and Tuesday), and for those articles and all the other stores brought by the steamer Commerce from the 29th, inclusive, onwards.

As soon as possible after the arrival of the army at Gainesborough I {p.877} sought to introduce some degree of system in the issuance of supplies. At Gainesborough, at different times between January 29 and February 5, I issued rations to both brigades up to and inclusive of February 10, neither requiring nor receiving, however, regular requisitions or formal receipts; contenting myself in the exigency of the case with undergoing the trouble, labor, and responsibility of putting things in shape afterwards. An honest and an ardent desire to feed the army, and a willingness to overlook formalities in the attempt, must be my justification, or rather excuse.

On the 7th instant (February) I shipped on board steamer Commerce supplies for that portion of General Crittenden’s division en route for Chestnut Mound, which were landed in good order at the month of Caney Fork River. The army is stationed within from 2 to 6 miles of that point. These stores, with those at Carthage, will be fully adequate to support the army to March 10, with the exception of some few articles, for which I have to-day drawn on Captain Shaaff, at Nashville, and with the exception also of the articles of fresh beef and corn meal, for the purchase of which and all other necessaries I have ample funds.

I left at Gainesborough on the 8th instant, by order of General Crittenden, rations for the two regiments stationed there for thirty days, with the exception of the articles of fresh beef bacon, and meal, for the purchase of which, on the requisition of Colonel Murray, commanding, and at his suggestion, I handed over to the commissaries of those regiments the sum of $5,000, Colonel Murray representing that those articles could be purchased there more cheaply than they could be sent there, and that the sum mentioned would be entirely sufficient.

In what I have done I feel that I have worked with an honest heart and an open and active hand for the sustenance of this command. Nor have I left undone aught, either myself or through any agencies, I could procure that would have been for its benefit. The only fear I have had is that the Government would hold me to too rigid an accountability for matters of unavoidable waste, expenditure, or spoliation arising from the entire absence of any facility to transact business with its accustomed and rightful formalities. Without office appliances, blanks, stationery, or forms, I have supposed that the necessity of the case had to carve out its own rules; nor have I been willing to allow the slightest appearance of “red-tapism” to interfere with the prompt supplying of the wants of the soldiers of their country.

I have never heard in the army of the slightest complaint made of any failure to issue supplies on hand, nor do I believe there was any such failure. There was in some cases an entire absence from their posts of commissaries. This may have caused some delay in regiments or companies receiving their supplies; but even of this no word has come to my ears, while I am confident there has not been one hour’s delay on the part of this office or any of its agents in filling any requisitions, however informal, or in filling any order without a requisition from brigade or regimental commissary, commissioned or acting, or from any one representing them; taking simply the receipt of the party applying. A greater liberality in doing business, besides further exposing myself to censure, would have also exposed the Government to still greater loss. I should not have been so minute in this report or embarrassed it with circumstantial details, but I have learned from Captain Claiborne, inspector-general, that vague reports had reached Bowling Green of an unnecessary delay in the issuance of stores received.

{p.878}

So far as relates to commissary stores any reports of that character are entirely untrue; every application for stores, informal or otherwise, having been at once complied with, and the stores unissued having been kept on board the steamboats instead of being immediately landed for wise and good reasons, and under the orders of General Crittenden.

Respectfully submitted.

GILES M. HILLYER, Major, and A. C. S., General Crittenden’s Division.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT NO. 1, New Orleans, February 12, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

DEAR SIR: I received your dispatch indicating your desire that I should send one regiment to Iuka and four to Memphis. Unless there are some controlling reasons to the contrary, I would beg leave to suggest that the whole brigade be sent to Corinth, Miss., as at that point it would be available for any emergency likely to arise. Mobile, New Orleans, Bowling Green, Columbus, and, more remotely, Memphis, are at this moment objective points in the enemy’s plan of offensive operations. The first four are all directly threatened at this moment, and each can be re-enforced from Corinth by rail in about the same time. I can my afford to spare these troops at this particular juncture, not only on my own account, but because I expected to lend a hand to General Bragg at Mobile, whose danger I consider to be more imminent than my own. The necessities of the case, however, seem to require that these troops should be sent from here, and I therefore put them in motion, simply suggesting that, if you do not require them for immediate active operations, you place them in some central position where they may be available for the greatest number of purposes. Corinth is, in my judgment, an important strategical point, as it is not only connected by rail with all the places above indicated, but is only a day’s march from the Tennessee River. This latter fact, taken in connection with the enemy’s command of the water, would, however, suggest that the troops there should form an intrenched camp to prevent disaster from a sudden dash.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. LOVELL, Major-General, Commanding.

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[FEBRUARY 12, 1862.-For Lovell to Benjamin, in reference to re-enforcements for Columbus, Ky., see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 825.]

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NASHVILLE, February 13, 1862.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

The following telegram from General Floyd contains the latest information from Fort Donelson:

FEBRUARY 13.

The day is closed, and we have maintained ourselves fully by land and water. The cannonade at one time was quite sharp. The attack on our trenches was not very {p.879} severe. The gunboats, after two assaults, retired at an early hour in the evening. I presume battle will be fought to-morrow. We will endeavor to hold our position if we are capable of doing so. Our casualties are not great; the enemy’s, I have no doubt, are much greater.

JOHN B. FLOYD, Brigadier-General.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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GLADESVILLE, February 13, 1862.

General COOPER:

GENERAL: I hare no news to communicate particularly. The country people say the enemy has certainly 6,000 men at Piketon.

I have ordered Captain Witcher to take his company over to the Louisa Fork of Sandy, and to watch the country between Grundy and Piketon, and to give me information should the enemy undertake to advance into Virginia.

I have directed Captain Jeffress to bring the horses of his battery forward, and to take the field pieces (six in number) from Pound Gap behind Clinch River. They have no company to man them, no horses to draw them, and there they are exposed to danger without the possibility of doing service. I propose to transport if possible, all the public stores behind Clinch River, yet to hold Pound Gap as long as possible with the force now there. It is as much as I shall be able to do to subsist the men. My commissary being ill with typhoid fever, I have taken the responsibility myself of sending out agents to make purchases of supplies in the counties below me. If I can weather the storm for a few days I shall hope to have supplies on hand. I have requested Jefferson Higginbottom, esq., of Tazewell County Virginia, resident at Liberty Hill, to permit me to nominate him for Major Hawes’ place as commissary of brigade, but have not heard from him as yet. I expect the return of my courier every hour.

I regret to say the exposure incident to my late march in Kentucky is telling strongly upon my men. Lieutenant Tribble, of Stoner’s company, died a few days since. Private Shawhaw and several others of the mounted battalion have died. Colonel Trigg has lost 5 and Colonel Moore 2. Colonel Williams has lost 10 men, of disease. I have in hospital here now 119.

I am, &c.,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-Genera&.

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NASHVILLE, February 14, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

Your dispatch of 8th instant received. General Buckner was engaged with enemy yesterday; is in his presence to-day, and most probably engaged. I cannot detach him. General Chalmers is in command of troops between Memphis and Tennessee River, and cannot be spared now. I hope you will send a suitable commander for East Tennessee from the East.

A. B. JOHNSTON, General.

{p.880}

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EDGEFIELD, February 14, [1862].

General FLOYD, Fort Donelson:

If you lose the fort, bring your troops to Nashville if possible.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., February 14, 1862.

Col. R. A. PRYOR, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR COLONEL: Your favor of the 9th instant has been received.* I regret much that you did not come on from Lynchburg, for the rumors that you refer to were all unfounded, and the matters General Johnston and myself had to communicate through you to the Government were of great importance, being to provide for the very unfortunate contingency now existing here. Moreover I desired you to see for yourself and others the exact condition of things here in justice to my own self, for I am taking the helm when the ship is already in the breakers and with but few sailors to man it. How it is to be extricated from its present perilous condition Providence alone can determine, and unless with its aid I can accomplish but little. My health, moreover, has failed me completely lately. I was confined to my room by a wretched cold all the time I was at Bowling Green. It is the most unfortunate thing that could have happened to me, for the loss of one or two weeks now is or may be most fatal to us. However, I am better now, and am hurrying on to my post as fast as possible. We must defeat the enemy somewhere to give confidence to our friends. Large depots of provisions, ammunition, &c. ought to be provided for at Atlanta, Montgomery, and Jackson, Miss., &c., without loss of time, for future contingencies. We must give up some minor points and concentrate our forces to save the most important ones, or we will lose all of them in succession. The loss of Fort Donelson (God grant it may not fall) would be followed by consequences too lamentable to be now alluded to.

General Johnston is doing his best, but what can he do against such tremendous odds? Come what may, however, we must present a bold front and stout hearts to the invaders of our country.

In haste, yours, truly and sincerely,

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

* Not found.

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NASHVILLE, February 14, 1862.

General POLK:

The following dispatch just received from Fort Donelson:

We have just had the fiercest fight on record between our guns and two gunboats, which lasted two hours. They reached within less than 200 yards of our batteries. We drove them back, damaging two of them badly and crippled a third very badly. No damage done to our battery and not a man killed.

GID. J. PILLOW, Commander.

N. WICKLIFFE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.881}

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HEADQUARTERS, Nashville, February 14, 1862.

To the COMMANDANT OF THE POST AT CLARKSVILLE, TENN.:

You will at once take proper steps to have the railroad bridges over Elk Fork and Whippoorwill, between State Line and Russellville, burned up. Let no delay occur.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Edgefield, February 14, 1862.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding:

I inclose copies of dispatches from General Floyd. You will perceive the necessity of hastening your march as much as possible. It must be continued day and night until the army crosses the Cumberland. Let it be known that the object is to secure the crossing of the Cumberland and no apprehension of the enemy in rear. You will thus preserve their morale. This order must be communicated to the rear of the column, and cavalry must be left in rear to assist the sick and bring up stragglers.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Edgefield, February 14, 1862.

Major-General HARDEE, Bowling Green, Ky.:

The general regards it important that the column should be concentrated here as rapidly as is consistent with an orderly march, and hopes that your arrangements will be such that the troops longest held at Bowling Green to forward supplies may reach this place as early as their baggage wagons. He wishes you to guard against accident by putting two days’ provisions for them in the train.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WOODBURN, Ky., February 14, 1862-10 p.m.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

I left Bowling Green to-day at 3.30. At 12 m. the enemy appeared with artillery, three pieces, I think, on Baker’s Hill, and opened fire on the town, and especially the depot. We were compelled to abandon the depot, which was subsequently burned. We retired at once and in perfect order. I shall move on as rapidly as possible. I particularly desire that you send a train to Franklin to receive my sick and extra baggage to-morrow morning. It should be there at 6 a.m. The enemy has crossed the Barren, supposed on pontoon bridge; force not known. Have cavalry, artillery, and infantry.

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

[Indorsement.]

The operator at Franklin informs me there are three empty trains there.

OPERATOR, Nashville. {p.882}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Edgefield, February 14, 1862.

Major-General CRITTENDEN, C. S. A., Commanding Chestnut Mound:

The general requires that every exertion be made, day and night, until you have ascertained the position and the strength and the direction of the march of General Thomas, U. S. Army. Report by the promptest means in your power.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Edgefield, Tenn., February 14, 1862.

Major-General CRITTENDEN, Commanding Chestnut Mound, Tenn.:

GENERAL: General Johnston orders you to move without delay on Nashville, halting within 10 miles of the city and reporting. Leave a rear guard of cavalry to protect the stores that you cannot move with your command. Let them get information of the enemy.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FRANKLIN, February 14, 1862.

General JOHNSTON:

Enemy have Baker’s Hill, throwing shell all over town. General Hardee will probably be down on the train which follows the train I came on. Had no notice of their approach till shells exploded at depot. They were reported to be 3,000 infantry, 260 cavalry. They are supposed to be the three regiments infantry, battalion cavalry, with artillery, that were reported as approaching via Tompkinsville three days ago. Shells about 10 inches diameter.

MARSHALL.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS C. S. TROOPS, Iuka, Miss., February 14, 1862.

In pursuance of an order this day received from General A. S. Johnston, commanding Western Department, Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers assumes command of all the Confederate States troops between Memphis and Tennessee River.

JAMES R. CHALMERS, Brigadier-General.

[FEBRUARY 15, 1862.-For Bragg to Benjamin, in reference to operations in Kentucky, &c., see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 826.]

{p.883}

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, Tenn., February 15, 1862.

General JOHNSTON:

MY DEAR SIR: General Pillow’s dispatch after the battle of to-day shows that the enemy is being re-enforced and will probably attack us again. (A copy of this dispatch the operator informs me he sent to you.)

Will you pardon me, my dear sir, for suggesting and respectfully urging the immediate re-enforcement of our gallant and glorious little army there to the extent of our ability. A few thousand men thrown to their aid immediately may turn the scale and make our victory complete and triumphant.

If there is anything that State authorities can do to aid this or any other matter they are at your command.

Respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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EDGEFIELD, TENN., February 15, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

I learn 15,000 arms have run the blockade on the steamship Victoria at New Orleans. I request that they may be immediately sent to me at Murfreesborough, Tenn., where there will be an agent to receive them, suggesting that they may be placed in charge of special messenger, with power-to impress all passenger locomotives on the rail roads, by which means they can be sent in less than half the time that freight engines would deliver them. I also wish to ascertain what kind of guns they are, their caliber and character, so as to have proper ammunition prepared here at Nashville by the time they arrive. The men to use them can be found, and in the present emergency they may be of vital importance.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. 8. Army.

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EDGEFIELD, February 15, 1862-11.30 p.m.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

I earnestly request that the arms may be immediately sent from New Orleans which I mentioned in my dispatch this evening.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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GLADESVILLE, VA., February 15, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

GENERAL: I have information now which renders it certain that the enemy contemplates a movement into Virginia by assailing the line of the mountains in several places simultaneously. In the execution of this purpose he is busy, using the navigation of the Sandy for the purpose of collecting supplies at Piketon, and is pressing his troops there as rapidly as-he can. I hear from the scouts that only 1,600 had arrived at Piketon at the first of this week, and that other corps are at Prestonburg, Paintsville, Louisa, and Catlettsburg; that the column intended to be employed is 12,000; and that the Pound Gap and the {p.884} Wytheville road are designed to be the paths of the invasion. Of course the Salt Works and the railroad are the objects of the enemy.

I send you a letter received by Colonel Williams yesterday from Piketon, as he says, “one part written by a lady and the other by a gentleman, both reliable;” also Major Thompson’s report as from a scout belonging to Williams’ regiment. You can form an opinion from these as to the intent and state of preparation of the enemy and as to the absolute necessity of sending forward men and supplies.

I have had great delicacy in ordering anything since I recrossed the mountains. I suppose my force is in the geographical district of some other commander, and that it is proper that the regulations proper to be prescribed for the intercourse of the people in Virginia and Kentucky with each other over the lines of the mountains should come from the commanding officer. It is true Piketon and Pound Gap are both on that indefinite frontier to which I was assigned with a separate command, yet indeed I am ignorant of the extent of territory over which, under the orders, I should attempt control. I am satisfied the enemy should be driven to the Ohio River and out of the Kentucky mountains, but I cannot add emphasis to what I have already written on that point.

As to supplies, they can be had by bringing them 50 miles in sufficient quantity to subsist 5,000 or 10,000 infantry until 1st May, for the latter, say, 12,000 bushels of corn and 5,000 bushels of wheat, and this will cost at the point of purchase, say, $15,000 or $16,000; also some 500,000 pounds of meat, besides fresh beef; &c. The transportation should be put at the minimum. The organization of an effective column of resistance should be began at once, and the lines should be manned so as to mask our intentions until we are ready to strike, unless he strikes first.

This matter has to be attended to sooner or later. Is it not best it should be done on my plan? Behind Clinch River supplies could easily reach a camp of preparation, which can be located so as to cover both roads and the Salt Works, should you be unable to send forward men to do the work immediately. Between Piketon and Cumberland Gap you must have a division. If we can go down into Kentucky we can get men. I am sure of it, and I am so informed; I cannot be mistaken; but we must open the ways for them to come out to me or they cannot come; and when we go we must have arms to give them or be able to send them to a point where they can be supplied with arms.

I presume you have seen Col. R. C. Trigg, of the Fifty-fourth Virginia Volunteers, as he left his camp when his regiment crossed Clinch River and it is said has gone to Richmond. His object was to obtain clothing for his men, though he left without my leave. I have no hope of preserving any Virginia regiment in this difficult and unwelcome service after the success of the Fifty-sixth Regiment in getting away from it. I do think, however, when the frontier of Virginia herself is the line of contest, her sons had as well take the snows of her mountains as any other troops. A good many of Colonel Williams’ men have deserted rather than cross the Cumberland Range and come out of Kentucky.

I have prohibited the disbursing officers of this command from giving more than 75 cents per bushel for corn, 40 cents for shelled oats, $1 for wheat, rye, or barley. I have directed that where there is a surplus beyond the wants of the farmer, that surplus shall be taken, if not sold, at the prices above stated, and a certificate left of the amount taken, so that the Department or Congress may fix the rate of “just compensation” {p.885} to which the party may be entitled. This must be done or we must submit to extortion.

Men feeding cattle near the road to Pound Gap I have directed to take their stock elsewhere, and I have levied on all their hay, grass, and small grain, which public animals will want on our line of march. There are men feeding hogs and cattle yet in Scott and Lee Counties under the hope of realizing high prices in the spring and summer for these from the Army. If I had the command, I would seize and bacon all their hogs and beef, or I would make them carry it south of the railroad. They are getting all the supplies out of our way under the hope of future private gain and they should be stopped at once. There are neighborhoods between this and Piketon as unsound as any part of Northwest Virginia. They must be thrown behind declared lines, and indeed if the able-bodied men do not enlist they should be drafted or compelled to go south of the railroad. The enemy must not find guides and spies here as he did in Kentucky, or he will have all advantages, and will advance with confidence if not success.

The snow is now 6 inches deep here and yet falling rapidly.

I presume my letters reach your regularly; if not, please advise me. I hope you will take the condition of affairs in this quarter into instant consideration. I am ready to do all an officer can do, but I cannot resist an army unless I have force to act with. Colonels Trigg and Moore and Captain Jeffress are all farther from me than the enemy is. I shall order them to return as soon as I can collect here supplies to feed them, which duty now engages my attention, as I have neither quartermaster nor commissary in the field for duty.

Your obedient servant,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

CAMP AT THE POUND, February 14, 1862.

General HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Gladesville:

GENERAL: I send you inclosed a letter that I have received from Piketon. It was written on last Tuesday at Piketon. One part was written by a lady and the other by a gentleman living in Piketon. I know them both and they are both reliable.

Yours, truly,

JNO. S. WILLIAMS, Colonel, &c.

[Subinclosure.]

DEAR FRIEND: I received your note to-day, and was glad to hear from you. The Union men are here. They have a force of three regiments; they are increasing daily. They are going to the Pound Gap. Tell father and brother Harrison to stay away from here, to stay out of this State, for they are scouting all the time. Tell father mother is well and treated well. Tell father not to be uneasy about us, but take care of himself and not stay up there anywhere. Show this to him.

Your friend,

[Not signed.]

From all we can find out they are going to the Pound Gap with a large force, and they think that the Southern soldiers have only volunteered for six months, and then they will not join any more, and then {p.886} our forces will be so weak that they can march in. They intend attacking several points at the same time. They have forces all the [way] from the Ohio River here. They have provisions-any amount. The steamboats are running; four and five; are very large.

[Not signed.]

[Inclosure No. 2.]

POUND GAP, WISE COUNTY, VA., February 14, 1862.

Brig. Gen. HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Headquarters, Gladesville, Wise County, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to report from reliable source, one of Colonel Williams’ men, who just came from near Prestonburg, states the enemy about 1,600 at Piketon and 3,000 at Paintsville and Prestonburg. They intend to concentrate a large force at Piketon to enter Virginia by the Louisa route and this point. They have brought large supplies to all of those points; the number they intend for the column is 12,000. Their design is to destroy the Salt Works and the railroad; the cavalry is on the Rockhouse.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. THOMPSON, Major, Virginia Volunteers.

–––

[FEBRUARY 16, 1862.-For Benjamin to Lovell, in reference to arms and re-enforcements for Kentucky, &c., see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 827.]

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RICHMOND, February 16, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Nashville:

I know not what arms are on the Victoria. I have ordered General Lovell to forward them all to Grand Junction, subject to your order under care of a special agent, and to inform you by telegraph of all particulars.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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EDGEFIELD, February 16, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

Do not send me the arms I requested yesterday until I name some other place.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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FEBRUARY 16, 1862.

Capt. D. P. BUCKNER, Clarksville:

Do not destroy the railroad bridge. Do not destroy the army stores, &c., if their destruction will endanger the city. If you can burn the army stores, &c., without destroying the city, do it.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

{p.887}

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EXECUTIVE HEADQUARTERS, Nashville, Tenn., February 16, 1862.

Colonel CLAIBORNE:

You will call out the entire force under your command and apply to the military storekeeper at the capital for arms. When armed, call upon the ordnance officer at Nashville for ammunition and accouterments, and hold your command subject to the orders of General Johnston.

Impress upon your soldiery that the Revolution of ’76 was won by the Tennessee rifle, and that we fight in defense of our homes and all that we hold dear.

By order of Isham G. Harris, Governor &c.:

W. C. WHITTHORNE, Adjutant-General.

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PARIS, February 16, 1862-5 p.m.

Major-General POLK:

Your dispatches ordering me to destroy the bridges and trestle between Paris and Tennessee River have been received and shall be executed. Your order to destroy the bridge on Tennessee River has also been received.

The enemy burnt that bridge last night. There is no mistake of this. I will execute your orders fully.

J. H. MILLER, Lieutenant-Colonel.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Edgefield, February 16, 1862-5.35 a.m.

Colonel BOWEN, Commanding Head of Column:

General Johnston orders the march to be resumed in the order in which the troops left Bowling Green. News from our flank makes this advisable. Pass this order on to the brigades in rear till it reaches General Hardee.

Respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

Provisions are at Manscoe Creek. Let it be known to the brigades in rear of you.

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HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF NORTH ALABAMA, Tuscumbia, February 16, 1862.

Maj. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Dept. of General A. S. Johnston:

MAJOR: On the 14th I addressed you a communication and directed it to Bowling Green, not having then heard of its evacuation by General Johnston. Fearing that it may not reach you, I repeat substantially its contents. General Bragg, commanding the Department of West Florida and Alabama, has created this district and assigned me to its command. The object of General Bragg in sending me here was to {p.888} defend the Upper Tennessee and the Memphis and Charleston Railroad and its connections; but with the district as now organized it is impossible to adopt any system of defenses at all commensurate with the magnitude of the interests involved. It is not only the Tennessee River up to this point which is threatened, but also the Memphis and Charleston Railroad and the Mobile and Ohio Road, which intersects the Memphis and Charleston Road at Corinth, Miss. These roads constitute the vertebrae of the Confederacy, but with this district as now limited I have no control of that portion of Mississippi and Tennessee through which these roads run, nor of that portion of Tennessee lying on the Tennessee River from which these roads may be approached. The portions of Mississippi and Tennessee referred to lie within the department of General Johnston. I therefore respectfully and urgently suggest that the counties of Tishomingo and Tippah, in Mississippi, and the counties of Wayne, Hardin, and McNairy, in Tennessee, be added to my district, so that I may be able to direct and control the military operations in those counties.

A large proportion of the population of the counties of Hardin and Wayne is in sympathy with the enemy, and either Savannah or Hamburg, in Tennessee, or Eastport, in Mississippi, will be made the base of his operations.

The only troops so far assigned to me by General Bragg are one regiment of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. The inadequacy of this force is patent to observation, and I trust that General Johnston, appreciating, as I doubt not he does, the importance of this position, will at once send me an additional force; and in this connection I would respectfully request that an engineer officer of experience and ability be sent to me.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

–––

RICHMOND, February 16, 1862.

Colonel LEADBETTER, Knoxville, Tenn.:

Proceed to Cumberland Gap with all the force which can be spared from guarding the railroad to re-enforce Colonel Rains. Forces are on the way to Knoxville from here, care of Colonel Vance, commanding Knoxville.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and inspector General.

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RICHMOND, February 16, 1862.

Col. R. B. VANCE, Knoxville, Tenn.:

Send all the troops you can, without delay, to re-enforce Colonel Rains. Other regiments are on their way to Knoxville and you will have large re-enforcements within a few days. Keep only the smallest guard consistent with safety at Knoxville, and send the rest by forced marches to re-enforce Rains.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

{p.889}

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COLUMBUS, KY., February 17, 1862.

Brigadier-General RUGGLES:

I am aware of the order you have received from General Johnston. My information is such that I know there is no danger of attack from any point on the Tennessee River.

General Johnston is reported to have abandoned Nashville and to be retreating to Chattanooga.

I am just in receipt of a dispatch from General Beauregard, who has not yet assumed command here, that you ought not to go to Nashville. I therefore order you to move to this post with all possible dispatch.

A copy of this dispatch will be sent to General Johnston and General Beauregard. Answer.

L. POLK, Major-General.

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JACKSON, TENN., February 17, 1862.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Commanding Louisiana Volunteers, Corinth, Miss.:

Please report to General Polk. The general [Beauregard] is unable to assume command.

THOMAS JORDAN, Adjutant-General.

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TUSCUMBIA, ALA., February 17, 1862.

J. P. BENJAMIN:

The Kentucky line of defenses has been lost, with a large part of our army. The line from Memphis to Virginia must now be defended at all hazards. To do this we must have armies at Corinth and Knoxville. To supply these armies, what remains of Johnston’s forces, Columbus, the Gulf, the seaboard, and Virginia must be drawn; better lose the seaboard than this line. The Memphis and Charleston Road is the vertebrae of the Confederacy, and there are no troops for its defense. In a week the enemy can threaten it from Eastport, within 8 miles, and Hamburg, within 22 miles, with 50,000 men unless large forces are immediately sent to its protection. The people will abandon the country to the occupation of the enemy.

With great respect I suggest these views, and urgently ask for immediate action.

L. P. WALKER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Edgefield, February [17, 1862].

Major-General CRITTENDEN, Commanding Chestnut Mound:

General Johnston directs you to move your command to Murfreesborough (instead of Nashville) without delay. Press all the wagons you need. Fort Donelson has fallen, and General Floyd’s army is captured after a gallant defense.

Respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL.

{p.890}

[FEBRUARY 18, 1862.-For Benjamin to Bragg, in reference to operations in Kentucky, &c., see Series I, Vol. VI, pp. 827, 828.]

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RICHMOND, VA., February 18, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Nashville:

Send such information of your present condition and intended movements as will enable us to give you all the aid in our power. Send further details of the affair at Fort Donelson.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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NASHVILLE, February 18, 1862. (Via Chattanooga, 19th.)

President DAVIS:

General Johnston left to-day for Murfreesborough. The army in retreat for that place. I will send your dispatch to him by special courier. Moving our stores from this place.

W. J. HARDEE, Major-General.

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JACKSON, TENN., February 18, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

Columbus, with present defensive resources, must meet the fate of Fort Donelson, with the loss of the entire army, as all ways of retreat by rail and river can be cut off by the enemy’s superior force from Tennessee River; a hazard contrary to the art of war. Therefore should now decide whether to hold Columbus to the last extremity, with its garrison (say 3,500 men), withdrawing other forces for subsequent use, or the evacuation of the place and new defensive positions taken. My health is too feeble to authorize me to assume command, but I shall advise with General Polk.

G. T. B.

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HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS, Corinth, Miss., February 18, 1862.

Major-General POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

Your dispatch of 17th received a few moments since. The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Louisiana Volunteers will be halted at the Grand Junction, ready to proceed to Columbus, Ky. The Sixteenth and Nineteenth Louisiana Volunteers will be in readiness to proceed from this point.

The latest intelligence from Nashville is annexed for your information.

If General Johnston does not cover the Tennessee River the enemy will get into possession of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, with open communication to Mobile, Memphis, and New Orleans.

{p.891}

Shall I intrench and defend the crossings at Florence and Decatur or join you at once? Please answer.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding Troops.

[To accompany telegram to Major-General Polk.]

I have not had Nashville operator to-day. Stevenson says he heard him this morning; they were expecting Federals every hour. General Johnston’s army all this side river.

Pillow and Floyd were at Nashville yesterday, and good many of our Fort Donelson men had reached there.

We had about 5,000 men surrendered at Fort Donelson with General Buckner.

TUSCUMBIA OPERATOR.

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HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS, Corinth, Miss., February 18, 1862.

Maj. Gen. A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Murfreesborough, Tenn.:

I reported yesterday my arrival. Two regiments of troops had then arrived and two more are near at hand.

I have received orders from General Polk to proceed to Columbus, Ky., as General Beauregard is unable to assume command.

The general (Polk) is not aware of your movements, and I am desirous to know your instructions respecting my brigade, as there may be time before I can move.

If the enemy reaches the Charleston and Memphis Railroad he can move on Mobile, Memphis, and New Orleans. Please answer.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding Brigade.

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CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS C. S. TROOPS, Iuka, Miss., February 18, 1862.

The general commanding has been deeply mortified to hear from the citizens that we came to protect complaints that some of the troops of this command had been guilty of the most disgraceful plundering of private property; that chickens had been stolen, hogs had been killed a horse wantonly stabbed, private gardens robbed. Such conduct is disgraceful in itself, unworthy of Southern soldiers, and only equaled by the marauding hordes that are invading our soil. It is hoped that such things may not occur again in future, but if ever they should, it is enjoined not only upon all officers, but upon all good men also, to ferret out and expose to ignominy and punishment the guilty parties, whose conduct when unexposed brings down common disgrace upon all. The patriot soldier who has left all the comforts and luxuries of home to battle for his country’s rights will be exposed to suspicion and must bear his portion of the common disgrace. It therefore behooves him above all others to assist in detecting the guilty.

By order of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers:

ADDISON CRAFT, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.892}

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RICHMOND, VA., February 19, 1862.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Jackson, Tenn.:

Your dispatch to General Cooper received. Evacuation decided on. Select defensive position below. Look to safety of artillery and munitions. A fleet of boats should promptly be sent from Memphis or other point to aid the movement.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

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NASHVILLE, [February] 19, 1862.

General JOHNSTON:

The enemy landed at Clarksville from three gunboats at half-past four o’clock to-day.

JOHN B. FLOYD, Brigadier-General.

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RICHMOND, February 19, 1862.

Col. D. LEADBETTER, Knoxville, Tenn.:

Move the regiment to a point on the railroad convenient for marching to the Gap, and hold them there unless re-enforcements are required at the Gap. An agent was sent from here on the 13th to attend to the matter of bacon at Knoxville. We wait to receive his report.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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GLADESVILLE, February 19, 1862.

[General S. COOPER] Adjutant and inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I send you the reports received this morning just before day. Yesterday it was said the enemy had all left Piketon to go down the river, and I requested a friend in Richmond to say so to you. I did not then credit that report, and a day brings forth this most unsatisfactory solution of his movements.

You see Colonel Williams says two of his companies have gone to the head of the Cumberland. They are hunting corn to feed upon. All the horses broken down and distempered were sent off a week since to feed and be recruited, and are now near 40 miles from the wagons. I am scouring this country to-day to press horses to bring away the wagons, intending to concentrate my forces behind Clinch River if they can whip me at Osborne’s Gap, which I think is not unlikely at all. I have ordered Colonels Trigg and Moore to move in this direction, taking provisions on pack-horses, and I have ordered Williams to resist the occupancy of Osborne’s Gap with his regiment, and if he has to retreat, to move by the way of the Crane’s Nest back on Guest’s Station, where it is to be hoped Trigg and Moore will join the forces retreating from Pound Gap.

I feel, sir, that my task is as onerous as it is unwelcome, and I mourn that impending disasters should be the fate awaiting my administration of this command.

I am, &c.,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

{p.893}

[Inclosures.]

CAMP NEAR THE POUND, FEBRUARY 18, 1862

[General HUMPHREY MARSHALL,] Gladesville:

GENERAL: I send you Major Thompson’s note. I have not a day’s supply of bread.

Two of my companies are on head of Cumberland. The scout of Major Thompson is here; he says the 1,400 mentioned in the note came up Elkhorn, and that the main force is coming up Shelby, with their wagons, &c.

[WILLIAMS.]

POUND GAP, February 18, 1862.

Colonel WILLIAMS:

The enemy stays 6 miles below Osborne’s to-night. My scouts just came in and gave me the news. They aim to take Osborne’s Gap tomorrow. Send an express to General Marshall; I have not a horse, or I would.

Yours, truly,

JOHN B. THOMPSON, Major, Virginia Volunteers.

The number below Osborne is 1 400; they expect to meet the main body at Shelby Gap. Be on the alert.

JOHN B. THOMPSON.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., February 20, 1862.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: I have received your several communications from Captain Williams, and he has been detained a day or two, to enable us to obtain such information of the late engagement at Fort Donelson and the movement of our troops as would authorize a definite decision as to our future movements. We have been disappointed in receiving reliable dispatches; but yesterday a telegram arrived from General Beauregard to the following effect:

Columbus, with present defensive resources, must meet the fate of Fort Donelson with loss of entire army, as all ways of retreat by rail and river can be cut off by the enemy’s superior forces from Tennessee; a hazard contrary to art of war. Therefore should now decide whether to hold Columbus to the last extremity with its garrison (say 3,500 men), withdrawing other forces for subsequent use or the evacuation of the place and now defensive positions taken. My health is too feeble to authorize me to assume command, but I shall advise with General Polk.

To this dispatch, communicated to us in cipher, I replied, by the President’s instructions:

Evacuation decided on. Select defensive position below. Look to safety of artillery and munitions. A fleet of boats should promptly be sent from Memphis to aid the movement.

This correspondence, which has probably been communicated to you by General Beauregard, will no doubt have already caused you to commence the movement, and I have nothing to add. I have only to request that you will, as promptly as possible, use every endeavor to save the cannon and munitions of war, which we cannot replace and {p.894} cannot afford to lose. Heavy re-enforcements from the South will reach you, and I suppose four or five regiments from New Orleans must already be in Tennessee, as well as four regiments from General Bragg’s command, to be further increased by four regiments from this neighborhood. Some 10,000 additional veteran troops will be thrown forward from the South, and no effort will be spared to save the line of communication between Memphis and Bristol, so vital to our defense.

We have no accurate knowledge of the events at Fort Donelson, but are satisfied that the resistance was glorious. The reverse was, unfortunately, the case at Roanoke Island.

I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

–––

MURFREESBOROUGH, February 20, 1862.

General JOHNSTON:

The gunboats landed at Clarksville yesterday at 3 o’clock. The bridges here were destroyed this morning. I am still attempting to get trains off, but the difficulties are immense. The troops will all leave here to-day.

JOHN B. FLOYD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS, Corinth, Miss., February 20, 1862.

By authority from Major-General Polk the undersigned assumes command of all the Confederate forces on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad as far as Decatur and in its vicinity north and south.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

–––

CORINTH, MISS., February 20, 1862-5.30 p.m.

Brigadier-General CHALMERS, Commanding at Iuka Miss.:

One gunboat passed Hamburg, Tennessee River, this morning at 10 o’clock, for Florence, it is reliably reported. The people on board state that another boat, with transports, will pass up to-morrow.

Take immediate measures to protect Florence, if you have the means to do so. If not, inform me at once.

Have you a field battery ready for service? Have you any heavy guns? What quantity of powder have you? Answer.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding Brigade.

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CORINTH, Miss., February 20, 1862-6. p.m.

Major-General LOVELL, New Orleans, La.:

I am ordered to command the district embracing the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. One gunboat has just passed Hamburg for Florence, {p.895} and reports that another will go up to-morrow, with transports. I am in want of Semmes’ battery. Can you send it to me? I hope that you will send me the Fourth Regiment. The Nineteenth has not a cartridge, and I can’t get any from Memphis or Nashville. The Seventeenth Regiment is expected to-night. Answer.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 12.}

HEADQUARTERS C. S. TROOPS, Iuka, Miss., February 20, 1862.

Major Baskerville will take two companies of his command and proceed at once to Eastport, keep in view of the gunboat of the enemy reported in sight by his scouts, and watch the enemy, keeping his command without the range of the enemy’s guns, not exposing his command in any way, but keep informed as to his movements, and act with due discretion, and report, as the exigency may require, to these headquarters.

By order of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers:

WM. M. STRICKLAND, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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JACKSON, TENN., February 21, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I regret profoundly to have to acquaint the War Department that my ill health has made it improper for me as yet to assume the command assigned me.

In accordance with instructions, I repaired with as little delay as practicable to Bowling Green, Ky., and reported to General A. S. Johnston, commanding the department, on the night of the 4th instant. After several interviews with him and the fall of Fort Henry, an informal conference was held at my lodgings on the 7th instant, at which General Johnston, Major-General Hardee, and myself were present, for the consideration of the military exigency. On that occasion it was determined that, Fort Henry having fallen and Fort Donelson not being long tenable, preparations should be made at once for the removal of the army on that line in rear of the Cumberland River at Nashville, while a strong point on that river some few miles below the city should be fortified forthwith against the approach by that way of gunboats and transports.

The troops then at Clarksville were to be thrown across to the southern bank of the Cumberland, leaving only a sufficient force in the town to protect the manufactories and other property in which the Confederate’ Government was interested.

In the event of a further retrograde movement becoming inevitable, Stevenson was chosen as a suitable point for a stand, and subsequent movements were to be determined by circumstances.

It was likewise determined that the possession of the Tennessee River by the enemy, consequent upon the capitulation of Fort Henry, must break the direct communication between the army at Bowling Green and the one at Columbus, which henceforward must act independently {p.896} of each other until they can again be brought together. Meantime the first must defend the State of Tennessee along the line already indicated; the second that part of the State included between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers. But as the possession of the Tennessee River by the enemy had also rendered the communications of the army at Columbus liable to be cut off at any time from that river by an overflowing force of the enemy rapidly concentrated from the various points of the Ohio, it had become further necessary to guard and provide against such a calamity, to which end it was decided that the main force in occupation of Columbus should fall back upon Humboldt, and thence, if need be, to Grand Junction, so as to protect Memphis from either point and still secure a line of retreat to the latter place or Grenada, Miss., or even to Jackson, of that State.

Finally, at Columbus, left with a sufficient garrison for the defense of the works there, assisted by Hollins’ gunboats, a desperate defense of the river was to be made. But at the same time transports were to be collected and held near by for the prompt removal of the entire garrison when the position was no longer tenable in the opinion of the commanding officer. Meanwhile Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow would be fortified for defense to the last extremity, assisted by the naval gunboats, which as a last resort would retire to the vicinity of Memphis, where another resolute stand should be made.

Five days later, in view of existing conditions, I addressed to General Johnston a paper, a copy of which I now transmit for the information of the War Department.

On reaching here I received information that confirmed my views in great part as set forth in that letter, and satisfied me that to attempt to hold Columbus with any force now at my disposition could only result in an early fate like that of Fort Donelson and the loss of the Mississippi Valley as a necessary consequence. Unfit physically to visit Columbus, I requested General Polk and Governor Harris to meet me here. They did so. Meantime your reply to my telegraphic dispatch touching the further occupation of Columbus had been received. Arrangements were made for the prompt defense of Island No. 10, a position naturally of great strength, and New Madrid; for the early evacuation of the position at Columbus, and removal of the large stores of supplies and munitions now there in such way as to avoid publicity. These new lines can be made of great strength with a garrison of about 5,000 men, thus leaving free my main force for maneuver and “defensive, active” operations against the enemy as he shall penetrate the country by the avenues now unfortunately in his possession.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

BOWLING GREEN, Ky., February 12, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Western Department, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: By the fall of Fort Henry the enemy, having possession of the Tennessee River, which is navigable for their gunboats and transports to Florence, it becomes evident that the forces under your immediate command and those under General Polk, separated unfortunately by that river, can no longer act in concert, and will be unable to support each other until the fortune of war shall have restored the Tennessee {p.897} River to our possession or combined the movements of the two armies in rear of it.

It also becomes evident that by the possession of that river the enemy can concentrate rapidly by means of his innumerable transports all his disposable forces on any point along its banks either to attack Nashville in rear or cut off the communications of Columbus by the river with Memphis and by the railroads with the Memphis and Charleston Railroad.

Should the enemy determine on the former plan of operations, your army, threatened in front and on right flanks by Buell’s large army, will be in a very critical condition, and may be forced to take refuge on the south side of the Tennessee River, in Alabama and Georgia or Eastern Tennessee. But should Halleck adopt the second plan referred to, the position at Columbus will then become no longer tenable for an army inferior in strength to that of the enemy, and it must fall back to some central point, where it can guard the two main railroads to Memphis, i.e., from Louisville and from Charleston. Jackson, Tenn., would probably be the best position for such an object, with strong detachments at Humboldt and Corinth and with the necessary advance guards. The Memphis and Charleston Road, so important on account of its extension through Eastern Tennessee and Virginia, must be properly guarded from Iuka to Tuscumbia, and even to Decatur, if practicable.

Columbus must either be left to be defended to the last extremity by its proper garrison, assisted by Hollins’ fleet of gunboats, and provided with provisions and ammunition for several months, or abandoned altogether, its armament and garrison being transferred, if practicable, to Fort Pillow, which, I am informed, is a naturally and artificially strong position, about 100 miles above Memphis. Island No. 10, near New Madrid, could also be held by its garrison, assisted by Hollins’ fleet until the possession of New Madrid by the enemy would also compel that position to be evacuated.

I am clearly of the opinion that to attempt at present to hold so advanced a position as Columbus with the movable army under General Polk, when its communication can be so readily cut off by a superior force acting from the Tennessee River as a new base, would be to jeopardize not only the safety of that army, but necessarily of the whole Mississippi Valley. Hence I desire, as far as practicable, specific instructions as to the future movements of the army of which I am about to assume the command. If it be necessary for the safety of the country to make with all my forces a desperate stand at Columbus, I am ready to do so.

I regret much that illness has prevented me from being already at my post, but during my stay here I believe I have made myself as well acquainted with your general views and intentions as circumstances have permitted, and which I will always be happy to carry into effect to the best of my abilities.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Any.

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CAMP DESHA, February 21, 1862.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

DEAR SIR: At 5 o’clock this evening I returned from the expedition over to Camp Beauregard and vicinity. Owing to the heavy rains I {p.898} could not get to Viola, but I have destroyed the railroads as well as possible from within 5 miles south of Mayfield back to Fulton Station. All the bridges are destroyed as far as Viola, Major King and others having done that on the Obion and other creeks some time ago.

I destroyed the engine and some of the cars. Those I did not destroy were full of provisions and other stores belonging to the Government. The depot building and cars at Fulton Station are all full to overflowing with provisions, &c., and if they are not speedily moved will be materially damaged. As soon as they can be removed the cars will be destroyed. I had a large lot of flour and other provisions, some wagons, &c., moved from Camp Beauregard to Fulton Station, and there, as directed by you I set fire to that camp.

I learned from Judge Campbell, of Paducah, that the enemy admit that they lost 5,000 men in killed and wounded in the battles at Fort Donelson.

Hoping, general, that our work may be satisfactory to you, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

T. H. LOGWOOD, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Post.

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GLADESVILLE, VA., February 21, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I received dispatch in the night last night from Colonel Williams, whose regiment I had ordered to occupy Osborne’s Gap. He says the enemy has gone back to Piketon; had been up to the head of Marrowbone, but that his force is exaggerated. I ordered Trigg’s and Moore’s regiments forward. They came promptly through rain, snow and mud, the former making 16 miles yesterday and the front 9 by to-day. I permit them to return to their position on the Clinch.

I did hope ere this to hear from you. Something should be done, general, to enable the officer in command of this country to remove the bad and unsound men from those neighborhoods where they can and do daily communicate with the enemy.

Hoping that the Department will answer my letters, and especially that which asks leave to visit Richmond for a few days, I remain, your obedient servant,

H. MARSHALL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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[FEBRUARY 22, 1862.-For Bragg to Benjamin in reference to re-enforcements for Kentucky, &c., see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 829.]

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RICHMOND, VA., February 23, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Murfreesborough, Tenn.:

General M. Lovell has sent four regiments to Corinth, Miss. Give your orders whether they are to join you or General Polk.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

{p.899}

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JACKSON, TENN., February 23, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond:

GENERAL: I have to submit herewith a copy of a circular I have felt called upon to address to the Governors respectively of the States of Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, which I hope may meet the sanction of the War Department. I shall be pleased to receive the instructions and views of the Department as soon as practicable.

It is presumed that the troops thus called into the field may be raised without difficulty or much delay, especially if I am authorized at once to receive them as parts of the quotas due from the several States mentioned.

In connection with the letter of Major-General Van Dorn, I beg leave to submit that all operations in States bordering on the Mississippi River should be made subordinate to the secure possession of that river, which, if lost, would involve the complete isolation and destruction of any army west of it.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

CONFIDENTIAL CIRCULAR.]

JACKSON, TENN., February 21, 1862.

DEAR SIR: As you are aware, heavy disasters have recently befallen our arms on the Kentucky border. The Tennessee River is in possession of the enemy since the capture of Fort Henry. The evacuation of Bowling Green and subsequent fall of Fort Donelson, with large loss of officers, men, arms, and munitions, have so weakened us on that line that Nashville can only be held by superhuman energy, determination, and courage. At the same time the direct communications of the forces at Columbus with those under General A. S. Johnston are broken, and the two armies effectually isolated from each other. With the enemy in command of the Tennessee River the position at Columbus is so endangered from a land approach from that river by a greatly superior force, that its fall must be regarded as certain unless extraordinary efforts are made to re-enforce its present small army of occupation. I need not dwell upon the consequences of such a disaster. Suffice it to say it would involve the immediate loss to the Confederate States of the Mississippi River and Valley.

In view of the palpable situation, I am instructed to evacuate Columbus and take up less vulnerable positions on and in the vicinity of Island No. 10 and at New Madrid. In the execution of this measure, however, much will depend on the energy with which our enemy may follow up his late successes, and whether he will give us time to withdraw and receive his onset elsewhere.

Coming to this command at such a crisis, I have been filled with a profound anxiety and sense of the necessity for a prompt, resolute encounter with the exigency in time to prevent an irrevocable defeat. Columbus is now occupied by but about 12,000 men of all arms. At Island No. 10 and New Madrid are some 4,000 more, to which add Ruggles’ brigade, and are under General Chalmers at Iuka, say 5 000 more. Thus you will perceive I have a force at my disposition of but 21,000. If we remain supine and unaroused to the dangers accumulating day {p.900} by day, awaiting the advance of the enemy, he will assemble such a force as to insure his success and a repetition of the late disasters only with more desolating consequences.

Hence I have thought I would submit for the consideration of the Governors of the Mississippi Valley States a plan which I deem most practicable for the recovery of our losses and defense of this river, and call upon them for the means of execution.

I propose that the Governors of the States of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama and your excellency shall each furnish me with from 5,000 to 10,000 men, armed and equipped, with the utmost possible celerity, for time is precious and dispatch essential to success. I shall call on General Van Dorn to unite his forces with mine, and leaving a suitable garrison at Columbus, with troops to guard and hold my rear at Island No. 10, I would then take the field with at least 40,000 men, march on Paducah, seize and close the mouths of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers; aided by gunboats, I could also successfully assail Cairo, and threaten, if not indeed take, Saint Louis itself.

In this way be assured we may most certainly and speedily recover our losses and insure the defense of the valley of the Mississippi, and every man you may send me will really be placed in the best possible position for the defense of his own home and hearth-stone.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Army.

This confidential circular was sent by special messengers to the Governors of Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, the rendezvous of the troops furnished to be as follows: Those from Tennessee, at Jackson, Tenn.; from Alabama, at Corinth; from Mississippi, at Grand Junction; from Louisiana, at Jackson, Tenn., if by railroad, and at Columbus, Ky., if by water.

G. T. B.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

JACKSON, TENN., February 21, 1862.

Maj. Gen. EARL VAN DORN, Commanding, &c., Pacahontas, Ark.:

MY DEAR GENERAL: By the fall of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers the forces under General Polk (now to be under me) are entirely cut off from those under General A. S. Johnston, and must now depend upon themselves alone for the defense of the Mississippi River and contiguous States. The fall of Columbus and of Island No. 10 must necessarily be followed immediately by the loss of the whole Mississippi Valley to the mouth of the Mississippi River. The fate of Missouri necessarily depends on the successful defense of Columbus and of Island No 10; hence we must, if possible, combine our operations not only to defend those positions, but also to take the offensive as soon as practicable to recover some of our lost ground. I have just called on the Governors of Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi for 5,000 men from each State. I have 15,000 disposable for the field. If you could certainly join me, via New Madrid or Columbus, with 10,000 more, we could thus take the field with 40,000 men; take Cairo, Paducah the mouths of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, and most probably be able to take also Saint Louis by the river. What say you to this brilliant programme, which I know is fully practicable if we can {p.901} get the forces? At all events we must do something or die in the attempt; otherwise all will be shortly lost.

Yours, truly and sincerely,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Army.

P. S.-I expect also the co-operation of twelve gunboats from New Orleans. I will inform you of the Governors’ answers as soon as received.

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RICHMOND, VA., February 23, 1862.

Hon. OTHO R. SINGLETON, Richmond:

DEAR SIR: Your proffered kindness touching my personal advancement induces me to the liberty of requesting your aid in making known to the War Department certain reasons, seeming to me proper for removing to Tennessee, as a field of service, the Seventh and Fourteenth Tennessee Regiments, and also in calling attention of the Department to some views deemed worthy of consideration in respect to the importance of our immediately possessing, by whatever force is necessary, the sections of Southern Kentucky and all Tennessee.

First, with regard to the troops mentioned, they, with my own regiment, have for some time past composed a brigade under my command, and I have every reason to believe if they be sent to Tennessee they can be forthwith re-enlisted almost in mass; and, if not sent, I fear they may hesitate to do so. I must say, in justice to myself I do not undertake to justify this spirit in the troops, but only mention it as an existing fact to be dealt with in the prudence of the Department. The condition of going to Tennessee can be offered and the re-enlistments secured before the troops are moved, and I think this course advisable. They are troops inured to the service, and the advantage of re-engaging such, armed and prepared for the war, is doubtless appreciated by the Department.

With respect to the territory mentioned I am impressed that, well considered, its relative importance to the Confederacy will induce the speediest possible concentration there of sufficient forces to dispute its possession with the enemy, even if this can only be done by temporarily weakening other positions less vital in importance; for to allow the enemy possession is at once the abandonment of our most reliable cereal region, important besides for its manufacturing resources, and the section most populous with material for soldiers. Such a condition will induce many who would otherwise stand bravely in arms for us to succumb under despair of successful resistance and the hope of being unmolested in person and property. But, further, Middle and West Tennessee constitute a field for operations the possession of which will in all military respects be as positively advantageous to the enemy as its loss would be disadvantageous to us. For, first, it is a country capable of sustaining a large army; secondly, with the enemy’s advantage of us in capability of manufacturing machinery for transportation and motive power by land and water, his fleets of gunboats on the Mississippi River will make safe the right flank of his army occupying the country and the Cumberland Mountains will do the same for his left, for there is no road through these mountains of sufficient capacity to transport the most necessary supplies of an army which would be adequate to seriously affect his rear. In direct terms, the position is one which, once fairly in possession of the enemy, cannot be turned. Affording {p.902} to us but a front exposure, with to him available lines of transportation in rear, both of railroad and navigable waters, extending to his sources of supply of all war material, a soldier will not fail to appreciate a position presenting but a front exposure to his enemy. Besides all this, does not the enemy’s possession of the field in question bring him almost upon our States of sparse white and dense black population, and perhaps to some extent even threaten the rear of our army on the Potomac?

These views, it seems to me, will warrant the assertion that our immediate possession of the field in question is to us a military necessity.

I believe if we have one distinctly peculiar advantage in this war it is position; that is to say (the affirmative of the war being with the enemy), the power of making him attack us in such positions as we may select. If the enemy has one advantage peculiar, and I acknowledge it a great one, it is the inequality of results of battle between us. If we beat him, while his facilities of trade with the arms markets of the world exist, and his own to manufacture them, results to us are limited to the destruction of an army. But if he beat us, we lose what we can worse spare than an army-arms. It was, perhaps, in substance the application of these two propositions which gave us the victory at Manassas, and prevented our hazarding pursuit of the foe across the Potomac. Deeply impressed with these views of our relations to the enemy (acknowledging exceptions to the rule), I have felt it was our general policy in this war to prudently avoid unnecessary hazards, and in the main compel him to yield us the advantage of position in engagements; but I do not realize that a vigorous, even an attacking, resistance for the rescue and possession of the field in question and adopted speedily as possible, will at all violate the rule of policy stated. If it be with us a necessity to repossess these sections, and we allow the enemy to hold them until he can intrench or even examine the country sufficiently to establish for himself the best line of defense, when we shall undertake to drive him will we not find our peculiar advantage-position-has been transferred to him without diminishing his peculiar one the inequality of the results of battle?

What, then, is our capacity and true policy? I believe 50,000 troops can be promptly concentrated in Tennessee without seriously risking any other position at all equaling this in importance and that it should be done. There, from the nature of their probably attacking duties, should be, if practicable, our best troops; for, taking it that courage is common to all our army, raw troops will more nearly equal the efficiency of trained ones in defending intrenched positions than in general field service and active operations. With this number of such troops the enemy may be resisted, harassed, or even under favorable circumstances attacked in main force, though his numbers double ours; for it is not certain, and is even greatly to be doubted, if there is amongst their generals the ability to combine and use in battle more than with this number we might oppose to them. Suppose them to have double our numbers, and yet their commander be unable to make available a larger number than we oppose to him, may not his surplus become a military fungus, in that while it cannot be appropriated against, it yet may be panic-stricken or stampeded by us? On full consideration may it not be, when armies too large to be conveniently wielded are brought in conflict, that the chances of victory are in favor of the lesser one, especially if it have advantage in spirit, training, or in being better commanded.

The advantages to us in the general economy and those of greater {p.903} secrecy and security in our marches and maneuvers which would accrue from our being amongst a friendly population would be worth something to our Army; but the advantage, if not necessity, to our cause of encouraging and holding the people firm in the resolve never to submit, which the pressure with them of an active army would give, is of momentous importance. Let the people be kept aroused; let them not adopt the blighting fallacy of argument, what our Army cannot do it is hopeless for us to undertake; but, on the contrary, let them be encouraged to resist and inspired with the determination never to yield, and then for us time becomes a position which neither gunboats can successfully assault nor numbers flank. Against it both are impotent. Under its pressure the enemy must go down in hopeless bankruptcy or disband his armies, perhaps do both. Either affords us the independence worth all our sacrifice and which must be won. It may be considerations touching our foreign relations, and of which I am wholly ignorant, suffice in wisdom to detract from the importance, or even directly conflict with the immediate adoption, of the views here advanced. Speedy armed intervention from abroad may be confidently relied on, or possibly pressing necessity to hold inviolate our capital, to the end of securing our recognition by foreign powers, may enhance its value politically, if not for the present give to it an essentiality even beyond what pertains to it in any strictly military sense, such as being a point strategic, strong, or otherwise important. These considerations I have not embraced, but gone upon the assumption we were alone and unaided to fight our battle out. You must take my views as a soldier, not a statesman.

In conclusion, it is my hope I am not biased by any personal or geographical circumstances. I know myself sincere in the belief that if I thought any other part of my country more immediately important to the whole than the sections mentioned I would say make all efforts to first hold that part.

The views I have expressed are the earnest convictions of one whose fortune, life, and every worldly hope have been cheerfully and without a single regret staked upon the issue of the pending contest. They are not urged with the insolence of demand or uttered with the murmur of complaint, but submitted respectfully, and with unwavering confidence in the courage, wisdom, and virtue of the Chief Magistrate directing the country.

Very truly, your friend,

GEO. MANEY.

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ORDERS, No. 3.

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 23, 1862.

Under great necessity temporary possession may be taken of wagons, teams, and other property of our citizens for the use of the army; but this authority can be exercised by chiefs of the army alone.

It is positively prohibited to any officer to seize, take, or impress property of any kind except by written order of the commanding general or division commander, and this authority must be exhibited to the party from whom the property is taken.

Officers or soldiers violating this order will be arrested, proceeded against, and punished as plunderers and marauders.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.904}

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ORDERS, No. 4.}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 23, 1862.

The Central Army is reorganized as follows, viz:

General Johnston assumes command of the army.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 4.}

HEADQUARTERS C. S. FORCES, Corinth, Miss., February 23, 1862.

In conformity with orders from General Bragg the undersigned assumes command of the District of North Alabama.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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MURFREESBOROUGH, [February] 24, 1862.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

My movements have been delayed by a storm on the 22d washing away pike and railroad bridge at this place. Floyd, 2,500 strong, will march for Chattanooga to-morrow to defend the central line. This army will move on 26th, by Decatur, for the valley of Mississippi; is in good condition and increasing in numbers.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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JACKSON, TENN., February 24, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond:

GENERAL: As I had anticipated before leaving Centreville, I find that the troops at Columbus have not been regularly organized according to long-recognized military usage, founded on experience, in all services.

It is tine there is a nominal organization into “divisions,” formed of other subdivisions called “brigades,” but upon no regular basis. For example, General McCown commands one of these so-called divisions of but five regiments of infantry; that is more properly a brigade. Another of these divisions consists of two brigades of three regiments each, Brigadier-General Cheatham commanding the division. The other division, so called, really has had no division commander since the departure of Brigadier-General Pillow. It consists of some eight {p.906} regiments, which form two brigades, I believe, commanded by their senior colonels, respectively.

Brig. Gen. A. P. Stewart commands an independent brigade of three regiments and the heavy artillery, and is in immediate command of the works.

In addition there are quite 1,400 cavalry, over whom there should be some competent commander.

These twenty-two regiments really ought to be subdivided into five brigades, two of them of four regiments and two of five regiments each, taking the weakest regiment for the latter. Larger brigades of volunteers cannot be well handled in action, and I should prefer on that account brigades of but four regiments. I regard the divisional organization as absolutely essential. My experience fully confirms the military practice in European services in this connection. Volunteers need these subdivisions even more than regular troops.

As reported in a previous communication, I have called upon the Governors of Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama for additional troops. To-day I hear by telegraph that they will be furnished with the utmost alacrity and dispatch. For their prompt organization brigade commanders will be wanted.

At present the general officers at Columbus are Major-General Polk, Brigadier-Generals Cheatham, McCown, and A. P. Stewart.

Under these circumstances I must respectfully recall the attention of the Department to my letter written just as I was leaving Centreville, touching the organization of this army. I would, however, so qualify that letter as to say that officers serving now with the troops at Columbus, who may have been recommended by Generals Polk and Johnston for the command of brigades, should justly have precedence over those indicated by me as suitable for such commands. But some, at least, of those I recommended for division and brigade commands I shall need at an early day for the organization and command of the new levies, and I trust the President may be pleased to appoint and send them to report to me with as little delay as practicable.

The services of Colonel Mackall as a division commander I consider indispensable at this critical juncture. My health is such as to make it essential for me to have as many trained, experienced officers to aid me as practicable.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, C. S. Army.

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JACKSON, TENN., February 24, 1862.

Brig. Gen. DANIEL RUGGLES, Commanding, &c., Corinth, Miss.:

DEAR GENERAL: The movements of the enemy in front of and in vicinity of Columbus and in the Tennessee River (it is removed as far as Savannah) make it necessary to watch him at once with the utmost vigilance. Therefore, although I have not assumed command formally, I shall advise the following, to save the time it would take to communicate with and through General Polk.

1st. Hold Hamburg, on the Tennessee River, in strict observation from Corinth.

2d. Place a battalion of your command at Henderson Station, on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, and assume command of the local troops {p.907} already there, consisting of a regiment of infantry, 400 effectives, some 200 of whom only are armed with double-barrel shot-guns, and 140 cavalry, armed with double-barrel shot-guns and knives.

3d. Place another battalion at McNairy’s Station, and hold in observation a road leading through Purdy to Savannah, on Tennessee River.

4th. Send a howitzer, if practicable, with each battalion.

5th. Hold in observation the landing on Tennessee River opposite a place called Waterloo.

6th. The cavalry now at Henderson must be used to all possible advantage as outposts and vedettes and in procuring information of the movements of the enemy on the river.

There is another cavalry company at Bolivar which was offered, armed with shot-gnus, which may be taken into active service at once.

There is at Henderson no ammunition for the infantry now there, I hear from Colonel Lea, commanding there.

I would further advise you to order up to Corinth the rest of your brigade from Grand Junction, and to hold all your command ready for any emergency, including Brigadier-General Chalmers’ brigade.

Yours, very truly,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, General C. R. Army.

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CORINTH, Miss., February 24, 1862.

General RUGGLES:

SIR: There are five bridges between Corinth and Memphis, and guarded as follows:

Cypress Creek, about 14 miles west of Corinth, 150 to 200 feet long; two watchmen at night and one by day.

Tuscumbia River, about 16 miles, 150 to 200 feet long; four men at night and one by day.

Hatchie River, about 18 miles, 150 to 200 feet long; two men at night and one by day.

Wolf River, 55 miles west, 150 to 175 feet long; one man at night and one by day.

Grissom’s Creek, 58 miles west, about 100 feet long; one watchman by night and section-house in sight.

Muddy Creek, an iron trestle, 20 miles west, about 100 feet long; no guard.

A trestle, 150 to 200 feet long, between Tuscumbia and Hatchie Rivers; no guard.

Mr. Williams thinks those bridges sufficiently guarded; the men are well armed.

Respectfully,

JNO. W. GOODWIN.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 61.}

HDQRS. ALABAMA AND WEST FLORIDA, Mobile, Ala., February 24, 1862.

...

II. Brig. Gen. J. K. Jackson, P. A., will proceed to Chattanooga, Tenn., and there assume command of the troops sent to that point from {p.908} this department, and report to General A. S. Johnston, commanding Department of the West, for further orders.

...

By command of Major-General Bragg:

FRANCIS S. PARKER, JR., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

JACKSON, TENN., February 25, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant:

Scouts report heavy re-enforcements received at Cairo and Paducah, detailed from Federal Army of the Potomac. Appearance of early attack on Columbus. Need more general officers for the proper organization of the troops at Columbus and for new levies. No proper subdivision of the troops at Columbus has been or can be made without more general officers. Time is pressing.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

–––

CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, February 25, 1862.

The commanders of brigades are reminded that the citizens must not be stripped of every means of support, even for the necessities of the army; and on the appeal of any citizen that his means are reduced to the wants of his family, they will at once, by authority of General Johnston, order an investigation, and if the complaint is verified, they will give the former a safeguard.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 45.}

ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, February 25, 1862.

...

XX. Maj. Gen. E. K. Smith will proceed to Knoxville, and assume command of the troops in East Tennessee, reporting by letter to General A. S. Johnston, at Murfreesborough, Tenn.

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

[FEBRUARY 26, 1862.-For Governor of Louisiana to Secretary of War, in reference to re-enforcements for Beauregard’s command, see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 830.]

–––

MEMPHIS, February 26, 1862. (Received Richmond, February 27, 1862.)

J. P. BENJAMIN:

Great excitement here and depression in public mind. To correct misapprehension and explain necessity which compelled capitulation {p.909} at Donelson I have had my official report published. My judgment is that there is but one remedy for existing condition of things; that is, abandon sea-coast defenses except New Orleans; concentrate all the forces in Tennessee; drive the enemy north of the Ohio River, and press invasion of Ohio, Indiana. That means will draw enemy’s forces back and relieve the heart of country, and give up control of interior rivers until we can get power on water-courses. Enemy can inflict no great calamity on sea-coast.

If we do not relieve heart of the country, Mississippi River will be opened, and then cause of South is desperate.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

–––

HEADQUARTERS C. S. FORCES, Corinth, Miss., February 26, 1862.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Commanding, Jackson, Tenn.:

DEAR GENERAL: I had the honor to receive yesterday your letter of the 24th instant, and have acted upon your suggestions on such points as have not been anticipated.

1st. I have held the Tennessee River from Pittsburg to Florence under observation for some days past. I have stationed Colonel Clanton’s regiment Alabama cavalry at Florence, to scout and draw supplies from the north side of the river. I have sent two 24-pounder guns, with munitions, to the Florence Bridge, with instructions to Brig. Gen. L. P. Walker to establish a battery on the south bank, at or near a point indicated, covering the bridge approaches and landing. I have sent Colonel Mouton, Eighteenth Louisiana Volunteers, with Captain Gibson’s field battery and a detachment of cavalry, to Pittsburg and vicinity, to hold the country and river under close observation, and to attack the enemy’s gunboats and transports in the event of his appearance and scout down the river valley. The intermediate portion of the river is also held under close observation. I have ordered Major Baskerville and two companies of Mississippi cavalry to the vicinity of Purdy’s, opposite Savannah, under the orders of Colonel Mouton. I have also communicated instructions to Colonel Lea, at Henderson Station, and propose, as soon as possible, to give that district my personal attention.

2d. I have ordered the bridges guarded between this and Tuscumbia, and am about to do so en route to Memphis and on some of the branch roads.

3d. I have issued instructions regulating the telegraph, protecting the public dispatches against publicity, and hold the railroad trains under some measure of security.

4th. I have obtained some ordnance stores and expect more, and commenced repairing arms.

5th. I have instructed the depot commissary to obtain 10,000 rations for thirty days at this station, and propose doing the same at Decatur or some suitable point on that extension of my line.

6th. I have directed the issue of fresh beef five days in seven when practicable.

7th. I have sent one officer to bring me full information about Columbia, Tenn., and the condition of our communications with Nashville. &c.

{p.910}

8th. I have endeavored to hold my transports well in hand, ready for prompt action and movement for service on either flank.

9th. My entire brigade has been concentrated here for some days, and with General Chalmers and Walker in readiness for any emergency.

I am, general, very truly, yours,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

–––

HDQRS. FIFTY-SECOND REGT. TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS, Henderson Station, February 26, 1862.

General DANIEL RUGGLES:

Your note of yesterday was carried by here and returned by train last night, else would have been sooner answered.

I cannot report with certainty whether there are any cavalry on the Tennessee River. I shall learn with certainty to-day. On yesterday morning I sent men to Clifton, Saltillo, Savannah, and Hamburg. I have 100 cavalry reconnoitering in the neighborhood of those places. From the best information I can gather I think they have a few infantry at Clifton, Saltillo, and Savannah, who have pressed horses into service and are scouring the country. If the report be true, I should be in a bad condition to meet them, having only 100 available or rather effective shot-guns; still if there be not more than 500 I shall try them. I shall keep you advised.

Respectfully,

B. J. LEA, Colonel, Commanding.

–––

HDQRS. FIFTY-SECOND REGT. TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS, Henderson Station, February 26, 1862.

Brig. Gen. DANIEL RUGGLES:

DEAR SIR: Yours of this date received. In answer I have to say that I have under my command the Fifty-second Tennessee Regiment, of which I am colonel, numbering 760 men, of which 260 are sick; we have no arms except 100 double-barrel shot-guns; Capt. C. S. Robertson’s cavalry company, numbering 140 men, rank and file, armed with double-barrel shot-guns and sabers; about 251 of the Fifty-first Tennessee Regiment, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Chester, for whom he has secured about 100 common sporting rifles, repaired and cleaned. They are all stationed at this place. I send out Captain Robertson’s cavalry every few days to scout the country from Clifton to Savannah. From scouts returned this evening I am reliably informed that no Federal cavalry has been landed on the Tennessee River above Clifton. The gunboat which was up passed down Saturday evening. I have also been sending guards in the direction of Savannah by Purdy.

Any suggestions you may make or commands to give will be gladly received and promptly executed. Can you by any possible means secure for me the musket or rifle with bayonet?

Very respectfully,

B. J. LEA, Colonel, C. S. Army, Commanding.

{p.911}

[FEBRUARY 27, 1862.-For Bragg to Benjamin, in reference to re-enforcements to Beauregard, see Series I, Vol. VI, p. 834; and to Beauregard, see p. 836.]

–––

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 27, 1862.

HON. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: The army supplies and stores which were forwarded to this place having all been sent forward to Chattanooga, except what may be needed for the immediate use of the army at Huntsville and Decatur and points farther on towards Memphis, this command will commence the march to-morrow towards Decatur.

The enemy are in possession of Nashville in force, the advance of which is 8 miles on this side of the city.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 39.}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, February 27, 1862.

...

2. The army will move to-morrow morning at sunrise for Shelbyville.

3. The order of march and the marches will be as follows:

1st. Hindman’s brigade to or near Shelbyville, establishing cavalry scouts on the turnpike from Shelbyville toward Nashville.

2d. Wood’s brigade, sappers and miners, 15 miles on Shelbyville road.

3d. Crittenden’s division, 12 miles on the same road.

4th. Breckinridge and Texas Rangers, 7 miles to Hindman’s first encampment.

5th. Hardee, with Bowen’s brigade, will cross the bridge over Stone’s Creek.

6th. All unattached companies, battalions, or regiments will be put in march by Major-General Hardee in advance of Bowen.

7th. The colonels of regiments will place all spare wagons at the disposal of the chief quartermaster.

8th. The brigadiers and colonels will restrict their officers and men to the smallest possible amount of baggage, and turn over surplus transportation to the chief quartermaster.

9th. Major-General Hardee will assume command of all the cavalry in rear of the army, prescribe the time and manner of their movement, and direct them to destroy all the bridges after they pass over.

10th. The chief quartermaster will turn over all surplus transportation to Major-General Hardee.

[By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.]

{p.912}

–––

MOSCOW, February 27, 1862.

Major-General POLK:

My scouts just in from Baltimore, and report 500 Federal cavalry at sunset this evening advancing from Baltimore towards Clinton. I have about 150 men here for duty after guarding bridges. If you will send a full force to meet me at Clinton soon, on to-morrow morning I can capture them. Please send me all the cavalry you can spare. Please answer.

T. H. LOGWOOD.

–––

JACKSON, TENN., February 28, 1862.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

I am in despair about my health-nervous affection of throat. Bragg ought to be sent here at once. I will, when well enough, serve under him rather than not have him here. Re-enforcements are arriving.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

–––

CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, February 28, 1862.

The columns will resume the march to-morrow morning in the same order, and continue it from day to day by Shelbyville and Fayetteville to Decatur.

The marches will be so arranged as to make about 15 miles a day so long as the roads permit.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

Abstract from return of the First Division, Western Department, Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, commanding, for February, 1862.

[Headquarters Columbus. Ky.]

Commands.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
1st Division2153,3297754,2524,782
2d Division2884,193270213546,1676,813
3d Division1592,52613234*19*3584,2624,667
Stewart’s brigade871,035**30**4292,2252,429
Miscellaneous***2052,560721,0486905,1406,077
Total95412,643871,352831,30622,04624,768

* Including Johnson’s siege artillery.

** Heavy artillery.

*** Commands at Trenton, Fort Pillow, Moscow, Camp Beauregard, Paris, Island No. 10, and New Madrid.

{p.913}

–––

RICHMOND, VA., March 1, 1862.

Major MONSARRAT, Knoxville:

You are authorized to send Brownlow out of Tennessee by the Cumberland Mountains or any safe road.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

–––

JACKSON, TENN., March 2, 1862.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD:

GENERAL: In obedience to your order of the 21st ultimo to proceed at once to Montgomery, Ala., and deliver to Gov. J. G. Shorter a letter, with instructions, which you handed me, I started early the following morning, but owing to the disorganized condition of the different railroads I missed every connection, and did not arrive in Montgomery until the afternoon of the 25th ultimo. I immediately called upon the Governor and delivered your letter to him. He made an appointment for me to meet him, with his Adjutant-General, at 8 p.m. He then informed me that he highly approved of your plan and would give you every assistance in his power, but he feared that, owing to the want of arms and the recent call for twelve new regiments made by the General Government, he could not issue another proclamation until those regiments were raised.

I endeavored to persuade him to select one general officer and a certain number of colonels, and inform them, if they would collect together a force of armed men, that they should be ordered to join you immediately. In reply he said his hands at present were tied, and although he did not doubt that upon such terms a large number of men could be raised, still he was first bound to fill the requisition of the President, but that he would write and telegraph to Richmond to obtain permission from the Secretary of War to send you the first five regiments of his new levies. He also informed me that there were four regiments and one battalion in North Alabama, guarding bridges, &c. These troops he thought would be of more service with you, and he would intercede with General Bragg to have them ordered to report to you immediately. He at once telegraphed (copy attached) to General Bragg. Owing to the heavy rains the wires were down and he could get no reply.

The following morning I called by appointment and requested him to give me the attached memorandum as his reply for your perusal. As he was making every effort to arm and have the new levies sent to you I left your letter in his hands. He also gave me a letter to General Bragg (a copy which is attached).

At 3 p.m. I left Montgomery by steamer and arrived at Mobile on the 28th ultimo. The railroad being washed away in many places, I could not come by the most expeditious route.

I immediately called upon General Bragg and handed him a copy of your letter to Governor Shorter, with the one from the Governor to him. To my surprise and joy I found the general intended leaving the following day to join you, and that he would have ten regiments, besides those in North Alabama, which were en route and would follow him. I returned with him to this place, arriving here this morning.

In making this report I would respectfully state that, unless some military control is exercised in the management of the different railroads {p.914} over which I traveled to Montgomery, when required for military purposes, some serious accident will surely take place.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. R. CHISOLM, First Lieutenant and Aide-de-Camp.

P. S.-In addition to the within-named regiments General Bragg will join you with three batteries of light artillery.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

MONTGOMERY, ALA., February 25, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG, Mobile, [Ala.]:

General Beauregard has sent a special messenger to me for troops. We can defend the bridge at Decatur and North Alabama with militia. Cannot all the forces under General Walker be sent him? His need is urgent and the movement of the highest importance to us all. He wants them to rendezvous at Corinth. Answer as soon as possible.

JNO. GILL SHORTER.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

MONTGOMERY, ALA., February 26, 1862.

Under my proclamation calling for twelve regiments I have no doubt there will be forty companies in camp in two weeks from this date, but the State has no means of arming them. Private arms it would take time to collect, either by purchase or impressment. I could not at this time or in the next two weeks arm 500 men. I will write to Richmond, urging the necessity of arming the new levies and sending them to Corinth by companies as rapidly as possible.

JNO. GILL SHORTER.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

PRIVATE.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Montgomery, Ala., February, 26, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG, Headquarters Alabama and West Florida, Mobile:

SIR: I dispatched you last night, but could not communicate details, which you will receive by Captain Chisolm, who bears a copy of the letter of General Beauregard to myself.*

Unless we can retrieve the disasters on the Tennessee and Cumberland and carry the war into the enemy’s country the whole Mississippi Valley will be overrun. Why should not the troops under Brig. Gen. L. P. Walker be sent forward at once to Corinth, to join the forces being collected by General B. for the onward movement he suggests? The gunboats of the enemy cannot get over the Muscle Shoals or reach the bridge at Decatur, near 40 miles above.

The militia in that region now organized could, most likely, defend that position if assailed by a marauding force. But the movement of General B., in my opinion, is of first importance. General Walker has near 3,000 troops, all told. Say-

Mississippi regiment700
Georgia regiment600
Clanton’s cavalry800
Blount’s twelve companies1,000
3,100
{p.915}

I have three other armed cavalry companies to go at an early day.

Can’t you order General Walker to report at Corinth to General B.?

I am this morning in receipt of your favors of 21st and 22d, and delighted at all you have done.

Yours, most respectfully,

JNO. GILL SHORTER.

* “See inclosure No. 1 to Beauregard to Cooper, February 23, p. 899.

[Memorandums.*]

* Of General G. T. Beauregard.

JACKSON, TENN., March 3, 1862.

1. Island No. 10 and New Madrid are fully prepared according to means and circumstances.

2. Brigadier-General Withers, with First, Second, and Twenty-first Alabama Regiments to go forthwith to Fort Pillow, with proper ammunition. About fifteen guns from Columbus are ordered to Fort Pillow, where twenty-two guns are already in position, said fifteen guns not probably provided with carriages, but platforms are in position. Ten shell guns from Pensacola, complete, are also ordered to Fort Pillow; also one company of sappers and miners from New Orleans.

Troops from Island No. 10 and New Madrid to fall back in case of necessity, to Fort Pillow; can be re-enforced by railroad from Humboldt to Memphis, and the military road from Mason’s Depot, 28 miles from Fort Pillow. (Other road best.)

3. The main body of General Polk’s [army] is to be at Humboldt, which is central to Memphis, Jackson, Grand Junction, Henderson, Corinth, and Fort Pillow.

4. A rear guard of two regiments and 500 cavalry to be stationed at Union City.

5. A battalion of infantry to be stationed at Paris from Humboldt, with, say, 500 cavalry, which, together with the other cavalry, will guard all avenues of approach from the Tennessee to the Mississippi River in front of Paris and Union City.

6. All of the above-named forces and positions to be under the command of Major-General Polk, and to be called the First Grand Division.

7. The balance of the cavalry, say 200 men, to report at these headquarters.

8. Two regiments of infantry (Fourth Louisiana and Seventh Mississippi) at present here to remain, ready to move.

9. The balance of new troops from Louisiana and Mississippi to rendezvous at Grand Junction.

10. Ruggles’ brigade, with troops from Alabama, to rendezvous at Corinth.

11. Chalmers to rendezvous at Iuka.

12. Troops from Tennessee (new levies) to rendezvous at Henderson and Bethel Stations, with proper advance guards along Tennessee River.

13. Columbus and Grenada, Miss., to be grand depots of supplies of all kinds for this army.

14. All heavy baggage, &c., to be sent to said depots forthwith.

15. One regiment of unarmed troops (except with lances) to be sent to Memphis, as a guard to that city.

{p.916}

16. The Governor of Mississippi to send unarmed troops to Columbus and Grenada, Miss., as a rendezvous.

17. All troops of this army not included in General Polk’s command, as above named, to be under the command of Major-General Bragg, under the denomination of Second Grand Division. He will resume, in addition thereto, the command of his former department.

–––

FORT PILLOW, March 3, 1862.

General POLK:

We have at this post the following ordnance stores: 604 32-pounder cartridges, 3,300 pounds cannon powder, 400 quill cannon primers, 200 friction tubes, 32 bridge barrels, 150 port-fires, 146 canister, 164 - balls, 104 Read balls, 174 shells for 32-pounders, 4,560 32-pounder balls.

Guns: Six 32-pounder rifle guns, and ten smooth-bore 32-pounders on river and four 32-pounders on back line, all mounted. Quartermaster’s stores: 170 second-hand tents, without ropes. Amount of rations at Fort Pillow: 10,000 rations of rice, 10,000 rations of beans, 10,000 rations of molasses, 30,000 rations of salt, 15,000 rations of flour 10 000 rations of candles, 4,000 rations of meal, 30,000 rations of vinegar 40,000 rations of soap, 60,000 rations of coffee, 30,000 rations of sugar, 6,000 rations of bacon.

Shall I mount the guns that may come here?

MONTGOMERY LYNCH, Captain, Engineer Corps.

[Indorsement.]

Captain M. LYNCH, Fort Pillow:

Mount the guns that arrive. What number of effective men have you? Answer immediately.

GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS, Huntsville, Ala., March 3, 1862.

Major-General POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

My fight with the gunboats at Donelson proved that they could not withstand heavy metal. To fight them successfully I suggest, as the result of experience, the importance of holding your fire for point-blank range; also the importance of having all your shot and shell for rifle well greased with tallow to avoid the danger of bursting the gun. I did it under long and continued fire with perfect safety. The Federal officers admitted at Donelson that their gunboats could not stand the fire of heavy metal. I disabled four of the five whose fire I returned.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

–––

ORDERS, No. 8.}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Shelbyville, March 3, 1862.

At 7 a.m. to-morrow the march will be resumed by Brigadier-General Wood, Major-General Crittenden, and Brigadier-General Breckinridge, {p.917} on the Fayetteville road to Decatur, each command advancing from 112 to 15 miles, sending staff officers in advance to select encampments and provide forage.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, March 3, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: Your telegraphic order [of 1st instant] to transmit Dr. Brownlow out of Tennessee by “Cumberland Mountains or any safe road” was received on Saturday. This morning I sent Dr. Brownlow, in charge of Colonel Young, of General Carroll’s staff, with a guard of 10 men, to Nashville, and thence to Kentucky. I did not deem it safe to send by any of the mountain passes.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

G. H. MONSARRAT, Captain, Commanding Post.

–––

RICHMOND, VA., March 4, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Fayetteville, Tenn.:

Your messenger with dispatches of February 18 only arrived yesterday. We have no official report of the disaster at Fort Donelson, and Congress is very impatient for it. I hear that General Pillow has committed the offense of publishing his report. We have nothing from you or General Floyd. I will send you written dispatches by express to-morrow. In [the] mean time send us your plans, condition, and purposes.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

–––

SHELBYVILLE, March 4, 1862.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

My army will move beyond this to-day on the road to Decatur. One brigade remains here to protect the stores until they are shipped south. I will be at the telegraph office at Fayetteville to-morrow morning to receive any communications.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., March 4, 1862.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Jackson, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letters of the 21st, 23d, and 24th ultimo, addressed to General Cooper, have been received, as well as your cipher dispatch of the-instant. I receive with great concern the news of your continued ill health, and trust that services so valuable to our country as yours may be spared to us at this crisis and that your health will be restored before any serious movement of the enemy can endanger your {p.918} command. In the mean time I have news that General Bragg has left his department to join you, and I trust that his presence, by relieving you in part from the anxiety and responsibility which must weigh upon you will contribute to your restoration to active service.

You will no doubt have learned ere this that General Bragg does not come alone to aid you, but brings valuable re-enforcements of disciplined troops, though in what number we are not yet advised.

Your call upon the Governors of the States in the Mississippi Valley for re-enforcements is fully approved, and both Governor Moore, of Louisiana, and Governor Pettus, of Mississippi, have been advised by telegraph that they may accept troops enlisted for twelve months for your re-enforcement, provided the troops are armed. The policy of the Government has never been to reject any armed men; but where unarmed men were offered for twelve months we have refused them, because we have “war” men enough to receive all the arms we can possibly procure.

The President has nominated to-day as brigadier-general Adjutant-General Mackall. He was not willing to raise him at once to the rank of major-general. Several others of the officers recommended by you have been nominated, as, for instance, Col. A. P. Hill, Colonel Winder, Colonel Stevenson; but General J. E. Johnston is so reluctant to allow any of his officers to be withdrawn from his command that I scarcely know who can be sent to you.

Your telegraphic recommendation of Colonel Gantt was received, but not acceded to, as we were aware you did not know the officer personally, and others were presented who appeared to possess higher merit. Colonel Churchill, of Arkansas, has been nominated, but is not, I fear, in your command. In order to insure you such general officers as you need it is thought best to wait until you get your re-enforcements from General Bragg, and then that you, with Generals Bragg and Polk, select from your own command your most promising officers so as to avoid the bad feeling that always seems to attend the withdrawal of officers from one command to another.

I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

–––

JACKSON, TENN., March 4, 1862.

Beauregard’s confidential notes of reference.

Provisions, grain, &c., in Western Tennessee to be collected as rap idly as possible and sent to Columbus and Grenada, keeping on hand provisions and forage as follows, viz:

At Union City, for 1,500 men, about three weeks.

At Humboldt, for 5,000 men, about three weeks.

At Jackson, for 900 infantry, about three weeks.

At Jackson, for 400 cavalry, about three weeks.

At Corinth, for 15,000 men, for four weeks.

At Henderson, for 800 men, for two weeks.

At Iuka, for 2,500 men, for two weeks.

At Grand Junction, for 10,000 men, for four weeks.

The regiment now at Trenton to be ordered forthwith by General Polk to Fort Pillow via Memphis. Captain Robertson’s cavalry to remain at Henderson; the remainder of troops now there, viz, Lea’s and {p.919} Browder’s regiments and stragglers collected, to be ordered by General Polk to report to General Ruggles at Corinth forthwith. The Seventh Mississippi Regiment, now at Jackson, Tenn., to be ordered by General Bragg to Henderson.

ORGANIZATION.

Three or more regiments, or about 2,500 effective men, to a brigade; two brigades to a division; to each brigade one battery of six guns, either four smooth-bores and two howitzers, four rifles and two howitzers, or six rifle guns.

Each grand division should have a reserve battery as large as practicable. There should be a chief of artillery for light batteries on the general-in-chief’s staff.

AMMUNITION.

Depots to be established at Columbus and Grenada, Miss. Ammunition for distribution: 100 rounds per man for infantry and cavalry with each regiment; 200 rounds per piece with each company of artillery. The requisite amount in the same ratio for an army of 35,000 men to be held in depot at Grand Junction ready for shipment at a moment’s notice.

ORDNANCE.

One chief of ordnance, Captain Oladowski; ordnance officer at Columbus, Mr. W. R. Hunt.

Ordnance officer at Grenada, Captain Gibbs.

Ordnance officer at Grand Junction, Mr. Tonneau.

Powder manufactory to be established at Meridian, and sulphur, &c., to be collected there.

Percussion-cap manufactory to be established at Columbus, and, if possible, at Grenada.

Prisoners of war now at Memphis to be removed to Tuscaloosa, Ala. Troops to be prepared for active operations in the field; their baggage to be reduced to a minimum.

Transportation shall be from 10 to 15 wagons per regiment, if practicable.

Rear guards must, as they retire, destroy bridges behind them especially on ordinary roads, by felling trees, &c., if practicable. For this purpose they must be provided with axes.

Each fort and light battery must be provided forthwith with an ample supply of rat-tail files. General Polk will please issue necessary orders to that effect.

The Fourth Louisiana Regiment at Jackson will report to Major-General Bragg for orders.

–––

UNION CITY, March 4, 1862.

General LEONIDAS POLK:

All is right at Hickman. No gunboats have been seen. I expect to send down a locomotive this evening.

I will have your orders carried out as far as possible.

B. F. CHEATHAM, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

{p.920}

–––

MOSCOW, March 4, 1862.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-General:

The railroad bridge and highway bridge across Obion Creek, and the railroad bridge and highway bridges across Bayou de Chien at this place, and the bridges south of town across Little Bayou de Chien are not destroyed.

HENDERSON, Operator.

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MOSCOW, March 4, 1862. (Received Jackson, March 4, 1862.)

Major-General POLK:

General Cheatham has sent me four orders from you to establish a line, with relays of men every 5 miles, to Island 10; also a line to Union City and Hickman; also to send out officers to press in 500 negroes for work at Island 10; also to scout towards Columbus and Clinton. I have only 180 men under my command, The Federal cavalry, reported 1,000 strong, are within 6 miles of me, and I expect an attack to-night or in the morning.

Colonel Miller says his force has been divided, and those with him are not subject to my orders. It is impossible for me to execute all these orders in as prompt a manner as you desire and protect myself. Will you direct that Colonel Miller assist me? But in this event it will take our entire commands to meet the Federal cavalry if we are attacked.

Four gunboats passed down the river to-day. If you will let us go to Union City, the lines, &c., can be established at once; or if you will let all the cavalry remain here, we will whip their cavalry.

Our rations are out, and there is no commissariat to draw from, as no cars run here.

T. H. LOGWOOD, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Post.

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FORT PILLOW, March 4, 1862-1 a.m.

Major-General POLK:

Colonel Jordan has just left here on steamer H. D. Mears for Memphis. There are here two small artillery companies, perfectly green; no laborers or tools. All sent to Island No. 10. If we had some men could hold position some time. Have no one to mount guns except these two companies, but will do my best with them. No guns as yet. Only four guns on rear intrenchment. Mississippi within two feet of high-water marks.

MONTGOMERY LYNCH, Captain, Engineers.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

JACKSON, TENN., March 4, 1862.

Under the orders of the general commanding the Army of the Mississippi Valley Major-General Bragg resumes his former command of {p.921} the Department of Alabama and West Florida, and, in addition thereto, assumes that of the troops in North Mississippi and south of this point in West Tennessee; the whole to be designated as the Second Grand Division of the Army of the Mississippi Valley, headquarters for the present at Jackson, Tenn.

II. The following staff officers are announced as attached to the headquarters of the division:

1. Maj. George G. Garner, assistant adjutant-general.

2. First Lieut. Towson Ellis and

3. S. Parker, jr., aides-de-camp.

4. Col. J. E. Slaughter, P. A., acting inspector-general.

S. Col. J. B. Villepigue, P. A., chief of engineers and artillery.

6. Capt. H. Oladowski, C. S. artillery, chief of ordnance.

7. Maj. J. J. Walker, assistant commissary of subsistence.

8. Capt. L. V. Johnston, assistant quartermaster.

9. Surg. A. J. Foard, medical director.

10. First Lieut. H. W. Walter, Ninth Mississippi Volunteers, acting assistant adjutant-general and judge-advocate.

BRAXTON BRAGG, Major-General, P. A.

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OFFICE OF CLERK OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, March 10, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: The House of Representatives this day passed the following resolution, to wit:

Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to give information to this Home on the following points, viz:

At what period was it that the Confederate forces under General Johnston first established themselves in the city of Bowling Green, and what was our force at that time and within the period of a week?

What was the force of the enemy at that period between Bowling Green and the Ohio River, and where located?

What prevented General Johnston at that time from making a forward movement towards the Ohio River? Was he restrained by instructions from the War Department or was he left to his own discretion in the matter?

What forces, if any, were sent from Bowling Green to Fort Donelson previous to the first battle at that place and under whose command?

What number of forces did General Johnston retain at Bowling Green up to the time of its evacuation?

Did General Johnston re-enforce or attempt to re-enforce the Confederate Army at Fort Donelson during the progress of the conflicts at that place? Is it within the knowledge of the War Department that any applications were made by the commanders of our forces at Fort Donelson for re-enforcements previous to ordering the conflicts of that place?

Was General Johnston restrained by orders from the War Department from sending re-enforcements or was he left to his own discretion in that regard?

What means of transportation had General Johnston at Bowling Green to enable him to re-enforce Fort Donelson during the contests had he been disposed to do so? When were the fortifications at Fort Donelson and Fort Henry respectively constructed and in what mode?

Was there any military reconnaissance along the banks of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, with the view to judicious selections of places for fortifications, before the sites for Forts Henry and Donelson were selected?

Did General Johnston fall back from Bowling Green in accordance with instructions from the War Department or was he left to his own discretion in the matter?

Why was Nashville surrendered to the enemy?

Did General Johnston proceed upon his own discretion or under instructions from the War Department in regard to the act of surrendering that city into the hands of the enemy?

{p.922}

When General Johnston, about the 1st of October last, made a call upon several of the States of the Southwest, including the State of Tennessee, for large numbers of troops, why was that call revoked? Was the act of revocation in pursuance of an order from the War Department or upon his own judgment merely?

Has the Department received any official reports of the affair at Fort Henry or Fort Donelson or touching the surrender of Nashville? If so, communicate the same.

ROBT. E. DIXON, Clerk House of Representatives.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Decatur, Ala., March 17, 1862.

SIR: In answer to certain interrogatories addressed to me by the chairman of the special committee of the House of Representatives, dated “Richmond, Va., March 10, 1862,” I have the honor to submit the following:

I. After being placed in command of the Confederate forces in the Western Department I proceeded to Columbus, Ky., to confer with Major-General Polk. I left Columbus on the 13th and arrived at Bowling Green, Ky., on the 14th of October. At the time of my arrival Brigadier-General Buckner’s effective force (General B. was then in command there) was about 5,000 men, effective. Major-General Hardee’s army corps was by my order arriving at that time from the West. This force increased the army at Bowling Green about 6,000 men. On the 28th of October, the date that I assumed the immediate command of the army, my effective force at Bowling Green was, say, 12,000 men.

II. The number of the enemy’s force at that time between Bowling Green and the Ohio River, in my immediate front, was estimated by me at 20,000, but, in addition to this force, he had large auxiliary forces on either flank, and his army was being rapidly re-enforced from the States of Illinois Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky.

III. Bowling Green was fortified for the reason that, in my judgment and that of my generals, it was the most defensible point that could be selected to cover Nashville and our southern line of operations, extending from Cumberland Gap to the Mississippi River. It is naturally strong; a salient point on the railways and turnpike roads passing through Kentucky; was difficult to turn by an aggressive enemy, and was the most eligible depot and base of operations for an advancing army. It is proper to say that at the time fortifications were commenced at Bowling Green I had hopes that my army would be sufficiently augmented to enable me to make an advance against the enemy. Finding, however, that his forces were increasing very much more rapidly than my own, additional and strong defenses were erected at Bowling Green to prevent the position being carried by the overwhelming numbers of the enemy.

IV. At the time of the fall of Fort Henry my effective force at Bowling Green, say February 7, was 22,000 men. I immediately detached 8,000 of this force, under Brigadiers Floyd and Buckner, to re-enforce Fort Donelson, in addition to 4,000 ordered from Hopkinsville and Clarksville to the same point, thus making the force at Fort Donelson on the 13th, the first day of the conflict there, 17,000 men.

V. I received no dispatches from the commanding or other general at Donelson asking for re-enforcements either before or during the conflict.

[A. S. JOHNSTON.]

{p.923}

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HDQRS. FIRST CORPS, ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Corinth, Miss., April 1, 1862.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Army of the Mississippi, Corinth, Miss.:

GENERAL: In conformity with your order to report to you on the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers at the time of my taking command at the West, I have to say that those defenses were at that time not included in my command, nor were they until after you assumed the charge of the Western Department. My command up to that time was limited on the north and east by the Tennessee River.

Shortly after you took command of the Western Department Lieutenant Dixon, of the Corps of Engineers, was instructed by you to make an examination of the works at Forts Henry and Donelson and to report upon them.

These instructions were complied with, and he reported that the former fort, which was nearly completed, was built not at the most favorable position, but that it was a strong work, and, instead of abandoning it and building at another place he advised that it should be completed and other works constructed on the high lands just above the fort on the opposite side of the river.

Measures for the accomplishment of this were adopted as rapidly as the means at our disposal would allow. A negro force which was offered by planters on the Tennessee River in North Alabama was employed on the work, and efforts were made to push it to completion as fast as the means at command would allow.

Lieutenant Dixon made also a similar reconnaissance on the Cumberland, and gave it as his opinion that although a better position might have been chosen for the fortifications on that river, yet, under the circumstances then surrounding our command, it would be better to retain and strengthen the position chosen.

He accordingly made surveys for additional outworks, and the service of a considerable slave force was obtained to construct them. This work was continued and kept under the supervision of Lieutenant Dixon. Lieutenant Dixon also advised the placing of obstructions in the Cumberland at a certain point below, where there was shoal water, so as to afford protection to the operatives engaged on the fortifications against the enemy’s gunboats. This was done, and it operated as a check to the navigation so long as the water continued low.

You are aware that efforts were made to obtain heavy ordnance to arm these forts, but as we had to rely on supplies from the Atlantic sea-coast, they came slowly, and it became necessary to divert a number of pieces intended for Columbus to the service of those forts.

The principal difficulty in the way of a successful defense of the rivers in question was the want of an adequate force-a force of infantry and a force of experienced artillerists. They were applied for by you and also by me, and the appeal was made earnestly to every quarter from whence relief might be hoped for. Why it was not furnished others must say. I believe that the chief reason, so far as the infantry was concerned, was the want of arms. As to experienced artillerists, they were not in the country, or at least to be spared from other points.

When General Tilghman was made brigadier-general he was assigned by you to the command of the defenses on the Tennessee and Cumberland. It was at a time when the operations of the enemy had begun to be active on these rivers, and the difficulty of communicating {p.924} as rapidly as the exigencies of the service required, through the circuitous route to Columbus, made it expedient for him to place himself in direct communication with general headquarters. Nevertheless, all the support I could give him in answer to his calls was afforded. He received from Columbus a detachment of artillery officers as instructors of his troops on two several occasions, and all the infantry at my command that could be spared from the defense of Columbus.

The importance of gunboats as an element of power in our military operations was frequently brought to the attention of the Government. One transport boat, the Eastport, was ordered to be purchased and converted into a gunboat on the Tennessee River, but it was unfortunately too late to be of any service.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.*

* This letter accidentally duplicated on pp. 710, 711.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6