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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 4, Ch. XII–Confederate Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER XII.
OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE.
July 1-November 19, 1861.
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CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.362}

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 88.*}

ADJ’T. AND INSP. GEN.’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 4, 1861.

...

6. The country embracing that portion of Alabama north of the Tennessee River, beginning at Waterloo and running thence east with the river to Decatur, as well as the portion of the State lying north of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad from Decatur to Stevenson, together with that portion of Tennessee west and south of the Tennessee River; the river counties of Arkansas and Mississippi, including Corinth, Mississippi, and the country adjacent thereto, and extending to Eastport on the Tennessee River; the river parishes of Louisiana north of Red River, and that portion of Arkansas, besides the river counties above mentioned, lying north and east of White and Black Rivers, will hereafter constitute Department No. 2, to be commanded by Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk; headquarters at Memphis, Tenn.

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 5, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Military Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: In transmitting the inclosed copy of a communication to the governor of Tennessee, I am instructed by the President to desire {p.363} that you will correspond with his excellency, and arrange with him the time for receiving the provisional forces of Tennessee into the service of the Confederate States in the manner indicated to him in the inclosed letter, and that you will detail from your command the officers necessary for that purpose.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

[Inclosure.]

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 5, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee, Nashville:

SIR: Your letter of the 24th ultimo,* covering an authentic copy of proclamation declaring the independence of Tennessee, &c., has been received by the President.

In respect to the steps necessary to consummate the transfer of the Provisional Army of Tennessee to the Confederate States, mentioned in your communication, I am instructed to inform you that in order to accomplish this object it will be necessary to transfer to officers of the Confederate States service, who will be designated to receive them, the muster rolls of the several companies, battalions, or regiments, as the case may be. These muster rolls of the troops shall be made at their several camps and stations, the Confederate officers verifying, and this will form the basis for future musters.

Major-General Polk, who has been assigned to the command of the military department embracing part of the State of Tennessee, will be instructed to detail the proper officers for the muster of the provisional forces of Tennessee in the manner above indicated, and for receiving the same into the service of the Confederate States.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

* Not found.

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MEMPHIS, July 5, 1861.

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES:

SIR: The undersigned have learned with deep regret, in an unofficial manner, that the forces and military command of this portion of the Confederate States has been tendered by the Government to another than Major-General Pillow. We do not desire to reflect upon the discretion exercised by the Government in placing a distinguished citizen of Louisiana in command of the valley of the Mississippi, but we cannot hesitate to express the satisfaction that it would have afforded the citizens and Army of Tennessee that this command should have been given to their own distinguished fellow-citizen Major-General Pillow. His indomitable energy, his sleepless vigilance, his masterly ability, as displayed before our eyes since he took command of our army, has won for him the esteem of all, and we think fairly entitles him to lead the army which he has created. In a few weeks he has brought into the field a force of more than 20,000, armed and equipped, ready to meet the enemy. Taking command without ordnance, commissary, or quartermaster’s {p.364} stores, he is now fully prepared not only to resist but to make invasion. We feel that no eulogium that we could make would do justice to the services that he has rendered the cause, but we simply and respectfully to suggest to the Secretary of War, and through him to the President, that the appointment of Major-General Pillow to the command of the active force on the banks of the Mississippi would be but an act of justice to him, and would give the greatest satisfaction to the force thus placed under his command.

WILLIAM T. BROWN. SMITH P. BANKHEAD. P. SMITH. M. C. GALLAWAY. JNO. D. MARTIN. BENJ. S. DILL.

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MEMPHIS, July 5, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President, &c.:

SIR: I am presuming upon a slight acquaintance I had the honor of forming with you in this city several years since (and which it can hardly be supposed you can possibly recall in the midst of the constant labors and important events with which you have since been occupied), when I trouble you with but a word in reference to Major-General Pillow, now in command at this point. Since he assumed his command he has been by no means free from criticism. Probably no man ever is under such circumstances. It is every day’s experience that those who “never set squadron in the field,” and are utterly ignorant of all military matters, feel themselves qualified to pass judgment upon the plans of the most experienced commanders. Possessing no military education or experience myself, it would be presumptuous in me to express an opinion, except upon such matters as may fairly come within the scope of the observation and judgment of all. And here I beg leave to say that since he has been in command here he has manifested a degree of energy and activity in organizing our State forces and in collecting the materials of war that has challenged the public approbation and called forth no slight expressions of praise. Hence I believe that the wish is pretty general that, having labored so energetically in the details of organization, he may be called into such more active service of the Confederacy as may be commensurate with his position and rank.

With highest respect, your obedient servant,

DAVID M. CURRIN.

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RICHMOND, July 6, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, C. S. A.:

SIR: I regard the peril of civil war in East Tennessee as imminent. Things are growing worse daily. An express arrived at Knoxville on the 1st day of July from Cumberland Gap, bringing intelligence that one Dr. Scriven, who left Knoxville some weeks ago, arrived at Barboursville, 33 miles from Cumberland Gap, in charge of a considerable lot of arms for the Union men of East Tennessee. Mr. Brownlow, in his paper, says civil war is inevitable, and that the Union men have 10,000 men under drill and armed with rifles and shot-guns. Mr. Thomas A. R. Nelson made a speech, I am informed by a gentleman {p.365} now here, on Monday last, at the circuit court in Carter County, in which he incited the crowd to resist the action of the State, and promised assistance to the Union men of the Lincoln Government. The New York Times, in a lengthy article, says that East Tennessee is a vital point to the Lincoln government; urges the Union men to seize Knoxville and hold it till Lincoln can give aid. The Louisville Courier states that large quantities of arms are passing through Kentucky for East Tennessee. My opinion is (and I canvassed East Tennessee in favor of separation and union with the Confederate States previously to the election) that there are organized now of Union men, as they call themselves, at least ten regiments, which, if in anywise assured of aid from Lincoln and Johnson, would rise and rush into rebellion. What shall then be done?

I feel, I assure you, great delicacy in suggesting to a Government that has my fullest confidence. I can only give my opinion as one who has been raised and has lived in East Tennessee all my life.

1. A small, inadequate force is as bad or worse than none, because while it irritates, it invites aggression.

2. The question as to whether the presence of a force will irritate and incite to rebellion ceases to be a practical question, because the irritation grows worse without it and independent of it.

3. The presence of six regiments properly distributed will quiet the passions of the rebellious and secure the peace in spite of Thomas A. R. Nelson, William G. Brownlow, Conly F. Trigg, and William B. Carter, who are the leaders of the Union men. Moral power can no longer be relied on to crush the rebellion. No man possesses that power. Bell had more than any other man, but he is as helpless as a child. Maj. Gen. S. R. Anderson, or some gentleman equally calm, brave, and judicious, and six or eight regiments, properly stationed, armed, and equipped, will, I think, secure the peace without any violence.

4. I am looking every moment also to hear that the bridges have been burned and the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad torn up. Nothing can save it but a sufficient guard. The Confederate States have no marshal in East, Middle, or West Tennessee to assist in keeping the peace. Ought they not to be appointed?

Pardon this piece of seeming discourtesy to you, sir, in making the foregoing suggestions; made more for the purpose of directing your attention in the midst of so many labors you find on your hands to what you and the President and Cabinet shall think best.

I would respectfully suggest, as a gentleman every way worthy and fit to be appointed marshal, if but one be appointed, General J. B. Clements, of Nashville, Tenn., for the State. He could then select such deputies in East and West Tennessee as might be necessary.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LANDON C. HAYNES.

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NASHVILLE, July 9, 1861.

President DAVIS:

No time is to be lost in East Tennessee. I examined the case thoroughly. There are 2,060 men of various arms now there. I think at least 10,000 ought to be there and at once. Governor Brown, of Georgia, has 2,500 well armed and equipped, at Marietta, ready to move. Floyd, I hear, has 2,000. The rest might be sent from Corinth. I would strongly recommend making a department of East Tennessee and parts {p.366} of North Carolina and Georgia, and the appointment of General F. K. Zollicoffer, of the Tennessee Army, to its command, as a brigadier of the Provisional Army. Governor Harris concurs in this earnestly.

L. POLK.

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RICHMOND, July 9, 1861.

Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:

The President directs me to request that you will order two Tennessee regiments either to Jonesborough or Haynesville, in East Tennessee, as soon as possible.

L. P. WALKER.

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RICHMOND, July 11, 1861.

Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:

I have not heard from you in reply about sending two regiments in East Tennessee, nor whether you will send any here. If possible, I hope you will do so, as they are needed absolutely.

L. P. WALKER.

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NASHVILLE, July 11, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Your telegram of the 9th received to-day. I send two regiments East to-morrow.

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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MEESVILLE, BRADLEY COUNTY, TENNESSEE, July 11, 1861.

President DAVIS:

SIR: When I had the honor of an interview with you at Richmond last week I endeavored, together with other gentlemen from East Tennessee then accompanying me, to impress you with the absolute necessity existing in this division of our State for prompt and effective action to repress a most fearful rebellion against both the authorities of the State and the Confederate States. I returned a day or two since to Knoxville, and came thence to this place in a southern border county of East Tennessee to meet my family.

The startling state of the public mind in this county, lying as it does upon the Georgia boundary, impels me to again importune your early attention in some effective manner to this section of the South. It is fortunate that we are not now left to conjecture the purposes of the Union men in East Tennessee who are in arms, or the probable number of them in this county. On Sunday, July 7, an alarm was given that a troop of secessionists had entered the county to disarm the Union men. By some means unknown to our friends here, in twelve hours near 1,000 Union men were in arms at different rendezvous, and disclosed a most complete organization, secret hitherto in its character and numbers. The alarm proving to proceed from a mere jest, the party immediately dissolved, only to hold themselves in readiness, at like short notice, to rally again with their rifles and shot-guns and with such ammunition as they have.

I must assure you that from the Georgia line to Cumberland Gap a {p.367} like feeling to that here developed exists, and not the slightest obstacle could be interposed by the Southern men, so overwhelmed are they by numbers, to the movement of Lincoln’s troops, should they enter our territory in the direction of Georgia; neither can we unaided strike a single blow with any effect to suppress an outbreak, which may any day occur here.

If it be true, as we understand, that a large majority of the people of Eastern Kentucky are like to our East Tennessee people, then may an army move from the Ohio River to the Georgia line (north) without the slightest impediment from our present defenses.

Can you not take action to avert disaster now so threatening, not only to the true men in East Tennessee, but so demoralizing to the great movement of the South? No moral influence of any kind whatever will do it; physical power, when exhibited in force sufficient, may, and I believe will, prevent it.

Very respectfully,

WILLIAM G. SWAN, Knoxville, Tenn.

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MEMPHIS, July 11, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

I am turning out 60,000 to 70,000 cartridges per day. Can I order from Wytheville (Va.) mines. The agent writes me that they are making four tons per day, but will not supply me without an order from you. None can be had elsewhere. I have a supply for a week on hand, and must stop unless I can procure lead.

WM. RICHARDSON HUNT, Captain of Ordnance for Tennessee.

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RICHMOND, VA., July 12, 1861.

WILLIAM RICHARDSON HUNT, Captain of Ordnance, Memphis, Tenn.:

If the cartridges you manufacture are held subject to the order of this Government, you can have the supply of lead.

L. P. WALKER.

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CAMP BOONE, NEAR CLARKSVILLE, July 12, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Our movements have thoroughly aroused a military spirit in Kentucky. Numerous applications made daily to receive companies composed of best in the State. Shall I receive and have them mustered? If so, to what extent? I was under obligation to receive about twenty-six companies. I have received, under your instructions, twenty companies, and the other companies are clamorous to be received. Shall I carry out engagement made previous to receipt of your dispatch of the 18th ultimo, and form a third regiment? I would advise by all means to receive all Kentucky troops that offer, as we not only get good men, but ultimately secure Kentucky to the South. Please answer immediately by telegraph.

WM. T. WITHERS, General.

{p.368}

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RICHMOND, VA., July 13, 1861.

WILLIAM T. WITHERS, Clarksville, Tenn.:

No more companies can be received.

L. P. WALKER.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No, I.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Memphis, Tenn., July 13, 1861.

Having been assigned to the charge of the defense of that part of the valley of the Mississippi which is embraced within the boundaries of Department No. 2, I hereby assume command. All officers on duty within the limits of said department will report accordingly. In assuming this very grave responsibility, the general in command is constrained to declare his deep and long-settled conviction that the war in which we are engaged is one not warranted by reason or any necessity, political or social, of our existing condition, but that it is indefensible and of unparalleled atrocity. We have protested, and do protest, that all we desire is to be let alone, to repose in quietness under our own vine and under our own fig tree. We have sought and only seek the undisturbed enjoyment of the inherent and indefeasible right of self-government, a right which freemen can never relinquish, and which none but tyrants could ever seek to wrest from us. Those with whom we have been lately associated in the bonds of a pretended fraternal regard have wished and endeavored to deprive us of this, our great birthright as American freemen. Nor is this all. They have sought to deprive us of this inestimable right by a merciless war, which can attain no other possible end than the ruin of fortunes and the destruction of lives; for the subjugation of Christian freemen is out of the question. A war which has thus no motive except lust or hate, and no object except ruin and devastation, under the shallow pretense of the restoration of the Union, is surely a war against heaven, as well as a war against earth. Of all the absurdities ever enacted, of all the hypocrisies ever practiced, an attempt to restore a union of minds, hearts, and wills like that which once existed in North America, by the ravages of fire and sword, are assuredly among the most prodigious. As sure as there is a righteous Ruler of the universe, such a war must end in disaster to those by whom it was inaugurated, and by whom it is mow prosecuted with the circumstances of barbarity which, it was fondly believed, would never more disgrace the annals of a civilized people.

Numbers may be against us, but the battle is not always to the strong. Justice will triumph; and an earnest of this triumph is already beheld in the mighty uprising of the whole Southern heart. Almost as one man this great section comes to the rescue, resolved to perish rather than yield to the oppressor, who, in the name of freedom, yet under the prime inspiration of an infidel horde, seeks to reduce eight millions of freemen to abject bondage and subjugation. All ages and conditions are united in one grand and holy purpose of rolling back the desolating tide of invasion, and of restoring to the people of the South that peace, independence, and right of self-government to which they are by nature and nature’s God as justly entitled as those who seek thus ruthlessly to enslave them.

The general in command, having the strongest confidence in the intelligence and firmness of purpose of those belonging to his department, enjoins upon them the maintenance of a calm, patient, persistent, and undaunted determination to resist the invasion at all hazards and to the {p.369} last extremity. It comes bringing with it a contempt for constitutional liberty and the withering influence of the infidelity of New England and Germany combined. Its success would deprive us of a future. The best men among our invaders opposed the course they are pursuing at the first, but they have been overborne or swept into the wake of the prevailing current, and now, under the promptings of their fears or the delusion of some idolatrous reverence supposed to be due to a favorite symbol, are as active as any in instigating this unnatural, unchristian, and cruel war. Our protest, which we here solemnly repeat in the face of the civilized world, has been hitherto unheeded, and we are left alone, under God, to the resources of our own minds and our own hearts, to the resources of manhood. Upon them, knowing, as he does, those whom he addresses, as well as those with whom you are co-operating throughout the South, the general in command feels he may rely with unwavering confidence. Let every man, then, throughout the land arm himself in the most effective manner, and hold himself in readiness to support the combined resistance. A cause which has for its object nothing less than the security of civil liberty and the preservation of the purity of religious truth, is the cause of Heaven, and may well challenge the homage and service of the patriot and Christian. In God is our trust.

L. POLK, Major-General, P. A. C. S., Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 18, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: I would respectfully ask your attention to the accompanying extract from a letter written by Mr. Yerger, of Corinth, Miss., dated July 9, and communicated to the President by Mr. W. P. Harris, of Jackson, Miss., and subsequently referred to this Department. In inviting your attention immediately to the suggestions it contains, I would remark that from the apparent indications in that section, as well as from the concurrent testimony of other writers, additional troops, in my opinion, should be sent forward without delay. If the guns at Chattanooga are not being manufactured for us, they ought to be secured at once, and a reconnaissance of the points described ought to be ordered.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

[Inclosure.]

“Availing myself of the privilege you were kind enough to accord me, I will now venture to make some suggestions for your consideration. Being delayed in my passage through East Tennessee, I found a much more hostile and embittered feeling among that people towards the Confederate Government than I supposed to exist. I found the emissaries of the Lincoln Government active and constantly engaged in exciting hatred and animosity towards our Government. I believe the people only await the occasion to rise in revolt against the Confederate Government. Numerous instances of active organization came to my knowledge. I do not think there is an adequate Confederate force in that region to maintain us securely. At Chattanooga is a foundery engaged in casting cannon, which could easily be seized by the people and converted {p.370} to that use for themselves. I found two 6-pounders and one 12-pounder nearly complete-for where intended I did not learn. I will call your attention to three points on the line of the railroad that, if occupied by a hostile force of 3,000 men with one or two batteries of flying artillery, could easily and successfully cut off all communication between Virginia and the Southern States it seems to me. The first point to which I will call your attention is at the foot of Lookout Mountain, where the railroad passes between the mountain and Tennessee River. At this point an inconsiderable force, with a small battery, could successfully resist the advance of a very large force. So at the second point above Chattanooga, at a tunnel which passes through a spur of the mountain, a small battery could effectually prevent the advance of the cars with any number of troops; and, lastly, at a defile beyond Loudon, near the Tennessee River, a small force could prevent all transports of men and munitions. These points all lie in the most disaffected region, and, in my opinion, if not occupied by Confederate forces in less than a month, will be by hostile men. I think that at least a reconnaissance should be made of the locality. All this may have been called to your attention, or may, in point of fact, be of no value. If so, set down and excuse the error because of my zeal and desire to protect the service from injury. I feel that my thus addressing you might seem presumptuous in one so unused to military affairs; yet I assure you a most earnest desire to be of service prompts me. The conviction that more is necessary to protect us from the outbreak of the disaffected in East Tennessee than is generally supposed induces me to call your attention to these facts. I think at least 2,500 or 3,000 troops should be properly stationed at these points in this district of country to keep our way open. The twelve-months’ men of Mississippi now at this point could be much better employed there than here, and if it should become necessary to disarm those people of the weapons they have, could effectually and successfully accomplish it if under the command of some discreet commander. If this point is kept quiet by the presence of an imposing military force, there will be no other part of East Tennessee that will be able to give any considerable trouble.”

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NASHVILLE, July 18, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

General Anderson left this evening for Haynesville, East Tennessee, where he awaits your orders. He will have with him two regiments of infantry, one ranger company, all well armed. One other regiment is at Knoxville, ordered from Middle Tennessee.

By command:

W. C. WHITTHORNE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FRANKFORT, KY., July 19, 1861.

General WILLIAM T. WITHERS, near Clarksville, Tenn.:

DEAR SIR: Governor Magoffin has been advised that three boxes of guns, consigned to a Home Guard company at Elkton, Ky., have by some means found their way into your possession. He desires me to request that you will have those guns returned to Elkton as soon as you can {p.371} You can have them returned quietly, so as to avoid any unnecessary excitement about the matter.

Trusting and believing that you will at once comply with this request,

I am, very respectfully, yours,

THO. B. MONROE, JR., Secretary of State.

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MEMPHIS, July 20, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: On receipt of my instructions on the subject of the transfer of the Tennessee troops I opened a correspondence with Governor Harris, asking when he would be ready to make the transfer. He informed me he must have some further correspondence with the President before he was prepared to act. Since then I have heard he will be in the city on Monday next for the purpose of consummating the transfer.

In regard to the positions of the officers of Tennessee Army now commanding, I beg leave to suggest that I think better use could be made of General Pillow as a major-general than as a brigadier, and I think the interests of the service would be greatly promoted by the appointment of General Cheatham to the office of brigadier-general.

In regard to the staff, I beg leave to say that I have examined carefully the organization of the medical department and the manner in which it was constituted. It is agreed on all hands as the best arranged and appointed part of their army. The selections have been made with great care by a medical board, composed of the most eminent surgeons in the State, after examination, and a large number of applicants rejected. Those who have been appointed have been taken from different parts of the State, many of them the family physicians of the men composing the regiments. I respectfully submit whether it would be practicable for the Department to do better than appoint them as they stand. All the regiments are provided with a surgeon and an assistant surgeon. Besides these, the State appointed a surgeon-general and two medical directors, all of whom are eminent surgeons, and might be appointed as medical directors to accompany and provide for the different parts of the Tennessee Army. I desire particularly that Dr. Joe C. Newnan, one of these three, be appointed medical director and purveyor of my department. He is a gentleman of large experience, of maturity of years and character, and well fitted for the duties of such an office. A young man has reported himself as a surgeon of the army to me-a Dr. Potts-who is quite too young to be intrusted with such a grave responsibility.

As to the other staff appointments of that army, the quartermasters and commissaries, I have reason to believe they might be in many cases much improved. If it should be desired by the Department, I could aid it in ascertaining who might be retained with advantage and who dropped.

We need at once an officer to act as post quartermaster at this place. As it will be the place from which supplies must be distributed not only to my own command, but that of General Hardee also, it is of the first importance that the person in that office should be a business man of the highest personal and commercial character. Such a man I have taken pains to find, and now recommend to you. It is Mr. D. A. Shepherd. He is well situated in business, and seeks no office. I have {p.372} sought him. He will take the office only for the sake of the cause. If agreeable to the Department, I should be glad to have that gentleman and Dr. Newnan appointed as early as may be.

In a department so large it is impossible for the duties of the quartermaster and commissary to be performed by the same individual. In the Tennessee Army these duties are separated, and the service of both departments is very efficiently done.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Department.

P. S.-The Tennessee Army when turned over will leave behind them a large amount of quartermaster, commissary, and medical stores. Would it not be well to have them all received by one Confederate official?

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[For Polk to Walker July 23, 1861, in reference to affairs in Arkansas, Missouri, and Tennessee Vol. III, of this series, p. 612.]

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RICHMOND, July 23, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I am requested by his excellency Isham G. Harris, governor, to ask at your hands full and specific instructions for the transfer of the Provisional Army of Tennessee to the Confederate States. The Tennessee troops and those of the Confederate States are not organized alike in all respects, and, consequently, in the transfer the organization of the former may be in some respects interfered with. The governor made such appointments in the general staff for the Tennessee Army (about 22,000 strong) as were deemed necessary for a force of that magnitude. These appointments embrace an adjutant-general, quartermaster-general, surgeon-general, inspector-general, and commissary-general, with suitable and proper number of assistants of each. In the transfer by regiments and battalions will those appointed be displaced or not? If displaced, the governor expresses the hope that, as an act of justice to the State and to the appointees, in supplying the force with necessary officers in this branch of the service, they be taken from Tennessee and from his appointees, if it can be done without prejudice to the service. If such shall be decided to be the general line of policy of the appointing power, it will give great satisfaction to the State.

In order to prevent confusion, and to relieve the governor from embarrassment and the officers of the general staff from uncertainty, please state the effect of the transfer and the general rule to be observed as to this branch of the service. A large quantity of stores were collected for the subsistence of the Provisional Army of Tennessee, and the same is now on hand. They have been paid for, and constitute part of the war expenditures of the State. The transfer of the army makes it necessary to determine what shall be done with these stores. If they are to be turned over with the army, it is respectfully suggested that arrangements should be made for that purpose. Be kind enough to furnish instructions on this point.

The governor desires that steps be taken to have the debt incurred by the State for war purposes settled and provided for by the Confederate States, in accordance with the league between the two powers. {p.373} I submit an aggregate of this debt, with the hope that measures will be instituted for its adjustment.

The extent of the force will make it necessary to appoint several generals in addition to those already appointed. It would be gratifying to the governor if in making the same the appointing power would select Generals Caswell, Sneed, and Foster, appointed by him as generals in the Tennessee forces. He would not make the request if he thought the service would suffer by it.

I am requested to invite your attention to the policy of establishing camps of instruction in East Tennessee. The healthfulness of the climate, cheapness of forage, and proximity to the field of operations all indicate this section of Tennessee as eminently appropriate for camps of instruction; in addition to which, the presence of an armed force will furnish a sense of security to our friends, and tend to suppress unlawful combinations and conspiracies against the Government.

Rifle regiments for twelve months, each man to provide his rifle, to be taken by the Government at value, and converted into Minie rifles, are being raised in Tennessee, and it is believed that several thousand troops of this description could be raised if desired by the Confederate Government. The State is able to convert these rifles at the rate of 300 per week into Minie rifles. The State is engaged in the manufacture of guns, sabers, powder, and caps, and if encouraged by some expression of approbation from the Confederate Government would, it is believed, press forward with greater energy.

Trusting that you will furnish an early reply to the matters and suggestions contained herein, I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

G. GANTT.

[Inclosure.]

MILITARY AND FINANCIAL BOARD, Nashville, Tenn., July 18, 1861.

His Excellency Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS:

SIR: The expenditures of this board to date are as follows:

Quartermaster-general’s department$918,775 94
Commissary-general’s department522,456 03
Paymaster-generals department399,600 00
Medical department8,500 00
Ordnance department362 045 91
Contingencies-special services, expenses of board, &c12,513 03
2,223,890 91

Very respectfully,

F. G. ROCHE, Secretary.

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HEADQUARTERS KENTUCKY BRIGADE, Camp Boone, July 24, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: Inclosed please find a letter from Brigadier-General Cheatham, of the Army of Tennessee, relative to small-arms and a field battery of six pieces that have been brought to his camp by a body of Kentuckians. I have declined to receive the arms, informing General Cheatham that I would refer the matter to you. He will doubtless hold them until I can hear from you.

Some ten days since forty-four altered rifles were brought from Kentucky to the vicinity of our camp by parties unknown to me and who were {p.374} not connected with this brigade. These guns are in a building in the vicinity of our encampment, and the governor of Kentucky has written requesting me to send them to Kentucky. As I had nothing to do with bringing them to Tennessee, and the parties who brought them stated to Colonel Hawes that they were part of the guns sent by Lincoln to the Union men of Kentucky, I will await your instructions before taking any action on the matter. If any of the men composing this brigade were to bring arms from Kentucky belonging to that State I should return them promptly. This, however, presents a different case, and I will await your instructions.

Very respectfully, yours,

WM. T. WITHERS.

[Inclosure.]

MEMPHIS, TENN, July 21, 1861.

General WITHERS, Camp Boone:

SIR: I have this moment learned front a messenger who has just arrived from my camp at Union City that a party of Kentuckians yesterday brought to my camp from Mayfield a large lot of muskets and a field battery of artillery. I presume they are a portion of the State arms that were at Mayfield, Ky. I write this to let you know that they are subject to your order as Kentuckians. I expect that in retaining then you of course get the consent of Governor Magoffin, of Kentucky.

B. F. CHEATHAM, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS KENTUCKY BRIGADE, Camp Boone, July 25, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: If you should determine to call for more troops, I trust that you will bear in mind the fact that some fifty companies from Kentucky have applied to me to be received into the service of the Confederate States, and at least 10,000 can be enlisted in forty to sixty days, to serve during the war.

Many companies of cavalry have tendered their services, who propose to arm themselves with shot-guns and revolvers. If you desire to receive either infantry or cavalry companies, advise me by telegraph, and your instructions will be promptly carried out.

We can always command the services of men who reside in the Confederate States, and it seems to me that it would be good policy to take the Kentuckians while we can get them.

I can buy, if authorized, with Confederate bonds, an ample supply of breadstuffs for an army of 10,000 men in the counties of Southern Kentucky that are contiguous to our encampment.

Yours, very respectfully,

WM. T. WITHERS.

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RICHMOND, July 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Nashville, Tenn.:

The President directs that you repair to East Tennessee, and assume command of that district. Preserve peace, protect the railroad, and repel invasion.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.375}

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NASHVILLE, July 26, 1861, (via CHATTANOOGA, 27th.)

General S. COOPER:

Your order received. Will go to Knoxville to-morrow.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 26, 1861.

G. GANTT, Esq., Richmond, VA.:

SIR: Your letter of July 23, written on behalf of the governor of Tennessee, has been received.

With regard to the question of the transfer of the Provisional Army of Tennessee to the Confederate States, that transfer must take place in the manner prescribed by law, and the army so transferred becomes at once in every respect subject to the organization and regulations of the Confederate Army. The simple act of transfer of the army may be effected by the mere inspection of the muster rolls, and by the transfer of the same under the proper officers. So far as possible, it would be the policy of this Department to retain such officers in commission as had been appointed under the State organization, but such officers as are not recognized under the army organization of the Confederate States must, of course, cease to exist. Such are those to which you refer-adjutant-general, quartermaster-general, surgeon-general, inspector-general, and commissary-general, with their assistants. These appointees must, therefore, necessarily be displaced by the-transfer; but in making such corresponding appointments as may under the new organization be necessary, this Department will be happy to consider in each case the claims of the gentlemen previously appointed, it being the policy of the Department to consult in every case, so far as possible, the interests and the wishes of the State in question. Governor Harris has already been requested, in a letter from the President, to present his recommendations for these appointments.

In the transfer by regiments the field officers of the regiments must be already elected. In the transfer by companies or by battalions, to be afterward organized into regiments, the appointment of field officers is reserved to the President.

The army stores referred to in your letter, which have been collected and paid for by the State of Tennessee, will be included in the transfer. They will be receipted for by the proper departments, and this Government will become responsible for their purchase and for all the expenses properly incidental.

The debt incurred by the State of Tennessee for war purposes will be assumed by the Government of the Confederate States according to the terms agreed upon, but it is not in the power of this Department at present to enter fully into arrangements for that object. The account inclosed in your letter will be referred to the proper authority, and will receive due attention.

With reference to the future appointment of brigadier-generals, Governor Harris has been already assured, in the letter from the President previously referred to, that his recommendations and the public sentiment of the people of Tennessee shall be consulted in this particular so far as the interests of the public service may permit.

The suggestion of the governor with regard to the establishment of {p.376} camps of instruction in Tennessee is approved. The location of such camps has been referred to the governor already, as will be seen by reference to the communication of June 30.

The Department is gratified to hear of the success of the efforts in Tennessee for the raising of rifle regiments. Too much energy cannot be devoted to the enlistment of troops and the procuring of arms. The Government would also gladly co-operate with any proper measures for the improvement of the arms, subject, of course, always to the direction and approval of the proper officers of this Government. The manufacture of the munitions of war, such as you refer to, within the State of Tennessee, is highly improved, and the Government would gladly encourage and promote such manufactures by every means within its power.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS KENTUCKY BRIGADE, Camp Boone, July 28, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: Yours of the 19th instant, in which you express a willingness to accept the additional Kentucky companies but for the inability of the Government to arm them, has been received. Since our glorious victories of the 18th and 21st I hope it will be in your power to arm them. The companies are still organized, and will be greatly disappointed if they cannot be received. If you find that you can arm them, please telegraph me at Clarksville, and I will, if instructed to do so, order them to our camp. I can provide everything for them except the arms. My word is out to receive the companies, or I would not again bring the matter to your attention.

Very respectfully, yours, &c.,

WM. T. WITHERS.

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COLUMBUS, KY., July 30, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

The guns at Cairo being removed to Bird’s Point; 7,000 men at Bird’s Point; 2,000 expected Sunday night last. Frémont at Cape Girardeau Sunday with 2,000 men. No communication with Cairo since Sunday night.

D. O’DIXON. [?]

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MEMPHIS, July 30, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

My column has made the landing at New Madrid safely. They will fortify it. Frémont is at Cairo. I have immediate need of an ordnance officer. The man I want is here-Lieut. Moses H. Wright, late of the U. S. Army. Will you give him a first lieutenant’s commission, and order him to report to me? I have detailed Major De Russy as my chief of engineers. Captain Galt, having been relieved from my quartermaster’s staff makes another appointment immediately necessary. I submitted to you in a letter the name of Mr. D. A. Shepherd. Will you make him a major or captain? We transfer Tennessee proceeds to-day.

L. POLK.

{p.377}

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BRISTOL, July 31, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

I am here to comprehend facts. Under great confusion of orders from Nashville. The regiments of Fulton, Maney, Forbes, Battle, Newman, and a West Tennessee regiment were ordered to Virginia service; Savage’s, Fulton’s, and Rains’ to East Tennessee. General Anderson went to Lynchburg, and ordered on Fulton and Savage from Richmond. They were ordered back here, but now I learn they are ordered to Virginia again. Newman and Battle were temporarily detained here for want of transportation, but propose going to Lynchburg to-morrow morning. Which regiments shall I assume command of for East Tennessee service?

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 31, 1861.

Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Commanding, &c., Bristol, Tenn.:

SIR: I am instructed by the President to make you the following communication:

The great importance of the East Tennessee and Western Virginia road requires that it should be closely guarded wherever there is reason to apprehend its destruction. The movements of the enemy or the sending of arms into East Tennessee should be so closely watched by an adequate force as to render success impracticable. You will know so well the state of things in East Tennessee that nothing more can be said in that regard than to point to you the importance of preventing organization for resistance to the Government and of attracting by every possible means the people to support the Government, both State and Confederate. It may occur that civil process in case of treason may be resisted, in which event you will endeavor to be in position to give all needful support to the civil authorities. The President relies on you to give more accurate and exact information in relation to public affairs in East Tennessee than it has heretofore been possible to obtain, and you are invited to the fullest correspondence in all matters relating to your command.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 31, 1861.

General WILLIAM T. WITHERS, Clarksville, Tenn.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of 25th instant, I am directed by the Secretary of War to request that the questions of cavalry be referred to Major-General Polk. One additional regiment of infantry or ten companies may be received for the war.

Very respectfully,

A. T. BLEDSOE, Chief of Bureau of War.

{p.378}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 31, 1861.

General WILLIAM T. WITHERS, Camp Boone, near Clarksville, Tenn.:

SIR: In reply to yours of the 24th instant, relative to the arms brought into the Confederate camp, the Secretary of War directs me to say that the only question is, do they belong to the State of Kentucky? If they do, they should be returned; if not, they should be retained and used, preserving an inventory and valuation.

Respectfully,

A. T. BLEDSOE, Chief of Bureau of War.

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COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Frankfort, August -, 1861.

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Since the commencement of the present unhappy difficulties yet pending in the country, the people of Kentucky have indicated a steadfast desire and purpose to maintain a position of strict neutrality between the belligerent parties. They have already striven by their policy to avert from themselves the calamity of war and protect their own soil from the presence of contending armies. Up to this period they have enjoyed comparative tranquillity and entire domestic peace.

Recently a military force has been enlisted and quartered by the United States authorities within this State. I have on this day addressed a communication and dispatched commissioners to the President of the United States, urging the removal of these troops from the soil of Kentucky, and thus exerting myself to carry out the will of the people in the maintenance of a neutral position. The people of this State desire to be free from the presence of the soldiers of either belligerent, and to that end my efforts are now directed.

Although I have no reason to presume that the Government of the Confederate States contemplate or have ever purposed any violation of the neutral attitude thus assumed by Kentucky, there seems to be some uneasiness felt among the people of some portions of the State, occasioned by the collection of bodies of troops along their southern frontier. In order to quiet this apprehension, and to secure to the people their cherished object of peace, this communication is to represent these facts, and elicit an authoritative assurance that the Government of the Confederate States will continue to respect and observe the position indicated as assumed by Kentucky.*

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. MAGOFFIN.

* Answered August 28, p. 396.

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RICHMOND, August 1, 1861.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier General, &c.:

Retain at Bristol under your orders such of the Tennessee regiments now there or that may arrive there until further advised. You are assigned to the command of the District of East Tennessee.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.379}

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COLUMBUS, KY., August 3, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

Eight steamboats with troops landed at Cairo yesterday. Their pickets were down opposite here last night.

J. P. GRAY.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 3, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

SIR: It is a matter of importance, if not of absolute necessity, that the Kentucky regiments, under command of General Withers, at Camp Boone, on the Kentucky line, should be armed at the earliest moment practicable. That there will be an effort on the part of the Federal Government to arm the Union men of Tennessee I have no doubt. For this purpose companies and regiments of Union men are being organized in Kentucky, and every day our relations with the people of Kentucky are becoming more complicated and threatening, especially that part of Kentucky adjoining East Tennessee. I am relying upon the regiments at Camp Boone to guard a part of the line between the two States, but without arms of course they are useless. The transfer of the State army will be completed within a few days; in view of which fact, you must allow me to say that a strong force should be kept at the gaps on the State line in East Tennessee. I fear we will have to adopt a decided and energetic policy with the people of that section. I hope, however, to visit Richmond in a few days, and confer with you upon this and other questions of interest to the State and General Government.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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Memoranda for Lieut. Col. Thomas H. Taylor.

If possible, get rifles for both regiments. If you can’t get rifles, try for rifled muskets.

Urge Secretary of War and President to receive at least one more regiment of infantry from Kentucky. They ought, if possible, to take every man that offers, for we not only get good soldiers, but we get the sympathies of their relatives and friends. If the President will receive them, we can get a company from almost every county in the State. About fifty companies have already offered their services.

Try to get a regiment of cavalry accepted. Some ten companies of cavalry have offered, and will arm themselves and furnish horses, equipments, &c.

An army of 10,000 men can be provisioned with breadstuffs in this section. Much of it will be donated, and the balance can all be paid for in bonds. I have been assured that 50,000 to 70,000 bushels of wheat will be donated. Some 10,000 bushels have, I am advised, already been donated. Tell the President that we have camping here for 6,000 men, and tell him what kind of ground it is.

Advise them-that efforts are being made to raise and arm a brigade in Kentucky for Lincoln’s army, to operate in East Tennessee. One regiment is being organized close by our camp, and I am told have arms. I am having them closely watched, and recent advices lead me to think that they are making but little progress. I think the whole {p.380} project will prove a failure. If we had lost the day at Bull Run it would have been different.

Governor Harris has urged me to insist on the brigade being armed immediately. See him, and he will give you a letter to the Secretary of War.

WM. T. WITHERS.

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MEMPHIS, August 3, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

I am informed that three of the gunboats built at Cincinnati came over the falls at New Albany, where they were to complete their armament and drop down at once to Cairo. Seven steamboats loaded with troops left Saint Louis yesterday for Bird’s Point and Cairo. Frémont is concentrating a force at Cairo and Cape Girardeau. My force greatly needs strengthening. Will you not order Russell’s and the other Mississippi regiments and any other forces at your command in the States of Alabama or Mississippi or Louisiana that are disposable to report to me without delay? Russell’s have not yet moved. Will you please reply to my application for a quartermaster? I have none, and Captain Stockton has been detailed as my inspector-general, and I have detailed Major De Russy to act in his place as chief of engineers. The latter is not available, therefore, as quartermaster. I have nominated Mr. D. A. Shepherd as quartermaster, with the rank of major. Mr. S. is the best man I can procure for that office. I propose, also, to have transferred to the Confederate service the Ordnance Corps of Tennessee. As it stands it is very efficiently organized, and we want it all for supplying any order and the neighboring commands. I wish Capt. Moses H. Wright, late of the U. S. Ordnance Corps, to be my chief, if possible. I should like their appointments immediately. I have again to urge on the Department to send me more troops.

L. POLK.

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UNION CITY, August 5, 1861.

General POLK:

Mississippi force have about 1,500 effective men. More than half the Tennessee troops said to be absent and many sick. I will send definite report when obtained. The South Carolina, Alabama, and Louisiana troops were to start for Union City to-day. I have ordered them to Memphis from Corinth.

CHAS. CLARK, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Memphis, Tenn., August 5, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

I am mustering in the Tennessee troops. What shall we do for staff officers? We want surgeons, quartermasters, and commissaries. We also want engineers. Shall we take that corps as it stands, or will you allow me to name such of them as have the reputation of special efficiency?

I send you a communication from the colonel of the corps, which will put you in possession of the number and employment of the officers.

{p.381}

I telegraphed you in regard to the Ordnance Corps, and asked that as I had detailed Lieut. M. I. White, the only officer of that corps I had, to accompany General Pillow’s column, I also asked that I might have the Ordnance Corps of Tennessee, which was very efficient, turned over to the Confederate Army. Those I wanted were Capt. Moses H. Wright, Capt. W. Richardson Hunt, Lieut. George Graden, and I need them all. Captain Wright is an officer of the old Army, and very efficient.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Department.

P. S.-I beg leave to add that I am greatly in need of the requisition made [by] the ordnance officer, White.

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MEMPHIS, August 6, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

I have reason to believe the enemy is concentrating troops at Bird’s Point and Cairo, with the aim of making a movement down the river. I have been disappointed in getting the troops promised from Arkansas. I have telegraphed for Russell’s regiment of Mississippi and any other regiments within my reach, and have had no reply. From whence am I to obtain additional force as it shall be needed to co-operate with McCulloch and Hardee in Missouri, which is indispensable to their success, and at the same time defend the river? I must have more force. Please reply.

L. POLK.

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BLANDVILLE, August 6, 1861.

[General POLK:]

DEAR SIR: We are threatened with invasion by General Prentiss, as he said to two of our citizens Saturday afternoon that after the August election “Kentucky neutrality would go up,” and that he intended to send a military escort with Mr. Thomas Owens to Milburn to-day. He also said “that he should send reconnoitering parties into Kentucky to watch the enemy in Tennessee.” Further, he said he was “expecting orders to occupy Kentucky”; also that when his troops came into Kentucky the people should “change to Union men or keep their mouths shut.”

We shall try to defend ourselves against aggression upon our political and personal rights.

Communicate the above facts to such persons as ought to know them.

Yours, truly,

C. WICKLIFFE.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, August 6, 1861.

Adjt. Gen. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Thomas A. R. Nelson, with an escort of three men, supposed to be on his way to take his seat in the Federal Congress at Washington, was arrested about midnight night before last in Lee County, Virginia, by a company of Home Guards of that county. He was {p.382} brought to a camp under my command at Cumberland Gap, and was from there sent, under a guard of 60 men, to Abingdon, Va. These facts are to-day communicated to me by Lieutenant-Colonel Walker, of Cumberland Gap. The knowledge of the event has apparently produced much excitement among Nelson’s adherents here, giving rise to menacing language.

I have information from various sources, apparently reliable, that different bodies of men in the counties of Northeastern Kentucky, estimated to amount in the aggregate to several thousand, are under military organization, and are threatening to force a passage through the mountains into East Tennessee. The Federalists here, I am now well advised, are awaiting such a movement. My impression is that a large number of Union men are opposed to it, but there are very many Lincoln men here who will be restrained from co-operating only by considerations of policy or apprehensions of the consequences. A very large amount of arms and ammunition has been placed by the Lincoln Government in Kentucky. Anderson (of Sumter memory) is by the Federalists here believed to be the leading military man. A Kentuckian named Nelson, late a lieutenant in the U. S. Navy, by some said to be Anderson’s aide, by others said to be a newly-appointed general, having his headquarters at Cincinnati, is the most prominent man in getting up the threatened invasion of East Tennessee. My information goes to show that they contemplate a movement very soon, but I am not sufficiently advised of their state of preparation. It is becoming difficult to command reliable information, on account of the apprehension felt by spies in that region.

I send you a copy of the best map I am able to have made of the topography of country about the Kentucky line. It has been gathered from the best information I could get from scouts but think it may be imperfect. The centers of their military organizations seem to be Crab Orchard, London, Somerset, Barboursville, Albany, Columbia, and Boston. The principal gaps in the mountain are Cumberland, Big Creek, Elk, and the passes by Chitwood’s and Camp McGinnis, but the top of the mountain is comparatively flat and 30 or 40 miles broad, and there are innumerable bridle-path passes intervening between Cumberland Gap and Camp McGinnis. My purpose is to form a chain of infantry posts at Cumberland Gap, Big Creek Gap, Elk Gap, Camp McGinnis, and Livingston, for which I have 33 infantry companies, all but one regiment very raw troops. There are six cavalry companies, which I propose to use as scouts, advanced posts, and to pass intelligence rapidly along the line of infantry posts. I will have a constant patrol at Archer’s Gap, Chitwood’s, and at other advanced posts near the Kentucky lute, patrolling scouts of cavalry traversing the various paths leading across the mountains, the objects being to cut off communication between Kentucky and Tennessee Federalists, seize arms, or prevent them from being brought over, &c. Should there be an approach of Kentuckians in much force, I could soon concentrate upon the line of approach. I have a regiment here, one I am disposing at different bridges on the railroad, and sixteen other companies of infantry, the latter entirely undisciplined and some of them without arms. I hope in a few days to have a battalion of cavalry for service in connection with the road. There are three field pieces of artillery at Cumberland Gap, used as a fixed battery, with no experienced artillerists. Here there is a field artillery company with six 6-pounders, which might be taken to the Kentucky border when required.

I have great reason to fear that our friends in Kentucky are powerless {p.383} to resist the complete dominancy of the Lincoln forces. I have thus far obtained no knowledge of the state of things in Southwestern Virginia or on the Kanawha.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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RICHMOND, August 7, 1861.

General POLK, Memphis, Tenn.:

If Russell’s regiment is armed or you can arm it, you will command its services, of course. There are said to be two regiments in Louisiana ready for service. I have telegraphed Governor Moore to order them to you. If there be other available regiments known to you within the States embraced in your department, they are subject to your orders.

L. P. WALKER.

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RICHMOND, August 7, 1861.

General POLK, Memphis, Tenn.:

The ordnance stores of Tennessee you will, of course, receive and receipt for. As to the ordnance corps of Tennessee, I cannot answer without being first informed about the organization. Meantime, however, you can employ it in the service of the Government.

L. P. WALKER.

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HUMBOLDT, August 7, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

Operator at Columbus informs me no Federal troops there. He learns there are about 14,000 Federals at Cairo and Bird’s Point; 2,000 at Norfolk, 5 miles below Bird’s Point. No gunboats arrived there yet.

CHAS. E. TAYLOR.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 8, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Hdqrs. Dep’t No. 2, Memphis:

SIR: Your letter of July 28,* by the hands of Colonel Little, has been received.

This Department is not insensible to the necessity of increasing, so far as practicable, the force under your command, in order to enter upon vigorous operations with as little embarrassment as possible, and every encouragement consistent with the general interest of the service will be given for the enlistment of troops for that purpose.

You are therefore authorized to accept for the war all infantry troops that are armed or that can be armed by you, and as much cavalry as in your opinion the service may require, regarding of course the number of cavalry already at your disposal, and accepting such as can be enlisted with the least unnecessary expense to the Government. By engaging the services of proper men also in the collection of arms you would be rendering certainly good service to the cause.

Lieutenant Hodge and Lieutenant Williamson, of Dreux’s battalion, {p.384} could not be detailed for the service you designate except under special necessity. The need of such services is admitted, and if you could indicate other selections not requiring such transfer the Department would gladly confer the appointments. Dr. Newnan, having been already assigned to General Anderson’s command, could not be properly transferred without General Anderson’s consent. Could you not designate some other appointments which would meet your wishes? The Department is inclined to be guided by your recommendations in all cases, but it is requested that you will designate all the appointments, medical and other, which you desire in one letter, devoting that letter entirely to this one subject. Otherwise, in consequence of the constant pressure on this Department and confusion of so many details, it is impossible that your recommendations can receive proper attention.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

* Referring principally to operations in Missouri. See Series I, Vol. III, p. 617.

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MEMPHIS, August 10, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

It is absolutely necessary to the success of our operations in the valley of the Mississippi that we have an ordnance corps organized immediately and in this department. I would respectfully ask for the appointment in that corps of the following officers, late of the same corps in Tennessee: Capt. Moses H. Wright, Capt. W. R. Hunt, Lieut. George Graden; these gentlemen to have the rank in the Provisional Army here attached to their names.

L. POLK.

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PARIS, August 11, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

DEAR SIR: I learn from Dr. Lackey that there were some conflicts between the orders issued by you and myself with regard to shipments on the Tennessee River.

I had some time since given orders to the commander at Fort Henry not to allow the shipment of cotton, cotton yarn, tobacco, wheat, sugar, coffee, rice, or any article contraband of war, north of the Tennessee line.

I have not ordered the seizure of property; have allowed owners to dispose of their property, do what they pleased with it, except to ship it north of our line; have not prohibited the running of boats; have only prohibited the character of shipments specified.

I am, however, not only willing, but wish to give up the entire military jurisdiction and command of the State to the military commanders of the Confederate States. Have urged the Government to appoint a commander for Middle Tennessee, and am perfectly willing to yield to you the command and control of the Tennessee River. Shall cheerfully co-operate with you in carrying out your policy if you see proper to take command of it, and notify me as to the policy adopted. You will allow me to suggest, however, that in no event should cotton, sugar, coffee, tobacco, or wheat be permitted to go north of the line. When it once passes beyond our jurisdiction, we cannot know where it goes or what use is made of it.

{p.385}

I return to Nashville to-night; shall be pleased to hear from you as to your policy on Tennessee River, and shall avoid any conflict of orders.

We have in Middle Tennessee some unattached cavalry and rifle companies. Captain Stockton refuses to muster them as unattached companies or to attach them to regiments and battalions which already have their fall number of companies. They are a part of the Provisional Army of Tennessee, and must be mustered the one war or the other. You will please order him by telegraph to muster them, and I would prefer being left to determine myself as to whether they be mustered as companies or attached to other organizations. Send dispatch to my care.

I shall proceed rapidly with organization of reserve corps. No power to order militia to drill oftener than specified by law unless I order them out for actual service. This would involve an expense quite unnecessary, as we could not make them useful for want of arms. I hope, however, to be able very soon to give you efficient aid with the reserve corps, which I shall arm as rapidly as it is possible to do so.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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ORDNANCE OFFICE AT MEMPHIS, August 12, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

SIR: If this war should unfortunately be prolonged, the valley of the Mississippi must ultimately become its great theater, for the enemy now working to subjugate the south knows the value of our great artery of commerce and of the prominent cities upon it too well for us to doubt that he will bend all his energies to control them. To prepare for such a defense as may be commensurate with the interests involved, we may have to invoke all the resources of this valley, and I feel satisfied that they are amply adequate to the emergency.

You now have in the section under your command, already finished and to be finished in the next 30 days, 75 field guns of various caliber, and I beg you will allow me to suggest and recommend that 50 batteries, of 6 guns each, be put into the field as early as possible.

To effect this, it will be best to send agents to Vicksburg, Jackson, New Orleans, Mobile, Montgomery, Huntsville, and Nashville, to make contracts for, say, 165 field pieces and howitzers. Sixty field pieces can be contracted for at this place, one battery to be finished per week. I would recommend that the batteries be composed of the following guns:

Two 6 pounder field pieces; two 12-pounder rifled Parrott guns; one 12-pounder howitzer; one 24-pounder howitzer; making a total of 74 6-pounder field pieces; 74 12-pounder Parrott guns, rifled; 37 12-pounder howitzers; 37 24-pounder howitzers.

For the moving of this artillery we shall require 2,500 sets of artillery harness; 225 gun carriages, and 225 caissons; 38 battery wagons, and 38 battery forges.

The cost will be, for-

225field pieces, at $300 each$135,060
225gun carriages, at $400 each90,000
225caissons, at $375 each84,375
2,500sets of harness, at $50 per horse125,000
37battery wagons, at $400 each14,800
37battery forges, at $450 each10,650
Tools, &c., for same50,000
515,825

[/TABLE] {p.386}

This estimate is based upon the number of pieces allowed per thousand men by the United States Government. Three hundred pieces would be the supply allowed for 100,000 men, two pieces per thousand men for battery purposes, and the third piece to be held in reserve, in case the pieces in battery should be disabled by any casualty. Should you fail to get the number of pieces contracted for, yet you could not fail to get a large supply of them, and the entire manufacturing enterprise of the country would be enlisted in the manufacture of cannon or of any and all kinds of ordnance, as they would have abundant machinery in readiness for turning its powers into any required channel.

The history of all wars of independence teaches us that the fires of patriotism burn more brightly at the outbreak than towards their close. Men in the outset of such a contest are more oblivious of personal discomfort, less selfish, than they become as the struggle progresses, and more willing to contribute in all ways the means of winning independence. Our Revolution of ’76 is an instance to illustrate this truth. The paper of the Government passed current at first, though rejected as worthless towards the close, yet that Government was surely better able to make good its contracts at the end of that struggle than at the beginning. May not such be the result in this contest, and does not wisdom point out the necessity of securing such war material as we can while our Government is in good credit?

For the 300 field pieces will be required the following kind and quantity of ammunition:

For 6-pounder guns.
6-pounder shot14,800
Spherical-case shot11,840
Canister stand2,960
For Parrott rifled cannon.
Shot14,800
Shell14,800
For 12-pounder howitzer.
Shell5,698
Spherical-case shot7,585
Canister1,517
For 24-pounder howitzer.
Shell1,690
Spherical case5,143
Canister1,951

Costing, say, $100,000; making a total cost for the 225 field pieces and ammunition for one campaign, say, $640,000.

I would also respectfully recommend that contracts be made for 25,000 sword bayonets for Mississippi rifles and 10,000 for double-barreled shotguns. These bayonets complete will cost about $9 each, making a total cost of $315,000 for the 35,000. Bayonet and gun barrels for rifles ready forged out for rifling can be procured in any quantity at $3 each from Hillman Bro., on Tennessee River. The dies for locks and nipples are being made here and can be turned out in large quantities. A foundery and shop in this city can turn out gun stocks at the rate of 100 to 200 per day, and we can thus have a weapon equal in all respects to the Mississippi rifle, while it will not be so heavy.

Two machines for rifling cannon will be in operation here this week, and, if successful, they can turn out 6 pieces daily. Contracts may be {p.387} made at other points for casting and boring guns, while the-rifling could be done here whenever required.

The spirit animating the United States Congress and people, and the great preparations made for a war upon a grand theater, induce me to urge upon you the importance of a timely and efficient preparation on our part, and the plan for equipping ourselves I have now the honor to submit to your superior judgment.

Respectfully,

WM. RICHARDSON HUNT, Captain of Ordnance.

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RICHMOND, August 13, 1861.

General F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Knoxville, Tenn.:

General Polk has been ordered to send to Russellville, Tenn., the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Regiments of Mississippi Volunteers and to advise you of their departure, Col. W. B. Wood’s regiment Alabama volunteers, at Tuscumbia, has been ordered to the same place, with orders to telegraph you. Change at your discretion the point of rendezvous if Russellville is considered unadvisable.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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MEMPHIS, August 13, 1861.

General SPARROW, Confederate Congress:

Will you have a bill passed authorizing generals in command, at their discretion, to appoint drill-masters, with the rank and pay of first lieutenants? The service is absolutely suffering for the want of such a law. We have a number of young men with military education we can employ in that way if we had the law. Your early attention is requested to this matter.

L. POLK.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF MISSISSIPPI, Jackson, August 13, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, C. S. A., Memphis, Tenn.:

SIR: In answer to your dispatch of 12th instant, the State has three artillery companies, armed and equipped, which can be placed in service at short notice, also six cavalry companies, fully armed and equipped. Eight regiments of infantry are being formed (but few arms), and will [be sent] into camps for instruction shortly. The chief of ordnance, Lieutenant-Colonel French, in forms me that he can arm from 2,000 to 3,000 men with good arms. In addition to the above-named troops, there are nineteen companies now tendered for the war under, the requisition of President Davis and proclamation of Governor Pettus (proclamation herewith inclosed). These last-mentioned companies are not armed. Efforts have been made to collect arms in the different counties, but with what success I am unable to say, as no reports have been made to the ordnance department.

I have delayed this letter for several hours expecting Governor Pettus’ return. He will doubtless communicate all information in his possession immediately on his return.

I have the honor to be, with respect, your obedient servant,

W. H. BROWN, Adjutant and Inspector General Army Mississippi.

{p.388}

[Inclosure.]

PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the President of the Confederate States of America has made a requisition on the State of Mississippi for two regiments of volunteers, to serve for and during the continuance of the war, to be sent to Corinth, Miss., for the protection of the Mississippi Valley; and 3,000 volunteers to serve for and during the continuance of the war, to be received by independent companies; each company to be composed of 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 2 second lieutenants, 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 musicians, and from 64 to 100 privates, to go immediately into camp of instruction, under the control of the War Department of the Confederate States. The President will assign competent officers to take charge of them, drill and discipline the men, and organize them into battalions or regiments, as he may prefer, and appoint field and staff officers: (Any company heretofore mustered into the State service for twelve months may volunteer under this call for and during the continuance of the war. It will not be a prerequisite in accepting these companies that they should be armed.)

Therefore I, John J. Pettus, governor of the State of Mississippi, by virtue of authority vested in me by law, do hereby proclaim that volunteers for the service are desired and will be accepted as above specified.

Given under my hand and the great seal of the State affixed at the city of Jackson this 9th day of July, A. D. 1861.

JOHN J. PETTUS.

C. A. BROUGHER, Secretary of State.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., August 14, 1861.

I am authorized to receive into the service of the Provisional Army of the Confederate States volunteer infantry companies, to be formed in Lee and Scott Counties, Virginia, for the term of twelve months or during the war, the companies to furnish their own rifles, and to be employed in guarding the mountain passes in and on the borders of said counties and the county of Wise, in Virginia, and in other duty within said counties. Captains of companies making tenders will address me at Knoxville, and will receive further instructions.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General, Commanding C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 15, 1861.

Capt. KENSEY JOHNS, Assistant Quartermaster, C. S. Army:

SIR: It is proposed by his excellency Isham G. Harris, the governor of Tennessee, to transfer to this Government the ordinance stores and quartermaster and commissary supplies provided by the State of Tennessee and in possession of her authorities, and you are hereby commissioned on behalf of this Government to receive the same and perfect the transfer.

You will proceed to Nashville and see Governor Harris upon the subject, and co-operate in the premises with the authorities of Tennessee. You will be careful to take all proper inventories of the articles received {p.389} by you, both in kind and quantity, and see to it that the deeds of transfer are rightly drawn and executed; all of which you will report to this Department.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 16, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Richmond:

SIR: I am satisfied from the movements of the Union men of East Tennessee that more troops should be stationed in that division of the State. If you would establish camps of instruction at different points in East Tennessee, and order to them such troops as you may have in camps in States south of us to the extent of 5,000 or 7,000 men, the presence of such a force would give perfect security to our railroads and prevent the organization of a rebel army, while the presence of the force we have there at present has the effect of irritating without being sufficient to awe or subdue.

Twelve or fourteen thousand men in East Tennessee would crush out rebellion there without firing a gun, while a smaller force may involve us in scenes of blood that will take long years to heal. We can temporize with the rebellious spirit of that people no longer. If you can order a sufficient number of troops from States south of us to that point, the adoption of a decided and energetic policy (which I am resolved upon so soon as I have a sufficient force to sustain it), the arrest and indictment for treason of the ringleaders, will give perfect peace and quiet to that division of our State in the course of two months. If I had the arms I could raise troops enough within one or two weeks to answer all purposes there, but having armed the provisional force and transferred it to the Confederate States, I have no arms to put into the hands of the regiments here seeking service and anxious to get into the field. Having sent from Middle Tennessee three regiments to East Tennessee and five to Western Virginia, and General Polk and General Pillow having moved some 6,000 men from West Tennessee to Missouri, it leaves us very much exposed upon the Kentucky border-too much so if our Kentucky friends should attempt any hostile movement; but if you can arm the brigade at Camp Boone, under General Withers, I can take care of Middle Tennessee with the troops now here; but until matters assume a more peaceful attitude in Kentucky, I do not think it prudent or safe to send troops from here. If the suggestion with regard to East Tennessee is to be acted upon at all, it should be done at once, as every moment’s delay but increases the danger of an outbreak there.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 20, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee:

SIR: Your letter of August 16 has just been received by the hands of Major Bradford. The importance of the present attitude of East Tennessee is not unknown to this Department, and the necessity of {p.390} providing promptly the means of supporting our friends in that section is by no means disregarded. Three regiments have been accordingly already ordered into East Tennessee, two from Mississippi, and one from Alabama, and it is hoped that these troops, with those already within your State, may suffice for the accomplishment of the objects at present necessary.

The Department fully concurs in your view of the necessity of adopting a decided policy to insure the public safety, and only regrets that it is not in the power of the Government to the extent that may be necessary. No precautions, however, within the power of this Department shall be spared. Full confidence is entertained in the zeal and vigilance of your excellency and of the military authorities in command.

The letter of your excellency of August 7, with regard to the proposal of Col. Acker Turner, of Kentucky, was referred to the President for consideration, and hence the delay in replying. I have this day telegraphed to you to the effect that a regiment, armed and equipped, and organized by the election of its own field officers, would be at once accepted and mustered into service. The election of its own officers is necessary to the organization of the regiment before it can be received, and this is the rule always observed by this Department when troops are offered by regiments.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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CAMP REDAN, Tuesday, August 20, 1861.

Col. LEWIS G. DE RUSSY, Chief Engineer Department No. 2:

COLONEL: I am now able to say that we are ready for the enemy; at least we can prevent his occupying the peninsula of Island No. 10 bend.

Last night, after a hard day’s labor, I had prepared my parapet sufficiently to place the two 24-pounder siege guns in position, and early this morning the Falls City arrived and we had them up. By this evening I shall have two 32-pounders in position and two more to-morrow.

We have the three companies of artillery under Major Stewart, and four companies of infantry under Major Hamilton, the latter lately a part of Colonel Carroll’s regiment.

The reasons for the change in Colonel Neely’s position I will be able to satisfactorily explain. Colonel McGowan’s brigade did not move up, but Colonel McGowan accompanied me to the points I had selected for the defenses of this part of the river. He agreed fully with me, and said that he would not alter the sites one foot I had selected or my plans for the defenses of the river.

If I am permitted to continue the works according to my plans, which will be submitted for approval in a few days, I feel satisfied we can defend the valley of the Mississippi against any number of invaders above us.

We have now command of the only landing for vessels for 10 miles above this, and of the channel of the river passing by us as far as our present armament can control. We shall be ready for as many more guns as you can send up.

If you can order the Falls City to bring up the two 8-inch howitzers now at Randolph, with shell and ammunition, as well as some guns upon {p.391} barbette carriages, I think we can be strong enough at the present post against any number of gunboats until we can put up the batteries on end of Island No. 10 and opposite main-land.

By the bye, colonel, I had named this post the Redan, as the form of the fort is a redan. I had also given to the main battery site, I mile below this, on the main-land, the name of Fort Leonidas, in compliment to our major-general commanding. And to the battery upon the end of the island (to be about the same size as the redan), Port No. 10.

These three names suggested themselves to me as peculiarly appropriate and strong, and I beg to suggest them to you for approval by the commanding general.

Colonel, I have a great deal to report to you, but every moment of my time has been occupied in arranging, moving, meeting impediments (that ought not to have been in the way), and in preparing to defend this superb section of country, agreeably to your wishes and those of General Polk. Both of you will, I think, not be disappointed. Tonight I shall sleep, but I have not done so one night since we parted.

Do send me the Mohawk and my theodolite, which I want for a short while. I will return it to you, colonel.

In a day or two I will have time to give you a detailed account of my movements since I saw you.

At New Madrid a young gentleman came to me to know if he should go down the river to you-Mr. W. D. Storke. I was in want of immediate assistance from just such an officer, and the great necessity of the case caused me to request him to aid me for a few days. He has been of service to me, and I will send him down in a few days, unless you can let me have him until I finish the works of Island No. 10 bend.

Colonel, can you have barbette carriages sent up to us? The guns at Memphis are of no use there, and before you will be ready for then at the Fort Pillow works others can be made.

We can at least keep the enemy at bay, and I believe can destroy him at this point, the threshold of General Polk’s department, should he attempt a passage by us. I shall have the country thoroughly examined between this and Union City as to feasibility of a short, good road, as well as defensible purposes.

Colonel, please advise no other orders be issued to any other commanding officer for this point for the present. Major Stewart and I will get along well together. If you can send up the light battery from New Orleans I will have a good camp ground for them and fine position if we are attacked. Also send me a mounted company.

I beg you will pardon this hasty communication, but I have no place to write, and my time every moment employed on the works. Major Stewart has made requisition for ammunition.

Colonel, please push our guns and powder and shot along, and let me have the Mohawk for my service here for a little while. The Gramupus is on sentinel duty.

I am, very respectfully, yours,

A. B. GRAY, Captain, C. S. Army.

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NASHVILLE, August 21, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Confederate States:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you I have conferred with Governor Harris and the military board of this State in relation to the transfer of military stores from the State of Tennessee to the Confederate States. {p.392} These authorities desire a full and complete transfer of all the military stores of the State and everything relating thereto, including powder mills and percussion-cap manufactory, now in operation, and all the contracts in the ordnance, quartermaster, and commissary departments in existence, but not filled at the date the transfer is perfected. A wish was expressed by the board that they should receive some assurance from the Department that the State of Tennessee would be refunded within a reasonable time for the stores and supplies now in their possession.

The ordnance stores are at Nashville and Memphis, and probably a few at Knoxville. The quartermaster and commissary supplies are stored at various points through the State, but much the larger portion is concentrated at the same depots-Nashville, Memphis, and Knoxville. The State authorities are now engaged in having inventories made of these stores and supplies, also schedules of the contracts now existing for stores and supplies, with a statement of other property, an early completion of which I have urged upon the board. These inventories shall be promptly submitted to the Department as soon as they are prepared. Should the Secretary of War decide to shoulder these contracts, the acting quartermaster and commissary at this point could attend to the contracts in his department, and see them properly filled. The contracts for ordnance stores, however, are numerous and varied, and they would require an ordnance officer to receive and inspect the same.

When the inventories of the State military stores are prepared, I will proceed to examine and receipt for them at cost, unless otherwise advised by the Department. I desire to be instructed whether I shall receipt for stores and supplies already issued by the State of Tennessee to the troops of the Confederate States now in the field. The question of transfer is in the present instance a complicated one, owing to the scattered condition of the supplies and the various contracts for both stores and supplies not yet filled.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

KENSEY JOHNS, Assistant Quartermaster.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A, Richmond, August 24, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Second Military Department:

GENERAL: The law gives to this Department no latitude as to the subject-matter of your letter of the 5th of August. The President is only authorized to ask for and accept the services of volunteers who may offer their services either as cavalry, mounted riflemen, artillery, or infantry. Neither a volunteer corps of engineers nor an ordnance corps of volunteers can be accepted. I have already suggested to you the idea of employing such officers of these corps as you may select in the character of special agents. Your staff appointments should be recommended to this Department, which under the law is alone intrusted with the power of making such appointments. It is hoped these embarrassments to your movements may be happily surmounted, and I only regret the inability of this Department under the restrictions of the law to meet your wishes in full.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

{p.393}

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RICHMOND, August 24, 1861.

General POLK, Memphis, Tenn.:

The ten companies of cavalry ordered to report to you from Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana were intended for General Hardee. Will you not order them forward with one of the Louisiana infantry regiments ordered to report to you?

L. P. WALKER.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11.}

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., August 26, 1861.

SIR: I have ordered you to move with your command, and encamp at Fish Springs, near the Johnson County line, because of the great disaffection, as reported to me, among the inhabitants of that county, and of Carter, adjoining, and in order that any efforts at rebellion against the authorities of the State or Confederacy may be quelled at once. I have information from various sources that a number of loyal citizens from those counties, apprehending danger at the hands of the Federalists among them, who seem to be largely in the ascendency, have fled for safety to Virginia and North Carolina. I also learned today that two men were killed and others wounded recently by these Lincolnites. You will try and ascertain the facts in the case and report to me. You will report to headquarters as often as convenient, or as circumstances may require, the condition of affairs in those counties.

I desire you as much as possible to be conciliatory towards these people, adhering strictly to the policy indicated in my proclamation and in General Orders, No. 3. You will enjoin upon your men a scrupulous observance of the rights of persons and of property, and all peaceable and law-abiding citizens. You will disarm and disperse all bodies of men in open hostility to the authorities of the State and of time Confederate States; capture and hold their leaders, and if resistance is offered, and it becomes necessary, destroy them. The following are the names of some of the Lincoln leaders in Johnson County, viz: Lewis Venable, of Laurel Creek; Northington, hotel-keeper at Taylorsville; R. H. Butler, Taylorsville, representative of the county; John G. Johnson and J. W. Merick, captains of Lincoln companies. Joseph P. Edoms, of Elizabethton, Carter County, and A. Evans, of Washington County, are also among the ringleaders of them. If you obtain satisfactory evidence that these or other leaders are in open hostility to the authorities of the State or the Confederacy, or stirring up rebellion against the same, you will arrest and detain them in custody. I will forward to your aid, for scouting purposes, a cavalry company so soon as I can arm them, if you think their services are required.

By order of Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer:

P. B. LEE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

Col. W. E. BALDWIN, Russellville, Tenn.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., August 26, 1861.

Hon. A. T. BLEDSOE, Bureau of War, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Please to excuse the bluntness of my telegram of this date and also of my letter. As I was going to the depot to forward a letter to the Commissary-General I learned that parties here who seem to cherish the existing feud between Feds. and Confeds. were about to apply to the Department to authorize the formation of a battalion of {p.394} horse, to be composed of Southern men to the exclusion of late Unionists, thus keeping alive the distinction which all sensible and good men are trying to obliterate. I wrote hastily to you whilst the cars were standing, hoping that you would pardon a scrawl which I would not like to send to the Secretary direct, and as the party designed to telegraph to the Department 1 used the same vehicle also.

When the President changed my destination from Manassas to Knoxville he expressed himself as anxious to have some regiments drawn from East Tennessee, especially from the ranks of the Unionists, whose threatened outbreak I was specially charged to aid in preventing by use of supposed personal influence. I asked you whether cavalry (or rather mounted rifle) regiments would be accepted. You answered yes, but added that your answer was unofficial, and that such authority must come from the Secretary direct. I had already been delayed in Richmond till I was asked why I tarried, and thus left without any written instructions, which I expected to receive here. Having spent four days in the camps near Manassas for instruction, I hastened to this point as ordered, and arrived on Saturday last, but found no orders or instructions. In Richmond I was given to understand that if I could raise one or more regiments here in East Tennessee I would be placed in command according to the number raised, and as I have been placed on that duty unsolicited, I shall expect to be sustained by the Department in the effort, if deemed worthy. In this view I claim that it is my due, the State having closed its recruiting, to have this district of East Tennessee considered as the field assigned to me. But as some will offer as horsemen and some as foot, and I cannot well command both, I willingly relinquish all claim to any consideration on account of the infantry that may be raised and confine myself to mounted men, whom Generals Johnston and Beauregard informed me they much need. I beg you to bring this matter before the Secretary, and let me be specifically authorized to raise as many mounted men as may be wanted. I have with others labored hard and with sonic success to allay the spirit of disaffection in this region and to produce a calm, which some deprecate, that will probably be succeeded by an active enlistment on our side. I stopped at Jonesborough one day to confer with Col. T. A. R. Nelson, and through him to learn what the Unionists design, and the result of a long interview has strongly impressed me with the belief that he will not only abstain from doing anything hostile to the Confederacy, but that in due time (i. e., as soon as his standing with his party will permit) he will come out openly for the Southern cause, and he has given me aid already in getting up volunteers. At my instance Union leaders now here from different counties are tonight engaged in preparing an address, adopting Nelson’s card (a copy of which I sent to the Adjutant-General yesterday), and advising their friends in Kentucky and elsewhere to return to their homes and submit to “the powers that be.” I purpose publishing a handbill, containing a short appeal to my friends and relatives, with Nelson’s card; this indorsement of it by his friends and General Zollicoffer’s general order holding out the olive branch. This may lead to such mutual confidence that both sides may deem their rifles useless here, and agree to carry them together under my lead against a common foe.

Please to ask the Secretary to telegraph me how many mounted men I may raise.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,

A. M. LEA, Brigade Commissary.

{p.395}

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HALL OF CONGRESS, August 27.

The accompanying letters are submitted for the consideration of the War Department and the President. Mr. Tate, I am aware, is well known to his excellency, as well as to the Department. Mr. Topp may also be well known to them. If not, I may say that he is one of the most prominent citizens of Memphis, and a gentleman of deservedly high social and political position.

I may be allowed to add that the letters herewith inclosed are but specimens of others of similar purport which I receive almost daily from Memphis, and hence are most respectfully submitted.

DAVID M. CURRIN.

[Inclosures.]

MEMPHIS, August 20, 1861.

Hon. D. M. CURRIN:

DEAR SIR: I trust you will not consider it out of place if I make you a few suggestions.

The brigades and divisions under McCulloch and Price, Hardee, Pillow, Jeff. Thompson, and others seem to be concentrating towards Saint Louis. In the mean time Frémont is using extraordinary exertions and concentrating all the forces at his disposal upon the defense of Saint Louis. As proof of this, Bird’s Point, opposite Cairo, has been evacuated, and but 2,000 troops are at Cairo. To an outsider Saint Louis is the stake that is to be played for.

Whether Missouri is to fall into the hands of the Abolitionists or with the South is the question. That being the case, it has occurred to me, as the preachers would say, that now is the accepted time. If Missouri is to be helped, now is the time. A day or an hour may turn the scale. The troops that are there are badly armed and equipped, and sadly in want of the conveniences necessary to an army. The most of them are green and have had little or no training. This applies particularly to the Missourians and Arkansians that are hourly flocking to our standard.

I pretend not to know anything of the contemplated movements of the President eastward. As I came from Richmond a few days since I met on the entire road from Richmond to Memphis a vast number of soldiers. I learn that companies from Mississippi, Louisiana, and elsewhere arriving here are sent on eastward. It occurs to me that the true policy would be, in view of the great stake we are playing for in Missouri, to turn all the forces now organized in Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and elsewhere upon Missouri, so that we could throw an overpowering force upon Missouri and crush out abolitionism in Missouri, and thereby break up their contemplated movement on the South in the fall. Would it not be well to see President Davis and mention these matters to him. Whatever is done should be done instantly.

Since writing this Colonel Carroll has come in, just from East Tennessee; says he can raise any amount of troops in East Tennessee if they could be provisioned whilst being organized. Would it not be well for the President to give him the command of a brigade if he can raise them, as he says he can, in thirty days?

I throw out these suggestions for your reflection. I learn that the volunteers in Arkansas are looking with intense interest to the arrival of A. Sidney Johnston, with the hope that he will have command of all the troops in Missouri. They say they want a man of experience. {p.396} They are willing to fight, but that they would be better satisfied to have over them a superior military man, such as Johnston is said to be.

Very truly, yours, &c.,

ROBERTSON TOPP.

If I presume too much, charge it to the deep solicitude I feel in our cause.

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MEMPHIS, August 23, 1861.

Hon. D. M. CURRIN, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Our army matters here are in a terrible condition. Go to President Davis and Secretary Walker, and insist upon their sending a practical military leader here to take charge of our army in the field or put Hardee on this line of defenses. Polk and Pillow are at loggerheads-Polk giving a command and Pillow countermanding it by the same messenger. Something must be done, and that quickly. Pillow, I learn, is acting on his own hook; will not give up his position as a senior general; denies Polk’s authority to give him orders. Pillow has ordered his forces (only 6,000 to 7,000 men) into the interior of Missouri, against the advice of Cheatham, Stephens, and other prudent and qualified men, and will most assuredly be cut off. He says he intends to fight his own fight first before he joins commands with Hardee or any one else. This state of things will produce mutiny and revolt, and our people, whose sons, brothers, and husbands are in the army, will rise up in revolution at such conduct.

Your friend,

SAM. TATE.

We hope to hear that A. S. Johnston has been assigned to this command. General Polk is a sensible gentleman, and will do well if he had proper co-operation.

S. TATE.

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RICHMOND, August 28, 1861.

Hon. B. MAGOFFIN, Governor of Kentucky, &c.:

SIR: I have received your letter,* informing me that “since the commencement of the unhappy difficulties yet pending in the country the people of Kentucky have indicated a steadfast desire and purpose to maintain a position of strict neutrality between the belligerent parties.” In the same communication you express your desire to elicit “an authoritative assurance that the Government of the Confederate States will continue to respect and observe the neutral position of Kentucky.”

In reply to this request, I lose no time in assuring you that the Government of the Confederate States of America neither intends nor desires to disturb the neutrality of Kentucky. The assemblage of troops in Tennessee to which you refer had no other object than to repel the lawless invasion of that State by the forces of the United States, should their Government attempt to approach it through Kentucky without respect for its position of neutrality. That such apprehensions were not groundless has been proved by the course of that Government in Maryland and Missouri, and more recently in Kentucky itself, in which, as you inform me, “a military force has been enlisted and quartered by the United States authorities.”

{p.397}

The Government of the Confederate States has-not only respected most scrupulously the neutrality of Kentucky, but has continued to maintain the friendly relations of trade and intercourse which it has suspended with the people of the United States generally.

In view of the history of the past, it can scarcely be necessary to assure your excellency that the Government of the Confederate States will continue to respect the neutrality of Kentucky so long as her people will maintain it themselves.

But neutrality, to be entitled to respect, must be strictly maintained between both parties; or, if the door be opened on the one side for aggression of one of the belligerent parties upon the other, it ought not to be shut to the assailed when they seek to enter it for purposes of self-defense.

I do not, however, for a moment believe that your gallant State will suffer its soil to be used for the purpose of giving an advantage to those who violate its neutrality and disregard its rights over those who respect them both.

In conclusion, I tender to your excellency the assurance of my high consideration and regard, and am, sir, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

* Dated August -, 1861. See p. 378.

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KNOXVILLE, August 29, 1861.

General COOPER:

Reliable news just in from Nelson’s camp at Hoskins’ Cross-Roads. Four thousand well-armed men there, and coining in 400 or 500 a day. Plenty of arms. One thousand men at Barboursville. Seven hundred at Williamsburg without arms. East Tennesseeans going on to Hoskins’ for arms.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 14.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Memphis, Ten ., August 29, 1861.

From and after September 2, 1861, passports from and to places in the Confederate States to citizens thereof, or persons friendly thereto, shall not be required of persons leaving this department or traveling therein; but, to guard effectually against information being conveyed to the enemy, it is ordered that the commanding officers at Union City, in Obion County, and Clarksville, in the county of Montgomery, Tenn., will place a guard of not less than one non-commissioned officer and two privates at each point, whose business it shall be to prevent, by any means, persons passing from the State of Tennessee to any of the United States without a lawful passport. The commanding officers at these posts shall grant passports only to persons duly vouched for as entitled thereto. To avoid inconvenience to the loyal citizens of the South who may wish to pass through these points into the United States on any account, it is further provided, that all such persons who may not have the means of being identified at Union City or Clarksville may get passports from the military authorities where they live, from the governors of their respective States, from the governor of Tennessee, or from the headquarters of this department.

By command of Major-General Polk:

E. D. BLAKE, Captain, C. S. Army, Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.398}

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 30, 1861.

Capt. KENSEY JOHNS, A. Q. M., Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of August 21 is received. It is the desire of this Department to effect with as little delay as possible a full and complete transfer of all stores, munitions, &c., embraced in the provision for transfer or contemplated at that time. For all supplies already issued, therefore, since the date of the act of transfer, the State of Tennessee will charge the Government, and the account will be paid. For all supplies on hand and to be transferred, whether munitions, ordnance, &c., or quartermaster’s or commissary stores, you will execute a receipt in full on the part of this Government. All contracts, however, which were outstanding but not yet executed at the time of the transfer must, of course, be submitted to the approval of this Department before they can be assumed by this Government. Schedules of such contracts, with all necessary inventories, &c., you will please forward to the Department as soon as received, and you will fully advise the Department of all stores, munitions, &c., actually received, their locations, condition, &c., as soon as possible.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

–––

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, Va., August 31, 1861.

General F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Commanding Forces, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of August 15, 1861,* with inclosures, has been submitted to chiefs of the different bureaus, in order that proper dispositions may be made by their respective departments. The Secretary of War decides, in reference to Brigadier Generals Foster and Caswell, that their functions cease with the transfer, as do also the connection between the Confederate troops and the medical board, ordnance board, &c., of the State. All expenses incidental to operations of the troops will be at the charge of the Confederate States from date of transfer. Blanks, &c., will be sent to you. There are no arms which can be furnished; and as regards wagons, mules, and other material, the Quartermaster-General will furnish or advise you upon all such matters relating to his department.**

...

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. CHILTON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

** Details of regimental organization omitted.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 12.}

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., September 1, 1861.

SIR: I expect to start to-morrow morning Captain McClellan’s cavalry company by land to overtake and co-operate with your regiment. He knows the people and the roads well in Johnson and Carter Counties, and you will employ his company in scouting, getting information, {p.399} or otherwise, as you may deem proper. The news I am receiving indicates a mischievous purpose on the part of the Federals and their leaders in Johnson County. You will seize the leaders who commit overt acts of a hostile character, as much as possible endeavoring to pursue a conciliatory course towards their misguided followers. The indications are that a crisis is upon Kentucky; that in a few days the armed Lincoln companies will be in great force there. Be strict in keeping your men in camp, so as to prevent the soldiers from committing trespasses or otherwise alienating the feelings of well-disposed citizens. You may pursue any route you choose to Fish Springs, or, if your information should seem to make it proper, you may, instead of going to that point, go to any point in Johnson County, and move from point to point, or remain stationary, at your discretion. It may be important to keep me daily advised of your movements, that I may know at any moment where a communication will reach you.

By order of:

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

Colonel BALDWIN.

–––

NASHVILLE, September 2, 1861.

General POLK:

If Pillow’s command has returned to Madrid, don’t allow them to go into Missouri until matters assume a different shape in Kentucky.

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

[Indorsement.]

Your wishes shall be complied with.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 14.}

ADJ’T. AND INSP. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, September 2, 1861.

...

VIII. The department under the command of Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, Provisional Army, is extended to embrace the State of Arkansas and all military operations in the State of Missouri.

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

RICHMOND, September 3, 1861.

General BUCKNER, &c., Richmond, Va.:

In answer to your letter to the President of this date.* I am instructed to inform you that General Polk will be instructed to communicate with you, and will not fail to appreciate the importance of such co-operation as circumstances will permit. Action by the State of Kentucky would relieve this question of all embarrassment. Aid by a portion of her citizens to resist invasion through the territory of Kentucky would simplify the question and facilitate our defensive operations. Your inquiries beyond this are not susceptible of reply. {p.400} Should the movements contemplated by you as likely to occur in Kentucky actually take place, the most important results may be anticipated therefrom, and in that connection the force of General Zollicoffer can probably render you more effectual aid than that of General Polk. In that contingency the cause of Kentucky will be in every aspect that of the Confederate States, and the officer to whom you refer will be as readily ordered to operations there as elsewhere within the limits where the Confederate forces fight battles in the cause of constitutional liberty, in anticipation of such events, and because of the confidence reposed in you, the President directs me to give you letters to General Zollicoffer, Governor Harris, and General Polk, which will secure to you their confidence in any conference you may have with them.

Copies of the various laws affecting the condition, of Kentuckians who may co-operate with us in the existing war will be sent to the disbursing and supplying staff officers in Tennessee, which will best answer your wish in that regard. No one can regret more than the President his inability to furnish anus to the Kentucky volunteers. He thought he had provided against it, but his arrangements have been disturbed, and he has not since been able to supply the deficiency created. You refer to the arms now in the hands of Major Gorgas; they are 700 in number, and there are two regiments encamped here without arms and waiting for service. Under such circumstances you cannot expect that arms will be sent from their presence and in proximity to the great military force of our enemy, to be issued to troops elsewhere.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, September 3, 1861.

His Excellency Governor HARRIS, Nashville: Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Memphis: Brigadier General ZOLLICOFFER. Knoxville:

General S. B. Buckner, of the Kentucky State Guards, impressed with the necessity to make armed resistance to the rapid encroachments of Federal power on the reserved rights and constitutional liberty of his State, seeks, in advance of the action of her governor, to have such co-intelligence with the Confederate authorities as will enable him to act effectively when the opportune moment arrives.

You will not fail to appreciate the common interest which binds Kentucky to the south and the Southern States to Kentucky. It is, therefore, only needful to present to you General Buckner as one entitled to your confidence, and to ask that you will converse with him so freely, that he may anticipate the assistance which Kentucky may expect in the hour of her need from the forces and other means of the Confederate States.

Concerning all movements in this regard you are requested to communicate promptly and freely, both as to events and your views of what may be necessary and proper.

Very respectfully,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.401}

–––

NASHVILLE, TENN., September 4, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War of the Confederate States:

SIR: I had the honor on the 3d instant of telegraphing you, to wit:

Shall I assume for the Confederate Government the Tennessee contracts for ordnance, quartermaster, and commissary stores or supplies now pending? The contracts are desirable. Orders or officers will be needed at once to issue to Confederate troops now in the field and making requisitions daily.

The demand is urgent for orders to issue these stores and supplies, and will be appreciated by the Department when I state that a large force of the Confederate troops in this State are now drawing their rations from said supplies and are dependent upon them.

I herewith transmit to the Department a copy of the views of the Military and Financial Board of the State of Tennessee, submitted at my request in writing. The board agree that the transfer shall be made with the distinct understanding that I do not, as agent for the Government of the Confederate States, pledge the Government to make payments for the property transferred at any specified time, though the authorities of Tennessee may expect to be remunerated within a reasonable limit. With this clear understanding the transfer will be made at as early date as the inventories can be completed and the supplies inspected and counted.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

KENSEY JOHNS, A. Q. M., C. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

MILITARY AND FINANCIAL BOARD, Nashville, Tenn., September 3, 1861.

Capt. KENSEY JOHNS:

SIR: This board proposes to transfer the commissary, quartermaster, and ordnance supplies on hand in Tennessee. They are to be taken at cost where the cost can now be ascertained, and if that cannot be fixed, the present cash value It is expected the Government of the Confederate States will pay the State of Tennessee the cash for all these articles without delay. It is proposed that the quartermaster supplies, consisting of clothing, shoes, &c., for soldiers, shall be applied to the use of the Tennessee volunteers in the Confederate service as far as necessary. All the other supplies are to go without restriction. The amount paid is to be credited on the general account of the Confederate States.

NEILL S. BROWN. I. E. BAILEY. W. G. HARDING.

–––

RICHMOND, September 4, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER, Knoxville, Tenn.:

Take military control of the railroad from Knoxville to Bristol until every pound of freight for the army destined to Richmond and Manassas is sent from Knoxville to Bristol, unless forwarded at once.

L. P. WALKER.

--- {p.402}

RICHMOND, September 5, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER, Knoxville, Tenn.:

It is in the event of a failure to transport that military possession of the road is directed.

L. P. WALKER.

–––

MILITARY AND FINANCIAL BOARD, Nashville, Tenn., September 6, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: The State of Tennessee has expended in equipping for the field the Provisional Army, in paying the troops, in purchase of quartermaster’s, commissary, and ordnance stores the sum of $4,000,000, and there are still demands upon our treasury to pay the troops and for balances for purchase of supplies a little over $1,000,000. This money must be paid to sustain the credit of the State. We had expected to be reimbursed from the Confederate Treasury under the treaty made by the Confederate commissioners with the governor, and relied upon that fund to pay the balance of the debt thus contracted, but learn from our Delegate to the Confederate Congress that we cannot look to that source.

We have borrowed the sums already expended from the banks of the State, but they now refuse to extend the loan to the $1,000,000 now required, unless we will give them assurance that we will within a short time take up the Tennessee bonds by depositing Confederate States bonds, convertible in six months into Confederate Treasury notes, at the option of the holder. It is of vital importance to us to be able to maintain the credit of the State, and we would most respectfully urge upon the Government the absolute necessity of enabling us to give this pledge, that we may be able to keep that credit unimpaired. The money thus to be raised will be paid out in the discharge of debts contracted in preparing for the common defense.

We cannot too strongly represent this policy of enabling us to pay our debts, but without this guarantee from the Government we will not be able to do so.

We are, with respect, your obedient servants,

NEILL S. BROWN. J. E. BAILEY. W. G. HARDING.

–––

RICHMOND, September 7, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER, Knoxville, Tenn.:

The neutrality of Kentucky has been broken by the occupation of Paducah by the Federal forces. Take the arms. Return answer.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

–––

NASHVILLE, TENN., September 7, 1861.

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, President:

Paducah is in possession of the enemy. Our governor is absent, and no Confederate officer here. Bowling Green could be reached in less {p.403} than twenty-four hours by 2,500 infantry, one battery of artillery, and one battalion of cavalry. What shall be done?

R. C. FOSTER Brigadier-General. NEILL S. BROWN, J. E. BAILEY, W. G. HARDING, Military Board.

–––

RICHMOND, September 7, 1861.

General R. C. FOSTER, Nashville, Tenn.:

Bowling Green should be occupied with sufficient force to maintain it as early as practicable; but as the force at Paducah may be intended to turn the position at Columbus, the force now 20-miles from Columbus and other forces along that line must be held in readiness to support the troops at Hickman and Columbus to oppose the movements from Paducah. Return answer.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, September 7, 1861.

Capt. KENSEY JOHNS, Assistant Quartermaster, Nashville:

SIR: Your letter of September 4, in which you desire to be authorized to assume for this Government the Tennessee contracts for ordnance, commissary and quartermaster’s stores and supplies, and transmitting a copy of the views of the Military and Financial Board of the State of Tennessee, has been considered.

You will proceed to act in the premises as your judgment shall direct, arranging the terms of agreement at the earliest moment, and issuing supplies to the Confederate troops in Tennessee as may be needed. Exercise your authority, while consulting due discretion and the requirements of the service.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

–––

[For the organization of the forces at Columbus, Ky., September 7, 1861, see general order of that date in Vol. III. of this series, p. 699.]

–––

RICHMOND, September 8, 1861.

General S. B. BUCKNER, Nashville, Tenn., care of General B. C. Foster:

I hope your enterprise will be secured and accelerated by the rapid course of events. Communicate to Governor Magoffin that the invasion of Kentucky at Paducah and their attempt to occupy Columbus have caused the action of the Confederate troops, and it is hoped will, in his estimation, justify it.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.404}

–––

NASHVILLE, September 8, 1861.

Adjt. Gen. S. COOPER:

As it will be necessary to hold the troops west of the Tennessee River where they are, I can take and hold Bowling Green, provided the two regiments, 1,000 extra guns at Corinth, promised by General Davis, of Mississippi, to General Buckner, are placed under my command, to operate with the troops here; or if this can[not] be had, if you will furnish arms and add them to my command they will be sufficient for the purpose. Colonel Heiman telegraphs that he is informed that one of Lincoln’s gunboats ascended the Tennessee River and was seen 30 miles below Fort Henry.

ROBERT C. FOSTER, Brigadier-General.

–––

KNOXVILLE, TENN., September 9, 1861.

Adjutant-General COOPER:

I order three regiments into Kentucky to-day. They will probably march in to-morrow. Other forces will follow rapidly.

P. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

–––

SNEEDVILLE, September 9, 1861.

P. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier General, Commanding, Knoxville, Tenn.:

DEAR SIR: We, the undersigned citizens of Sneedville, &c., would respectfully represent to you that we are threatened with immediate invasion from the Union party of Hancock and Hawkins and perhaps other counties in East Tennessee, in connection with Union and Northern men from some of the mountain counties of Kentucky. We have the proof showing these facts from men who have heretofore belonged to and acted with the Union party of our own county. One gentleman, the sheriff of our county, revealed the following facts to a citizen of our town this morning, viz, that in a few days there would be a strong force from Kentucky, escorted here through the mountains by a force of Union men from this county and Hawkins, who have lately gone from here to Kentucky. There have been crowds within the past ten days from this county and Hawkins numbering, from the best inforniation, 500 men, who, we understand, are determined to bring back with them from Kentucky a sufficient force to overrun Southern men in Hancock and in this portion of East Tennessee generally, and from thence to the railroad, with a view to tear it up, so as to stop any transportation upon the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. We have abundant proof, clear to our minds, that there exists a great necessity for having force stationed here. There is no appearance of Union hostilities having abated. We do not feel that the lives of ourselves and our families are by any means safe. A regiment can be supported here as cheap to the Southern Confederacy as at any other point in East Tennessee. We would desire at least one company of well-armed cavalry, for the purpose of meeting outstanding emergencies. We have, therefore, sent as messenger F. H. Brewer, to confer with you upon this subject, and for proof of his character for truth we would with great pleasure refer you to Captain Thomas, Captain Legg, and their companies. {p.405} We greatly hope you will immediately respond favorably to our call.

We are, dear sir, most respectfully, yours,

F. M. TURNER ET AL.

(Forwarded to Secretary of War same date.)

–––

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, September 10, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, C. S. A., Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: In transmitting you the inclosed paragraph of the special order of to-day, the Secretary of War instructs me to say that you have authority to call for troops from Arkansas, Tennessee, and such portion of Mississippi as may be within the limits of your command. You have also authority to receive into the service such troops as may be offered from the States of Missouri and Kentucky, and to call on the naval service for such assistance and material of war, including boats, as may be required for the defense of the Mississippi River.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

[Inclosure.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 149.}

ADJ’T. AND INSP. GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, Va., September 10, 1861.

...

14. General Albert Sidney Johnston, C. S. Army, is assigned to the command of Department No. 2, which will hereafter embrace the States of Tennessee and Arkansas and that part of the State of Mississippi west of the New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern and Central Railroad; also, the military operations in Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, and the Indian country immediately west of Missouri and Arkansas. He will repair to Memphis, Tenn., and assume command, fixing his headquarters at such point as in his judgment will best secure the purposes of the command.

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

NASHVILLE, September 11, 1861.

General COOPER, Adjutant-General:

Please direct Kentucky or other officers to report to me as rapidly as they are disposable. They are necessary in giving rapid organization which is necessary for the safety of Kentucky. No political necessity now exists for withholding a commission, if one is intended for me.

S. B. BUCKNER.

–––

NASHVILLE, September 12, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Colonel Hill’s regiment, ordered to Camp Boone, will move to-morrow. {p.406} The state of affairs in Kentucky requires all the troops you have in the South not indispensably necessary where they are.

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 13.}

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, Tenn., September 12, 1861.

SIR: Three regiments have by this time concentrated at Cumberland Gap, and are under orders to march immediately into Kentucky 15 miles, and take possession of and fortify Cumberland Ford. I intend to concentrate three other regiments at that place. Colonel Rains is now on the march; Colonel Statham will probably move to-morrow in that direction. I design your regiment for the sixth, as soon as the disturbances in Greene are quieted. Lieutenant-Colonel Norris, with his battalion, will return to your command, and you will move immediately to Cumberland Gap, abandoning our expedition to Johnson County. I have to-day received information of the appointment of Maj. A. M. Lea commissary for my brigade, and your wants in this department shall be immediately laid before him. The revelations made in this letter with regard to my movement you will regard of course as private.

By order of F. K. Zollicoffer, brigadier-general, C. S. Army:

P. B. LEE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

Colonel BALDWIN.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, September 13, 1861.

Messrs. NEILL S. BROWN, J. E. BAILEY, W. G. HARDING, Military and Financial Board of Tennessee:

GENTLEMEN: Your letter of the 6th instant, calling attention of this Department to the urgent necessities of your board in meeting the claims upon the treasury of Tennessee and urging the Department to make provision therefor, has been received. In reply I have the honor to direct your attention to the inclosed copy of the act of Congress (No. 258) approved August 30, 1861, in the second section of which you will perceive that provision is made for the settlement of such claims on the part of the State of Tennessee. When the provisions of that act are duly complied with no delay shall be interposed on the part of this Department in satisfying the just claims of the State of Tennessee for debts contracted in the common service under her compact with this Government, and it is hoped that in the mean time this assurance may enable you to continue your operations without interruption or inconvenience.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, September 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Headquarters Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of September 9* I regret to say that, {p.407} with every disposition on the part of the Department to re-enforce you, if necessary, in that important arm of the service, it is not in the power of the Department to equip a company of artillery within any limited time.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

* Probably Turner et al to Zollicoffer of that date, p. 404.

–––

NASHVILLE, September 14, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

SIR: There are three regiments of Kentucky infantry and one company of artillery mustered into the Confederate service at Camp Boone. It is expected that their armament will be completed in a few days. A brigadier-general is needed, and I suggest the appointment of General Buckner, of Kentucky.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

–––

ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Nashville, Tenn., September 15, 1861.

I. By virtue of Special Orders, No. 149, of September 10, 1861, from the Adjutant and Inspector General’s Office at Richmond, the undersigned assumes command of the military department thereby created.

II. Department of orders, Lieut. Col. W. W. Mackall, assistant adjutant-general and chief of staff.

...

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Nashville, September 15, 1861.

1. The commanding officer at Camp Trousdale will prepare and hold in immediate readiness for the field 2,500 men of his command, including the whole mounted force and Captain Porter’s company of artillery.

2. The commanding officer of Camp Boone will prepare and hold in immediate readiness for the field 1,500 Kentucky troops and the half battery of 6-pounders.

3. The Tennessee regiment now under orders for Camp Boone will change its route at this place and proceed to Camp Trousdale.

4. Brigadier-General Zollicoffer will immediately detach two regiments of his command to Camp Trousdale.

5. Brig. Gen. S. B. Buckner will assume command of the troops enumerated above.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Nashville, Tenn., September 15, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. B. BUCKNER:

GENERAL: In inclosing you Special Orders, No. 1, of this date, by which you are authorized to assume command of troops to be held in {p.408} readiness at Camps Boone and Trousdale, amounting to 5,000 men and a battery of artillery, I am directed by General Johnston to give you instructions and powers as follows, viz:

You will, in order to cover the northern line occupied by the Confederate Army in this department, and threatened by the Army of the United States, concentrate your command without delay at Bowling Green, Ky., and secure and hold this important point in our line of defense. You are empowered to call on Colonel Stevenson, principal quartermaster, on Captain Shaaff, commissary, and on the senior ordnance officer in this city for the supplies you may require from the two former departments and the ordnance and ordnance stores from the last.

Secrecy in preparation and promptness in execution give the best if not the only promise of success, and the general is confident you will be wanting in neither.

Yours, &c.,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

NASHVILLE, TENN., September 15, 1861.

Gov. A. B. MOORE, Alabama:

SIR: The condition of the defenses of our northern frontier requires every possible assistance from the South. We have men in large numbers. We are deficient in arms. I understand that your excellency has a considerable number in your arsenal. I feel justified by the circumstances in making the strongest appeal to your excellency’s patriotism to aid me in this respect. I shall beg to rely upon your excellency to furnish [us] as rapidly as possible at this point with every arm it may be in your power to provide. I mean small-arms for infantry and cavalry.

I view the matter of such urgent necessity that I send this letter by a special messenger, who will confer freely with you upon this subject.

I am, &c.,

A. S. JOHNSTON.

–––

-List of fortifications in the State of Tennessee, as far as reported to the Chief Engineer, September 15, 1861.-

SEPTEMBER 15, 1861.

At Memphis: Two batteries, viz: Jefferson-street Battery, 6 32-pounders and barbettes for 3 more guns; Navy-yard Battery, 2 32 and 2 64 pounders.

At Fort Harrison, 6 miles above Memphis, there were 4 guns, which have been removed to Fort Pillow.

At Fort Wright, at Randolph, on Mississippi River, 65 miles above Memphis, there are 4 batteries, containing in all 18 32-pounders.

Fort Pillow, 80 miles above Memphis, on the Mississippi River, in progress of construction, at date of last information contained 12 32-pounders; was designed to be made much stronger.

At Fort Henry, on Tennessee River, there is a good inclosed work, with bastion fronts, mounting 6 32-pounders and 2 12-pounders, requiring about 1,000 men to man it.

B. R. JOHNSON, Colonel Engineers, Army of Tennessee.

{p.409}

–––

Abstract from report of Brigadier-General Zollicoffer’s command, at Knoxville, Tenn., September 15, 1861.

TroopsPresent for duty.Aggregate presentAggregate present and absent
INFANTRY REGIMENTS.
Sixteenth Alabama (woody354867897
Fourteenth Mississippi (Baldwin)8519291,043
Fifteenth Mississippi (Statham)6309121,043
Eleventh Tennessee (Rains)677735891
Seventeenth Tennessee (Newman)685726900
Nineteenth Tennessee (Cummings)719821941
Twentieth Tennessee (Battle)732795876
Tennessee (Churchwell)654777850
Tennessee (Lillard)701802948
Unorganized*700800925
CAVALRY BATTALIONS.
First Tennessee (McNairy)100370391
second Tennessee (Branner)490530550
Third Tennessee (Brazelton)500560600
Fourth Tennessee (McClellan)140570600
8,59410,19411,457

* In the original the strength of these organizations is estimated as above.

–––

NASHVILLE, September 16, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

Of the funds promised by the Quartermaster-General to Colonel Stevenson, quartermaster at this place, not one dollar has been received. Their immediate transmission is absolutely necessary.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

[Indorsement.]

The Quartermaster-General does not promise funds to any person whatever, and in this case he requested the honorable Secretary of War to have remitted to Major Stevenson the sum of $500,000, dated September 11, 1861. General Johnston was only ordered to the command he has on the 10th. I desire the facts to be stated to General Johnston.

A. C. MYERS, Quartermaster-General.

Q. M. G. O., September 19, 1861.

–––

RICHMOND, September 16, 1861.

Gov. JOHN J. PETRUS, Jackson, Miss.:

If you have two newly-organized regiments armed and equipped, which you could send to Pensacola to relieve the two who have been serving there, so that they might come to Virginia, it would be but an act of justice to the men who first volunteered and have been disappointed by not getting into the field. Any troops which you are prepared {p.410} to send to General Polk will be received and mustered into service. This last suggestion is based on a telegram from General Polk, announcing your proposition to him. Answer by telegraph.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

–––

NASHVILLE, September 16, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN J. PETTUS, Jackson, Miss.:

The mustering officer will be at the place appointed. Orders and transportation ready for the troops. All the troops you can send armed are needed at once. I have no authority to receive General Davis. This power is in the President alone.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

–––

NASHVILLE, TENN., September 16, 1861.

Col. LLOYD TILGHMAN, Commanding Kentucky Brigade:

SIR: You will make the following dispositions for the movement directed by General Johnston: You will replace the telegraph operator at the State line and guard the present operator securely during the day. You will have a small force so disposed as to prevent the escape of the evening train from Louisville. The transportation train will be at Camp Boone, under your order, at 4 p.m.; you will be in readiness with your command at the State line by the time of arrival of the Louisville train; you will direct the connection of the two tracks, beginning the work only in time to complete it by dusk. Major -’s battalion, with the artillery, will be disposed in the advance. The companies and battalions will be disposed in regular order. The troops will be provided with two days’ provisions in haversacks and a week’s supply in addition.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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NASHVILLE, September 16, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War C. S. A.:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a rough copy of the deed of transfer by the State of Tennessee to the Confederate Government of the ordnance, quartermaster’s, and commissary stores and supplies, which I submit now, as it may be weeks before full reports from State quartermasters are received and the transfer rendered complete. I had hoped before this to have reported the entire transfer as perfected and the said stores and supplies received and receipted for, but the quartermaster’s department of Tennessee has been dilatory. I have received only one report from their department, which I herewith inclose. I am waiting now for their other reports, having requested them to dispatch special orders to their different posts, and thus to procure speedy returns. Should they not be received within a reasonable time, I presume it will be necessary for me to look up their quartermasters personally. I have transferred the stores and supplies of this depot to Capt. John T. Shaaff, of the subsistence department, and inclose his receipts of the transfer. The ordnance stores I will transfer to Captain Wright, lately {p.411} assigned ordnance officer to this point. I inclose schedule of the quartermaster contracts assumed by the Confederate States.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

KENSEY JOHNS, Assistant Quartermaster.

[Inclosure.]

The State of Tennessee, acting through the governor and military and financial board, conveys, sells, and assigns to the Confederate States of America its stores and supplies in the commissary, quartermaster’s, and ordnance departments, which are specified in the schedules hereto annexed, marked “Exhibits to contract between the State of Tennessee and the Confederate States of America.”

This transfer and sale embraces the stores and supplies above enumerated, which were in possession or which have been acquired since the 1st of September, 1861, and all supplies which may be received before the inventories are completed, and all issues made by the different State departments since the 1st September, 1861, or may be issued before the Government of the Confederate States shall have acquired its staff in the State of Tennessee, and shall be paid for as hereafter stipulated.

It is expected that the stores and supplies in the quartermaster’s department, so far as the same may be necessary, shall be issued to and for the benefit of the troops of the Provisional Army of Tennessee mustered or to be mustered into the service of the Confederate States. For all which stores and supplies, and for all ordnance and ordnance stores in possession of the said department or acquired since that day, and for all to be delivered before the act shall be complete, the Confederate States will pay to the State of Tennessee the actual cost when such cost can be ascertained, or its market value where it cannot be ascertained. The State of Tennessee also assigns to the said Government all its contracts for arms, munitions, ordnance, and ordnance stores, for the quartermaster’s and commissary supplies, the same specified in an abstract thereof, marked “Contracts with Tennessee,” and delivers the originals of written contracts to said Government, which agrees to assume the position of the State of Tennessee under said contracts, to perform and discharge all its obligations under and growing out of said contracts and fully to indemnify the said State against loss or damage growing out of the same, and the State gives to the Confederate Government the right to use its name in compelling performance of said contracts, and agrees to do all things to secure a proper compliance by contractors. The value of said supplies to be paid promptly, and the amounts to be taken into the account in a final settlement of expenses incurred by the State as contemplated in the league between the State and the Confederate States.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. C. S. A., Richmond, September 17, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commander Western Department C. S. A.:

DEAR SIR: I inclose a proclamation which expresses the general view of this Government.* With such modification as the state of the {p.412} case may indicate, I desire you to issue it in the event that you have found or shall find it necessary to march troops into Kentucky.

Very respectfully, yours, &c.,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

* See proclamation, September 22, 1861, p. 420.

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NASHVILLE, September 17, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

SIR: I can mount and use Terry’s regiment of Texas Rangers immediately if put under my orders. Please not to order any more armed companies from this department at present, and order any such organized within the department to report to me here.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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RICHMOND, September 18, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Nashville, Tenn.:

Terry’s regiment is understood to have been raised with special view to service on the Potomac. If they prefer to remain in your department, stop and employ them as you propose.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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KNOXVILLE, September 18, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: General Zollicoffer has marched to the ford of Cumberland River, in Kentucky, with the whole of his available force, except the Sixteenth Alabama Regiment (Colonel Wood), left, with only about 300 men able for duty, to guard the magazine here; one regiment of this (East Tennessee Brigade, Colonel Lillard) left to guard the railroad and bridges thereon, and one regiment unorganized, but the several companies are under orders to rendezvous here to elect their field officers.

Lieutenant-Colonel McNairy’s battalion is here under orders to march to the ford of Cumberland. I have two squadrons of cavalry reconnoitering in the mountain counties, and other cavalry here unarmed.

General Zollicoffer directed me to read and attend to his correspondence as far as I could do so. General Johnston’s orders have been forwarded to him by special messenger.

Respectfully,

W. R. CASWELL, Brigadier-General, Provisional Army of Tennessee.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT GEORGIA, Atlanta, September 18, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, C. S. A., Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: Your letter of the 15th instant, in which you make the request that I will forward to you such arms as may be at my disposal for defense of our northern frontier, has been handed to me by Colonel Hunt and Captain Buckner.

{p.413}

In reply, I beg leave to state, and I do so with much regret, that it is utterly impossible for me to comply with your request. There are no arms belonging to the State at my disposal; all have been exhausted in arming the volunteers of the State now in the Confederate service in Virginia, at Pensacola, and on our own coast, in all, some twenty-three regiments. Georgia has now to look to the shot-guns and rifles in the hands of her people for coast defense and to guns which her gunsmiths are slowly manufacturing. I deeply regret this state of things, for to respond to your call with the arms you need would afford me the greatest gratification.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOSEPH E. BROWN.

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ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., September 18, 1861.

The undersigned hereby assumes command of the Central Division of Kentucky.

...

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., September 18, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-general:

I occupied Bowling Green at 10 this morning with 4,500 men. I have sent forward an advance of 500 men to occupy Munfordville. I have issued the following proclamation:

To the People of Kentucky:

The legislature of Kentucky have been faithless to the will of the people. They have endeavored to make your gallant State a fortress, in which under the guise of neutrality, the armed forces of the United States might securely prepare to subjugate alike the people of Kentucky and the Southern States. It was not until after months of covert and open violation of your neutrality, with large encampments of Federal troops on your territory, a recent official declaration of the President of the United States not to regard your neutral position, coupled with a well-prepared scheme to seize an additional point in your territory which was of vital importance to the safety and defense of Tennessee, that the troops of the Confederacy, on the invitation of the people of Kentucky, occupied a defensive post in your State. In doing so the commander announced his purpose to evacuate your territory simultaneously with a similar movement on the part of the Federal forces whenever the legislature of Kentucky shall undertake to enforce against both belligerents the strict neutrality which they have so often declared. I return amongst you, citizens of Kentucky, at the head of a force the advance of which is composed entirely of Kentuckians. We do not come to molest any citizen, whatever may be his political opinions. Unlike the agents of the Northern despotism, who seek to reduce us to the condition of dependent vassals, we believe that the recognition of the civil rights of citizens is the foundation of constitutional liberty, and that the claim of the President of the United States to {p.414} declare martial law, to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, or to convert barracks and every prison in the land into a bastile, is nothing but the claim which other tyrants have assumed to subjugate a free people. The Confederate States occupy Bowling Green as a defensive position. I renew the pledges of the commanders of other columns of Confederate troops to retire from the territory of Kentucky on the same conditions which will govern their movements. I further give you my own assurance that the force under my command will be used to aid the government of Kentucky in carrying out the strict neutrality desired by its people whenever they undertake to enforce it against the two belligerents alike.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., September 18, 1861.

His Excellency B. MAGOFFIN, Frankfort, Ky.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I this morning occupied this position as a defensive measure against the Federal forces, which have endeavored to possess themselves of the entire territory of Kentucky, as a means both of subverting the liberties of the State and of attacking the Confederate States. The attention of your excellency has heretofore been repeatedly called to the different acts of the Federal authorities which were a violation of the neutral position of Kentucky, and of such a character as to threaten the safety of the Confederate States. I have the honor further to inform your excellency that the Government of the Confederate States has no desire to violate the position of strict neutrality chosen by the people of the State of Kentucky; but, on the contrary, is ready to evacuate the military posit-ions already occupied whenever the Federal authorities will agree to respect the neutrality of the State. I transmit to your excellency a proclamation which I published this morning.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your excellency’s obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., September 18, 1861.

Hon. JAMES GUTHRIE, President of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company:

SIR: It is my purpose to reopen the traffic recently suspended by direction of the President of the United States on such portions of the Louisville and Nashville Railway as may be under the control of the forces under my command, and also to re-establish the running of the regular passenger trains. The counties through which this railway passes are largely interested in its stock, and are charged with heavy burdens to pay the interest on the debts which they have contracted in the construction of the road. The cessation of this traffic, under the orders of the President, was an act of injustice to the people, who were already sufficiently taxed, for it deprived the citizens of these counties {p.415} of the very means relied upon to pay the largely-increased taxation demanded by the policy of the Government. As far as rests in my power, I propose to secure to the people of these counties their just rights in this respect, by permitting the traffic on the road to continue as it existed before the illegal interference of the President. With this view I have possessed myself of a considerable portion of the rolling stock of the road, and now propose to you that, as president of the company, you continue the management of the portion of road within time limits of the influence of the forces under my command, and Conduct it, as before the existence of the war, in the interest of the people who are interested in its stock. I propose that you will continue your agents and employés, with the single restriction that they shall be men who are not inimical to the people of these counties, and that the stockholders shall enjoy all the benefit to which their railroad charter entitles them. In order to secure the rights of the stockholders, I have directed an account to be kept of the earnings and expenses of the road, including the amount to which the company will be entitled for transporting the troops under my orders. This account will be rendered to you, and the balance paid over on the single condition that it shall be applied to the purposes contemplated by the charter. If this proposition should be declined, I propose transferring the rolling stock to such agents as may be appointed by the counties through which the road passes. This will insure an equitable distribution of the property of the road in the interest of the stockholders.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., September 18, 1861.

Maj. J. M. HAWES, C. S. A., Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: You will establish yourself without delay, with an infantry battalion of 600 men and Byrne’s battery of artillery, at the railroad crossing on Green River, to cover the bridge and the line of defense of the river. I also desire you to open communication with Elizabethtown. It is also suggested that you establish a strong picket at Bacon Creek Bridge, 8 miles in advance of Munfordville, on Green River, and that you carefully watch the Green River Bridge, 10 miles above Munfordville. You will rally around your command as strong a force of Kentuckians as possible. It is supposed that a large force of southern-rights men will assemble on Muldraugh’s Hill, near Elizabethtown. Encourage their remaining there as long as they can and the assemblage of soldiers. Muster into service all companies who may present themselves armed for three years, or during the war, or for twelve months, if they will not volunteer for a longer period. At Elizabethtown, communicate with Colonel Helm, Col. Martin H. Cofer, or General Henry E. Read in relation to destruction of bridges and organization of troops. At Munfordville, communicate with Messrs. Showdy, Bohannon, or Edwards. Seize any United States arms which may be in Munfordville depot. Send all trains to Bowling Green, after establishing communication within Elizabethtown, except one locomotive and a few cars, to keep up communication with your pickets. Impress upon the people, in accordance with the assurances of my proclamation, that we do not propose to {p.416} molest them. There is a Union company in Munfordville, commanded by Capt. William Brown. Endeavor to make his acquaintance as a friend of mine, and give him my most friendly assurances.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, September 19, 1861.

His Excellency Gov. A. B. MOORE, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: The President has been pleased to appoint Hon. L. P. Walker a brigadier-general, to command the following Alabama regiments, all of which are unarmed: The Fourteenth Alabama Regiment, commanded by Col. Thomas J. Judge; the Seventeenth Alabama Regiment, commanded by Col. Thomas H. Watts; the Eighteenth Alabama Regiment, commanded by Col. B. C. Bullock, and the Nineteenth Alabama Regiment, commanded by Col. Joseph Wheeler. This was done because it was agreeable to General Walker to have the command of Alabama troops, and it was supposed that it would be equally agreeable to the regiments to have him to command them. The President directs me to express his earnest wish that your excellency will do everything in your power to arm these regiments without delay, in order that General Walker may report with his command to General A. S. Johnston for duty.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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COLUMBUS, KY., September 19, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President:

A steamer has arrived in Savannah with arms from Europe. Thirty thousand stand is a necessity to my command. I beg you to order them, or as many as can be got, to be instantly procured and sent with dispatch, one-half to-Nashville, and the other to Trenton, on the Mobile and Ohio road.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Columbus, Ky., September 19, 1861.

Brigadier-General BUCKNER, Bowling Green:

Telegram of 19th received. The object of your advance on Green River will have been accomplished if you have been able to destroy the bridge on Green River. Order Hawes to retire on the main body when this is done or found impracticable.

Camps Boone and Trousdale will be immediately re-enforced, each certainly by one regiment, probably each by two regiments. Colonel Stevenson will by telegraph notify you of their arrival in camp.

The unarmed Kentucky troops at Boone are ordered from the frontier camp in Nashville to wait for a supply of arms. This force is intended {p.417} for your support at Bowling Green; if you find a part or the whole necessary to maintain Bowling Green, and that it will enable you to do so, use it.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, September 20, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Columbus, Ky.:

The steamer was a merchant vessel. We have purchased as much of the shipment as we could get-less than a sixth of your requisition. Some of the lot pledged to troops already in service. You shall have what can be sent you. Rely not on rumors.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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RICHMOND, September 20, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Memphis, Tenn.:

A letter has been sent you by the Chief of Ordnance, stating the President’s desire that you should let the Missouri army under General Price have two batteries of artillery. If you send them, he desires that they should be put in charge of General John B. Clark and Col. William M. Cooke, the Missouri commissioners, now on their way to Missouri via Memphis.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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MONTGOMERY, September 21, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Our friends in Kentucky are pressing us most earnestly for arms to commence the struggle. We have none to give them. We have four regiments in camp without arms. Could not one or two regiments be withdrawn from Pensacola to aid Kentucky, and our forces, when armed, substituted?

A. B. MOORE, Governor of Alabama.

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COLUMBUS, September 21, 1861.

Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville:

I have called on you for 30,000 troops, to assemble without delay at Memphis, Nashville, Trenton, Jackson, and Knoxville. Details by mail.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Columbus, Ky., September 21, 1861.

Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, of Tennessee:

SIR: I have the honor to inform your excellency that, under date of September 10, 1861, I was authorized by the President of the Confederate {p.418} States to call upon the governor of Tennessee for troops for the defense of the Mississippi River and the States included in this military department.

The defenseless condition of this department was patent from the moment I arrived and had a hasty view of the field. The necessity for a strong and efficient army is present and pressing.

I therefore avail myself of the permission above cited to call upon your excellency to furnish for the service of the Confederate States 30,000 men. I would prefer volunteers for the present war, as securing better disciplined, more skilled, and effective forces, and if any such shall volunteer by companies, they will be gladly accepted under the act of May 8.

But dispatch now is of the first importance, and therefore companies, battalions, and regiments offering for twelve months will be at once received.

After the full conversations I have had with your excellency I need say nothing more of my deficiency in arms, except that it exists to the same extent still.

I beg your influence with the volunteers, to induce them to bring into the field every effective arm in their possession. Rifles and shot-guns, double-barreled guns in particular, can be made effective weapons in the hands of your skilled horsemen. These arms will be replaced in the hands of the troops by uniform arms at the shortest practicable period.

I have selected the following points in your state for the rendezvous of this force, viz: Knoxville, Nashville, Jackson, Trenton, and Memphis. At each of these places officers will be in readiness to muster in companies, battalions, and regiments, as soon as organized, for the war or for twelve months, as they decide to serve. At these designated places provision will be made for supplies, and the instruction of the troops will be prosecuted until they can be armed and prepared to move to the frontier.

The proportion of troops to be ordered to these different points, depending upon the districts from which the volunteers are drawn, I leave to the determination of your excellency, asking to be informed of the probable numbers you may be likely to assemble at each, in order that my preparations for their wants may be in proportion.

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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CAMP BUCKNER, CUMBERLAND FORD, KY., September 21, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: On examining this position carefully, I think it far from being as strong as I imagined when examining the drawing I showed to General Johnston. I have but one field battery, and no guns for a fixed battery. It will be difficult to prevent the turning the position if the enemy should have strategy. The country in advance is so hostile it is difficult to obtain any information. The few friends we have among the country people think a large force is advancing upon us at the distance of 20 or 30 miles. I have not been able to push my scouts farther forward {p.419} than 15 to 18 miles. I much need a half-dozen pieces for pivot guns.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., September 21, 1861.

Maj. GEORGE B. COSBY, C. S. A.:

SIR: Your force will consist of 300 infantry from this place, re-enforced by 100 or 200 men from Russellville. The object of the movement is to re-enforce Col. B. H. Helm, you moving from Russellville. As your proposed point of junction, of which you are informed, is near the enemy’s position at Rochester, your movement will be cautious. I inclose you a copy of my instructions to Colonel Helm.* Endeavor to communicate with him by guides during to-morrow, and concert your movement in such a way as to insure concert of action in supporting distance of each other as you approach the point of junction. If the enemy should be in stronger force than is supposed, unite with Helm at a point farther from Rochester. The dam or lock at Rochester should be disabled.

Respectfully, &c.,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

P. S. As you hold a Confederate commission, you will be entitled to assume command of the entire force.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, NEAR PENSACOLA, FLA., September 21, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Nashville, Tenn.:

DEAR SIR: Col. W. P. Buckner called on me yesterday in behalf of yourself and our great cause in Kentucky. His accounts of our affairs there are by no means cheering, but with the blessing of Providence and your exertions we yet expect a great deal in that direction.

It is in my power to do but little for you. We have no spare arms, and are still deficient in ammunition. I have men and can get any number, and those who have been with us some months are well instructed, fine soldiers. Weeks ago I offered four of these regiments to the President for an equal number of new men, believing that the cause would be advanced by such a move. This was all I could do, and all I can do now, but no reply has reached me, though I learn from an officer who has been to Richmond that the Department thinks that the short time my men have to serve would not justify the expense. Upon hearing this I again wrote, requesting that I might offer the alternative to them, satisfied a very large proportion will stay for the war. To this I ought to hear very soon.

The mission of Colonel B. will not be successful, I fear, as our extreme Southern country has been stripped of both arms and men. We started early in this matter and have well-nigh exhausted our resources. Besides, there is a general apprehension of invasion this fall and winter and every means in the country is being devoted to defense; some of it very injudiciously. Mobile and New Orleans are being fortified at {p.420} great expense, when they should be defended in Kentucky and Missouri. The unfortunate state of affairs which has caused our troops to full back in the latter State is deeply to be deplored. We are bound to accept it as necessary, though we may not see the reason. It would have been a great diversion in favor of the movements in Kentucky. In both these States all depended on rapid movement to save our friends before the enemy could disarm and disorganize them. We fear that procrastination has cost us much, but look with great confidence to the future under your control. Deep solicitude is felt on the subject of an appointment to the War Office.

The health of the President is such that he cannot give his personal attention to the details of service, and it is essential that he should have a man of the highest abilities and of great nerve and self-reliance.

The policy of the enemy seems now to be defensive at the North, relying upon the winter to check us there, while he will operate by naval expeditions throughout the South.

Wishing you full success in the arduous and responsible task before you, I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, DEP’T No. 2, Columbus, Ky., September 21, 1861.

The following order is published for the information of the troops in the First Division, Department No. 2:

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 4.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Columbus, Ky., September 21, 1861.

I. Major-General Polk, C. S. Army, is assigned to the command of the First Division of this department, which will embrace the country within the following lines, viz: Beginning at the point on the State line crossed by the Memphis and Louisville Railroad, and running along the Henderson and Nashville and Central Alabama (excluding the city of Nashville); thence west along said boundary and the northern boundary of Mississippi to the Mississippi River; thence northwardly along the western bank of the river. On the north side the division will extend so far into the State of Kentucky, west of the Cumberland River, as the major-general may find it advisable to cover by his army.

II. The commander of this division is charged with the defenses of the Mississippi, from the southern line of his division northward as far as his troops occupy.

III. He is authorized to draw from the depot at Nashville such supplies as may be needed.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

By command of Major-General Polk:

E. D. BLAKE, Captain, C. S. Army, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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PROCLAMATION.*

[SEPTEMBER 22 (?), 1861.]

Whereas the armed occupation of a part of Kentucky by the United States and the preparations which manifest the intention of their Government to invade the Confederate States through that territory has imposed it on these last, as a necessity of self-defense, to enter that {p.421} State and meet the invasion upon the best line for military operations; and whereas it is proper that the motives of the Government of the Confederate States in taking this step should be fully known to the world:

Now, therefore, I, Albert Sidney Johnston, general, and commander of the Western Department of the Army of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that these States-have thus marched their troops into Kentucky with no hostile intention towards its people, nor do they desire or seek to control their choice in regard to their union with either of the Confederacies or to subjugate their State, or hold its soil against their wishes. On the contrary, they deem it to be the right of the people of Kentucky to determine their own position in regard to the belligerents. It is for them to say whether they will join either Confederacy or maintain a separate existence as an independent and sovereign State. The armed occupation of their soil, both as to its extent and duration, will therefore be strictly limited by the exigencies of self-defense on the part of the Confederate States. These States intend to conform to all the requirements of public law and international amity as between themselves and Kentucky, and accordingly I hereby command all who are subject to my orders to pay entire respect to the rights of property and the legal authorities within that State so far as the same may be compatible with the necessity of self-defense.

If it be the desire of the people of Kentucky to maintain a strict and impartial neutrality, then the effort to drive out the lawless intruders who seek to make their State the theater of war will aid them in the attainment of their wishes. If, as it may not be unreasonable to suppose, those people desire to unite their fortunes with the Confederate States, to whom they are already bound by so many ties of interest, then the appearance and aid of Confederate troops will assist them to make an opportunity for the free and unbiased expression of their will upon the subject. But if it be true, which is not to be presumed, that a majority of those people desire to adhere to the United States and become parties to the war, then none can doubt the right of the other belligerent to meet that war whenever and wherever it may be waged. But harboring no such suspicion, I now declare, in the name of the Government which I serve, that its army shall be withdrawn from Kentucky so soon as there shall be satisfactory evidence of the existence, and execution of a like intention on the part of the United States.

By order of the President of the Confederate States of America:

A. S. JOHNSTON, General of the Western Department of the Army of the Confederate States of America.

* See Davis to Johnston, September 17, p. 411.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Columbus, Ky., September 22, 1861.

Governor PETTUS, of Mississippi:

GOVERNOR: I have the honor to inform your excellency that, under date of September 10, 1861, I was authorized by the President of the Confederate States to call upon the governor of Mississippi for troops for the defense of the Mississippi River and the States included in this military department.

The defenseless condition of this department was patent from the moment I arrived and had a hasty view of the field. The necessity for a strong and efficient army is present and pressing.

{p.422}

I therefore avail myself of the permission above cited to call upon your excellency to furnish for the service of the Confederate States 10,000 men. I would prefer volunteers for the present war, as securing better disciplined, more skilled, and effective forces, and if any such shall volunteer by companies, they will be gladly received under the act of May 8.

But dispatch now is of the first importance, and therefore companies, battalions, and regiments offering for twelve months will be at once received.

I beg your influence with the volunteers to induce them to bring into the field every effective arm in their possession. Rifles and shot-guns, double-barreled guns in particular, can be made effective weapons in the hands of your skilled horsemen. These arms will be replaced in the hands of the troops by uniform arms at the shortest practicable period.

I have selected the following points in your State for the rendezvous of this force, viz: Vicksburg, Natchez, and Grenada. At each of these places officers will be in readiness to muster in companies, battalions, and regiments as soon as organized for the war, or for twelve months, as they decide to serve. At these designated points provision will be made for supplies, and the instruction of the troops will be prosecuted until they can be armed and prepared to move on the frontier.

The proportion of troops to be ordered to these different points, depending upon the districts from which the volunteers are drawn, I leave to the determination of your excellency, asking to be informed of the probable numbers you may be likely to assemble at each, in order that my preparations for their wants may be in proportion.

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., September 22, 1861.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor of Arkansas:

SIR: I have the honor to inform your excellency that under date of September 10, 1861, I was authorized by the President of the Confederate States to call upon you for troops for the defense of this department. The necessity for a strong and efficient army is present and pressing, and I therefore avail myself of the permission above cited to call upon your excellency for 10,000 troops for the service.

I would prefer volunteers for the present war as securing better disciplined, more skilled, and effective forces, and if any such shall volunteer they will be gladly accepted; but dispatch is of the utmost importance, and companies, battalions, and regiments will be received for twelve months.

I beg your influence with the volunteers to bring their arms-rifles and shot-guns; double-barreled guns are effective in the hands of your skilled horsemen. These arms will be replaced by a uniform arm as soon as possible.

I designate Little Rock as one point for the rendezvous of these volunteers, and ask your excellency to select such other points within the State most suitable, having in view the health of the troops and economy of supply while organizing and under instruction preparatory to taking the field and for their march thence to the Missouri frontier of your State.

{p.423}

I further request that you will inform me of the places selected and the numbers you will order to each, that arrangements for supplies may be made.

The troops will be mustered as soon as organized.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., September 23, 1861.

Brig. Gen. P. K. ZOLLICOFFER:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 16th instant was received by General Johnston yesterday. I am directed to say that he agrees with you that it is essential to strengthen the position at Cumberland Gap and Ford and the intervening passes of the three mountains; and so fully is he impressed with the importance of these works, that he wishes them prosecuted with all vigor, and to be made tenable by the smallest practicable force, thus setting free for other operations as large a portion of your command as possible. A forward movement from your present position at this time cannot be made.

Your advance into Kentucky and your route must be timed by, and in its direction combined with, the movements of General Buckner, now advancing into Kentucky. When this position, military and political, is better developed, you will receive full information and special orders.

Pending this, the general wishes the works of defense to be prosecuted with the greatest vigor, and your troops held in hand for a prompt movement when the route is given.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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NASHVILLE, September 23, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Confederate Troops, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: My telegram of this morning may not sufficiently explain the condition of things in my brigade.

I reached here this morning, by order of Brigadier-General Buckner, to superintend the arming of that portion of my brigade which remained at Camp Boone after the forward movement by General Buckner, but was afterwards moved here by order of General Buckner, expecting to find arms sufficient to fit them for the field. Not a single gun can be procured, of any sort, under any circumstances.

The brigade numbers near 3,000 men, about one-sixth badly armed. The brigade is in the advance, at Bowling Green, and the want of arms has a most demoralizing effect on the men.

Governor Harris states this morning that a vessel with 8 500 Enfield rifles, with other supplies, has reached Savannah, Ga.; if this be so, can you not intercede at Richmond for us? A failure to arm us promptly will act ruinously on our friends in Kentucky.

If anything can be done, I beg you will telegraph me as to how I shall proceed.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Colonel, Commanding First-Kentucky Brigade.

{p.424}

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SEPTEMBER 23, 1861.

General ALCORN:

Cosby is on the Bowling Green and Greenville road, about 1 mile west of the point of crossing of the direct Russellville and Rochester road. I wish you to effect a junction with him to-morrow night at that point, with about 1,000 men. Start early, and have 100 of your men to escort the artillery I will send in the morning. Leave a guide for them. I will join you before night via Russellville. Take all the rations and ammunition your wagons will carry.

S. B. BUCKNER.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., September 23, 1861.

Maj. GEORGE B. COSBY:

SIR: General Buckner has arranged to re-enforce you with a large force of infantry and artillery. He expects to accompany them. They will move from Russellville with the purpose of effecting a junction with you to-morrow evening. They will move along the direct road from Russellville to Rochester. General Buckner will send to-morrow what supplies he can. Cooking utensils are difficult to get. Unless you find it advisable to advance, you can wait for a junction to be effected. Send couriers back to advise General Buckner.

Yours, truly,

ALEXANDER CASSEDAY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CAMP BUCKNER, September 24, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: I intended making a movement to-morrow, but upon inquiry find that there is not twenty-four hours’ supply of bread in the command. I have been here five days, supposing my supplies were accumulating, but there being as yet no other administrative officers furnished my brigade but a commissary, that officer has had to furnish transportation for subsistence and ammunition, and has thus been disabled from keeping up the supplies. A quartermaster has been recently appointed, but has yet no funds furnished. I have no ordnance officer. I hope soon, however, to be better provided.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CAMP BUCKNER (CUMBERLAND FORD), September 24, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: As soon as I can obtain requisite supplies I think I should move forward towards Camp Robertson [Dick Robinson], making a junction with Colonel Stanton’s rifle regiment (now I suppose encamped near the line between Overton and Fentress, Tenn.), at or near Somerset or London, Ky. It is probable our best defense of East Tennessee is {p.425} an onward movement towards those who threaten invasion. I have been unfortunate in having no brigade quartermaster until within a few days, and he has now gone to Richmond to give bond and get funds. Transportation being inadequate, our subsistence supplies have been retarded, but we are now getting them up.

I would be pleased to know how I can best co-operate with General Buckner’s movements. I have five infantry regiments, ten cavalry companies, and an artillery company of six 6-pounders here.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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Abstract from report of Brigadier-General Zollicoffer’s command at Camp Buckner, near Cumberland Ford, Kentucky, September 24, 1861.

Commands.Total present fit for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
INFANTRY REGIMENTS.
Fifteenth Mississippi (Statham)6309121,043
Eleventh Tennessee (Rains)658725892
seventeenth Tennessee (Newman)463731972
Nineteenth Tennessee (Cummings)616812951
Twentieth Tennessee (Battle)505676916
CAVALRY BATTALIONS.
First Tennessee (McNairy)191199236
second Tennessee (Branner)214248312
Third Tennessee (Brazelton)176178188
ARTILLERY.
Rutledge’s battery9697108
Total3, 5494,5785,618

REMARKS-There is at Knoxville, East Tenn., in my command, the Fifteenth Alabama, numbering 900 men, of which only 500 are fit for duty. Colonel Churchwell’s regiment, numbering 798 men, totally unarmed. Half of Lieutenant-Colonel Branner’s battalion of cavalry, numbering about 250 men; two companies of McNairy’s battalion, numbering 160 men; McClellan’s cavalry battalion; and at the various railroad-bridges the unorganized Fourth East Tennessee Regiment, totally unarmed. Also an independent cavalry company at Camp McGinnis, Middle Tennessee, 90 men. In all, about 5,600 men in East Tennessee, armed and unarmed.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, September 25, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: The adjutant-general has referred to the Secretary of War your letter of the 17th instant, in relation to troops for local defense. This Department will accept, under the provisions of the act of 21st August, 1861, entitled “An act to provide for local defense and special service,” all volunteer forces that you may desire to organize under its terms, with the sole condition that the forces thus mustered into our service are to arm and equip themselves.

{p.426}

You will perceive by the words of the law that troops thus raised are to serve “for the defense of exposed places or localities or such special service as the President may deem expedient.”

It will be necessary to use great care in specifying the service for which the troops are thus specially engaged, in order to avoid all question as to the legality of any call that may be made on them when the moment arrives for resorting to their aid.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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NASHVILLE, September 25, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commander Confederate Troops, &c., Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: Feeling the importance of our position, and wishing to facilitate matters as much as possible, I have instructed Major Boyd, brigade quartermaster, now en route for Memphis, to call at Columbus and ascertain something definite as to the arms for my brigade.

Understanding that an officer was on his way from Savannah, Ga., with arms, I would request, if compatible with the public service, that you give Major Boyd an order to receive 2,500 stand from the first arrival at Nashville. Part of my brigade is waiting in arms at Nashville, and there is no other authority than your own to effect this purpose. My zeal in the public interests must be my apology for thus troubling you.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Colonel, Commanding First Kentucky Brigade.

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COLUMBUS, September 25 [1861].

General BUCKNER, Bowling Green:

We asked for news from you to-day. No reply.

Four thousand Federals have landed at Henderson to co-operate with the Union men. Look to your left and rear.

Respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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COLUMBUS, Ky., September 25, 1861.

General COOPER:

The necessity of engineers is pressed on my attention by the wants of every hour. Can they be furnished? If not, can I muster the engineers of Tennessee, if to be had? Please give prompt reply.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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RICHMOND, September 25, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Columbus, Ky.:

Captain Alexander cannot be spared from Manassas. I have tried to find you an officer, but have failed. There are but few in the corps, {p.427} and they are on important duties. You must have several graduates in your command, some of whom will answer the purpose.

S. COOPER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT HENRY, TENNESSEE RIVER, September 25, 1861.

Col. A. HEIMAN:

SIR: Agreeably to an order received upon the 14th instant, I proceeded to the Kentucky side of the river opposite the post, where I met 14 mounted Kentuckians, armed and equipped, to assist me make a reconnaissance of the river and the country adjacent, as far down as I should find it expedient.

The small map which accompanies this was copied from an old one furnished by one of the company, Mr. William M. Smith. It is most probably correct, since the original is the one from which all the land in the “Jackson purchase,” of which this is a map, was entered. The large map is a portion of the Jackson purchase, showing the topography of the country through which I passed.*

You will by simple inspection see to what scales the maps are drawn, recollecting the squares included between the heavy lines represent 36 square miles. The route I traveled is marked with a red dotted line. A few general facts and several particular points will embrace everything en route.

I found that the river bottom extended from one-half to three-quarters of a mile from the river, and where not cultivated was very heavily timbered. The bottom is terminated by a system of hills, generally very steep, and varying from 80 to 100 feet in height. This system is not at all regular; that is, there is no summit of any extent parallel to the river. The hills have an oblong contour, the longest diameter pointing to the southwest and northeast.

The country immediately opposite the fort is much more hilly than any I passed, owing to the hills immediately on the Tennessee River meeting those which characterize the Blood River Valley.

A very remarkable feature noticed is that the greater part, if not all, of the streams run parallel to the river (Tennessee).

The road to Bayley’s Ferry is at the foot of the hills, and, though not a large one, with but little work could be made a very superior military road. The soil is compact, and has considerable gravel in it.

The hills recede from the river as you approach Bayley’s; from Bayley’s to Pine Bluff the road is very bad. Pine Bluff consists of two dwelling-houses and a store. There is a ferry at this point, and a large, fine road leading to Murray. Immediately opposite is a very steep, rocky, and large hill. A short distance below is another hill, not so steep, nor does it appear to be so rough.

A mile below Pine Bluff is Bass’ Ferry.

Three-quarters of a mile below Bass’ is Blood River Island, in size and length very similar to Panther Creek Island. About 150 yards below the foot of this island is the mouth of Blood River.

This river is rather remarkable for its steep banks and muddy bottom. There is no ford below the point at which I crossed and but two or three above, until you reach a considerable distance from its mouth. Below Concord there are but two bridges over this stream. Blood {p.428} River has the appearance of the bayous in the southern countries. The fords are marked upon the map.

Newburg is the next shipping point below Blood River; at this place there is also a ferry. Callowaytown is next below Newburg. There is also a ferry at this point. There is a large public road from Murray to Callowaytown. Highland is then reached. A large road communicates from this place to the Murray road (see map). Highland evidently received its name from the height of the river bank, which is said to be ten feet above the highest water mark. A “towhead,” as it is called, or an island, commences at this point and extends down the river nearly a mile. At very low water the sand bar is visible considerably above this place, and therefore the river is very wide and shallow. The channel, as you will see from the map, is almost against the shore at Highland, and boats are obliged to land low down stream when descending the river, on account of the channel being so narrow. The bank is heavily timbered. This tow-head extends to Aurora.

The largest and most public road in the country reaches the river at Aurora, at which place there is a steam ferry-boat, used to ferry a stage line, under the employ of the United States Government, carrying the United States mail from Canton to Mayfield, &c. The crossing was formerly accomplished by means of buoy-boats, the buoys being held in their places by anchors and a cable chain. The chain has never been removed, and therefore is still in the water. The conductor of the ferry says it is over three-quarters of a mile long, and is situated on the west side of the island. This chain is sufficiently long to extend three times across the river.

In case a masked battery was desirable, I think there is no point on the river more suitable than between Highland and Aurora. The chain could be made very useful in impeding the progress of boats, or, if necessary, is long enough to span the narrow channel a great many times, and by cutting the timber above, which is mostly oak, could completely blockade the river. The hills are near enough to command the river and a small-creek affords a fine traverse from the river bank.

There being no road near to and down the river from Aurora, I determined to take the main road to Mayfield, and learn the position of the enemy’s pickets from General Cheatham. When I reached Wadesborough I learned that General Cheatham had moved his command from Mayfield westward towards Columbus. Therefore I concluded to return to Fort Henry via Murray and Concord. There is consider-able sameness in the character of the country from the fort to Aurora. The country is undulating from the river to Wadesborough, and from Wadesborough to a point half way between Murray and Concord, where the hills of Blood River commence. Upon the map the large roads are indicated by two parallel lines and the space included colored yellow.

The party was very hospitably treated by every one with whom they stopped. I am indebted to Mr. Sam. Coleman for a great deal of information in reference to the roads and the character of the country. He was formerly a surveyor of Calloway County, and could tell me by very little reflection the squares through which roads passed and in what squares all the roads intersected. Mr. William M. Smith is also well acquainted with the country and was of great service to me.

...

Hoping the report of this short survey may meet your approbation, allow me to subscribe myself; yours, most respectfully,

R. R. SMITH, Lieutenant Engineers, S. P. A.

* No inclosure found.

{p.429}

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RICHMOND, September 26, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Columbus, Ky.:

Do the best you can in respect to engineers. Employ any officers you can find. The law, however does not authorize the President to appoint, but they can be compensated.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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CAMP BUCKNER, September 26, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Nashville:

SIR: I am in receipt of your letter of the 23d instant, but not until I had ordered an expedition that may possibly draw me into collision with the enemy, which I am apprehensive from your first paragraph General Johnston does not consider expedient at present.

At Laurel Bridge, in Laurel County, from 36 to 40 miles from here, is an assembly of Home Guard companies to dispute our passage. I a.m not able to learn their number definitely, but reports say from 100 to 500. At the salt works on Goose Creek, in Clay County, is a large amount of salt which it is desirable we should possess. The works are about 35 miles distant, and about 18 miles east of Laurel Bridge. I desire to reconnoiter the country to that distance in advance, and it occurred to me to feel of the guard at the bridge, and under &over of the movement to send all the empty wagons I could command to load with and receipt for the salt. I sent an infantry regiment before day this morning with three companies of cavalry and a section of artillery to take possession of the bridge; a battalion of infantry and two companies of cavalry follow to take position 8 or 10 miles from the bridge, toward the salt works, and a regiment of infantry with two cavalry companies proceed to the works to load with salt and return.

The movement at the bridge is designed to attract attention and mask the movement to the salt works. All are instructed to communicate with each other and with me by express messengers, and to give each other mutual support. I have two cavalry companies watching the road between here and Barboursville, and I have here two infantry regiments and two sections of an artillery company. The bridge is about 50 miles from Camp Dick Robinson, and the movement may draw a force from that camp, which would require me to support my advanced force; but I do not believe this probable. I expect the whole expedition back in five or six days.

I am without information as to the strength or movements of Camp Dick Robinson. Any information you have might be of service to me. The population here is so generally hostile I cannot push spies through. The male population has nearly disappeared between here and Barboursville. I am carefully respecting the rights of the citizens, and am making some favorable impression on their sentiments I hope. I have no engineer officer of military education, but will do all in my power to strengthen the positions I hold.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-The proclamation shall be circulated as widely as possible*

* See p. 420.

{p.430}

RICHMOND, September 27, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Columbus Ky.:

SIR: The President has communicated to me your request for small-arms, supposed by you to have arrived per Bermuda at Savannah.

The whole number received by us was 1,800, and we purchased of the owners 1,700, making in all 3,500 Enfield rifles, of which we have been compelled to allow the governor of Georgia to have 1,000 for arming troops to repel an attack now hourly threatened at Brunswick, Ga. Of the remaining 2,500 I have ordered 1,000 sent to you, leaving us but 1,500 for arming several regiments now encamped here, and who have been awaiting their arms for several months. I state these facts to evince our solicitude to furnish you every aid in our power and our disposition to share with you all our resources.

We are hourly in hope of hearing of the arrival of small-arms, and the arsenal here is now turning them out at the rate of 1,000 per month. We will receive the first delivery in about tell days. I have ordered 1,200 Texan Rangers under Terry and Lubbock, fully armed and equipped, to report to you for service, understanding from them that you can furnish horses, which is out of our power.

We have not an engineer to send you. The whole Engineer Corps comprises only 6 captains, together with 3 majors, of whom 1 is on bureau duty. You will be compelled to employ the best material within your reach by detailing officers from other corps and by employing civil engineers, for whom pay will be allowed.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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COLUMBUS, September 27, 1861.

Colonel TRABUE, Nashville:

I sent a telegraph to Colonel Tilghman to-day to the following effect:

General Johnston directs you to proceed to Camp Trousdale and all your armed force. Call on the quartermaster, commissary, and ordnance officer for supplies, and show this as your authority. Report by telegraph the force you take here, and to General Buckner your arrival.

Learning now that he is in Memphis, the general directs you to execute the order. Call on the ordnance officer, who will be instructed to give you arms as fast as he can get them.

Did you get 800 arms for the Kentucky troops in Nashville? As fast as a company is armed, send it to Trousdale and report to General Buckner.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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COLUMBUS, KY., September 27, 1861.

Colonel BONHAM, Union City:

I have information that the enemy are repairing the railroad bridge that was destroyed by our troops on the Fulton and Paducah Railroad, with a view to a forward movement on Fulton. You will immediately on the receipt of this put your own and the Arkansas regiments in motion towards Fulton, leaving your tents to be sent after you, and taking with you only ammunition and supplies in your haversacks for two days. Your baggage will be sent after you to the State line on the railroad, {p.431} and hauled across to you. You must make arrangements for having it hauled after getting to Fulton.

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, Tenn., September 28, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War, Richmond:

SIR: The transfer of the Provisional Army of Tennessee having been agreed upon, Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk was authorized and ordered to appoint Confederate officers to muster the army into the service of the Confederate States. The mode of mustering agreed upon by General Polk and myself was a simple verification by and delivery of a copy of the rolls to a Confederate officer. To carry out this agreement and complete the transfer, on the 31st day of July, 1861, I issued a general order to the officers commanding the Provisional Army of Tennessee to muster their respective commands, for the purpose of verifying their rolls when called upon by a Confederate officer for that purpose, and when verified to deliver the same to said Confederate officer, and to hold themselves subject to the orders of the Government of the Confederate States; which order completed the transfer so far as the action of Tennessee was necessary to complete it, and from that day almost the whole army has been actually under the command and control of officers of the Government of the Confederate States, and the balance subject to their command and control. The verification of the rolls of the various regiments has been delayed (unnecessarily, I think) by the small number of mustering officers thrown into the field and the tardiness which characterized their action. For nearly two months they have been slowly progressing with the work, and at this time there is a considerable portion of the force which has not been called upon to verify their rolls.

It becomes a question of interest to the troops to know from whom they are to draw their pay while in this state of transit. In the present condition of their rolls a Confederate paymaster would not feel authorized to pay them without an order from the War Department. The object of this letter is to ask that you make an order that the Provisional Army of Tennessee, thus transferred by my general order, be placed upon the pay roll of the Confederate States from the 31st day of July, 1861, and that they be paid from that day as all other troops of the Provisional Army of the Confederate States are paid. Tennessee has paid them up to that day, and, indeed, has yielded to the necessities of the soldiers, and has advanced to a portion of them the amount due them for services since that day; but these advances shall be reported to your Pay Department, so that the pay roll may be properly made out, and the sum so advanced should be refunded to the State by the Confederate States.

Your early attention to this matter is a necessity to the soldier, and will greatly oblige, very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Jackson, Miss., September 28, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

SIR: By proclamation I have called for 10,000 troops for the war or twelve-months’ service, as they may elect, in accordance with your {p.432} request, and urged them to bring with them every effective weapon which they can obtain. I cannot now inform you how many will probably assemble at the rendezvous named in your letter.

More than 40 companies are now in camp in this State, which have not received marching orders; over half of these are enlisted for the war. I will advise you at the earliest moment of the tenders of companies, and hope mustering officers and provisions will be ready as soon as possible at the several encampments.

I have a number of hands employed in preparing ammunition for cannon, muskets, and rifles, and nearly out of lead. Could you aid me in procuring any quantity, from 1 to 100,000 pounds? I need some now in preparing ammunition for rifled cannon.

I could send you a company of artillery with two field pieces, with horses, harness, &c., for four if I can get the two field pieces which I loaned to General Pillow last spring to complete the battery of four guns. These two pieces are at Union City, or in that region of country.

Advise me how I can aid you, and it shall be done to the extent of my power.

Respectfully,

JOHN J. PETTUS.

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CUMBERLAND FORD, KY., September 29, 1861.

SECRETARY OF WAR:

I much need as soon as practicable an engineer officer and ten 12-pounder cannon for fixed batteries at Cumberland Gap and Cumberland Ford. General Johnston approves.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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RICHMOND, September 30, 1861.

General P. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Cumberland Ford, via Knoxville:

The only engineer officer we have to spare (Captain Gilmer) has just been ordered to report to General Johnston. Perhaps he will assign him to duty with you. We have no 12-pounders, but will send you some 8-inch siege howitzers for your batteries.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, September 30, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Columbus, Ky.:

You may accept the Louisiana regiment. Have them mustered into service, and report to Adjutant-General.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., September 30, 1861.

Lieut. JOSEPH DIXON:

SIR: You are directed by General Johnston to proceed to examine the country on a line east from this place to Mayfield, and included within {p.433} said line, and the railroads leading from this place and from Paducah to Union City.

Your attention will be specially directed-

1st. To the selection of a suitable place in an advanced position for an intrenched camp, covering the Paducah and the Mobile Railroads, and forming also a part of the line from Columbus to Fort Henry, on the Tennessee. Looking at the map, Milburn or Mayfield would seem to fill the conditions of the problem; but it is understood that a want of water at both these places forbids the establishment of a camp at either, and that therefore the point must fall south of this line.

2d. To the thorough reconnaissance of the roads leading from the front to the camp and the communications of the camp with the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers.

3d. The practicability of the country for cavalry and artillery.

Your particular attention is called to the supply of water. It is understood that this section of the country is badly watered, and in summer almost destitute, and though you may find water in abundance after the recent rains, you must inquire carefully as to the state of the streams and springs during the dry season, as the necessity for the camp may be as great during the coming summer as for the present winter.

The camp must, if possible, be convenient to wood for fuel and for bivouac, and for economy of transportation as near the Paducah Railway as practicable. Be particular to obtain from the people of the country the names of the roads, and let these appear on your map. You are authorized to employ guides and to give them a certificate of pay due for services, to be paid by the quartermaster at this post.

The object of your expedition will not be communicated to others.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

WM. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., September 30, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

On 25th was ordered to send 100 barrels powder to New Orleans and 50 to Mobile as soon as I could. I replied that the amount called for was not on hand. Received no answer till to-day. On 27th General Johnston ordered two tons to be shipped to Columbus, Ky., which was done, leaving one ton here. I can ship this one ton of cannon and two tons of damaged rifle powder to New Orleans and Mobile if desired. Reply.

M. H. WRIGHT, Lieutenant Artillery, &c.

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[For a return of General Polk’s command, September 30, 1861, see: Vol. III. of this series, p. 712]

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Camp Buckner, October 1, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Information believed to be reliable reaches me to-day that a part of the enemy’s force from Camp Dick Robinson, in Garrard County, Kentucky, is advancing in this direction, and that two regiments are {p.434} encamped between London and the Rockcastle River. It is also reported to me to-day that a considerable Lincoln force, said to be about 2,500, is assembled near Louisa, in Lawrence County, Kentucky, on the Lower Sandy River, apparently portending a movement threatening the counties of Russell, Wise, Buchanan, Lee, and Scott, in Virginia. In this connection I beg leave to call attention to a letter from S. D. Newbury, of Wise County, which I inclosed to the Secretary of War on the 6th ultimo. I respectfully suggest that some officer of military experience be sent immediately into those Western Virginia counties to organize a proper defense for their security. The companies I was authorized to organize in Lee and Scott I am scarcely able to give any attention to.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 1, 1861.

His Excellency Gov. JOHN J. PETTUS, Jackson, Miss.:

GOVERNOR: I this morning received your letter of the 28th ultimo, and thank you for prompt answer to my call for troops and your offer of services.

The companies now in camp I accept as a portion of the quota, and beg you to organize them into regiments at once, placing such as have arms, if any there be; in the same regiment, and sending it to this place, and those without arms to one of the rendezvous already pointed out to you, and where I have to-day ordered supplies of provisions. Should mustering officers not reach any particular point in time, do not permit this to become a matter of discontent with the troops, as I will give orders to have their time counted on the rolls from the date at which each regiment presents itself.

I regret that I am unable at the present time to furnish lead. My supply is limited.

I will make inquiry in reference to the guns spoken of and inform you of the result.

I am, respectfully,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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ABINGDON, October 2, 1861.

SECRETARY OF WAR:

We have at this place some 50 refugees from Kentucky. They bring information of large force collecting in a border county there, whose object is to invade Virginia by Pound Gap, in Wise County, and prevent secessionists from reaching us. People of Russell and adjoining counties willing to defend that pass. Have no arms and ammunition. Can powder and arms be furnished? It is an important point. If taken by Federalists, will seriously check coming of friends and supplies from Kentucky.

A. S. MOORE, Colonel, Commanding Virginia Volunteers.

{p.435}

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Hopkinsville, Ky., October 2, 1861.

Maj. GEORGE B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Accompanying this is an order assigning you to the command of this district. The general purposes to be accomplished are: To cover the left flank of my line of operations and the right flank of the line of operations of General A. S. Johnston; to disperse assemblages of troops which may be collected in the interest of our enemy and to prevent other similar assemblages; to collect the arms which may be the property of the enemy; to muster into the service of the Confederate States all organized bodies of Kentuckians who may present themselves for that purpose. You will consider Green River your northern line of defense, and, as soon as possible, it is expected that you will occupy Ramsey, and disable the navigation of Green River if you should find it necessary to evacuate that point. In collecting arms you will adopt the most conciliatory policy, and avoid the searching of private houses; and in searching any portion of the premises of individuals, you will see that it is not done without the strongest reasons for doing so. My object is to protect the civil rights of all citizens, without regard to their political opinions, as far as is consistent with the safety of the army. With this view, you will visit with the severest penalties every act of the soldiers of your command which may violate this rule. As far as possible you will co-operate with the civil authorities, and give them all necessary assistance in enforcing their police regulations. You will have authority to subsist and quarter bodies of men previous to their being mustered into service, when they shall have assembled with that view. Special returns and accounts will be rendered, to distinguish them from the troops.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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RICHMOND, October 3, 1861.

Col. A. S. MOORE, Abingdon, Va.:

We can furnish ammunition for any force you can organize to defend Pound Gap, but cannot give you arms.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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CAMP BUCKNER, October 3, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I think I have reliable information that Camp Robinson was 7,000 strong; 1,000 of these have gone to Lexington and Frankfort; 1,500 remain in camp. The residue believed to be certainly moving toward Barboursville to meet me. Should it appear to me expedient, I wish permission to meet them half way.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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COLUMBUS, October 3, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER, Knoxville:

Dispatch received. Exercise your own discretion in attacking the enemy.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.436}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, October 4, 1861.

Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 28th ultimo. There can be no difficulty on the subject to which you refer. The Confederate Government will pay all the troops of Tennessee from the 31st of July, the date of their transfer to this Government, and will do this without regard to the date of the formal muster into service. Your excellency will, perhaps, do well to let this fact be made known to the volunteers of your State, in order that no uneasiness be felt by them on the subject.

Of course it will not be possible to pay troops before they are mustered, but when that is done they will be paid their back pay from the 31st of July by this Government.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 4, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

GENERAL: Captain Wright, in charge of the ordnance department at Nashville, informs me that he has been ordered to send to New Orleans and Mobile 150 barrels of cannon powder from the first manufactured. From his previous reports I am satisfied that the only supply he has consists of 15 or 20 barrels, which I ordered to be retained for the use of Buckner in Kentucky. Nashville is the only source of supply for my department. At present the capacity of the mills is, at a maximum, 400 pounds per day (they promised 10,000 per day), but this is not only prospective, but uncertain; therefore this issue will consume the labor of the mills for thirty-seven days to come.

My necessity seems too pressing to await additions to my limited supply for such a length of time. Small as is the supply, I find that all in store at Fort Pillow is damaged, and must be reworked to be useful.

I am about completing works here to meet the probable flotilla from the North, supposed to carry 200 heavy guns. To meet successfully this armament, and at the same time to supply field batteries sufficient to cope with their land forces, will require all the powder I have and all that the mills of Nashville can supply for some time.

I am aware that there is a deficiency of powder in the Confederate States, and as fully aware that, this being so, the Government must decide where the need is greatest. At the same time it is my duty to represent my own wants, and I may be pardoned if, intrusted as I am with the defense of this department, I should find the upper part of this river as important as its mouth.

Of two things one should obtain: If Nashville is my only source of supply, no powder should be drawn thence until it is known that I can spare it. If Nashville mills are liable to calls by the Chief of Ordinance at Richmond for other departments I should be so informed, that I may make my wants known and my calls on Richmond.

I had the honor to lay before you a month ago a proposition from responsible parties at Memphis to go into the manufacture of powder to the extent of the wants of the Government, if authorized, with proper {p.437} guaranties; that proposition, if accepted, will hereafter relieve the Government from embarrassment in respect to powder, and had it been promptly accepted, I think the mills would by this time have been in operation.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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BOWLING GREEN, October 4, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I have not been able to obtain accurate returns of the strength of the regiments here since I came back. My effective strength at all points does not exceed 6,000. The enemy, with their last re-enforcements, number not less than 13,000 or 14,000. It is stated that they will advance in a few days on Green River. I need re-enforcements at this place very much. When can I receive them? Please reply.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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COLUMBUS, October 4, 1861.

General BUCKNER, Bowling Green:

Hold on to Bowling Green. Call in all your detachments, and make your stand there. Send my order to Stanton to join you. I send duplicate through Nashville, and all the troops I can raise will be with you.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., October 4, 1861.

Hon. W. L. UNDERWOOD:

SIR: I write this note at the instance of Gov. J. L. Helm, who tells me that you desire an assurance that your civil rights and personal liberty shall be guaranteed from any interference of troops under my command. Such a guarantee is not necessary, because I have heretofore had the pleasure of assuring you that you should suffer no molestation from the troops under my command, and because it is not the policy of the Confederate Government to imitate the acts of inhumanity so uniformly practiced by the authorities of the United States Government. Since, however, you desire some further assurance, I now have the pleasure of saying to you that, as far as my authority can be exercised, you will be protected by the Confederate forces in all the rights of any other freeman, as long as you choose to remain at home on terms analogous to those on which Governor Helm is permitted to return to his home.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.438}

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RICHMOND, October 6, 1861.

Major ASHE, Chattanooga, Tenn.:

I countermanded your orders to impress cars on Western and Atlantic Railroad. I did not know that the road belonged to the State of Georgia when I gave the order.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL KENTUCKY DIVISION, Bowling Green, Ky., October 6, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Columbus, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: Allow me to call your immediate attention to the requisition which was forwarded to you on Thursday last for three 24-pounder guns, six 12-pounder guns, and six 12-pounder howitzers for the armament of the fortifications in process of construction about this place. Also a requisition which was made on the ordnance department at Nashville for the same purpose.

The work thrown up on the most commanding position is near its completion, and is now ready for the first-named guns. Prudence requires that this position should be placed in an efficient state of defense at the earliest moment.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

P. S.-The department at Nashville could not fill these requisitions. I suppose they must be filled from Memphis. I have heard nothing from a requisition for siege battery, &c., which I made on Memphis several weeks ago with the sanction of General Polk. A few rifled (Parrott) guns will be needed in the system of defense. This point can be made a strong intrenched camp.

Respectfully,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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COLUMBUS, KY., October 6, 1861.

Col. V. K. STEVENSON, Quartermaster, Nashville:

I telegraphed you yesterday to have transportation for 5,000 or 6,000 men ready at Tennessee Crossing to take the command to Bowling Green. I now give the numbers of men and horses exact, viz, 5,000 men, 900 horses, 12 field pieces and equipments, and rations for the men for ten days. All should go together, if possible; if not, at short intervals.

Can you not transport all; if not, how many? The troops leave here to-night; when will you be ready at the river? The train must return to the crossing for two regiments, 150 wagons, and 450 mules of Hardee’s train.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.439}

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NASHVILLE, October 6, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL, Assist ant Adjutant-General:

There is some difficulty in the way of crossing Tennessee River. The boat will carry but 100 persons each trip. There are other boats that may be gotten to help by sending order. 1 can get Colonel Heiman to see that other boats leave there to help.

V. K. STEVENSON.

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NASHVILLE, October 6, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I cannot now communicate with the crossing in time for your arrival, but hearing from Colonel Heiman that there are pilots and officers there to run the boats, knowing the ferry-boat would not answer your purpose, I wanted to inform you the boats were there, that you may get them when you arrive promptly to fire up and help you over.

V. K. STEVENSON, Quartermaster.

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NASHVILLE, October 6, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL, Assist ant Adjutant-General:

I have ordered all the machinery on the north of Cumberland, making 150 cars, with locomotives, to be at the crossing of Tennessee River to-morrow morning, supposing this to be sufficient to move the men and outfit. The wagons and horses were not named in the order, but the cars ordered will take a part of them and will have to come back for the balance. The ferry-boat will not take you over in two days. There are four other boats lying at the crossing which may be ordered by you to assist.

V. K. STEVENSON, Quartermaster.

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CAMP BUCKNER, October 6, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus, Ky.:

Slit: A reconnoitering detachment has just returned from London reporting no appearance of an enemy there. They report, upon general information from country people, that there are 3,300 of the enemy encamped on Rockcastle Hills, a strong position 13 miles beyond, where the Mount Vernon road crosses the Rockcastle River. I would move forward and attack them instantly but for unexpected deficiency in subsistence stores. Ten days ago I ordered the brigade commissary to accumulate a stock of 30 days’ rations for 5,000 men. To-day I have not 5 days’ rations. I could not properly advance with less than 10. I hope soon to have the supplies.

I sent a large detachment into Harlan County, where I heard there were 500 or 600 men embodied under arms. No organized enemy found. I have sent a cavalry detachment to Williamsburg; not yet returned. This is nearly my only means of getting information of the country.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

N. B.-Thirteen men were captured in Harlan in small armed parties.

{p.440}

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Montgomery, Ala., October 7, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War:

SIR: Your letter of the 19th September was received a day or two since, asking me to aid in arming the regiments composing General Walker’s brigade. It would give me the greatest pleasure to do so if in my power, but it is impossible. I have just armed two regiments at the request of the late Secretary of War, and Brigadier-General Withers notifies me that he needs another regiment, to arm which will exhaust all the State arms. It will be remembered that Alabama transferred to the Confederacy all the arms (20,500) taken at Mount Vernon, and has armed 11,000 troops in the service of the Confederacy, reserving only enough to arm three regiments for State defense.

Very respectfully,

A. B. MOORE.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 7, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: In answer to your communication of to-day, I have the honor to state that there are but three officers assigned to duty in this department as engineers-Captain Dixon, Engineer Corps; Captain Gray, infantry; and Lieutenant Snowden, infantry. The former is the only engineer officer with this command. The two latter are employed on the fortifications in the course of construction at Island No. 10. None of these officers can well be spared, nor do I know where one can be obtained, unless a detail be made from one of the officers of the line on duty in this department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 8, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

General Johnston directs you to send Lieutenant Dixon to Fort Donelson, Cumberland River, instantly, with orders to mount the guns at that place for the defense of the river.

As Colonel MacGavock’s regiment has been by you notified to hold itself in readiness to move, you will detach him from the regiment and order him to remain in vigilant command of Fort Donelson.

Respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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COLUMBUS, October 8, 1861.

Brigadier-General ZOLLICOFFER, Commanding East Tennessee, Headquarters Knoxville:

GENERAL: I am instructed by General Johnston to say that he has made preparation at Knoxville for 4,000 men of the new levies of Tennessee, and he now wishes you to muster such of these as may be armed {p.441} so soon as they arrive by companies, battalions, or regiments, and attach them to your command. Circumstances arising in Middle Kentucky had made it necessary to call Colonel Stanton to Bowling Green. The general has just heard of an engineer said to be skillful, and is trying to obtain him for you. He has also engaged a battery of 12-pounder guns and 24-pounder howitzers, which he hopes will be soon prepared and sent to you.

I am, very respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Bowling Green, Ky. [about October 9, 1861].

Col. S. S. STANTON:

You will move from your camp at the earliest practicable day with all the armed men of your regiment, in obedience to the orders of General Johnston, to join me at Bowling Green, via Scottsville. It is expected that on your way you will capture or break up an encampment of Federal troops near the mouth of Indian Creek, between Tompkinsville and Scottsville, Ky. To enable you to do this, you will take with you most of the cavalry and infantry of Colonel Murray’s regiment. After the encampment is broken up, you can send back all the force, except your own regiment. You will send the unarmed part of your regiment by the most convenient route for them.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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COLUMBUS, Ky., October 10, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: For the information of the general commanding Western Department, I have the honor to report that, in accordance with his instructions, I have directed supplies to be placed at points in Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Arkansas, in quantities as follows, viz:

Rations
At Grand Junction, Tenn.2,400,000
At Memphis, Tenn.1,800,000
At Humboldt, Tenn.800,000
At Nashville, Tenn.3,000,000
At Knoxville, Tenn.120,000
At Jackson, Tenn.150,000
At Trenton, Tenn.150,000
At Vicksburg, Miss120,000
At Natchez, Miss120,000
At Grenada, Miss60,000
At Little Rock, Ark150,000

I have also directed 50 days’ supplies to be kept constantly on hand at this place, and have ordered, in addition, 6 months’ supplies for 25,000 men. These stores are arriving.

My arrangements are in a fair state of forwardness, the supplies being en route to several of the points, in readiness at others, and will be in readiness at all of them in the course of a few days. Some delay is occasioned on account of insufficient transportation.

{p.442}

Estimates to the amount of $1,200,000 have some time since been forwarded to the proper officer of the subsistence department at Richmond by the commissaries at Nashville and Memphis, Tenn., who have been advised by the Treasurer that the funds will be sent as soon as the engraver can supply the engraved notes.

The credit of the subsistence department at Nashville is excellent. My own estimate, amounting to $90,850, intended to cover the wants of this corps of the army, has been forwarded some time since and the money is daily expected.

Large quantities of provisions can be collected at Memphis as soon as the commissary there is placed in funds.

The supply of coffee is likely to fall short throughout the department.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. K. JACKSON, Captain, C. S. Army, and Provisional Commissary.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., October 10, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding Department of the West:

I am instructed by his excellency Governor Harris to inclose you his proclamation of the 26th ultimo,* calling 30,000 additional troops into the field from Tennessee, in compliance with your requisition upon him. In addition to the camps mentioned in said proclamation, it has been deemed proper by him to establish encampments at the points heretofore known as Camp Cheatham, in Robertson County, and Camp Trousdale, in Sumner County, Tennessee. The forces thus called into service will in the main present themselves by companies, it is believed, and on condition that when formed into battalions and regiments they be permitted (as his excellency has assured them they shall be in said proclamation) to elect their own field officers. On no other condition could volunteers be obtained.

Upon the subject of the transportation of the troops to the points of rendezvous some information is desired. If mustered into service at the various places where they report themselves ready for service considerable trouble would result, and a large force of mustering and inspecting officers would be required. If, on the other hand, they are not mustered into service until they reach their respective encampments, means of transportation upon railroads and boats where these modes of conveyance are most convenient should be supplied or the expenses thereof met by the Confederate Government.

Very respectfully,

JAMES W. MCHENRY, Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., October 10, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: In Overton County, Tennessee, a company of cavalry desires immediate service. By looking at the map you will see that Albany, Clinton County, Kentucky, is not exceeding 20 miles from our small encampments near Monroe, Overton County. At Albany troops from {p.443} Camp Dick Robinson in considerable force have encamped and are fortifying the place. The enemy has cavalry, artillery, and infantry. At latest dates he had about 2,000 men. The cavalry are scouring the border and pillaging to a considerable extent. To resist these depredations upon the citizens it seems to me our forces ought to be augmented and constituted an invading column. Too much unprotected country, it would seem, intervenes between the commands of Generals Buckner and Zollicoffer. This intervening border invites the invasion of the enemy. By appointing an able brigadier and giving command of the regiments of Colonels Stanton and Murray in Overton to him, and by increasing his command to 5,000 men, an advance into Kentucky could be made and co-operation established with Generals Buckner add Zollicoffer. The border war now raging would be transferred to the soil of the enemy and the down-trodden Southern men of the section of Kentucky referred to lifted up. They are being forced in Cumberland, Clinton, Russell, Wayne, and Pulaski Counties to take the oath of allegiance at the point of the bayonet by the Federal forces and Home Guards. Such as seek Tennessee do so with much peril to their lives. Should you determine to accept the cavalry company of Overton, please authorize Colonel Murray to muster it into service, and order the same to be armed forthwith. Give them as good arms as can be furnished, for they will be in hands who will deservedly and bravely use them. Such orders as you may make please transmit to me, and I will see to their execution.

Respectfully, in much haste, your obedient servant,

JAMES W. MCHENRY.

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., October 10, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. L. ALCORN:

SIR: It is against my policy to seize the banks. They must not be permitted, however, to furnish supplies to the enemy. To prevent this, you will station a small guard over the banks. You will require the president, cashier, and directors to give their parole to the effect that they will not dispose of the coin or bills of the bank; that they will not receive any orders from the mother bank which may be in the enemy’s country, and that they will in no way use the funds or influence of their bank to favor our enemies. You will recognize as directors only those who give their parole to the above effect, and will exclude the others from participating in the deliberations of the directory or the exercise of authority as bank officers. In your communication to them on this subject you will distinctly make known your policy to be strictly defensive in its character and as protective of the interest of the people of this section of the State against a common enemy. I have urged the military board at Clarksville to furnish you more artillery. It is probable I will send a force in a few days to occupy, in connection with your movement, a point on Green River six or eight miles below Muddy River. Major Breckinridge and Col. William Preston will probably visit you in a few days. You will direct the remnant of Captain Woodward’s company to this place. I send an officer to muster into service the new companies, including those in Caldwell. As soon as they are mustered you will direct the cavalry companies in your district to join you. In the way of supplies, recruits, {p.444} &c., I wish you to consider your command self-sustaining as far as possible, and you are necessarily invested with a large discretion in your military action. Major Hewett, who joins you for a few days as mustering officer, will speak more in detail about the condition of affairs here.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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RICHMOND, October 11, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

It is not possible to supply you any from the commissary stores at Nashville. They are required for the army here. You will be furnished with money, and will have to draw your supplies by purchasing from the country around you. I write by mail.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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BOWLING GREEN, October 11, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL:

General Hardee has arrived. He thinks General Johnston desires Green River to be held. It is important we should know at once, to make immediate disposition for it. Please reply. My arrangements had been made under previous instructions to retire; if advised in time, I can hold the position.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, [October] 12, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

The enemy is reported to be advancing from Elizabethtown. Your presence here much needed. Hurry forward the troops in rear.

WM. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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COLUMBUS, October 12, 1861.

Colonel TERRY, Nashville:

The enemy are advancing on Bowling Green. Take all your men to that place by rail, if possible. If there are no cars, march. If Colonel Tilghman’s armed Kentucky troops have not left Nashville, give them this as General Johnston’s order to go at once, by rail or afoot. Assume command of any other armed troops, except city guards, at Nashville, the commanders of which you may rank, and order them to follow you. If ranked by the commanders, you exhibit this as General Johnston’s order for their movement. Order transportation from Colonel Stevenson, by rail or for the march. Your letter received this morning and answered by mail.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.445}

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COLUMBUS, KY., October 13, 1861.

General COOPER, Adjutant-General:

The troops here all still actively engaged in preparation for the defense of this point, and hope to have the work completed soon. I anticipate no immediate advance of the enemy on this line; and learning that they are advancing in considerable force on Bowling Green, I have ordered thither all the available forces, and to-night will repair there myself and take command in person. General Hardee has already arrived there, and by to-night three-fifths of his command will have arrived, and the whole be en route. Deficiency of rolling-stock did not permit me to make his movement more compact.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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BOWLING GREEN, October 13, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

Major Breckinridge is with this army. He has resigned his position of Senator in a stirring address to the people of Kentucky. He will enter the army, if necessary, as a private soldier. Please say to the President that he will accept any position that may be tendered him. Permit me to suggest his name as a brigadier-general, either for the Kentucky brigade or for a separate column, to be directed through the strong southern-rights counties in Eastern Kentucky. I make this suggestion on my own responsibility, but with a knowledge of Major Breckinridge’s views.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., ORDNANCE OFFICE, Richmond, Va., October 14, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: General Walker informs me he has 4,000 men at Huntsville without arms. They are well drilled, having been in service some months. He asks arms for them, and requests that 4,000 be sent to him out of the first supply, and I beg leave to ask attention to his wants.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. GORGAS, Lieutenant-Colonel, Chief of Ordnance.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 14, 1861.

Major GORGAS, Chief of Ordnance:

You are aware that when I took command of the field in the West, to which I was assigned, we were without ordnance supplies of every description. This made it necessary, after obtaining all that was accessible from other quarters, to order such supplies as the defenses of the field demanded.

I ordered Colonel Hunt, the ordnance officer of the State of Tennessee, who was acting as my agent, to make such contracts as were necessary. This he did, and they have been filled as rapidly as practicable. A list of these contracts I have inclosed, to show you the kind of supplies {p.446} ordered and the rates at which they were to be furnished. The work has generally proved very satisfactory, and, indeed, equal to any furnished in any shops anywhere. I have also been obliged to have a shop put up in Memphis for the alteration and repair of guns.

The amount for these expenditures made I have directed Captain Hunt to send you. You will perceive that we must have remittances if we are to be supplied with the means of defending the valley.

In the article of field batteries I am now getting all that is required, reaching from McCulloch’s and Price’s commands in the West to Zollicoffer’s in the East, though it has required a large amount.

We still want 12, 18, and 24 pounders as siege pieces and for the arming and flanking our forts. Where shall we get them? We hope you will continue to send us as many rifled guns as possible. Can we not have Mr. Read, of Alabama, the inventor of the shell, to come to Memphis to put our people in the way of making his shell?

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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FORT HENRY, October 14, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

SIR: Saturday night, immediately after tattoo, a signal rocket from my picket, 3 miles below the fort, announced that a boat was in sight. I sent Captain Morgan with his company at once as an additional picket, and to ascertain if any troops had landed, got the regiment under arms, and the gunners at their posts. Shortly after the first picket came in, stating that two reliable men, who live near the mouth of Blood River, 9 miles below the fort, came up in a skiff; and informed them that two gunboats were lying at that place; but to be sure of the fact, I directed Lieutenant Berrie, of Captain Ford’s company, with two mounted men from the neighborhood, to proceed to that point to reconnoiter, and by all means to ascertain if any troops had landed. By that time a dense fog hung over the river, which prevented the approach of any boat.

Next morning (Sunday) Lieutenant Berrie returned, stating that two gunboats were coming up, and that they had fired a shot from a small gun at them, and that they had landed a few men, who shortly after returned to the boat. A black smoke was now visible below the island, which made the approach of a boat certain. I recalled the pickets, struck tents, took the regiment into the fort, and we were ready.

A little before 11 o’clock the boat showed her broadside in turning the bend of the river and passing the chute below the island, showing that she moved very slowly and with great caution. Shortly after she turned the foot of the island, showing her bow to the fort, stopped a very short time, and retired.

As the boat had stopped some distance below the range of our guns, which I was not willing to expose, and which is short beyond all reasonable expectation for 32-pounders, I did not permit a gun to be fired.

Last night I sent a mounted picket, which I formed from the minutemen of this vicinity, again down as far as Blood River Island, and they reported just now that there are no boats in the river as far as they could see.

Sixty men, under the command of Captain Graham, were sent to me from Fort Donelson, who will return this evening. {p.447} With these statements and the assurance that I will do everything in my power to the best of my ability, I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. HEIMAN, Colonel, Commanding.

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CAMP ZOLLICOFFER, NEAR LIVINGSTON, TENN., October 14, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. R. CASWELL, Knoxville:

GENERAL: I received your order of the 3d instant to hasten my movement to the relief of Captain Bledsoe, on Sunday, at Kimbrough’s, at the foot of the mountain. I had fallen in with Captains Ragsdale’s and Finley’s companies, marching under similar orders; we learned from Captain Bledsoe’s lieutenant that he had left Jamestown and fallen back to Camp Myers, some 25 miles distant from his encampment at McGinnis’, to where Colonel Stanton’s regiment was stationed. I arrived (my squadron) at Camp Myers on Thursday evening; on Friday it rained incessantly all day, and on Friday evening Colonel Stanton arrived from Bowling Green, with orders for his and Colonel Murray’s and all the cavalry at Camp Myers to march to Bowling Green, Ky., to join General Buckner’s command, and in pursuance of said orders Colonel Stanton’s regiment and Captains Saunders’ and Bledsoe’s companies of cavalry left Camp Myers on Saturday evening for Bowling Green. Colonel Murray’s left (the last of it) to-day, when I did, and is encamped at this place to-night. Major Bridgman ordered the two companies of his battalion, viz, Ragsdale’s and Finley’s and mine and Captain Snow’s companies, to take the back track to Post Oak Springs. I refused to obey said order. The other three companies left Camp Myers on Saturday evening.

On Sunday I sent my first and second lieutenants to Camp McGinnis, to confer with Captain Gillespie; they returned to-day at noon, informing me that Captain G. left this morning for Knoxville. Captain G. informed my lieutenant that he was advised that he was not safe to remain at the camp where he was. I did all that I [could] to prevent Major Bridgman from leaving until we heard from headquarters. Captain Ragsdale and myself followed Major Bridgman to Livingston, and endeavored to induce him to await orders, but all to no avail.

This section of the country is in a perilous condition. The people are greatly alarmed in consequence of being left without protection. The pass or main thoroughfare from Kentucky to East Tennessee is open to the enemy. The Lincoln troops have evacuated Albany when they heard of the encampment at Camp Myers, leaving two companies of cavalry and the Home Guards. As I passed through Livingston on this evening the citizens en masse came out, and prevailed on me not to leave them in their defenseless condition, and said they would send a committee to-night to Major B.’s encampment and endeavor to prevail on him to return. I am going to remain here or hereabouts until 1 get further orders. My opinion is that our four companies of cavalry could do great good by scouting in Clinton County, Kentucky.

There is a perfect reign of terror in Kentucky. The Southern men are greatly in fear of their lives. The Lincolnites are swearing in the citizens daily, and many of our friends are made to take the oath in order to save their lives and property. If we had a force, say one regiment of infantry and our four companies of cavalry, we could make a favorable demonstration in Kentucky and join General Zollicoffer at Somerset or some other point.

{p.448}

My company is in a bad fix as to arms or ammunition, not having more than two rounds of ammunition, and some 6 or 8 of my men have no repeaters or sabers. I have only 78 repeaters and 80 sabers. I greatly desire to have my company fully and efficiently armed. I want 86 shot-guns and 6 or 8 more repeaters, or 2 repeaters for-each of my men, and 40 more sabers. If I stay here I must have ammunition, say at least 12 rounds. My men have no winter clothing. I need 60 blankets, 100 flannel shirts, 86 coats, and last, but not least, funds to subsist upon. I have not a dollar of State funds. I am supporting my company out of my own funds, which will be exhausted before you get this letter.

Yours,

W. T. GASS.

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CAMP BUCKNER, October 14, 1861.

Adjutant-General COOPER:

I have information that General Zeigler has advanced from mouth of Sandy to Louisa, Ky., with 1,500 men. Our friends are assembling at Prestonburg-4,000 or 5,000, with less than 2,000 home guns-needing powder, lead, and buckshot; without organization. A general officer needed. A timely move may save that country.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, October 15, 1861.

Brigadier-General HARDEE, Commanding:

General Johnston acquiesces in your proposition, viz, to make a rapid movement upon Greensburg, with a battery, 900 infantry and 300 cavalry, to disperse the insurgent force and return without delay to your present position. Apprise Colonel Hawes of your movement, and request him to watch the movement between Nolin and Greensburg if he can, and certainly at the same time on his front and left flank.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 15, 1861.

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I am very much in need of additional boats to operate upon the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers. I can purchase one on the Mississippi River, a very fine boat, for $20,000; one on the Tennessee River for $12,000, and another on the Cumberland River for about the same amount. These can speedily be converted into armed gunboats They are indispensable to our defenses.

Will you please order their purchase and armament immediately?

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.449}

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, Tenn., October 15, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, Richmond:

As you are doubtless already informed, General Johnston has called upon me for 30,000 volunteers, in addition to the Provisional Army of Tennessee heretofore transferred to the Confederate States. To fill this requisition companies and regiments are rapidly reporting themselves, yet, from the constant inquiry made as to when and how they can be armed, I fear there will be some difficulty in raising so large a force unless I am authorized to give more satisfactory assurances than I am at present able to do.

It is the prospect of immediate and active service that swells the ranks of a volunteer force. They are reluctant to go into camp for winter quarters, where, without arms, they feel that they can render no service and really be of no use to the Government. I am exceedingly anxious to have this force armed and equipped to aid in repelling invasion, so strongly threatened at this time upon the northern border of the State, feeling certain that if properly prepared we can prevent the enemy reaching our soil.

Tennessee has placed every arm that she could command in the hands of the troops transferred to the Government. If it is the policy of the Government to cease operations in Western Virginia until the winter is past, I would be pleased, if it can be done consistent with the public interest, to see the Tennessee troops there removed to-the scene of action in this vicinity. The term of service of these troops will about expire with the winter in the mountains, in view of which fact the Government can make more profitable use of them in the manner indicated than by quartering them there; besides, a re-enlistment would be much more probable than in their present location.

The confidence of our people in their security from invasion is necessary to insure the production of such supplies and provisions as are absolutely demanded by the wants of our armies; to aid in doing which (if there were not more important considerations), it becomes of the utmost importance that Kentucky shall be held by the South. If the movement in Kentucky should halt or fail, it may seriously affect the amount of supplies produced in Tennessee. Recent movements indicate the purpose of the Federal Government to throw an overwhelming force into that State. I am satisfied that Kentucky is now the battle ground, and if superior numbers should give the enemy even a temporary success, it would not only endanger the safety of Tennessee, but carry with it incalculable mischief to the whole Confederacy. I am sure your policy is to drive them back to the Ohio.

The requisition of General Johnston will be promptly filled upon the assurance of arming. Without such assurance I frankly confess that there will be some delay.

If there could be thrown into this quarter an army large enough to drive the enemy back to the Ohio and push a column forward to Saint Louis, from these points ample supplies could be obtained to support the armies of the Government, and aggressive movements inaugurated and pushed forward which would deprive the North of the rich grain fields of the West, cut them off from their Supplies, break up their hives of men, and enable you to make peace upon fair and honorable terms. It is the West that sustains the Federal Government in prosecuting the war. If able to take such positions as will command that section the East becomes powerless, and our supplies, so necessary and important to all our future movements, become abundant and certain. {p.450}

But I find myself digressing from the object of my letter, which was to suggest the importance of a large force for a winter campaign in Kentucky; to ask that the Tennessee troops be sent from Western Virginia, or a part of them, if it can be done with safety, and to appeal for arms for the 30 000 men now being raised here. The interest and anxiety which I feel for the success of our cause and the safety of Tennessee, which I regard as now seriously threatened with invasion, must be my apology for the length of this communication and the freedom of my suggestions. Feeling the highest assurance that your excellency will do all that is possible to prevent such a calamity,

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., October 15, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

SIR: The anomalous condition of Kentucky, in the civil war now raging in the States formerly composing the Federal Union, induces me to hope that you will use the power of your position for the mitigation of the necessary evils of such a condition. At present a large portion of the people of Kentucky have neither the protection of State, Federal, nor Confederate law. The people, by large majorities, maintained at the polls the position of neutrality and peace; whilst the legislature, repudiating the only doctrine it dared to assert before the election, have plunged the State into war. Large majorities of the people have always been and now are in favor of a permanent connection with the South, whilst the legislature, urged by an insatiable ammunition and party spirit, have forced her into an unnatural connection with the North, the most unnecessary, foolish, and criminal act, in our opinion, ever perpetrated.

Whilst the people have thus maintained a position of neutrality, the Federal Government have directed against them, in common with their Southern brethren, an organized system of unconstitutional aggression against their domestic peace and slave property. In this condition, a factious majority of the legislature of Kentucky, in defiance of every pledge, and against the repeated vetoes of the governor, and fearing the universal indignation of their constituents, determined to surround themselves with an army, sworn, officered and paid by Lincoln, and have pursued their political opponents with the fell vengeance of edicts (which they call laws)-edicts at once unprecedented, unconstitutional, and atrocious. Thus pursued, subjugated, and betrayed by armies and legislatures, by Federal and State law, they receive no protection from Confederate law, because as yet they constitute no part of the Confederate States.

Under these circumstances, we ask of you such protection as you can extend (consistently with your position) to our trade, our property, our liberty, and our lives.

1st. The people have been forbidden by the acts of the Federal Congress and the embargoes of Lincoln their usual free trade with the Southern Confederacy. The Federal Government contend that this power of restriction on trade is an incident of the war-making powers of Congress, and one of the principal means possessed by the Federal Government of successfully assailing the South. If this be true, it is certainly within the powers-possessed by a commander of Confederate armies to remove a restriction imposed by their enemy for the purpose of injuring the Confederate States. The advantages of a free and unrestricted {p.451} trade between the people of Kentucky and the Confederate States are too obvious to need illustration. The commercial interchange of the products of the two sections, composed on the one hand of provisions, clothing, horses, and mules, and, on the other, of cotton, sugar, and rice, would tend obviously and greatly to the relief of both sections.

So far, then, as your occupation of this State is concerned, it would obviously embarrass the enemies and assist the friends of the Southern Confederacy to open up, to the extent of your occupation, a free trade with the South. To prevent the smuggling North of the cotton, sugar, and rice, so much needed by the enemy, you could subject this trade to such restrictions as would confine it to the open and stanch friends of the South. Licenses might be granted to all true friends of the Southern Confederacy, and thus all danger of smuggling to supply the enemy avoided.

2d. The majority of the legislature have also subjected the people to taxation for the support of this war against the Southern Confederacy, and the sheriffs are now engaged in its collection. If they are permitted to collect and pay over this tax, the people will be forced to contribute to their own subjugation, and the enemy supplied with money for the prosecution of the war. It is within the conceded powers of belligerents to appropriate to themselves the revenues of each other; and it is therefore certainly within the scope of your powers, as commander of the Confederate armies, to seize and appropriate the Federal revenue or to prevent its collection altogether by the enemy’s agents. It is the latter which we request you to do, and in this manner cut off the supplies of the enemy, and relieve our people from the payment of an unjust tax, intended to be used against the Southern Confederacy.

3d. The legislature have also passed their edicts, subjecting every Kentuckian who takes part in this war on the side of the South within this State, to imprisonment as a felon within the penitentiary, whilst they encourage the enlistment of Kentuckians into the armies of the North. This act, so atrocious in its object, and so well calculated to inflame the passions of the combatants, must lead to cruel acts of retaliation, and will crimson the very land with blood. The legislature have thus endeavored to use all the civil powers of the State in behalf of the North, and to array all the terrors of penal law against the Southern Confederacy. If the sheriffs and judges of this State be permitted by you to hunt down, arrest, try, condemn, and imprison as felons all who serve or aid the Confederate States, then our citizens would have the protection of no government in aiding you, and could expect to escape prosecution and imprisonment only by submitting to or by aiding and supporting the enemy of your States. It is difficult to overestimate the moral power of such acts in paralyzing your friends and in encouraging your enemies. We venture therefore to hope that you will prohibit the arrests of citizens by the sheriffs and their trial and condemnation by the judges and courts under this atrocious act aimed at the liberties of the people.

If you will thus grant to the people of this part of the State, now occupied and held by the arms of thine Confederate States, the advantages of an unrestricted commerce with the South, and give ample protect-ion to life, liberty, and property, it will furnish a proud and noble contrast to the Northern despotism which now reigns supreme in the balance of the State.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

GEO. W. JOHNSON.

{p.452}

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HDQRS. DIVISION No. 1, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, October 15, 1861.

General JOHNSTON, Commanding Western Department:

GENERAL: In reply to yours of 12th, I have to say that I have to-day ordered a battery of six guns (two howitzers, one Parrott, and three iron guns) to be shipped to General Zollicoffer at Knoxville. The company to man it I have yet to get up, though it is in process of forming and will be ready in a few days. They shall go forward at the first moment after they are ready. I have a call for two batteries from Missouri for General Price, which I shall be able to supply also in a few days. Thornton’s Mississippi Regiment, from Union City, will follow the last of General Hardee’s command, which leaves to-day, immediately. I regret I have not guns of the size required by General Buckner to send him for his work at Bowling Green. Harper’s battery has gone forward to Clarksville, and is subject to your order, if not now wanted on the Cumberland River. I have ordered 24-pounders, 18-pounders and 12-pounders, the sizes General Buckner wants, to be prepared as soon as may be, at Nashville and at Memphis.

My work here is rapidly drawing to a close on the fort, and transportation is arriving in such quantities as to leave the powder difficulty to be the only one left.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, October 16, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: My occupations have been so engrossing that I have delayed, some days longer than I desired, addressing you on various matters connected with your command.

1. I telegraphed you two or three days ago on the subject of the supplies at Nashville. Those supplies were collected for the army in Virginia, and have been delayed on account of the embarrassments in transportation on the railroads. The supplies in this part of the country are becoming exhausted, while in Kentucky you have a rich and fertile State, amply able to feed your army. I desire very much that you should refrain from drawing anything from the stores at Nashville, and that your commissariat be furnished by purchases in Kentucky, for which purpose funds will be forwarded in ample amount and sufficient time to your commissary staff. I hope you will to the utmost of your power co-operate with this Department in this matter.

2. Your call for troops on Mississippi and other States will, I am afraid, produce embarrassment. When General Polk was sent to take command of the department now under your orders, he was instructed that he might use his own discretion in the calls on Arkansas and Tennessee, but not to draw on Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, or Georgia without the consent of this Department. The reason for this was that Arkansas and Tennessee had not yet been subjected to any considerable drain of men, whereas the other States mentioned had been furnishing largely since the beginning of the war, and it was desired to proportion the calls on the different States with a due regard to their numbers of men capable of bearing arms. On other point also let me urgently {p.453} fix your attention. It is understood here that you have accepted certain troops from the State of Mississippi by brigades. Now, this is against our whole policy from the beginning. If you will look at the sixth section of the act for the public defense, page 36 of the Laws of the First Session, you will see that we accept no organizations higher than a regiment. The President alone is vested with the power to form regiments into brigades and divisions, and this was done for the express purpose of enabling him to keep control over the general officers, and to get rid of them if found inefficient, by breaking up the brigades and divisions to which general officers are appointed. Of course these points could not be as familiar to you as to us, in consequence of the long delay which intervened before you could reach us from the Pacific. I therefore lay the more stress upon them, that you may be put fully into possession of our policy in the organization of the army. If it be true that you have accepted brigades, we must, of course, get along as best we can; but for the future I beg you to be careful to accept no organized body higher than a regiment; as many regiments as you please, but separately, by regiments.

3. I have next to beg your special attention to making your adjutant prepare and forward punctually your monthly returns. The negligence on this point that has prevailed elsewhere has seriously embarrassed the Department. Without them we cannot, of course, administer the service; can make no calculations, no combinations; can provide in advance with no approach to certainty, and cannot know how to supply deficiencies. I need not enlarge on this point to a general of your experience, but I have suffered so much from inattention to this particular, that I cannot refrain from calling your attention to it.

4. I have your letter asking for the appointment of a brigadier-general to command at Columbus, Ky., in your absence. Your recommendation of Maj. A. P. Stewart has been considered with the respect due to your suggestions, but there is am officer under your command whom you must have overlooked, whose claims in point of rank and experience greatly outweigh those of Major Stewart, and whom we could not pass by without injustice. I refer to Col. Lloyd Tilghman, whose record shows longer and better service, and who is, besides, as a Kentuckian, especially appropriate to the command of Columbus. He has therefore been appointed brigadier-general; but, of course, you will exercise your own discretion whether to place him in command at Columbus or not. Colonel McCown had been appointed brigadier-general some days before the receipt of your letter to General Cooper of the 5th instant.

I much lament that we are still so strained for arms. As soon as we can get any you shall have your full share. I shall order four 32-pounders at once to be sent to you for defense of your works at Bowling Green or such other point as you may desire to fortify with heavy guns.

Rely on the active co-operation of this Department to the full extent of its disposable means.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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NASHVILLE, October 16, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON. Bowling Green:

Governor Harris has sent, or rather ordered, to-day one company of artillery to Fort Donelson. Cannot one regiment he ordered there from {p.454} Hopkinsville immediately? The distance is only 30 miles, over a turnpike most of the way and a good dirt road the balance. It seems to me there is no part of the whole West so exposed as the valley of the Cumberland. The river is in fine boating order and rising quite fast. If Paducah is not to be attacked, so as to hold the enemy in check, he can, unimpeded, destroy the rolling-mills on the river now manufacturing iron for the Confederate States, the railroad bridge at Clarksville, and otherwise do incalculable mischief. I have written to General Polk on this subject, but it occurs to me the army at Hopkinsville is not subject to his order, and therefore I address you.

Dixon has not yet had time to mount his 32-pounder guns, nor has the artillery company ordered from here left Nashville. I suppose it may reach Fort Donelson to-morrow night.

Excuse my anxiety about this matter, for I think the danger is not only great, but that there is no time to be lost to avert it.

Sincerely, your friend,

G. A. HENRY.

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HDQRS. FOURTH BRIGADE, ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Enterprise. October 16, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States of America:

DEAR SIR: I have just received orders from the commander-in-chief of the Army of the Mississippi, John J. Pettus, to transfer the two regiments under my command to the Confederate States, which I shall do to-morrow. I have one word to say in behalf, not only of the troops, but for the good of the service, to wit: These troops, numbering some 1,800, are now just recovering from measles. At least two-thirds of the brigade have had them, and to send them in their present condition into the valley of the Mississippi or Kentucky would lose one-half of them in a very short time. If they could go to the coast anywhere for a few months, they would then be prepared for a colder climate. Hoping you will find it convenient to send them South,

I have the honor to be, very, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN W. O’FERRALD, Brigadier-General, Fourth Brigade, Army of the Mississippi.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 17, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I informed you by telegraph on the 12th that, in consequence of information received from General Buckner of the advance of the enemy in considerable force, I had ordered forward all my available force to his support. Hardee’s division and Terry’s regiment have arrived here and in advance. Our force may be estimated at 12,000 men. Correct returns cannot be obtained until after a better organization. Two Tennessee regiments (Stanton’s, from Overton County, and one from Union City) are yet to arrive, and may reach this [place] in two or three days, and give an increase of about 2,000 men.

I cannot expect immediately any additional force under the call of last month on the governors of Tennessee and Mississippi. The men will doubtless present themselves promptly at the rendezvous, but I {p.455} cannot suppose any considerable portion will be armed. When I made the call I hoped that some might come armed. I cannot now conjecture how many will do so. The call was made to save time, and in the hope that by the time they were organized and somewhat instructed the Confederate Government would be able to arm them.

As at present informed, I think the best effort of the enemy will be made on this line, threatening perhaps at the same time the communications between Tennessee and Virginia, covered by Zollicoffer, and Columbus from Cairo by the river and Paducah by land, and maybe a serious attack on one or the other; and for this their command of the Ohio and all the navigable waters of Kentucky and better means of land transportation gives them great facilities of concentration.

As my forces at neither this nor either of the other points threatened are more than sufficient to meet the force in front, I cannot weaken either until the object of the enemy is fully pronounced.

You know the efforts I anticipate from the enemy and the line on which the first blow is expected to fall and the means adopted by me with the forces at my disposal to meet him.

I will use all means to increase my force, and spare no exertion to render it effective at every point, but I cannot assure you that this will be sufficient, and if re-enforcements from less endangered or less important points can be spared, I would be glad to receive them.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, October 17, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War:

SIR: We are greatly pressed by the want of powder. Saltpeter, the article chiefly needed for its manufacture, is now being delivered in increasing quantities from the mines in Arkansas, but the work does not go on as it might, nor will it until the Government makes a contract with parties of capital and character to furnish a supply of manufactured powder.

I strongly urge the making of a contract for powder with a company, to be headed by Mr. Sam Tate, of Memphis. This company can be made up of the best men in West Tennessee, who would go into the matter for the sake of the cause, and would furnish the best guarantee for an abundant supply that could be presented. I am greatly in want of powder, and urge this mode of relief on the Government.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 17, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee:

GOVERNOR: Your letters of this date have been received.* By my instructions General Buckner reports to you this evening that he had ordered Colonel Stanton to disperse the enemy in his neighborhood before marching on this point, and that only after having done this, in {p.456} conjunction with Colonel Murray, would he cover that section. This done, Colonel Murray will take up some suitable position to cover your line and defend your people.

This, with the presence of Head’s regiment and the cavalry now forming at Sulphur Springs, Macon, will, I think, relieve the uneasiness of the people, and relieve them from further apprehension for the present.

Respectfully, &c.,

A. S. JOHNSTON.

* Not Found.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, October 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding First Division, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: General Johnston directs you to hasten the armament of the works at Fort Donelson and-the obstructions below the place at which a post was intended. The operations of the enemy on the Tennessee show that the necessity of interrupting the Cumberland is urgent; and he reminds you that Island No. 10 should be occupied by at least a regiment, and that, as the men are to be occupied chiefly in working the guns, a regiment not fully armed should be selected.

The regiment that was sent across the river to strengthen that of Colonel Tappan was not intended to be permanently detached, but only to remain until the works were sufficiently advanced, or until in your opinion it could be safely withdrawn.

As soon as the whole of General Hardee’s regiments are dispatched, send forward to this place the regiment designated by you from Union City.

The general has been informed that the experiments made with the torpedo at Memphis have been very successful. Should you on inquiry find this to be the case, you are authorized to employ them to any extent necessary on the Mississippi, Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

For the present don’t move the regiment from Fort Henry. The men are accustomed to the guns; new ones might not be efficient.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

It is believed that this letter was mailed the day before yesterday. This is sent for fear that it was neglected. Will the general please inform me whether he got the first copy?

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BOWLING GREEN, October 17, 1861.

Major-General Polk, Commanding, Columbus, Ky.:

If you have not sent the Tennessee regiment from Union City to this place, as verbally ordered by General Johnston to do, send it here at once.

Send four companies to Fort Donelson, if you have not already sent the force you were verbally ordered by the general to send. The necessity is urgent for them to wan the works there now.

If neither the regiment nor battalion has moved, send the four companies first; let the regiment follow immediately.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.457}

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HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., October 17, 1861.

Col. S. S. STANTON:

SIR: General Johnston directs me to send you the following instructions:

With your own regiment, Colonel Murray’s regiment, the cavalry, and such armed militia as you can induce to join you, you will break up all the Lincoln camps which threaten the citizens of Tennessee and the southern-rights men of Southern Kentucky. Your own judgment must to a great extent dictate the best mode of accomplishing this object. From the position I understand you to occupy at this time, I suggest that you proceed first to break up Frame’s camp, on Indian Creek. After accomplishing that, you will next proceed to disperse the camps at Burkesville and Albany. In order to accomplish this without any considerable risk, it will be necessary to employ the entire force which has been placed under your orders. The object of General Johnston is to remove from the frontier of Tennessee the occasion of the apprehensions now existing in the minds of the citizens. In order to meet with success, you must move with all the rapidity possible, thus preventing any large collections of the enemy. As your expedition will continue longer than was contemplated in your last instructions, you may find it necessary to make contracts for supplies for your forces. You are authorized to do this through the quartermaster’s and subsistence departments. As soon as these orders are executed, you will proceed with your own regiment in the most expeditious way to obey your previous order to move to Bowling Green, marching well to the southward. Upon leaving, you will place the rest of the command under the orders of Colonel Murray, and direct him to station it in such positions as will best insure the protection of the border. Accompanying this is a copy of my former instructions and of an order directed to you and Colonel Murray in reference to granting furloughs.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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FORT HENRY, October 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

SIR: Inclosed please find a letter which I received early this morning from Colonel MacGavock, at Dover, the contents of which I have telegraphed to you as well as to Governor Harris.

My picket reports this morning that three gunboats are 30 miles below the fort, so stated to them by Mr. Marbry, who lives 6 miles below. I dispatched Lieutenant Gibson, mounted, to ascertain facts, but he has not yet returned. Under existing circumstances I could send but one company to Fort Donelson, and artillerists I have none to spare; not near enough to man the guns at this fort. It is to be regretted that Captain Taylor and Lieutenant Stankiurez only have experience in gunnery; their men have none.

My urgent request to headquarters at Nashville to recruit the artillery company at this post to its full strength has not been complied with; neither has my demand for a company of cavalry, so indispensable for this post for vedettes and scouting, and to communicate with Fort Donelson and the telegraph office at Danville.

{p.458}

On the 6th of August last I reported at length-to General Foster in regard to the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, and stated that nothing could prevent the enemy from ascending both rivers at the same time when the latter river is navigable. Both rivers are up now and rising rapidly. With your permission will by to-morrow’s mail report to you more fully.

Your obedient servant,

A. HEIMAN, Colonel, Commanding.

P. S.-Since writing the above I have received the general’s letter of the 15th, by Captain Ellis. The regiment is already encamped in the rear of the fort.

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NASHVILLE, October 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

I beg leave to draw your attention to the defenseless condition of the Cumberland River. From here to Smithland there are not 300 soldiers in arms. One small fort-Donelson-3 miles below the town of-Dover, with four guns, is all we have to rely on.

On yesterday Lieutenant Dixon took from Clarksville the four 32-pounder guns I obtained in Memphis three weeks ago for Fort Donelson, and this day Governor Harris has ordered one artillery company to go to Fort Donelson immediately.

Lieutenant-Colonel MacGavock, now in command there, telegraphs to Governor Harris of this date that 300 men were on yesterday landed in Eddyville from the gunboats of the enemy, and that there was water enough for them to pass the shoals, and, to make the matter worse, it has been raining all night last night and nearly all day to-day. We are in actual danger of being invaded and without any means of defense. The four 32-pounder guns cannot yet be put in battery, nor are there now any soldiers there who know anything about artillery service. Wood, Lewis & Co. have very valuable property on the river a few miles above Fort Donelson-the Cumberland Rolling Mills-now engaged in manufacturing iron for the Confederate States, which could be destroyed any night. Its machinery could not be reinstated now, and the public loss would be irreparable. The bridge at Clarksville over the Cumberland River could also be destroyed, which would sever all connection with West Tennessee, and this loss could not be repaired at a cost of $200,000. If the river keeps up Nashville itself is not safe.

Colonel MacGavock telegraphs for two companies of cavalry and one company of artillery and one regiment of infantry. Can you not spare a regiment for Fort Donelson immediately? No time is to be lost, in my opinion. When I saw you in Columbus I was impressed within the danger that threatened us, and so expressed myself to you. I am now more fully impressed with [the] danger, and cannot too urgently urge you to send prompt relief to us.

It seems to be the idea that Paducah is not to be assailed by our army. If that be so, there is nothing to prevent the enemy from harassing us on this and the Tennessee Rivers, both of which are now in fine boating order.

Truly, your friend,

G. A. HENRY.

{p.459}

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FORT DONELSON, October 17, [1861]-5 a.m.

General POLK:

The gunboats reached Eddyville, Ky., at noon yesterday and landed 200 cavalry. They have taken possession of the town. We are in a defenseless condition here, having only three companies of raw recruits, poorly armed, and not one artillerist to manage what heavy guns we have. One regiment of infantry, one company of artillery, and two companies of cavalry are required here at once. Please furnish me with guns, if possible, for the companies now here. Answer by telegraph immediately.

R. W. MacGAVOCK, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding at Fort Donelson.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., October 17, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. L. ALCORN, Hopkinsville, Ky.:

You are directed to send 200 infantry of your command and a company of mounted recruits to report to Colonel MacGavock, at Fort Donelson, near Dover, with orders to rejoin you when MacGavock receives other re-enforcements, now en route. You will by means of spies, and with such part of your force as may be necessary, watch the movement of the enemy in the direction of Eddyville, and rally to your command our friends in that vicinity. Report speedily your information to these headquarters, and especially if his forces have been increased.

By order of Brig. Gen. S. B. Buckner, C. S. Army:

ALEXANDER CASSEDAY, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 182.}

ADJT. AND INSP’R GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, October 17, 1861.

...

XII. Brig. Gen. J. P. McCown, Provisional Army, will report for duty to General A. S. Johnston at Bowling Green, Ky.

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, October 18, 1861.

J. P. BENJAMIN:

I have suspended an order of Quartermaster-General Myers to Quartermaster Shaaff, at Nashville, to send to Richmond all stores of that depot in his hands, and I report to you my reasons by to-day’s mail. Those reasons I beg you to hear before enforcing the order. They are weighty.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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FORT HENRY, TENNESSEE RIVER, October 18, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

SIR: I beg leave to submit the following report, to which I most respectfully call the general’s attention:

Fort Henry is situated on the east bank of Tennessee River, about 1 {p.460} mile north of the offset in the boundary line of the State on its western extension. It is 20 miles below Danville, where the Memphis, Louisville and Nashville-Railroad crosses the Tennessee, and 60 miles above Paducah. The river at this point is 1,260 feet wide. It is a bastion fort, inclosing an area of a little over 3 acres. The ditch surrounding it is 20 feet in width, with an average depth of 10 feet, making the height of parapet from the bottom of the ditch about 18 feet. The line of parapet is 2,270 feet.

Its armament consists at present of six 32-pounders, two 12-pounders, and one 6-pounder field piece.

Four of the 32-pounders range down the river, and the fifth may be brought to bear when a boat passes the channel between the island and the bank, which is a distance of about 1 1/2 miles. Should a boat be able to run close to the bank in high water, this gun would have a very uncertain range.

The head of the island is 1 1/4 miles from the fort. The island is 1 mile in length and about 350 feet in width, and is heavily timbered. The channel is 700 feet in width. The chute between the island and the Kentucky shore is not navigable except the river is very high.

The valley in which the fort is situated is parallel with the river, about 7 miles in length and from 1/2 to 1/4 miles in breadth, excepting one point north of the fort 1 3/4 miles, where the valley is narrowed by projecting spurs to about 350 yards.

The hills on the east outlying this valley have a steep acclivity to a height of 80 to 100 feet in a horizontal distance of 300 feet. These hills are spurs from a dividing ridge distant from the bank of the river from 3 1/2 to 6 miles. This ridge is about 350 feet above low water, and divides the waters of the Tennessee from the Cumberland River.

The hills of the greatest elevation fronting upon the river are south of the fort about 3 miles and distant from the river about 1 mile. Two hills within 1 1/4 miles from the fort attain the height of 220 feet above the crest of the parapet, but owing to the heaviness of the timber between them and the fort, they can be of little advantage to an enemy.

There is also a ridge northeast of the fort, about 3,000 feet distant, with an elevation of 60 feet above the parapet, which furnishes an effective basis of operations if the fort should be attacked by land forces. From low-water mark to high-water mark is about 56 feet; the rise of water from an average stage to high-water mark is 44 feet.

At the high stage of the river the water backs up into Panther Creek on the north and Lost Creek on the south 24 miles, and at this stage the lower part of the fort is not free from overflow, being 7 feet 6 inches lower than the highest part. The leading roads begin to ascend the hills in about half a mile from the river, and are generally located on the summits of the ridges, are gravelly, and generally very good.

This is the topography around the fort on the east bank (Tennessee side) of the river.

On the west bank of the river (Kentucky side) the valley extends northwards to the mouth of Blood River, about 9 miles from the fort, and to the southward only about 1 1/4 miles.

The hills outlying this valley are distant from the river at the south only 80 yards, just opposite the fort only 700 yards, and thence recede to a general distance of 1/2 to 1 mile.

The hill abutting on the river on the south side of the fort and on the west bank is distant from the fort 1,500 yards and is 170 feet above the crest of the parapet. Across the summit of this hill runs the dividing line between Tennessee and Kentucky. About 3/4 of a mile north of {p.461} this hill and about 1 mile from and immediately opposite the fort, is a hill 250 feet above the crest of the parapet, from which a spur projects to a distance of 3,000 feet from the fort, with an elevation of 80 feet, which, from its flanking position and the nature of the ground, may be easily fortified.

These hills I consider the really dangerous points, and proper batteries placed on them will certainly command the fort.

Should the enemy attempt an invasion of the State by ascending simultaneously the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers with a large force, these points, being within 20 miles of the railroad leading from Louisville and Nashville to Memphis, should be occupied by our troops in order to maintain our position here.

I have at present for the defense of this fort my own regiment, with an aggregate of 820 men, Captain Taylor’s company of artillery, with an aggregate of 50 men. I have repeatedly requested that the company of artillery be recruited to its full strength. In its present condition there are mot men enough to work all the guns at the same time and to properly arm the fort. Four 12-pounders are necessary in addition to the guns now here, particularly if we have to defend it against a land force.

Whether a gunboat can pass Fort Henry depends greatly upon the skill and efficiency of our gunners. A boat coming within the range of our guns 14 miles below the fort will get out of their range as soon as it passes the fort, as none of our guns have a range up the river; their range, too, is unreasonably short for 32-pounders, which must be caused by inferiority of powder, and perhaps by the balls having too much windage.

If the enemy’s gunboats should succeed in passing Fort Henry, two hours’ run will take them to Danville, and there is nothing to prevent the destruction of the railroad bridge.

Again I beg leave to call the attention of the general to the indispensable necessity of having a company of cavalry at this post for the purpose of communicating with the railroad and telegraph at Danville, to act as pickets and scouts in every direction from Fort Henry, that we may be apprised of the enemy’s approach either by land or water, and to communicated between this post and Fort Donelson.

The defenses on the Cumberland have so far been almost entirely overlooked. It is true a little fort was constructed 1 mile below Dover by my regiment, in which were placed two 32-pounder seacoast howitzers, which have a very good range down the river, but from the hemmed-in position of this work it is entirely worthless.

To hold the place against even a small force would require a great deal of additional work on the crest of a ridge which immediately overlooks this work, called a fort.

This post was entirely abandoned until within the last few weeks, when it was occupied by three companies lately organized by Lieutenant-Colonel MacGavock, of my regiment, whom I detailed for that purpose. This force has not yet been armed, except with such guns as they could furnish themselves-mostly shot-gnus. As I have learned within the last few days, other companies will be added to this command, to raise it, if possible, to a full regiment.

No artillery force whatsoever is there-but I have detached Lieutenant Watts, of Captain Taylor’s company, to instruct such men of the companies there to serve the guns as may be best fitted for that purpose. I have since learned that two more 32-pounders are to be placed at that point.

{p.462}

Lieutenant-Colonel MacGavock is in command there at present, and requested me to send a detachment of artillery from Captain Taylor’s company, which is impossible, for reasons stated above, and because of the report lately received here that the gunboats are now in the Tennessee River; and believing that no enemy ascending the Cumberland would leave Fort Donelson in its rear, and nothing as yet having been done for land defenses at that point, I have no confidence in its efficiency. I was also informed by Captain Hayden, Corps of Engineers, that Captain Harrison, of Nashville, is at Fort Donelson with two steamers and six barges, loaded with wood and stone, to be sunk at Ingram’s Shoals, 35 miles below Dover, for the purpose of obstructing the navigation of the river-by whose authority I know not; but, if I may express my opinion on the subject, I beg leave to state that this will be a fruitless operation in a river which rises from low-water mark at least 57 feet, and which I myself have often known to rise at least 10 feet in 24 hours. The general will perceive that these obstructions are no impediment to navigation in high water, and it may cost an immense sum to remove them.

Dover is 105 miles below Nashville, 90 miles above Smithland, and 40 miles below Clarksville, where the Memphis, Louisville and Clarksville Railroad crosses the Cumberland; and, if the enemy passes Dover in gunboats, nothing prevents the destruction of the railroad bridge at Clarksville, and Clarksville, and even the capital of the State, is in immediate peril.

I have been informed that it is contemplated to build a fortification at Line Port, 15 miles below Dover, and above the most important iron works on the Cumberland River, and of course will afford no protection to them.

Fearing that I have already trespassed too much upon the valuable time of the general, I beg leave to call attention to only one other subject, which is the means of communication between Fort Henry and Danville. The steamer Florence, which now runs between these points, is inadequate to the transportation of either freight or troops, and will not, as I am informed by the captain, continue here longer than the first of next month. If the steamer Samuel Orr is still under your command, I would respectfully suggest that it would be a proper boat to run between Fort Henry and the bridge, being very fleet, with sufficient capacity for the transportation of either freight or troops.

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. HEIMAN, Colonel, Commanding.

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CAVE CITY, October 18, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL:

Barren and Green Rivers both high. Unable to cross. Shall I remain here and send back for provisions or return?

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Cumberland Gap, October 19, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond:

SIR: On the 16th General Zollicoffer, with 4,500 men, moved forward from Cumberland Ford to London. He left 1,100, mostly sick, at {p.463} the Ford, and the Fourth Tennessee Regiment, Provisional Army, unarmed, here.

The information is received here via Pound Gap (which has been forwarded by express to him), that a heavy force was rapidly concentrating at Rockcastle Hills. They were principally from Ohio. One regiment had been unexpectedly thrown forward to London.

I am pressing the fortifications here, and in a few days more will have them in readiness.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Colonel Fourth Tennessee Regiment, P. A., Comdg. Post.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 19, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

GENERAL: I shall in two or three days be so well forward within my work that I shall be at liberty to look around me, if need be. I have sent, as a measure of precaution, one of the Mississippi regiments to Fort Henry. The other, as you have ordered, has gone forward (Thornton’s) to Bowling Green. The emergency on the Cumberland was for a day or two so great I feared I should be obliged to stop Thornton’s at Dover, but finding companies I could send to Dover, I have let Thornton go forward.

I have sent Major Stewart and four artillery officers to drill the companies sent there in artillery drill. They can be relieved in a few days and return. I have also sent forward to Dover and Fort Henry three cavalry companies, and shall send others in a few days. I am informed the fleet of steamers and barges to block up the Cumberland is well on its way, and I hope by this time has accomplished its work.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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CAMP NEAR HOPKINSVILLE, KY., October 19, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. B. BUCKNER C. S. A.:

SIR: Your dispatch of 17th was not received until the evening of yesterday. At 6 o’clock this morning the detachment moved. I had some difficulty in responding to the call for mounted men, as Captain Meriwether was out on a scouting expedition, and I had as recruits only 27 armed men. My enlisted squads are out recruiting on large promises of arms and men. I sent the 27; enough doubtless. My command, after furnishing nurses for the sick, is reduced to a battalion. It appears that every man in my camp will directly be down with measles. The thought of a movement in my present condition is idle. I am not more than able to patrol the town.

In relation to the movements of the enemy at Eddyville I have reliable information. The gunboat steamed up to the town and steamed back again. A company or squad of 25 cavalry from Smithland marched within 4 miles of Eddyville, took all the double-barreled guns they could find, robbed some women of their jewelry, seized several {p.464} horses and mules, destroyed some property, insulted some women, captured one citizen as prisoner, and returned to Smithland, from whence they came. I now have spies at Smithland, and will be advised daily of all movements. The enemy have at that place 600 troops and are fortifying at a hill in rear of the town. No immediate movement of the enemy in force up Cumberland need be apprehended, yet a force for defense at Fort Donelson is certainly necessary.

The cloud looks most ominous for immediate injury in the direction of Henderson. On the 17th 100 cavalry, supported by 250 infantry, marched from Henderson within 11 miles of Madisonville, took some prisoners, burnt a house or two, as I am informed, stole some horses, and are now encamped at Nebo, 12 miles from Madisonville.

In Livingston and Caldwell the enemy are seizing every horse and mule and driving off every animal fit for rations that they can find, besides taking prisoners daily. Our mutual friend Wallace, who was at your camp on the morning after your arrival at this place, is of the number arrested. It would be an easy task with a small army to read some valuable lessons in that direction.

I had a courier and spy to return to-day from a searching visit northward. He reports at Owensborough 400 troops, mostly cavalry, about 50 wagons, and 200 extra horses; at Henderson, 1,700 infantry, 50 cavalry, with a large and increasing amount of transportation; at Calhoun, 600, mostly cavalry, 60 wagons, and two 6-pounder guns; at Hartford, the spy takes the word of a friend whom he thinks reliable, that there are 500 infantry, a few cavalry, and about 50 wagons; summing up something over 3,000 troops, well equipped, who shift from one post to another, and when moving steal everything that they meet and take everything valuable that they can carry.

I have just received from Clarksville two 9-pounder pieces and one 6-pounder piece, with 50 rounds of fixed ammunition; no caissons; carriages out of fix, but can soon have them ready. I could obtain howitzer, but have no carriage. At this post there should be supplies of tents and camp equipage. It discourages troops to have to lie out until the slow process of requisition from Bowling Green or Nashville is worked out. Apothecary supplies should also be sent, as when a company comes the requirements of medical treatment will not await the requisition.

I scarcely know what to do about an artillery company. I can form one-have it partly formed-but hearing that a company of artillery is coming, without knowing anything of their purpose, do not know but that they are for the pieces which I have. I have written to know if I should buy horses; not being answered, I fear to proceed further.

I this evening received your reply to my note asking the appointment of N. S. Cumings [?] as quartermaster, and C. S. Severson as commissary or assistant quartermaster. In reply to your suggestion I have to state that my command has been mustered into service, except some hospital patients. Major Hewett fell sick and did not finish these. He has promised to return on Monday, when the last one will be mustered in. This being done, the cause for my continuance no longer exists in force sufficient to detain me. I wish to leave for Mississippi, and ask your permission to fix the 27th instant as the day for my departure. This post is an important one, and should not be commanded by one who has not the confidence or is distasteful to the Government at Richmond. My service as brigadier-general of Mississippi is due that State only. If the Confederate Government wished me, I would be appointed. This not being done, I am an intruder. My self-respect, {p.465} my own honor, is dearer to me than country or life itself. The hope of being able to make an early movement has lured me; that hope dissipated, common decency requires me to leave this command. Besides, to stay here and labor and toil as I do, struggling with disease and death, to be superseded presently, or, if continued, to be a mere interloper, a nondescript, every impulse of my nature says, “No; death first.” My command will complain, but this will soon be hushed, for now they are bound. I shall leave with them my son, a captain of a company, as hostage that my heart is with them.

In conclusion, I thank you most sincerely for the kind manner in which you have treated me since my return to my native heath, and beg that you will have some one to take my command, if not before, on the day indicated. Do not neglect this, I beg you.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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Abstract from report of forces stationed in the vicinity of Bowling Green, Ky., October 19, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
Arkansas brigade1732,0083,012
Tennessee brigade1712,7433,825
Not brigaded1462,2402,763
First Kentucky Cavalry25228268
Harper’s battery27788
Total4906,991252282779,956

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 20, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER:

GENERAL: Your dispatches of September 26 and two of September 24 were received last night. I have the honor to inform you that every effort to secure for you a competent engineer has thus far failed.

The last and best information we have of the enemy in front of you was received from a gentleman who arrived yesterday. It is this, that Camp Dick Robinson contains 10,000 men, 4,000 of them being advanced towards Cumberland Gap, but to what distance our informant could not tell. This advance is under Garrard. He was satisfied that, in addition to these troops, there were 10,000 of the enemy dotted from point to point on the line from Camp Dick Robinson to Cincinnati. Colonels Stanton and Murray are ordered and supposed to be engaged dispersing a Union force at Tompkinsville, Burkesville, and along that point.

I am, general, very respectfully,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General. {p.466}

HEADQUARTERS CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, October 20, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL:

SIR: On the arrival at this place of two regiments of Mississippi State troops, I found that they had not yet been mustered into the Confederate service. They were under the command of Brig. Gen. J. L. Alcorn, of Mississippi. At my request, he consented to retain the command of the two regiments, which I organized temporarily into a brigade, until they were mustered into the service. In making this request I consulted what I am still convinced was the best interests of the service. General Alcorn deservedly holds a high place in the estimation of his soldiers and has rendered me valuable assistance. The manner in which he has discharged the delicate duties which have been assigned him in the district of country west of here, and of which he was formerly a citizen, has contributed very much to the success of our cause, and I hope will entitle him to be continued in the command as a brigadier-general after the regiments shall have been received into the Confederate service, Brigadier-General Alcorn has continued in command at Hopkinsville from motives of patriotic duty and as a personal favor to me.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Cave City, October 20, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

I have received your dispatch,* and shall to-day examine the points indicated by you, and will to-morrow give orders to fall back. But for the rise in the rivers, there seems to be no doubt we would have taken the insurgents at Greensburg by surprise and captured the whole party. Lieutenant-Colonel Marmaduke will give you all the particulars.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: I am instructed by General Johnston to say that his order to you was based on the great deficiency in and the great necessity for organization of this army corps; but, on other reflections, this must yield to other considerations and be effected by other means.

The backward movement from Green River might, and probably would, be interpreted by the enemy into a retreat, and if it did not encourage them to a move in rapid advance, would discourage our friends and elate our enemies in Kentucky. He therefore asserts [revokes?] it.

He desires you to maintain yourself in observation of Green River, disposing of the forces now with you so as, in your judgment, will best {p.467} accomplish this and impress the enemy with an expectation of an advance by us. Secure yourself at the same time for his enterprise on your rear from the right and left. Let that portion of your command which for want of teams depends for transportation on the railroad be posted at Dripping Springs.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Hopkinsville, October 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. B. BUCKNER, C. S. A., Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I had the honor to send you dispatch this morning. The gunboat Conestoga passed up to Canton or Linton Saturday, took 1,000 barrels of flour, and passed down again Sunday, I suppose to Smithland. Jackson’s force at Owensborough is increasing; has 600 or 400 cavalry constantly scouring the country around him. Our friends are suffering greatly. Jackson is receiving large supplies of small-arms, Minie muskets, Colt’s and Enfield rifles; three steamboats, as my spy says, are now discharging at that place; munitions are being sent in quantities to Hartford from Calhoun. The enemy is active, and unless you can move soon in that direction, the pork, bacon, wheat, all subsistence upon which we rely in that direction, will be lost to us. A movement to Madisonville, Calhoun, Henderson, and Owensborough promptly made would give us the whole country. If this cannot be done, then the country will be a barren treasure when acquired.

The Kentuckians still come in small squads. I have induced the most of them to go in for the war. This requires about three speeches a day. When thus stirred up, they go almost to a man. Since I have found that I can’t be a general, I have turned recruiting agent and sensation speaker for the brief period that I shall remain. By all means supplies and equipments, if any are to be had, should be sent to this post. I now have about 250 war men, without arms, camp equipage, or anything else. My quartermaster is out of money, and can’t obtain it, except on personal security. At Nashville he obtained $7,000, of which I advised you, in this way: happening to meet a responsible acquaintance in that city. This, I submit, ought to be a post or it ought not. Major Hewett has returned. My command is now mustered into the service, except about 60 sick at Clarksville, who will not muster in (although I have written them) until they see me. When I can see them, they will muster in. I can do this as I return home. I know they will do as I say.

Let me impress upon you the necessity of sending a competent officer to command this post; the senior colonel is disqualified; the army will be demoralized under his command; he is clever enough, but is indolent, and requires to be looked after. I had about as soon be shot as to leave here, but would rather be shot than remain a hermaphrodite in the service. I have a young man now under arrest for making or using threatening and abusive language on the streets towards myself and the army; among other things, that he intended to shoot myself Such language should not be permitted, and I shall, unless I find imprisonment at hard labor sufficient to suppress it, make some examples of severity that will be sufficient for the purpose. It is openly avowed that our indulgence results from our conscious weakness. The course {p.468} of indulgence pursued you will find must be changed; sooner or later it must be changed. This you will find; I think the sooner the better. I don’t think I am disposed to tyranny, but a sensible, firm, efficacious, decisive, and prompt authority is necessary to the occasion. I make suggestions, believing that I may do so without offense; always obedient, however, to my superiors.

I hope you will pardon my liberty with you in thus writing to you direct rather than through the adjutant, as my correspondence is not intended to be classified as reports.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

J. L. ALCORN, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, October 22, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th instant. Since the reception of your instructions by telegram on the 11th instant, directing me to draw no more commissary stores from the depot at Nashville, I have conformed to them, and am now taking measures to purchase in open market or by contract all the flour, beef, pork, and forage necessary to supply the troops here, and if there should be a surplus of those items of the rations, to secure that for other corps. There is, however, an embarrassment in the accomplishment of this object, from the refusal of the farmers for their flour, &c., of any but gold or Kentucky paper money. While private dealers comply with their demands, we are unable to do so. We have only Confederate or Tennessee paper. We are at present without money in the subsistence department, and I submit to you to judge and decide if it would not be better to procure coin, gold or silver, for the present, until in the progress of trade our paper could obtain currency. This result, I think, would occur if the restrictions of the law prohibiting the importation of certain productions “except by seaports” could be removed so far as to allow the introduction of certain articles, except cotton and military stores, of absolute necessity, in the district of country occupied by our troops. It might first be tried for specified productions of the South under special license.

It is necessary that the money for the purchase of supplies should be remitted as early as possible, and I desire that it be deposited in some bank in Nashville, to the credit of Capt. T. K. Jackson, chief commissary at my headquarters, who, for the responsible duties that devolve upon him, should be appointed brigade commissary in the Provisional Army. He was an officer of the United States Army and a graduate of West Point.

Nashville is the most proper place for the accumulation of supplies for this army corps. I shall therefore establish a depot at that point for supplies, under my control, separate from the one under charge of Captain Shaaff, leaving him subject only to the orders of the Commissary-General, which will prevent confusion and better divide the labor.

In making the call for troops, I asked from the governors of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas respectively as follows: Tennessee, 30,000; Mississippi, 10,000; Arkansas, 10,000; confining my call strictly to those States. The call upon Mississippi was small compared with that on Tennessee, as only a part of that State is within the limits of {p.469} my department. I had no means of ascertaining the relative proportion of troops furnished before by each State, nor was I aware that instructions had been given Major-General Polk to refrain from making further calls upon Mississippi. I was desirous that the furnishing of the quotas should operate as little onerously as possible upon the several States of this department. The States, as far as I knew, had previously furnished troops promptly to meet the exigencies of the Government, and I did not know that there had been any considerable disparity in proportion to population. I have asked for no other troops than those from States in this department. I have accepted the services of two regiments by special authority of the War Department, and a few detached companies without any special sanction, from, I believe, Alabama. Terry’s regiment has joined. The other, De Veuve’s, [?] has not. I presume it could not be spared. I have in no instance accepted a brigade organized as such, and when they have been so offered, have replied that such acceptance would exceed my power. (Herewith I send an extract of an answer to Governor Pettus on this subject.)

Two Mississippi regiments were ordered from Corinth to report to General Buckner. General Alcorn accompanied them, and as they had not been mustered into the service and the condition of the regiments required some one of better ability to command than either of the colonels possessed, General Alcorn was temporarily kept in command of them by General Buckner, with the understanding that General Alcorn should be relieved so soon as the regiments were mustered. General Alcorn having now reported that they have been mustered, and requested to be relieved immediately, General Tilghman, whom I intend to assign to the command of Fort Columbus as soon as the fort there is finished, will be ordered to relieve him.

My attention was at once on my arrival directed to the indispensable necessity of having correct returns. I hope soon to be able to cause accurate ones to be made and regularly forwarded to the Department.

We have received but little accession to our ranks since the Confederate forces crossed the line; in fact, no such enthusiastic demonstration as to justify any movements not warranted by our ability to maintain our own communications. It is true that I am writing from a Union county, and it is said to be different in other counties. They appear to me passive, if not apathetic. There are thousands of ardent friends to the South in the State, but there is apparently among them no concert of action. I shall, however, still hope that the love and spirit of liberty is not yet extinct in Kentucky.

The action of the legislature of Kentucky places this State in the attitude of war against the Confederate States, and the political relations existing at the time of arrival of this army corps in the State are thus entirely changed, and there is no longer any obligation to regard the neutral position this State professed the desire to preserve. The revenues may therefore rightfully be appropriated to the use of the Confederate States in any portion of the State occupied by the Confederate forces.

The legislature has levied an onerous tax for the expulsion of the Confederate forces, but as the people do not concur heartily in the object for which it was levied, I think it would be bad policy to demand the payment of it to the Confederate States. If we do, we would make ourselves the instruments of an act of oppression in enforcing the execution of an unjust law. By forbidding the payment when the time comes (the law, I understand, does not go into effect before January 1, 1862), {p.470} the people would be relieved from the operation of a burdensome tax, and would probably appreciate the disinterestedness and magnanimity of the Confederate Government in abstaining from exercising an undoubted right of war, because of its injustice toward them and of our belief that the law is not sanctioned by a majority of the people.

At the time I recommended the promotion of Major Stewart and Colonel McCown to the grade of brigadier-general I was aware that Colonel Tilghman had been recommended for promotion, but presuming that his services would be required for this column, and that he would be appointed, I made no mention of his name. While on this subject I have to remark that the appointment of at least three competent brigadier-generals would contribute greatly to the efficiency of this army corps. As the promotion of Colonel Tilghman leaves the colonelcy of the Third Kentucky Regiment vacant, it will be necessary to appoint a colonel to that regiment, and as the lieutenant-colonel is not well qualified, as I am informed, for the command, though a man of ability and valuable to the service, the appointment should be made very soon. There are the following-named officers, formerly of the U. S. Army, here, viz: Lieut. Col. B. H. Helm; Major Cosby; Captain Lyon, a graduate of West Point, and formerly of the Third U. S. Artillery, now commanding a battery; Capt. W. N. R. Beall; Lieutenant Wickliffe, and Maj. Benjamin Anderson, of the Third Kentucky Regiment, in which the vacancy occurs, all Kentuckians.

I have already mentioned that there is no money in the hands of the commissary, and I should add that the quartermaster’s department is also destitute. The embarrassment is peculiarly felt at this time, as without it transportation, in which our troops are greatly deficient, cannot be obtained. I have been also particularly anxious to mount Terry’s Texas regiment, the services of which are much needed, but for want of ready money cannot procure the horses. Only about 350 have been bought for this regiment.*

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

* See Benjamin to Johnston, November 3, p. 502.

[Inclosure.]

I have no authority to receive General Davis. This power is in the President alone.

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 22, 1861.

Brig. Gen. L. P. WALKER, Huntsville, Ala.:

GENERAL: By General Johnston I am instructed to inform you that the enemy are advancing on General Zollicoffer. Two regiments were within 12 and 15 miles of his position at London, Ky., yesterday. From other sources he is led to believe that this advance is in force, and for the purpose of dividing us from the east by an attack through Cumberland Gap.

Nothing more need be presented to show you the necessity of the immediate employment of every man for the defense of the line, and to explain to you the propriety of sending your command to Knoxville instead of drawing it to this place, as was the wish and intention of the general.

{p.471}

He now directs you to send forward your command, now armed and organized, to Knoxville, as fast as possible, and have the detachments reported to General Zollicoffer as fast as they arrive at that point.

You will remain in charge of the organization of the remainder of your forces and superintendence of their movements or proceed with the advance of your command, as the interests of the force prepared and unprepared may require.

The general has seen your requisition for clothing, made on Quartermaster Stevenson. He regrets he could not have it filled. Only half the number of blankets called for by you are in store, subject to his order, for the whole of the command. A large stock on which his quartermaster counted has been diverted by the Government. He now, having shown you his deficiency in this article (and in all others the deficiency is great), begs you to limit your call to the most absolute wants of your men. He has himself, when similarly situated, found the advantage of requiring the captains when the men asked for clothing to examine into their condition, and compare that condition with the state of clothing in the company, and supply those most in want.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. CENTRAL DIVISION OF KENTUCKY, Bowling Green, Ky., October 22, 1861.

Capt. THOMAS LEWERS, Commanding Detachment of Cavalry, Woodbury, Ky.:

SIR: You will proceed with the detachment of cavalry under your command to take post at or near the village of Woodbury, at the confluence of Barren and Green Rivers. The objects of your expedition are to prevent the formation of encampments of the enemy at that point; to intercept information on its way to the enemy; to collect information which may be useful to our army, and generally to cover the left flank of the position at Bowling Green. Your station will be in close proximity to a country whose inhabitants are hostile to us in feeling, but you are instructed not to molest any citizen unless he may in some form assume a hostile attitude towards you, either by taking up arms, by actually inducing others to do so, or by giving information to the enemy. You will watch the village of Morgantown on your left very closely. It is probable there may be a hostile assemblage at that point. Should there be, you will break it up if you have the strength to do so. You will encourage the citizens in your vicinity to bring their corn and provisions to this market. You will use great vigilance to prevent being surprised, and will make daily reports by couriers to these headquarters. Endeavor to establish communications with the country beyond Green River and down Green River, with a view of learning every movement of the enemy.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Cave City, October 23, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

COLONEL: In compliance with your order of the 21st instant, I have the honor to forward the information asked for.

{p.472}

First Regiment Arkansas Volunteers, Col. P. R. Cleburne commanding.

Second Regiment Arkansas Volunteers, Maj. J. W. Scaife.

Battalion attached to Second, Lieut. Col. James Marmaduke.

Fifth Regiment Arkansas Volunteers, Col. D. C. Cross.

Sixth Regiment Arkansas Volunteers, Col. A. T. Hawthorn.

Seventh Regiment Arkansas Volunteers, Col. R. G. Shaver.

Eighth Regiment Arkansas Volunteers, Col. W. R. Patterson.

Battalion of Ninth, four companies, Lieut. Col. S. J. Mason.

Three batteries of artillery, four guns each, commanded by Maj F. A. Shoup.

First Battery, Capt. George [Charles] Swett.

Second Battery, Capt. John H. Trigg.

Third Battery, Capt. George T. Hubbard.

Five companies of cavalry, Maj. Charles W. Phifer.

Three companies of cavalry belonging to Mississippi regiment, Capt. J. F. Harrison, senior captain, commanding.

At present the command is destitute of blanks of almost every description. Can any be procured, especially those necessary to the making out a monthly return?

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. WRITE, Lieutenant, and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 37.}

HDQRS. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 23, 1861.

Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman is assigned to the command of the troops at Hopkinsville, Ky.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HUNTSVILLE, ALA., October 24, 1861.

President DAVIS:

General Johnston telegraphs me that affairs are pressing in front of Knoxville. He needs more troops, but I have no anus. Can you not by special order arm from Richmond one of the regiments for me? I have written to Gorgas how I think other arms may be procured, but have not as yet received his reply. Answer.

L. P. WALKER.

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HEADQUARTERS, Cave City, Ky., October 24, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: As it is not intended to defend Green River, I judge it would be best to withdraw the infantry, and station at that point the Tennessee and Kentucky cavalry. If this is done, it will be necessary to provide that force with a limited supply of transportation, say a wagon to each company. I judge also that to render the command movable it will be proper to keep no commissary stores there, but cause the command to draw their rations weekly from Bowling Green or this {p.473} place. Let me know if the transportation can be supplied; also General Read’s route.

I sent a considerable detachment yesterday 10 miles beyond Glasgow to surprise before daylight this morning a force of the enemy said to be in that direction. I have no tidings of the result.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Major. General.

[Indorsement.]

No orders have said that it was not intended to defend Green River, but the orders to General Hardee direct him to suggest to the enemy by his movements our intention to cross that river.

W. W. M. [MACKALL].

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 24, 1861.

General HARDEE:

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date, and a report of troops, signed by your staff officer alone. In reply to the latter I send as many blanks as I can spare, and to the former I make the following reply for General Johnston:

You are mistaken in supposing that it was not and is not intended to defend Green River. Unless attacked by a superior force, you will defend it. If attacked by a superior force, you will then be in the position of an advanced guard, and fall back as the enemy advances.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[For the organization of the First (Polk’s) Division of the Western Department, October 24, 1861, see Vol. III. of this series, p. 723.]

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RICHMOND, VA., October 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GEORGE B. CRITTENDEN:

DEAR GENERAL: I have thought of you as my first choice to command a column of ten regiments, to advance from Cumberland Gap towards the center of Kentucky, and elsewhere, as circumstances will permit. It has occurred to me that personal considerations might render the service undesirable to you, and I write this unofficial note to request the free expression of your wishes in the matter.

Very truly, your friend,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, October 25, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

MY DEAR GENERAL: I wrote you officially some time ago about your mustering into service brigades as such, pointing out that our policy had been to accept no higher unit than a regiment, so as to retain {p.474} control of general officers and thus secure competency and efficiency.

There is another point connected with your proclamation calling for troops of which I was not aware at the time, and which, I fear, is going to give us great embarrassment.

From the beginning of the war we have been struggling against the enlistment of men for a less period than the war or three years. We were tolerably successful, although this policy was strongly combated in some of the States. This struggle lasted, however, only so long as the States had arms to furnish. When armed men were offered us for twelve months necessity forced their acceptance, for we were deficient in arms; but the admirable ardor of our people in defense of their rights is such, that now, when they can no longer get arms from the governors of States, they offer their services for the war if we will arm them. I have about 10,000 men now in camps of instruction awaiting arms, and am daily adding to their numbers, but in Mississippi and Tennessee your unlucky offer to receive unarmed men for twelve months has played the deuce with our camps. I have just heard from Hon. Wiley P. Harris, a member of Congress from Mississippi, that several war regiments, nearly completed, have been broken up, and the men are tendering themselves for twelve months.

There is this unfortunate result also: We are on the eve of winter. These men will be in camp four or five months, fed and paid by us, transported at great cost, provided with clothing, and then, when fairly able to do us service, we shall have to muster them out and transport them back home at great expense. However, I minced not dilate to a man of your military knowledge on the vast advantage of war enlistments over those for twelve months.

Now our Treasury is sorely pressed, and I want to avoid the very heavy drain that will be caused by accumulating all these twelve-months’ men, whose term of service may possibly expire without our ever arming them, for we shall certainly give arms on all occasions to the war volunteers in preference. Of course I want to avoid every appearance also of running counter to your measures. It occurs to me, therefore, that all further embarrassments will be best avoided by some proclamation from yourself, in which you could announce that you were now satisfied that the people of Kentucky were prepared to take up arms in defense of their liberties in munch greater numbers than you had anticipated, and that it was no longer necessary to appeal to her sister States of the South, &c. I beg you will act promptly in this or some other manner, as shall seem to you best, to get rid of the twelve-months’ unarmed men, and I will engage to furnish you as many for the war as you can arm. It is not men we lack, but muskets.

In the mean time I inclose you a copy of a circular letter prepared by me, which will put you in possession of our policy about accepting troops, &c., so that we may preserve uniformity and regularity in all our movements.

I am, with great regard, yours, truly,

J. P. BENJAMIN.

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MEMPHIS, TENN., October 25, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General Western Department:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report my arrival at this place, agreeably to your instructions of the 18th instant. I would state that there {p.475} are but five regiments being organized at the present time in the State of Arkansas; that said regiments are forming under a requisition from General McCulloch; that said regiments are being but slowly filled. I understood from Governor Rector that General A. S. Johnston had made a requisition on him for ten regiments; that he telegraphed General Johnston to know if the ten regiments called for were independent of the five regiments previously called for by General McCulloch; that no answer to this inquiry had been received; that he (Governor Rector) had made no call for volunteers under the requisition of General Johnston.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. N. R. BEALL, Captain, C. S. Army.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Huntsville, October 25, 1861.

Maj. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

MAJOR: Your letter of the 22d instant, informing Brigadier-General Walker that the enemy are advancing in force upon the position of General Zollicoffer, explaining the necessity of the employment of every man for the defense of the line, and directing this command, so far as it may be armed and organized, to be sent forward to Knoxville as fast as possible, has been received, and he instructs me to answer that he immediately, on its receipt, replied by telegraph, in general terms, informing General Johnston of his unarmed condition and the impossibility of rendering any immediate aid in the direction of Knoxville. But he desires to state more fully the attendant facts, so that his position may be the better appreciated. Before leaving Richmond he obtained from the Ordnance Bureau assurance of a sufficient number of arms for the three regiments assigned to his command, composing the Alabama quota towards the reserved army corps called for by the President. But these arms were afterwards diverted by the Government. He has since then dispatched in all directions-to Richmond, Lynchburg, Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, Memphis, Nashville, Holly Springs, and to other points, wherever he thought arms might be procured-but with little success. He has sent special messengers to LaGrange, Memphis, New Orleans, Lynchburg and Richmond, but, so far, with very limited results. One hundred and sixty stand of arms, chiefly muskets without bayonets, are all that have been positively secured, with promises of a few hundred in addition that have not yet arrived.

As a last resort he has dispatched to the President direct, asking the favorable interposition of his authority with the Ordnance Office; and has assumed the responsibility of making contracts with manufacturers, through which he hopes to be supplied within ten days with 1,000 country rifles, rebored for the Minie ball, adapted to the percussion-cap, and fitted with the saber bayonet. In connection with this last movement he has requested authority to employ agents to purchase up in the country old rifles and muskets to be similarly treated, and, if countenanced, has good assurance that he may be able ultimately to arm his entire command.

From this statement he hopes it will satisfactorily appear that all has been done in respect to arms that could have been done. As fast as he arms a detachment it will be sent forward to Knoxville, unless otherwise ordered. He has in camp near by two regiments and an {p.476} unorganized battalion of five companies, and two other regiments he expects here in the course of the next week. These four regiments have been much thrown back by measles and other camp diseases, but only a few of the men have died, and the companies are being rapidly filled up again. The whole, save the unorganized battalion, are quite well exercised in battalion movements, although deficient in the manual by reason of the want of guns. With the arrival of the two additional regiments mentioned, exercises of the line will be immediately forwarded. With regard to requisitions for clothing he wishes to say, that in the requisitions made he limited himself, according to his judgment, to the absolute wants of his men, and deeply regrets the inability of Quartermaster Stevenson to supply his demand. He will, however, act upon the suggestion contained in the concluding paragraph of your letter, and cause his company officers to examine into the condition of their men asking for clothing, and to compare that condition with the state of clothing in the company and to supply those most in want.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN TYLER, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, October 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. H. CARROLL:

GENERAL: The Secretary of War directs that with the three regiments recently organized by you in East Tennessee you proceed with all possible dispatch, via Cumberland Gap, to join Brigadier-General Zollicoffer, now at London, Laurel County, Kentucky. The regiments referred to are now known as the First, Second, and Third East Tennessee Rifles, but will be known to the Department as the Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Tennessee Provisional Regiments.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., October 26, 1861.

To His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee:

DEAR SIR: I have the pleasure to introduce to you Maj. J. P. Gilmer, C. S. Corps of Engineers, whom I have ordered to Nashville, to examine the country below Nashville, in the vicinity, for the purpose of determining upon the most eligible sites for the erection of such works as will completely defend the city from all approaches of the enemy by means of the river. I ask the interposition of your aid and influence to enable him best to accomplish the object of his visit. Should it be thought necessary, after the examination, to erect the works, it can be quickly done by means of slave labor, which I presume there would be no difficulty in obtaining.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON.

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MEMPHIS, October 26, 1861.

ROBERT JOSSELYN, Esq.:

DEAR SIR: On my return from Nashville last night I received your letter of 11th instant. The prisoners alluded to were Jarvis, Thornburg, {p.477} and others, who were arrested for treason, and imprisoned in Nashville. They were turned out by Judge Humphreys whilst I was in Nashville.

More than 100 persons have been arrested in East Tennessee, without warrants in some cases, marched great distances, and carried into court on no other charge than that they were Union men. In one case an old man named Duggan, a Methodist preacher, was arrested, carried 50 miles on foot-he a large, fleshy man-refused the privilege of riding his own horse, and all they had against him was that in February last he prayed for the Union. If that is a good charge, about two-thirds of the people of the State are liable in the same way, as at that time they voted 62,000 majority for the Union.

I have spent much time this summer and fall in trying to conciliate the people of East Tennessee. I thought I had succeeded. Just as the people were quieting down, getting reconciled, raising volunteers, &c., they commenced these arrests, which have gone far to poison the minds of the people against the Government, and if tolerated and persisted in, the people of that end of the State at a critical moment will rise up enemies instead of friends.

You ask me who makes these arrests. As far as I can learn they are instigated by a few malicious, troublesome men in and about Knoxville. I always hear the names of W. G. Swan, William Churchwell, John Crogier, Crozier Ramsey, and a postmaster at Knoxville mixed up with these matters. It is said these men have private griefs and malice to gratify, and they aim to bring down the avenging arm of the Government to satiate their passions. Crozier Ramsey is the attorney-general. It is said he in most cases causes the arrests and makes the affidavit. Just think of this-an attorney degrading himself by turning an affidavit man.

You may inquire, what is the remedy? I answer, turn out Ramsey. Put some man in Middle or West Tennessee in his place who has dignity and character. Turn out the postmaster at Knoxville. If the President will then make it known to all officials that he discountenances all frivolous arrests, things will quiet down. If, however, he refuses to do this, retains Ramsey, then we may look for great trouble in that end of the State. If the President will write Landon C. Haynes, Senator-elect, and any other respectable men in East Tennessee, he will be at no loss what course to pursue.

I address this to you to be certain the President will get it and receive attention.

Very respectfully,

ROBERTSON TOPP.

[Indorsement.]

Referred to the Secretary of War, that such inquiry may be made and action taken as will prevent, as far as we may, such proceedings as are herein described.

J.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, October 26, 1861.

SECRETARY OF WAR:

General Zollicoffer writes there are 10,000 of the enemy at Rockcastle, and 10,000 more between Cincinnati and Camp Dick Robinson. {p.478} The enemy profess to be advancing towards Cumberland Gap, but may turn towards Jamestown or Wheeler’s Gap. General Zollicoffer is falling back to Cumberland Ford. I have ordered seven companies of cavalry to Jamestown-all I could spare. There ought to be sufficient re-enforcements sent to Jamestown and a force to Wheeler’s Gap immediately. No troops here that can be spared.

W. B. WOOD, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, October 27, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General C. S. Army:

GENERAL: I have the honor to inclose for your information an abstract return showing the present organization of the force here.* You will observe that besides the division commanders, Major-General Hardee and Brigadier-General Buckner, there is but one brigadier-general (Hindman). I had the honor in a recent communication to the Secretary of War to suggest the appointment of three brigadier-generals. I now, in addition to those, recommend three others. The appointment of competent officers to these grades would contribute very greatly to the effectiveness of the force. I have organized a reserve, consisting of a regiment of cavalry, one of infantry, and a battery. In order that it should have the full effect of such a body, it should be thoroughly instructed and well commanded. There is no one available who, in my opinion, has higher qualifications for that position than Major Hawes. I therefore recommend that he be appointed a brigadier-general. I also recommend for the same grade Col. J. C. Brown, of Third Tennessee Regiment. His regiment is in excellent condition; its thorough instruction and discipline is a commendation indicating that he will make an efficient commander of a brigade.

Lieutenant Wright is in the performance of most responsible duties of his department (ordnance), requiring a superior knowledge and skill, which he possesses in an eminent degree, and I do not doubt that the interest of the service would be promoted by his appointment to a higher grade. It is difficult to find any assistant for him who does not rank him. I am making every effort to be ready for operations as soon as possible. I hope soon to provide sufficient transportation to give all desirable mobility to this corps. We are quite deficient at present.

The enemy seem to design to operate on at least three lines in Kentucky: One against Zollicoffer, on the route to Cumberland Gap, which can be turned by Walker’s and Jamestown Gaps; another on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, confronting the troops here, and the other against Polk, and will, perhaps, endeavor to use the Tennessee River in aid of the movement. They have, besides the other places on the Ohio with which you are acquainted, occupied Henderson and Owensborough in considerable force, and have detachments of 300 or 400 at Calhoun and Hartford.

Zollicoffer’s force is insufficient. I estimate it under 8,000. I have not the means to re-enforce him. He has authority to order to join him troops from Knoxville if any armed have assembled at the rendezvous. I have ordered General Walker to join him with his division of four {p.479} regiments, but he replies that his command is unarmed. Colonel Wood, at Knoxville, informs me that he has sent seven companies to Jamestown.

I hoped by this time to have placed under General Polk’s command a sufficient number of men for the defense of the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland, but so far, for want of arms, of which the country seems quite destitute, there has been no very considerable addition to the force under his command under the call I made upon Tennessee and other States. I have sent Major Gilmer to make an examination at Clarksville and Nashville, with the design of constructing works of defense at both places. Many pieces of cannon will be needed for the works, and an estimate will be prepared and forwarded as soon as he returns. I hope as soon as we can get ready to make up by activity for our deficiency in number. We have still here, and among all the troops elsewhere, a large number of men sick with measles.

Respectfully,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

* Not found, but see p. 484.

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CLARKSVILLE, TENN., October 27, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

SIR: This will be handed you by Mr. Hillman, with whom I have talked freely on points of great interest to us all. He will give you facts connected with events now thickening fast around us that I am sure will be of service. His high character and warm devotion to our cause are guarantees for all he may communicate.

I have been detained here to-day, preparing matters to aid my organization at Hopkinsville, where I learn a vast deal of suffering exists, owing to the exposed condition of men. I have made arrangements to put 200 women to work on clothing, and hope for a contribution of blankets and clothing from the society at this place. I regret deeply to hear of the condition of things at Hopkinsville, but hope to overcome them. I am sorry also to hear of the inefficient condition of things at Fort Donelson. I fear our interests there are well-nigh beyond our control.

In haste, respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, October 28, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 17th instant the Secretary of War directs me to say that he thinks nothing will be gained by entering into a contract with Colonel Tate for the manufacture of powder. Three capitalists of Memphis have undertaken to get from the caves of Arkansas a large amount of saltpeter, and if this object be accomplished there is no fear as to the production of powder.

Respectfully,

A. T. BLEDSOE, Chief of Bureau of War.

{p.480}

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FORT HENRY, TENNESSEE RIVER, October 28, 1861.

Capt. E. D. BLAKE, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Lieutenant-Colonel MacGavock, in command at Fort Donelson, notified me on Friday last that the expedition to obstruct the navigation of the Cumberland at Ingram’s Shoals would be ready to leave that place Saturday evening, 26th, under the command of Colonel Haynes, who was sick. I immediately proceeded to Dover, and finding Colonel Haynes unfit for duty, I directed Captain Dixon, Corps of Engineers, to take charge of the expedition.

A squadron of cavalry of 115 men, under command of Maj. D. C. Kelly, left Fort Donelson on Friday for the Shoals, for the purpose of reconnoitering and protecting the operations.

At 3 o’clock Saturday evening the expedition left Fort Donelson, accompanied by a detachment from Captain Maney’s light artillery company, of 40 men and 4 pieces, and 2 companies of infantry (170 men), under command of Captain Young. I returned to Fort Henry yesterday, bringing with me a detachment of cavalry of 40 men of Colonel Forrest’s battalion, under command of Lieutenant Hamtrie, to be used as pickets and scouts at this post until the arrival of the company which I was unformed would be ordered here.

Last night, at 12 o’clock, a messenger from Colonel MacGavock brought me the inclosed note.* I sent the messenger back immediately, with instructions to Colonel MacGavock to inform me early this morning of any further developments. The cavalry company mentioned in the note are Kentuckians.

This morning early I sent one company of my regiment, and have others ready to march at a moment’s notice should it become necessary.

I dispatched a messenger to Fort Donelson early this morning, with instructions to return immediately should his report render it necessary. I will further re-enforce Fort Donelson, and accompany the re-enforcements myself leaving Colonel Drake, of the Fourth Mississippi Regiment, in command of this post during my absence.

The bearer of this, Lieutenant Milton, is assisting Captain Bolling in recruiting a cavalry company in Kentucky. They have now about 40 men mounted, and deeming it unsafe to remain at home, they came to this post, have offered their services for any duty that may be assigned them, and are anxious to be mustered into the service at once and armed. Being intimately acquainted with the surrounding country, this company would be a valuable acquisition to the service of this post. Please instruct me as to what shall be done with this company.

The gunboats are reported in this river, and last week they captured a steam ferry boat at Egner’s Landing, 20 miles below this point. The owner of this boat, who has been a stage contractor in the United States service, informed me that he had 36 horses for sale suitable for artillery.

If the enemy is ascending the two rivers, it may be with the object of making a feint at either place and an attack on the other, against which I will guard.

Your obedient servant,

A. HEIMAN, Colonel, Commanding.

* Not found.

{p.481}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 28, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: General Johnston directs me to say that he wishes you to keep a vigilant eye on the Tennessee River. If possible, fortify opposite Fort Henry, to protect it from being overlooked by the enemy. It can be held with part of the garrison of Henry. Lieutenant Dixon, who is familiar with the country, will be able to point out the proper position. No time should be lost.

...

As soon as you are able, increase the force at Fort Henry and the point opposite.

The act of May 21, 1861, requires all prisoners to be transferred by the captors to the Secretary of War.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 28, 1861.

Brig. Gen. LLOYD TILGHMAN:

It is reported that General Crittenden is establishing a camp on Muddy River. General Johnston wishes you to get your command in order without delay and be prepared for any emergency.

Get all the information you can, and above all lose nothing for want of vigilance.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant General.

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CLAIBORNE MACHINE WORKS, Nashville, October 28, 1861.

V. K. STEVENSON, Quartermaster-General, C. S.:

SIR: Agreeably to your request, I take leave to say that the present capacity of my two founderies for the production of munitions of war is fifteen guns a week, viz, twelve field guns, 6 and 12 pounders, and three siege and garrison guns up to 32-pounders, inclusive. I can turn out about ten tons of shot and shell a day. My present orders will take me about six weeks to complete, but I have a proposition before the War Department at Richmond for one hundred field guns and fifty siege guns, fully mounted and equipped. I do not know what action they may take in reference to it, but this I will assure you, that I shall use every exertion possible to meet the requirements of the present emergency.

Respectfully, yours,

T. M. BRENNAN.

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CAVE CITY, KY., October 28, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. C. HINDMAN:

GENERAL: Pursuant to your orders of 25th instant, I left this encampment at 4 o’clock p.m. of same day with 180 non-commissioned {p.482} officers and privates. I was joined by Major Cox, with 75 men from his battalion of cavalry, a few miles from this place, which increased the force under my command to about 250 men.

At my first encampment, 13 miles distant, I was informed that a detachment of about 150 or 200 men, under command of Colonel Hobson, occupied the town of Greensburg. Not deeming it prudent to proceed to Williams’ plantation without first dislodging this party, who might easily, if warned of my advance, attack me in rear, I sent a party of 10 men, under Lieutenant Owens, to reconnoiter the town and report the strength and position of the enemy. This he did in three hours, stating that he had marched through the town and conversed freely with the citizens, who informed him that a party from the enemy’s camp had been in town for several days. I then proceeded to Williams’, where his wife told me the Black Republican troops had carried away 9 of the most valuable negroes, every horse and mule on the plantation, the household furniture, besides spoiling the crops and robbing the smoke-house. At the request of Mr. Williams I brought away his niece and daughter and 6 young negroes. I learned from reliable authority that the town of Campbellsville was garrisoned by 1,800 infantry, under command of General Ward. They have also a few cavalry (probably a squadron) and two pieces of artillery (one brass and one iron, 12-pounders). A regiment of infantry, 600 strong, left that place six days ago for Columbia, where they are now quartered.

The Black Republican troops in that vicinity have oppressed and persecuted men entertaining Southern feelings with a relentlessness and rigor scarcely to be expected of a civilized enemy. Neither the property nor person of themselves or family are free from their depredations and malice. Their houses are constantly broken open and plundered; their crops laid waste; the men forced to swear allegiance to the North or fly from their families and firesides. I returned to this place to-day at 1 o’clock p.m.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. W. PHIFER, Major, Cavalry.

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HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, October 28, 1861.

Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER:

GENERAL: We will start in the morning the two Parrott guns, caissons, and 40 kegs of powder. Upon inquiry, I learn that the 47 half-barrels of powder reported by Major Bicknell have been sent to New Orleans, by order of General Polk; but there are still some kegs left here and I will send another load as soon as I can get transportation. There is great difficulty in obtaining horses and wagons. Major Jackson and Captain Burleson are both absent. Mr. Gammon is acting for Major Jackson, and exerting himself to the utmost to procure transportation.

The news of your falling back to Cumberland Ford has had the effect of developing a feeling that has only been kept under by the presence of troops. It was plainly visible that the Union men were so elated that they could scarcely repress an open expression of their joy. This afternoon it assumed an open character, and some eight or ten of the bullies and leaders made an attack on some of my men near the Lamar House, {p.483} and seriously wounded several. Gentlemen who witnessed the whole affair say that my men gave no offense, and were not at all to blame. The affair became pretty general, and couriers were sent to me at my camp of its existence. I immediately marched Captain White’s cavalry and 100 of my men into the town to arrest the assailants, but they made their escape. The Southerners here are considerably alarmed, believing that there is a preconcerted movement amongst the Union men, if by any means the enemy should get into Tennessee. J. Swan told me to-night that he heard one say this evening, as Captain White’s cavalry rode through town, that “they could do so now, but in less than ten days the Union forces would be here and run them off.” I cannot well tell you the many evidences of disaffection which are manifested every day, and the increased boldness that it is assuming. I deem it, however, of sufficient importance to be on the alert, and, as there are no other forces here now but a part of my regiment and Captains Gillespie’s and White’s cavalry, I think I had better keep my men there until others arrive.

THURSDAY MORNING, 29TH.

The town is quiet this morning. The men who committed the assault on my men yesterday have left town, I am informed. The cannon and ammunition start this morning, with orders to push on as rapidly as possible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. WOOD, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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CAMP BUCKNER, KY., October 28, 1861.

Col. JOHN P. MURRAY, Near Albany, Ky.:

SIR: I felt of the enemy’s intrenched camp at Rockcastle Hills, on the road from London to Mount Vernon, on the 21st instant; found the position almost a natural fortification. My information [was] that the enemy was nine regiments strong there, and large reserves between there and Cincinnati. I fell back on the 22d, and will retire to Cumberland Gap, where I have placed a number of guns in position. The Log Mountains will soon be impassable, making this position difficult to hold. If the enemy advances, the approach is likely to be by way of Jacksborough or Jamestown. So soon, therefore, as I can complete the work, strengthening the pass at the Cumberland Gap (now in a few days), I will dispose my forces so as to be ready to meet the enemy on either of the other routes.

I hope you and Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan will co-operate to watch that border, and give me early and frequent reliable intelligence.

Learning that the enemy had retired from Albany, and desiring to see that the guns were all in position at the gap, I determined to return this way.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, [Brigadier-General.]

{p.484}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 51.}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 28, 1861.

General Johnston assumes immediate command of the army corps of Central Kentucky.

ARRANGEMENT.

RESERVE.

  • Texas Regiment Cavalry, Col. B. F. Terry,
  • Harper’s and Spencer’s batteries, artillery.
  • Tennessee Regiment Infantry, Stanton.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.485}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, October 29, 1861.

Brigadier-General TILGHMAN, Hopkinsville:

The enemy have crossed Green River at Morgantown and Woodbury certainly; with what force it is not known. Be on the alert and gain and send information.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, October 29, 1861.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding First Division:

SIR: General Johnston wishes to have General Hindman move within reach of support of this army corps. You will thereupon order him to draw back his entire force, cavalry included, from Green River to a position to within 8 or 10 miles of this place, at which distance from this it is supposed good water can be obtained.

Let his cavalry encamp with his main body where he takes up his position. He should place a strong picket of cavalry, throwing forward vedettes in twos in front of his advance guard, which should be strongly posted under a mile in advance of the main body. Scouts should be sent out daily to watch all the approaches to his camp.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP ALCORN, Hopkinsville, Ky., October 29, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, &c., Bowling Green:

SIR: I lose not a moment in communicating through you to the general commanding the Western Division the condition of affairs at this post. I had hoped that the picture sketched to date of matters here might not have been realized, but I am compelled to think it not too highly colored. Under all the circumstances, I doubt not General Alcorn has made the best of things, his camp being merely one large hospital, with scarce men enough on duty to care for the sick and maintain a feeble guard around them, with insufficient pickets at prominent points. Over one-half the entire command are on the sick list, with very grave types of different diseases. Those remaining and reported for duty have not enough really well men to do more than first stated. The Kentucky Battalion of Infantry, numbering 547, have only 45 cases reported sick. The measles have made their appearance, and the battalion will average 20 new cases per day, judging from to-day’s report. The morning brigade report, herewith inclosed, shows only 716 for duty out of a total of 2,237. Of this number, you will see that the Kentucky Battalion furnishes 376, one-third of whom only are armed, with no equipments.

Of cavalry we have nothing to count on, save Captain Meriwether’s company of untutored recruits. Captain Huey’s company of cavalry is entirely unarmed. Captain Wilcox’s company not yet recovered from the Eddyville affair.

{p.486}

On the score of artillery I have merely to say, that there is not an organized squad for a single gun that could be taken into action. There are five pieces of artillery-two 6-pounders, two 9, one 12-none of which I think fit for service on account of the wretched manner in which they are mounted; a total ignorance of all mechanical principles evidenced in the construction of the carriages. The guns seem to be pretty fair. On the subject of clothing and equipments, equipage. &c., I can only say that I find nothing more encouraging. The commissary department is pretty well supplied; the quartermaster’s department entirely deficient.

I have thus fairly sketched the condition of things. Major Hewett will be able to give you some particulars that I have not time now to do, but will write by the next mail. I have commenced at the root of things, and mean to work out the best result I can. I write not thus discouragingly in any spirit of complaint, but to lay before the commanding general the plain facts of the case. They are plainly these:

I have no force here available for any purpose save protecting the sick and depot. I have reason to think that the enemy are in full possession of this fact, and are calculating on it. I have no force with which to operate in any direction, and our people are suffering terribly within the lines assigned me for my operations. In front and on my left they need a check. The defenses of the Cumberland cannot I believe be perfected, unmolested, unless my position is strengthened for this purpose.

A movement has taken place at Henderson. A courier reached me to-night with the inclosed paper* from a committee at Henderson. The Union men have been very busy here to-day. They are too open-mouthed, and must be checked. The stage is waiting, and I have not time to say more than this. I deem it absolutely necessary that I should as soon as possible be re-enforced. A cavalry force is indispensably necessary to cover my front and prevent the removal of a large amount of wheat, flour, corn, and hogs, now drafted daily on heavily by scouting parties. Of the latter item, there are not less than 50,000 hogs. This service would require the whole time of not less than 500 cavalry. For practical purposes I am without infantry and artillery, and desire that a due proportion of both be at once sent. I beg you to say to General Johnston that I need the assistance of some graduates, for artillery especially. Could I not have the services of the two young men mentioned by General Buckner? (See him.) I will prepare full estimates for all my wants and forward them.

I beg you to pardon this hurried communication. I have not had time to read it over. Major Hewett will give you facts as to a landing at Eddyville by our people.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

* Not found.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Camp Buckner (Cumberland Ford), October 29, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: My pickets at Laurel Bridge yesterday drove back a small cavalry picket of the enemy and took 3 prisoners, who represent that a {p.487} portion of the enemy’s force has advanced to London. Their force at and on this side of the Rockcastle River is reported at 9,000. There are three main roads by which, if an invasion of East Tennessee is contemplated, an enemy might approach. On this, by Cumberland Gap, we have heretofore concentrated nearly our whole force, and we now have seven guns in position at Cumberland Gap. The most westerly road is by Monticello, in Kentucky, and Jamestown, in Tennessee. The counties of Fentress, Scott, Morgan, and Anderson are poor, mountainous, and disaffected. Should a force select that route of invasion I could meet them at the mountain passes near Clinton and between Kingston and Morgan Court-House, and keep them on that broad, sterile region until it would be practicable for General Buckner to throw a force in their rear and cut them off.

In view of this danger they may select the middle route, by Williamsburg and Jacksborough. The road over the Log Mountains will soon become almost impassable between here and the Cumberland Gap. The Gap is a much stronger position than this. While I am watching the road from here to Laurel River, the enemy might be advancing on the Jacksborough or the Jamestown road without my knowledge. For these reasons I send four cavalry companies to scout on the roads from the neighborhood of Jacksborough into Kentucky, and I have ordered one infantry regiment to Jacksborough, one 6 miles east to Big Creek Gap, two about half way between Jacksborough and Cumberland Gap, while four will remain at present at Cumberland Gap. I leave six cavalry companies to observe this road. One cavalry company is posted on the road from Williamsburg, Ky., to Huntsville, Tenn., and six cavalry companies and (I suppose) Colonel Murray’s regiment of infantry are in the neighborhood of Jamestown.

It is currently reported that an invading force, from 20,000 to 30,000, is on the road from Cincinnati to East Tennessee, but I have no means of knowing anything of the accuracy of the rumor. Except cavalry scouts, my force will be withdrawn from this post to-morrow. Acting upon my best judgment, I have supposed the disposition of my forces I have described the very best under the circumstances. Had I a military engineer, in whose judgment I could rely, to reconnoiter the mountain roads, gaps, and passes from Cumberland Gap to Jamestown, I would feel much more capable of making a judicious disposition of troops. I have had rumors that re-enforcements of Confederate troops were to be thrown upon this part of the border, but as I have no official information, I take it for granted the rumors are erroneous.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CAMP HERNDON, October 29, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD:

SIR: I reached the neighborhood of Jamestown the 27th instant. From all the information I could get, I determined immediately to station the three companies of battalion for the present at this point, which is 14 miles north of Jamestown, on the main road to Albany, Ky. This point is 5 miles north of Camp McGinnis. There are four companies of cavalry at Camp McGinnis, with a force of about 275 men; the three companies with me number about 270 men. I received a dispatch yesterday evening from Colonel Murray, that he and Colonel {p.488} Stanton were approaching Albany with their regiments, and from the best information he could get they feared an attack, and desired me to send him one company of cavalry. This morning I set [out] for Albany with 150 men; reached our destination by 12 o’clock. We found Colonel Murray with his command there, and no foe in all the country. From the best information I can get from our friends in this section, there are no organized forces in Kentucky nearer this point than Camp Goggin, in Pulaski County, on the Cumberland River, about 40 miles north of this point. There is an encampment supposed to number some 12,000 or 15,000 Home Guards, cut-throats, renegades, and thieves , under the command of Colonels Hoskins and Wolford, and my opinion is we could disperse them with a small force. Colonel Murray informed me this evening that he was moving his command to Camp Zollicoffer, Tenn. Why this strange move I cannot say, for certainly this is the pass we should guard, in a military point, with vigilance. As I have no means of communicating with General Zollicoffer except by way of Knoxville, inclosed I send you a report. Please forward.

Yours, truly,

GEO. R. MCCLELLAN, Lieutenant-Colonel, Fifth Battalion, S. C.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Camp Buckner, October 29, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD, Sixteenth Alabama Regiment, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: We commence moving part of the brigade to Cumberland Gap to-day, and part of the command will be placed near Jacksborough. The road over the Log Mountains, now bad, will, I am told, soon become almost impassable. I have some reason to suppose that, if the enemy advances at all, it will be by one of the Jacksborough gaps. If Maj. A. E. Jackson, quartermaster for the brigade, has left Knoxville, forward the inclosed letter to him wherever he may be, after reading it yourself and showing it to Major Burleson, and ascertaining whether he can give me any aid with reference to the artillery horses and the horseshoes.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 30, 1861.

Colonel HEIMAN, Fort Henry:

Your communication by the hands of Lieutenant Milton is received. Your report of dispositions for defense of Forts Donelson and Henry are satisfactory, and I hope you will not relax your vigilance. You will have Captain Bolling’s company of cavalry mustered into service, and aid him in making requisitions for what troops he may require. Lieutenant Milton says they can supply themselves with arms. As to the horses you speak of, they should be bought by the quartermaster for artillery horses, if they are suitable for that purpose.

{p.489}

I wish you to send me an accurate statement of the number and discipline of force under your command by private hand, and state what you think requisite for efficient defense.

Your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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BOWLING GREEN, KY., October 30, 1861.

General HINDMAN:

Bring the coaches and the horses. Bring telegraph operator, and destroy the line as far as you fall back. Bring sick back, and send them here by this evening’s train. Send the stores by the train. As soon as sick and stores are sent to the rear, Phifer and Cox will fall back with their troops on Hindman.

Reply by telegraph.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, October 30, 1861.

Colonel MACKALL:

All your orders will be obeyed as rapidly as possible. Train has not arrived. Will remove sick first, then remove stores from Green River, and have them destroy telegraph, &c. I remain here till last detachment falls back. Enemy’s pickets approach nearer on right. They are thrown out from Campbellsville, where there is a force of 2,300 under Ward.

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, October 30, 1861.

General HARDEE:

Having no transportation for my sick or public stores, I leave here two companies of Phifer’s battalion. Have ordered Major Cox, with his battalion, to this place immediately. It is reported to me by citizens that there is great scarcity of water at Rocky Hill. Please send forward train, that my whole force may be moved as ordered.

T. C. HINDMAN.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP ALCORN, Hopkinsville, Ky., October 30, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL:

SIR: I am instructed by Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman to say that the enemy are assembling in considerable force upon Green River, and that he has certain and reliable information that Madisonville and a point higher up are the points upon which they intend to advance. Since his hurried letter by Major Hewett concerning the condition of the troops here, he has had reports from the different parts of his command, showing that his estimate of its inefficiency was entirely correct. There is no artillery which can be used, and re-enforcements of both infantry and cavalry are needed at once. Whilst not alarmed, the general deems {p.490} it his duty to lay these facts before General Johnston, and urge their importance upon him.

A spy has been arrested to-day with papers upon him, showing that he was not only playing that part, but also that of an enlisting officer. A court of inquiry has been ordered, which will proceed regularly, but expeditiously, to examine the matter.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

POWHATAN ELLIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-General Tilghman is too unwell to write himself. Since I have commenced my letter further information has been received to show that the first was entirely correct.

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CAMP BUCKNER, October 30, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD, Sixteenth Alabama Regiment, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: Our scouts day before yesterday drove back a small party of cavalry scouts of the enemy at Laurel Bridge, and captured three prisoners who state that the enemy are 9,000 strong near London. If they attempt an invasion of East Tennessee, it is rather probable they will move by way of the passes near Jacksborough or Jamestown. While our scouts are observing this road they might be advancing by one of the other roads. I have therefore taken steps to have four cavalry companies employed in scouting from Jacksborough to Williamsburg. I have heretofore ordered Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan to send one cavalry company to observe the road from Huntsville to Montgomery, and his six other companies ought to watch the road from Monticello to Jamestown. I will keep the other cavalry on this road. I will dispose the infantry along Powell’s Valley from Cumberland Gap to Jacksborough, until I can discover what is to be the precise movement of the enemy, when I will strike him with my concentrated force should he approach in any direction.

Watch the movements of the Lincoln men in East Tennessee. Restrain our ultra friends from acts of indiscretion. Promptly meet and put down any attempted open hostility. But I have observed heretofore that a few of our friends about Knoxville are unnecessarily nervous; give their expressions of apprehension only their due weight. Urge the brigade quartermaster to get the artillery horses heretofore ordered and the supply of horseshoes at the earliest practicable day.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, October 30, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I reached this post this evening. The defenses have progressed rapidly. Extensive intrenchments for infantry, and seven pieces of artillery in good position, though the platforms have been completed for only two or three pieces. A cavalry company sent yesterday to Jacksborough has caught and sent in a Lincoln emissary, who says that it is the plan of the enemy to send two or three regiments in {p.491} the direction of Cumberland Gap to draw me out, while their principal forces will be moved on the roads from Williamsburg to Jacks-borough and from Monticello to Jamestown. He represents their forces at 20,000, and says that Lincoln recruiting officers are to be in every county in East Tennessee within ten days.

Captain Ashby, a very reliable and efficient officer, who commands the cavalry company, reports that the road from Williamsburg to Jacksborough is now being worked. I started three other cavalry companies to Jacksborough this evening, with instructions to reconnoiter the road from Jacksborough to Williamsburg, and I start two infantry regiments from this point to Jacksborough early to-morrow morning. Others will be placed at intermediate points between here and there. I have seven cavalry companies scouting back as far as Barboursville. One of their small picket parties was fired on this morning from the bushes, when, giving chase, they killed one man and captured four horses. They report that they have information that a cavalry picket of the enemy had advanced to within a mile or two of Barboursville, and our cavalry were advancing to meet them when the courier was sent to me.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 31, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding First Division, Western Department:

GENERAL: In your letter of October 27 you say: “I much regret that the regiments I might send to his (Thompson’s) aid are still unarmed, and that I am not in a condition to help him. This will be done as soon as I can send them forward.”

I am instructed by the general to advise you that your force is not now nor in his calculation-likely to be, more than sufficient to do the work assigned you.

Your front, and particularly your right flank, require incessant watching, and may at any moment demand all the force at your disposal.

The Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers afford lines of transportation by which an army may turn your right with ease and rapidity, and any surplus you may be able to spare from the left flank on the Mississippi can well be used to secure you against such movements.

General Thompson’s force, active and most useful as now used, as partisans, is large enough for its work. To swell his ranks by detachments from your command without raising it to an army would destroy its character and not increase its usefulness.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL.

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COLUMBUS, KY., October 31, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

I beg leave to call the attention of the general commanding to the importance of having some commander of large experience and military efficiency put in charge of the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. Of the very great importance of these channels of communication {p.492} I need not speak. If they should be occupied and held by the enemy, they must necessarily prove of the most serious inconvenience to our army in Kentucky. Without disparagement to the parties in command, I beg to say that Colonel Tilghman, who I presume to be with you, is better informed as to the military aspects and capabilities of the country through which they run than any other person of whom I know, and I would suggest the propriety of having Colonel Tilghman put in charge of those defenses, if the exigencies of the service he is now upon would at all allow of such an arrangement. He might be with great advantage advanced to a higher military grade, and if in that command would form a very much needed link of connection between my command and that of General Buckner. The information I am daily receiving from that quarter makes this increasingly necessary. The space between General Buckner and myself is now very feebly occupied.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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[For a return of General Polk’s command, October 31, 1861, see Vol. III. of this series, p. 730.]

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, Rocky Hill Station, Ky., October 31, 1861.

Lieut. D. G. WHITE, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Pursuant to the order from division headquarters the troops under my command have fallen back to this place, except a detachment of cavalry, left at Cave City to protect public property, for which there was no transportation. A special train has been sent for this property, and upon its return to-night the detachment will move here.

The position I now hold commands all approaches. The encampment is in order of battle as nearly as the nature of the ground will allow. Pickets are thrown out to the distance of from 5 to 8 miles, in the direction of Brownsville, Mammoth Cave, Cave City, and Glasgow. They are posted also at Chalybeate Springs, Dripping Springs, and Merry Oaks. On the night of the 29th my pickets went beyond Green River, on both the Nolin and Brownsville roads, and within half a mile of Greensburg. They saw nothing of the enemy. On yesterday they were thrown out towards the same points, but without crossing the river, with the same result. It is reported in this locality that Rousseau’s army is advancing, but I have observed nothing as yet to sustain the rumor. I believe that the prompt movement of two brigades, one towards Green River, on the railroad route, the other upon Campbellsville, would drive the enemy beyond Muldraugh’s Hill on both lines, and secure to our forces all the region south. The unexpected movement of my command interrupted the inspection and muster which had been ordered. The work is resumed to-day.

Very respectfully,

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., October 31, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I send Captain Culbertson, formerly of the U. S. Army, to Bowling Green for the equipment for the guns here, and also to endeavor {p.493} to procure a battery suitable for service. I have no idea (he will explain) that these guns will stand the firing of shot from them. Report reached me at a late hour last night by express that the enemy were strengthening at Ashbysburg, and that the Union men north of me were preparing to join them. I have scouts in front (consuming all available cavalry) and watch them closely. I have reconnoitered around this place, looking for a place to give the best fight I can. I repeat again I need re-enforcements of every arm. Cavalry first is important, as explained in my former letter. I am not frightened, but only appreciate, as you would do were you in my place, the condition of things here.

Respectfully, yours,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Cumberland Gap, October 31, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

Certain information is almost impossible, but if the enemy’s force now marching this way is what I suppose, a much larger force should be placed in defense of the long line of passes from Cumberland Gap to Jamestown.

K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Cumberland Gap, October 31, 1861.

Colonel STANTON, Colonel MURRAY, and Colonel MCCLELLAN, Near Jamestown:

Lieutenant-Colonel Mackall, General Johnston’s assistant adjutant-general, telegraphs from Bowling Green that “Stanton has been ordered to Wolden Pass; also the available force of Murray and Bledsoe to Jamestown, Tenn. Both come under your [my] orders.”

Where Wolden Pass is I do not know. It is important I should immediately have a perfect understanding and communication with Colonels Stanton and Murray and Captain Bledsoe. There is reason to believe the enemy intends advancing in force upon East Tennessee. Whether the route by Cumberland Gap, by Jacksborough, or by Jamestown will be selected, cannot be definitely determined. I have seven cavalry companies scouting back to Barboursville on this road, four back to Williamsburg on the Jacksborough route, and I wish Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan to scout on the road from Jamestown back to Monticello, and, if practicable, to Sta[e]gall’s Ferry, to get the earliest possible reliable information of the enemy, and communicate it to me by express messengers. I am moving two regiments to Jacksborough this morning. Two others will be placed at Big Creek Gap. Four will remain here or in the neighborhood.

I wish Colonel Stanton and Colonel Murray to take a strong position near Jamestown and throw up entrenchments, looking to the protection of the commissary stores and the stopping the enemy’s advance. Let the cavalry communicate to them promptly any intelligence received; and if any movement of the enemy is made in force, let information be {p.494} given to me and to General Albert S. Johnston simultaneously by the quickest possible mode of conveyance.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

Abstract from return of the Sixth Brigade, First Division, Western Department, at Camp Beauregard, Kentucky, Col. John S. Bowen, commanding, for October, 1861.

Command.Present.Aggregate present and absent.
For duty.Aggregate.
INFANTRY.
Tenth Arkansas292668744
Kentucky Battalion (King’s)208222233
First Mississippi Valley594725794
Twenty-second Mississippi626791896
First Missouri502655756
Twenty-second Tennessee (detached)
CAVALRY.
One squadron163174190
ARTILLERY.
Pettus [Hudson] Eying Artillery70103111
Total2,4533,3383,724

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 23.}

[NOVEMBER, 1861?].

Since the army entered the State of Kentucky it has bought of willing vendors all it has consumed, and it has not in a single instance seized or taken anything from the owner without just compensation. Damages to private property in the erection of defensive works, removal of houses, and occupation of arable lands for public uses have been assessed by a board of officers, and paid for or assumed by the Government. The appropriation by the troops of produce or of stock taken or killed (and cases of this sort will occur in every army, no matter how governed or disciplined) have been adjusted in a similar manner whenever the fact of the injury has come to the knowledge of the officers in command of this army.

The object of this army being to repel invasion from a sister State and to protect her population and maintain the right of the Southern people to self-government, private rights have been as far as possible respected and protected. We have in this respect made no difference between Union men, as they call themselves, and Southern patriots. But for weeks past it has come to the knowledge of the general commanding this army that forays into the country around Cairo, Bird’s Point, Charleston, and Paducah, by large bodies of armed men from the Federal camps and posts, for the purpose of seizing and carrying off everything belonging to those citizens adhering to the Government of the Confederate States, have taken place, and now are almost of daily occurrence. Within the past week it is known that a large body of men-cavalry, infantry, and artillery-marched upon the little village of Lovelaceville with a train of some 50 wagons, and seized and carried {p.495} off to Paducah a large amount of flour and wheat. To reconcile the owner to this act of robbery, those who seized his property arrested him and took him a prisoner to Paducah.

By order of Brigadier-General Pillow:

G. A. HENRY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, November 1, 1861.

Brig. Gen. HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: You will proceed to Prestonburg, Ky., and assume command of the troops at that place and its vicinity for the protection and defense of that frontier. You will report by letter to General A. S. Johnston at Bowling Green for such orders and instructions as he may have to communicate to you. You will consider yourself fully authorized to take into service such number of armed men as you may be enabled to raise, and cause them to be mustered in conformity to the laws of the Confederate States, and organized into companies, battalions, or regiments, as in your judgment the necessities of the case may require.

The Fifty-fourth Regiment of Virginia Volunteers, at Christiansburg, under Colonel Trigg, has been ordered to proceed without delay to Prestonburg. As you will overtake this regiment either at Christiansburg or on its march, you will attach it to your command, and likewise the battery of artillery under Captain Jeffress, now at Wytheville, giving to both such further instructions as you may deem proper.

Very respectfully, &c.,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

P. S.-Seven companies Virginia volunteers at Abingdon will also be placed at your disposal, as well as the three Virginia companies at Pound Gap, the whole to constitute a regiment, under Colonel Moore.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 1, 1861.

Brigadier-General TILGHMAN, Commanding Hopkinsville.:

GENERAL: General Johnston directs you to draw back your command to Clarksville. Let your movement be a well-guarded one. Send your sick and baggage to the rear first, and cover the movement with your effective force. Arrived at Clarksville, employ your men in making the defensive works which will have been planned by Major Gilmer. A battery of Artillery (Maury’s) has been ordered to Clarksville for you. It is understood that a regiment of cavalry (Forrest’s) is on the north side of the Cumberland and below. Ascertain if this be so; if so, apprise the colonel of the new position you have taken up, that he may not be attacked unawares.

Colonel Gregg’s regiment of Texas troops ought to reach Clarksville to-day. This will be your authority to assume command of the regiment.

The value of the railway from Clarksville to this place is too well known to you to need explanation, but it must not be lost sight of in the pressure of other business.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.496}

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By Captain CULBERTSON:

It is ordered (i. e., Gregg’s regiment) to-day to move in the direction of Hopkinsville, to cover your movement. Let it receive your more detailed orders.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 1, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER:

Dispatch of 31st October received. Stanton has been ordered from Burkesville to Walker’s Pass; messenger dispatched two days since.

Bledsoe and Murray to Jamestown. Stanton’s force is reported to be 2,000. He comes under your orders. Post him and Walker and Bledsoe as you think best.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, Tenn., November 1, 1861.

General JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: I am satisfied that the policy of the Federal Government is to throw a heavy force upon General Zollicoffer, or through other gaps west of Zollicoffer’s position, for the purpose of reaching the disaffected portion of East Tennessee and taking possession of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad and cutting off our communication with the army East.

I think it a matter of the highest importance that Zollicoffer should be re-enforced, so as to enable him to hold the gaps in question, and make the suggestion to you, knowing that if you concur with me in opinion, and will call upon the Government, the President will give you all the aid in his power.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

P. S.-Excuse the liberty I take in making a suggestion that I know must have long since occurred to you; but the indications of this purpose accumulate, and our people are becoming so anxious upon the subject, that they would hold me blamable if I did not obtrude the suggestion upon you.

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CLARKSVILLE, November 1, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

DEAR GENERAL: I returned home last night from Forts Henry and Donelson, where I went in company with Major Gilmer. Fort Henry is in fine condition for defense, the work admirably done, as Major Gilmer thinks, and the first regiment, under Colonel Heiman, the Tenth Tennessee, the very best I have seen in the service. They are healthy, and in fine discipline. I am glad to make this report, and to say the information I gave you lately was based on an untruthful representation, made by the major of that regiment, who was forced to resign his position. I now think from a personal inspection it is one of the best regiments in the Tennessee line.

Fort Donelson is in very bad condition. No work has been done of any {p.497} account, though Lieutenant Dixon, a young officer of great energy, will soon, I hope, have it put in a fine state of defense, unless Major Gilmer shall determine to fortify Line Port instead. He and Dixon were to go to-day to inspect that point and to determine which position should be fortified. I left them last night at 10 o’clock at Dover, Dixon returned yesterday from an expedition down the river, where he had gone to blockade it by sinking old barges in the channel. Two were sunk at Line Island, and six at Ingram’s Shoals, some 10 miles below. Captain Harrison, an old steamboat captain, familiar with this river, concurs with Dixon that the work is effectually done. They think it will be impossible for gunboats to pass Ingram’s Shoals even when the water is 10 feet higher than it is now. It seems to me the guns at Donelson, if well manned, would be amply sufficient to defend this river against the Lincoln gunboats. Though Donelson is unfortunately located on the river, it certainly possesses great natural advantages against a land attack. A succession of deep ravines nearly surround it, including 10 or 15 acres of land thickly lined with trees in the right place, which, if felled with the tops outward, would protect it against cavalry, the approach of artillery, and almost of infantry. This is my military opinion. I rather think it will be supported by Major Gilmer’s.

With great respect, your friend,

G. A. HENRY.

Dixon reported the gunboats in sight when he finished the work at Ingram’s Shoals and came up the river.

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MEMPHIS TENN. November 1 1861.

To His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President C. S. A., Richmond, Va.:

SIR: We beg leave respectfully to call your attention to the military operations now in progress in Northern Kentucky and the eastern portion of this State and to submit to the Government at Richmond some suggestions as to the policy which we think should be adopted in reference to those persons (in each one of the sections mentioned) who have been misled and induced to assume an attitude hostile to the Government of the Confederate States. Our acquaintance with the people, together with the local and political influences which have operated to seduce them from their proper allegiance, enables us probably to present the subject in a clearer light than it has heretofore been submitted Your excellency is perhaps apprised that a large portion of our fellow citizens in East Tennessee who have for some time past been greatly disaffected to our Government have of late signified their loyalty to the South by taking the oath of allegiance. Many of these, who had already fled from their homes and gone into Kentucky to assist in maintaining what is called the neutrality of that State, have now returned and joined the Army of Tennessee, having been assured that their property and former position would be restored to them. This policy, we think, if continued, will bring back to our support all who have left the State. There are, however, some yet who doubt whether or not they will be permitted to enjoy this immunity from arrest and punishment, who are in consequence banding themselves with those who are unfriendly towards us. We therefore wish to obtain authority from your excellency to say to them, that if they will lay down their arms, return {p.498} to their homes, and become good and loyal citizens; they will be protected in the enjoyment of all their rights, alike with every one who submits to the authority of the Confederate Government. We are informed that a large body of this class of men are now assembled in the State of Kentucky, near the Tennessee line, who declare their intention of maintaining the neutrality of the former State. Knowing that this illusion will soon be dissipated, and fearing that they will by some means be induced to join the Federal forces, we are exceedingly anxious to make every effort to bring them to our support. We therefore desire to urge upon your excellency the importance of giving them such assurances of protection as will effect this object. Some of our most reliable and discreet citizens will visit Richmond for the purpose of conferring with you in relation to this matter, and can explain the reasons which induce this communication in a more full and satisfactory manner than we have written then.

Hoping that your excellency will take this suggestion under careful advisement, we have the honor to be, yours, very respectfully,

JOHN PARK, Mayor.

We would respectfully request and urge upon your attention the fact that such has been the exasperation and vituperation of political parties and the prejudices of and against the present officers in command, that all proclamations heretofore issued by said officers have failed to have the due conciliatory effect, and that some direct communication from the head of the Government at this particular time would effect the most desirable results.

A. N. EDMONDS, SAM. TATE, N. S. BRUCE, W. G. FORD, J. M. PATRICK, J. M. GONDIR, JAMES A. CARNES, F. W. ROYSTER, F. TITUS, Safety Committee, Memphis, Tenn. Q. C. ATKINSON, SAML. P. WALKER, S. T. WATSON, ET AL.

I concur in the within suggestions, believing that it will be both right and politic to give the assurance sought to all of those misguided citizens who will in good faith return to their homes and declare their loyalty to the Government.

ISHAM G. HARRIS. H. F. CUMMINS. J. E. R. RAY, Secretary of State.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 200.}

ADJT. AND INSP. GEN.’s OFFICE, Richmond, November 1, 1861.

...

XV. Brig. Gen. Charles Clark, Provisional Army, is assigned to the command of the Mississippi Brigade, now in Kentucky. He will at {p.499} once proceed to Bowling Green, Ky., and report to General A. S. Johnston accordingly.

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GALLATIN,. November 2, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

SIR: My company is threatened by superior force from Kentucky. Please order Capt. Nat. Saunders’ company of cavalry sent here at once. Three-fourths of my command are without arms. Can you spare 500 stand arms?

J. W. HEAD, Commanding.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 2, 1861.

Col. J. W. HEAD, Gallatin:

SIR: Colonel Stanton reports that section of country clear of enemies this morning. His own troops between Burkesville and Gallatin are now passing through on the route to Jamestown. No arms can be sent now. No report of Capt. Nat. Saunders’ company here. We know nothing of it.

Please report condition of the company.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 2, 1861.

To the PRESIDENT, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Under the very urgent necessity of supplying my command with arms, and in view of the very slow progress made in obtaining them from our own manufacturers, I have had my thoughts directed to other sources, and am satisfied a supply adequate to the wants of my own department can be obtained from Havana, Island of Cuba.

Arms in considerable numbers have already reached our southern coast, but the number is, of course, limited to the ability of private enterprise.

I have made an arrangement with gentlemen in whom I have the utmost confidence for making the purchase and bringing them into the country. The details have been a matter of careful consideration, and I have no hesitation in assuming the responsibility of the undertaking, provided it meets with your approval. I have made an arrangement for borrowing the funds to carry out the enterprise, to be refunded at the pleasure of the Government.

This will be handed you by my aide-de-camp, W. B. Richmond, who will give you any information desired in regard to this matter.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.500}

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HEADQUARTERS, CAMP ALCORN, November 2, 1861-7 a.m.

Brig. Gen. S. B. BUCKNER, Commanding Division, &c., Bowling Green:

SIR: I return Lieutenant Graves to your command, and hope to see Mr. Dunlap very soon. I do not use Lieutenant Graves, inasmuch as he is out of health, but principally because I desire the officer taking charge of the company to be permanent in his place. Again, I desire him to return promptly, in order that you may be better posted as to my condition here. You will have some idea of it when I tell you that in endeavoring to get up a little command last evening to move on Princeton, I found that the First Mississippi had 151 for duty, the Third 128. Out of these, guards and pickets had to be taken, giving me only 100 men from each regiment, half of whom were really unfit for the night march (raining in torrents). I managed, however, to get together 400 men and two pieces of artillery, the poorest clad, shod, and armed body I ever saw, but full of enthusiasm. I soon found that half the infantry were so unfit, that the surgeon stated that humanity demanded they should not go. I was relieved by a courier from my embarrassment and delayed until this morning, when a second courier relieved me entirely, by stating that the enemy had turned off from Princeton and [were] making northward. This morning I learn again that they have retired again (as their gunboats have done) towards the mouth of the river. You may therefore consider me relieved of the pressure for a few days.

EIGHT A. M.

I send you Colonel Machen’s note. Have just received telegram of the re-enforcement of Texans for me. I shall get my sick to Clarksville and hold on here. Shall begin to send the sick so soon as the weather permits. I still need cavalry, and must have them; 500 good men will be worth more to me and the cause in the next two weeks than I can well explain. You see I am still urgent. I trust you will endeavor to have this done. Will write again at noon to-day. I write, as the stage waits, of course in great haste.

Respectfully, yours,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

PRINCETON, KY., November 1, 1861.

General LLOYD TILGHMAN:

DEAR SIR: I proceeded yesterday in the direction of the supposed fortification on Cumberland. When within about 12 miles of the point I met the citizens of the country fleeing from their homes with terrible rumors of a Northern army marching through the country in the direction of Hopkinsville from some point on the river, but could gather nothing reliable from any source, except that the Southern troops had left, carrying off their cannon. I remained until night in that region, and then turned to this point. There I learn that they had obstructed the river at Ingram’s Shoals and had re-embarked their guns and gone up the river. The gunboat came up to the obstruction and fired a good many heavy guns, but for what purpose not known. She left and went down below Eddyville, and possibly out of the river. She is a new boat, and has the appearance of being much more formidable than those heretofore {p.501} in the river, mounting much heavier guns. I am starting to Eddyville, and if successful will be able to give you a more satisfactory detail on my return, which will be as soon as practicable. No troops left, so far as I can learn, though much alarm exists about it. I was unable to get hold of information upon which I could rely so as to send a messenger last night.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. MACHEN.

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HOPKINSVILLE, November 2, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL:

Your dispatches through Clarksville received. I am more at ease. The enemy have retired towards mouth of river in part and part reported gone north. My scouts are from beyond Madisonville and Princeton and Eddyville, and my impression is the movement intended principally for your point. Shall push reconnoitering well towards Ashbysburg and Rochester when able to do so. Can’t you send me some cavalry, say 200? I will hold my position yet. Have ordered up Colonel Gregg.

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., November 2, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, C. S. A., Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I have the honor to report to you that the obstruction at Eddy Shoals, or Ingrain’s Bar, was completed Wednesday last, by sinking three barges, 120 by 27 by 8, filled with stone; also two smaller ones near the bar. This obstruction is complete against the gunboats for any rise less than about 12 feet over present stage. These boats contain about 1,200 tons of stone, and the boats themselves are made of 6-inch scantling. It may be possible that in a few weeks the current which sets in over the head of the bar between the sunken boats may wash out a channel. If so, it can be easily closed by sinking a small boat in the new channel. Lieutenant-Colonel MacGavock, commanding at Fort Donelson, furnished a company of cavalry, three of infantry, and four pieces of artillery to protect the working party, but no enemy appeared. Captain Dixon, engineers, had charge of the force, and Capt. H. H. Harrison was intrusted with the sinking of the boats. Two barges were also sunk at Line Island, effecting a barrier there, which may be made complete by sinking a small boat at the head of the island to close a small interval. The people on the river above Eddyville to Dover, 45 miles, are generally enthusiastic for the South, but a few Lincolnites are scattered about, who eagerly carry the news to Smithland. Captain Dixon and Major Gilmer of the engineers are examining the site at Line Port, with a view of fortifying it.

I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

MILTON A. HAYNES, Lieutenant-Colonel, Artillery.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Cumberland Gap, November 2, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War:

I asked some weeks ago for ten guns. You promised me 8-inch howitzers. Only three have arrived, and two Parrott guns, sent by General {p.502} Johnston. The enemy is advancing in large force, and my defenses only sufficient at one of the three main passes. One of the others it now seems probable will be selected by the enemy. Could I get other howitzers, they should be sent by Knoxville to Jacksborough.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 2, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I have reason to suppose that the enemy is advancing by a route west of this Expecting hourly certain information. Passes near Jacksborough and Jamestown not fortified. Concentrating chief infantry force near Jacksborough, and will start 6-pounder battery and Parrott guns to-morrow. Telegraphed War Department to-day for other 8-inch howitzers.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Cumberland Gap, November 2, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD, Sixteenth Regiment Alabama Volunteers, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: I have good reason to expect that the enemy is advancing toward East Tennessee, on the road to Jacksborough or that to Jamestown. Colonels Cummings’ and Newman’s regiments are by this time at Jacksborough, and this morning the Mississippi regiment will start, and this evening, I hope, Colonel Rains’ regiment and the artillery. Colonel Powell’s regiment is 20 miles this side of Jacksborough, at Willow Gap. The regiments of Colonels Battle and Churchwell, and the detachment of yours under Lieutenant-Colonel Harris, will at present remain here. I trust you got off my dispatches to Colonel Murray and Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan by express messengers to Jamestown. I have not heard a word from them, and feel some anxiety about it. I infer from dispatch from General Johnston that Colonel Stanton is in the same neighborhood. I remember the strong expression of your wish to be with us, and I would be pleased to gratify it, but certain indications in East Tennessee render your post now a most important and responsible one, and I must beg of you cheerfully to occupy it, and hold the balance of your regiment with you until we can more clearly see what are the exigencies before us. I wish I could have you and all your gallant men with me, but in your present position, in present circumstances, your services are invaluable.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 3, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: Your letters of 19th * and 22d ultimo have been received. The Department was unwilling under the circumstances to interfere with {p.503} your action in stopping the supply of blankets at Nashville which had been collected for the army in Virginia, inasmuch as we had luckily succeeded in obtaining a certain number from Europe by the Bermuda with which to replace those detained by you, and which served to supply our troops that were suffering in the mountains.

The President, however, begs that I should urge on you mot to permit in your department a system of action which cannot fail to produce the most unfortunate results in every possible aspect of the case. Two of your subordinates have lately assumed the power to interfere with the passage of supplies destined to different points, and have subjected the Government to annoyances and embarrassments that paralyze its best efforts for the common defense. I will state them both:

First. General Pillow intercepted a supply of forage, collected with care and for urgent use in Alabama. The result is a breaking up of some cavalry forces collected by General Bragg for the coast defenses between Mobile and Pensacola, and bitter and somewhat intemperate remonstrance on the part of some of General Bragg’s officers, and an appeal to this Department for censure of General Pillow.

Second. A wagon train was collected and supplied with clothing, bought and paid for out of an appropriation specially made by Congress for the relief of our suffering brethren in Missouri, who are making so gallant a fight without an exchequer or an organized government. The clothing bought with this particular fund, and specially promised to General Price’s forces, was seized by General McCulloch, and distributed amongst his own troops without semblance of authority, and, so far as I am informed, without even stress of necessity.

To you, general, comment is unnecessary on such proceedings. They render the administration of the affairs of this Department on any systematical plan absolutely impossible. It was in this same spirit (that seems to have seized upon many of our leaders) that General Lovell sent a special messenger to Nashville for a supply of powder after I had refused to furnish any more to New Orleans until I had received some account of what had become of a large supply sent there within the last thirty days.

Our means are inadequate to furnish everywhere all that is required. We divide out to the best of our ability, as fairly as possible, according to the exigencies of the service, such supplies as we can command. This equitable system can only be conducted from one common head. Let me pray you to give such instructions to your subordinates as shall put an end to this reprehensible practice, and trust me that you shall have to the utmost extent of my power every possible facility and aid in the accomplishment of your arduous task in defending so vast a frontier as that which has been confided to you.

Your want of arms is felt by us as severely as by yourself. I have news of a cargo from Liverpool that must be off the coast just at this time, and we are all most eagerly looking out for it. If the steamer succeeds in running the blockade safely I may be able to send you some 10 000 stands of arms, and thus put you at once on a footing to enable you to commence active operations.

The President has appointed Humphrey Marshall a brigadier-General, to take command of the forces collecting at Prestonburg. He goes with arms enough for a regiment, with a regiment of Virginians that is to join him at Christiansburg, and still another will be with him in a few days. This will, we hope, suffice as a nucleus to hold together the forces now at Prestonburg and on the eve of dispersing, as we are informed, and enable Colonel Williams to succeed in uniting two or three {p.504} regiments more, thus forming a force sufficient to prevent the enemy from passing into Southwestern Virginia by the Pound Gap. General Marshall will, of course, report to you. I forgot to say that we have given him also a battery of six field pieces.

The President has also given to Hon. J. C. Breckinridge a commission as brigadier-general, with orders to report to you, so that he may take command of one of your two brigades of Kentuckians at Bowling Green. Colonel Preston has not been appointed a general. He may be taken on your staff; if you wish, or he will be appointed colonel to raise a regiment, or will be assigned as colonel to a regiment if you have companies enough to be now organized into a regiment.

I hope you have not bought the horses you speak of for Terry’s regiment with the public money. There is no act of Congress allowing it, and the accounts cannot be passed without a special law for that purpose. When Terry went to Texas to collect his regiment he was informed by the President in the most explicit manner that no cavalry could be accepted without their furnishing their own horses. Congress allows forty cents a day for the use and risk of a horse and pays for such as are killed, but has invariably refused to furnish horses for cavalry. When Terry’s regiment received leave to go to you instead of coming to Virginia, it was because we were led to believe that horses would be furnished them by subscriptions in Tennessee; but the expression of your letter makes me fear that you have ordered the purchase with public funds, and this would be very unfortunate. The money for your supplies shall be, as you desire, deposited in bank in Nashville, but we cannot for the present send you gold.

In regard to your suggestions about some relaxation of the commercial restrictions on the interchange of products with Kentucky, I beg to say that the subject has already engaged the attention of the administration, but it is one on which there exists so much diversity of opinion and so much doubt in relation to the views of Congress, that we prefer to wait a few weeks and receive our instructions from the wisdom of our lawgivers.

Your views in relation to the present condition of Kentucky and to the course to be pursued in relation-to the taxes by her legislature appear to-me eminently just; but this letter has already reached such an extreme length, and the pressure on my time and attention is such, that I must defer further remark, as well as a reply to your suggestions about the appointment of officers, to another occasion, and remain, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

P. S.-If you can use secret-service money to sufficient advantage to justify its expenditure, I will place to your credit in the Treasury, and subject to your check, such moderate amount as you may deem necessary.

* Not found, but see Johnston to Benjamin, October 18, p. 459; see also Benjamin to Johnston, November 10, p. 532.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 3, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

Finding there was just so much wheat and other provisions in the country and no more; being impressed with the indispensable necessity of having the army under my command supplied for the next twelve months beyond peradventure, I have caused a restriction to be {p.505} placed upon the exportation of provisions from a certain district immediately around me until I had made sure of what might be necessary for the necessities of my command. In that field my agents are now employed making contracts for wheat, corn, hay, and salt provisions, which contracts within a short time will be completed, after which the embargo I have imposed will be removed. The operation of this measure will be to make sure of army supplies, and, in the second place, produce a saving of $100,000 to the Government. My estimates are for an army of 50,000 men.

This measure, as might have been expected, has not met with special favor at the hands of speculators or public carriers by land or water, but it is not complained of by the producers.

To enable me to effect this object as soon as possible and with as little inconvenience as possible, it is necessary I should be placed in funds by the proper Department. The estimate for pork, beef; wheat, and corn I inclose on a separate slip of paper, and I shall be glad to be put in funds to make provision for them as early as practicable.

As this is a matter of the first necessity in our military operations, I have taken the liberty of addressing you directly on the subject, that no delays that may be obviated need occur. After these purchases are made the residue may be distributed to the country at large.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 3, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee, Nashville:

GOVERNOR: Since making my call upon you for troops of September 21st, I have ascertained that the ardor of our people in defense of their rights has brought so many to our colors for the war in the Confederate States, and is bringing so many in Kentucky, that it is neither necessary nor judicious to accept unarmed volunteers for a less period than for three years or for the war.

Under this state of facts I beg your excellency to annul the call made at my request for twelve-months’ men, except such companies, battalions, and regiments as present themselves efficiently armed and equipped, and to disband all companies and regiments assembled without arms and not mustered into the service; and at the same time I trust you will be pleased to make known to the volunteers my appreciation of their patriotism in coining forward so promptly at your summons.

By may own orders I will disband all those unarmed troops raised under the call and who have been mustered into the Confederate service at the different rendezvous. Under the provisions of law the troops who have been mustered into the Confederate service will receive transportation in kind or by commutation to their homes, and I will direct my quartermasters to furnish transportation on the railways for all those who have joined the rendezvous, but who the public interest makes it no longer expedient to receive, to the point nearest their place of assembling.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

{p.506}

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NASHVILLE, TENN., November 3, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival at this place last evening, about 9 o’clock, by way of the Cumberland River. After making a careful examination of the country around Clarksville and the Cumberland River as low down as Line Port, fifteen miles below Fort Donelson, I have now to report as follows, viz:

First. The Red River, which empties into the Cumberland just below the town of Clarksville, furnishes the best line of defense for the town and the railroad bridge against any force advancing from the direction of Green River or from landings on the Cumberland River below Fort Donelson. To strengthen this river line (Red River), the fords, one near the Hopkinsville Bridge, one just above the mouth of West Fork (a tributary of Red River), one below the Russellville Bridge, and one a few miles above the last-named bridge, should be destroyed, by felling trees to form an obstructing jungle or abatis, and by cutting the banks so as to make them vertical. These fords are only possible at very low water, and have not been used for many months.

Having obstructed the fords, the two turnpike bridges and the railroad bridge over Red River can be guarded by two encampments-one just south of the Hopkinsville Bridge, the other between the railroad bridge and the Russellville Bridge. Field pieces should be placed so as to sweep these bridges, or at least the approaches to them. For greater security breast-heights should be thrown up to cover them while used for fixed defense. Wooden platforms would aid much in traversing the guns, which should be kept on their field carriages for facility of movement when necessary.

To prevent our enemy from occupying the high ground just north of Red River and to the left of the Hopkinsville turnpike, we must occupy it ourselves with a body of troops, and for greater security perhaps a small entrenchment ought to be thrown up on top of this hill.

Second. As to the defenses of Cumberland River below Clarksville, they should be at least as low down as Fort Donelson. Our efforts for resisting gunboats should be concentrated there, and to this end Captain Dixon will do everything in his power to hasten forward the works at that point. Line Port, 15 miles below, presents many advantages for defending the river, but as the works at Fort Donelson are partially built, and the place susceptible of a good defense landward, I advised Captain Dixon to retain the position and construct the additional defenses as rapidly as possible. To obstruct the Cumberland at points below Donelson, old barges and flats have been sunk at Ingrain’s Shoals, a few miles above Eddyville, and at Line Island, 3 miles below Line Port. In all ordinary stages of water the obstructions render the river impassable for gunboats and for any other boats at this time. Such at least is the judgment of Captain Dixon, who superintended the sinking of the barges.

Lieutenant Pickett did not report to me during my stay at Clarksville, which was from the 25th ultimo to the 29th, and I did not, in consequence, have any one I could place there to direct the commencement of the work for obstructing the passage of Red River. I have just written fully to Brigadier-General Tilghman, giving him the result of my examinations, and as he has with him Mr. Morris, an intelligent civil engineer, I have advised him to obstruct the fords at once and establish the camps for guarding the bridges. I have, moreover, requested General Tilghman to telegraph me at this place should he wish my presence at Clarksville, and I would join him without delay. Governor {p.507} Harris is absent from Nashville at this time, and will not return for two or three days. Will you please to send me written authority to employ negro labor for throwing up defenses at Nashville, Clarksville, and Fort Donelson, as well as at all other points where defensive works may be found necessary; also for the purchase of intrenching tools.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, Rocky Hill Station, November 3, 1861-11 p.m.

Lieut. D. G. WHITE, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Reconnoitering parties sent by me to Glasgow, Cave City, and Brownsville returned to-day. They report no Yankee force at or near either of those places. Citizens stated to them that the enemy’s scouts had been seen at the mouth of Nolin River and at Horse Cave; that 1,000 Federal cavalry had crossed Green River at Munfordville, and that General Ward had moved to Columbia with an army of 7,000 men. I inclose a rough diagram of the approaches to this post. All the roads marked may be traversed by an army except the one leading from here southeasterly to the Glasgow road and Bowling Green road. My cavalry pickets are posted at Chalybeate Springs, Roundtree’s, Bell’s, and Merry Oaks, thrown towards the ford below Brownsville, towards Brownsville, Mammoth Cave, Cave City, and Glasgow. Infantry pickets are posted at Jamison’s, thrown both ways upon the pike, and towards Brownsville, and at Crook’s Mill, thrown towards Glasgow:

Pickets are also stationed at commanding points all around the encampment.

The inclement weather prevalent since my arrival here, in connection with the extremely heavy guard duty required and the ill condition of the troops as to clothing and equipments, has greatly weakened my force. I am without medicines, and have not half the proper number of surgeons. The morning reports of to-day show my effective force to be as follows: Infantry: 70 officers, 163 non-commissioned officers, 1,088 privates; cavalry: 25 officers, 59 non-commissioned officers, 396 privates; artillery: 4 officers, 13 non-commissioned officers, 49 privates. Aggregate, 1,867.

In my opinion this force is not sufficient, especially when it is considered that it is largely reduced daily by sickness.

Very respectfully,

T. O. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WYTHEVILLE, November 3, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Per request of Major Hawes, I inclose his letter just received by messenger returned, whom I had sent with ammunition. I have forwarded all the ammunition received from Richmond, also 1,000 pounds of buck-shot and 3 000 bars lead. I forwarded-to Major Hawes, as per your request, information in regard to the two regiments, &c. I hope to be able to furnish the transportation as fast as required.

Respectfully,

WM. GIBBONEY, Assistant Quartermaster.

{p.508}

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[Inclosure.]

PIKETON, October 28, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, C. S. A.:

SIR: I reached this place last night, which is on Sandy River, 25 miles above Prestonburg, where Colonel Williams is now encamped. Colonel Williams has a force of about 1,000 men, who are deficient in ammunition. I sent down last night 4 kegs powder, 16 bags buck-shot, and 200 pounds lead, and we expect to-night to have an abundance of fixed ammunition, all sent by Capt. William Gibboney, of Wytheville. The country for a considerable distance up Sandy River is in great alarm as to Colonel Williams’ safety. I have not seen Colonel Williams, but will repair to his headquarters this morning. I have the most reliable information that the Federal forces at West Liberty and Hazel Green, which are from Prestonburg, about 40 miles from former and 47 from latter, amount to 4,000 men, fully armed, and with four pieces of artillery. On the 23d instant an advanced guard of Colonel Williams’, of 60 men, placed themselves near West Liberty, attacked a large Federal force from the bushes on the hill-side, in which the Federals suffered a loss of 30 killed and a number wounded. Our men did not lose a man. This advance of the enemy in such numbers will prevent our advance, if it will not drive our forces out of Sandy Valley.

I believe the importance of sustaining the occupancy of the valley of Sandy is fully appreciated at Richmond if not, the railroad at Abingdon and Wytheville will be liable to attack. We should have a column here not only of sufficient backbone to hold on to this place and Prestonburg, but to advance into the county of Bath, so as to offer opportunities for our men to get behind us and to get the pork of Kentucky into the South. The command of Colonel Williams is much alarmed, and the population hereabouts still more so. The approach of the enemy in such force has prevented many hundreds from enlisting-and others from getting to the mountains. We think we may sustain our position, but it will be with much peril; and it is, I hear, the intention of Colonel Williams to hold on to the last extremity. If we are confined to this valley, we shall soon consume the subsistence. We should advance so as to get full supplies, and for other reasons stated. If we could get two regiments immediately we could thereby gain a confidence which would cause a rush to our standard. One regiment is indispensable for defense, but two would enable us to advance. We need pack-saddles and their fixtures. Our basis of operations is at Wytheville, which is 150 miles, on a tolerable mountain road. I hasten to lay these statements for your consideration.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. HAWES, Major, C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 4, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

SIR: Your letter of 22d ultimo to the Department and of 23d to the President have been received.

The sum of $2,000 desired by you for secret service has been placed in the Treasury to your credit and is subject to your check.

Your recommendation of E. W. Rucker is so urgent, that I have, with {p.509} the President’s consent, appointed him first lieutenant of artillery. This appointment is in the permanent army, and has, therefore, much more value than a captaincy in the Provisional Army. We are, however, as a general rule, making no appointments in the Regular Army from civil life, and under the acts of Congress cannot appoint any officers in the Provisional Army except to command troops. We can appoint field officers to troops, but have no commissions to give in any other manner. This is not generally understood; hence repeated requests which we are unable to gratify. If increased rank is necessary to enable Lieutenant Rucker to command such troops as you wish to put under him, we can, after thus having made him an officer in the permanent army, give him temporary increased rank under the act of Congress No. 155, approved May 21, 1861.

Your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., ORDNANCE OFFICE, Richmond, Va., November 4, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to report, in answer to General Zollicoffer’s telegram, that three 8-inch siege howitzers have been sent to Cumberland Gap for General Zollicoffer; four 8-inch siege howitzers to Columbus, Ky., for General Polk; four 32-pounders to Bowling Green, Ky., for General Johnston. There are no more guns ready to be sent at present.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. GORGAS, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Chief of Ordnance.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 4, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, C. S.:

SIR: Herewith I have the honor to transmit for your information a letter from Governor Harris, inclosing one from Mr. C. Wallace, imparting information with regard to the political sentiments of the people of East Tennessee, which he represents as extremely hostile to the Confederate Government, and that there is among them a large and well-armed force ready to act at an opportune moment. I have already ordered Stanton’s and Murray’s regiments and some cavalry companies from their stations in Fentress, Overton, and Jackson Counties to Jamestown, to join seven cavalry companies at that place, thence to report and await the orders of General Zollicoffer, who has been notified; also ordered General Walker’s brigade forward and any troops who might be at the rendezvous at Knoxville. General Walker replied that his brigade was unarmed. There is no other available force under my orders with which to re-enforce General Zollicoffer.

I have, in accordance with your orders, ordered the disbandment of all the unarmed troops that have or may be en route to the rendezvous under the call of the governors of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas, retaining only the armed portion, which, I presume, is but a small {p.510} proportion of the whole. The inability to arm those troops gives the enemy a great preponderance of force with which to operate against this department, which probably has been already anticipated by you. We will not, however, allow this to be a cause of discouragement, but increase our exertions to make our troops as effective as possible. We have a large number sick with the measles. This is only a temporary evil.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

NASHVILLE, October 30, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

I take the liberty of laying before you the within letter. The writer is a gentleman of high character and intelligence and in all respects reliable.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

[Subinclosure.]

KNOXVILLE, October 29, 1861.

DEAR GOVERNOR: I don’t like to meddle in things that are in keeping of men so much more vigilant and wiser than I am, but I am constrained by the circumstances around me to believe that Zollicoffer and the railroads of East Tennessee are in a dangerous condition at present.

I am well aware that the views of the “original panel” in East Tennessee is not much heeded abroad, but I am well satisfied that there is to-day a larger Lincoln force well armed in East Tennessee than Zollicoffer has of Southern men under his command; that this force is in such a state of organization that they can and will be concentrated in Zollicoffer’s rear whenever they are advised of a sufficient force in his front. These people are in full correspondence with the former in Kentucky, and know as well and better what is going on in the Lincoln camp than we do what is going on in our own.

Some large forces should be, as I think, sent immediately to Zollicoffer’s assistance-not raw recruits, but men well equipped and drilled, and at their head an officer capable from ability and experience of taking command in case of any accident to Zollicoffer. There is no giving way in the hostile feeling in East Tennessee. This you may rely on, and time will convince you.

Truly, your friend,

C. WALLACE.

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CORINTH, November 4, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

DEAR SIR: By request of Mr. Samuel Tate I write to you this morning. He is just from East Tennessee, and says he considers the command of General Zollicoffer in great danger; more from the rear than the front. Feelings of decided hostility are again being exhibited {p.511} by the citizens, and in his opinion there is danger of aid being given to Lincoln by the people of East Tennessee at an unexpected moment and seizure of the railroad. He requests me to suggest to you the necessity of rendezvousing several regiments immediately. I give you this information at his pressing instance. Election Wednesday. Result doubtful.

I have the pleasure to be, your obedient servant,

REUBEN DAVIS.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., November 4, 1861.

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, President, &c.:

SIR: I had intended to make the suggestions which follow several weeks since, but the menacing attitude of the enemy on the Potomac led me to postpone them till to-day. The splendid fight at Leesburg on the 21st ultimo and other incidents of the war encourage one to hope that you will mot consider the suggestions unnecessary or inopportune.

The enemy intends to carry into effect the policy, long entertained and strenuously advised by Andrew Johnson and others, of invading East Tennessee. This may be attempted, not via Cumberland Gap, as generally apprehended, but via Jamestown and the several passes in Fentress County, where the mountain is much lower and the country more accessible. The inhabitants on that route are more rebellious and more disloyal to your Government. A radius of 50 miles, with Jamestown or Huntsville as a center, will embrace a population, both in Kentucky and Tennessee, of as anti-southern communities as can be found south of the Ohio. That population is nearer to our railroad than any other point-much more so than that contiguous to Carter and Johnson Counties, also a disloyal neighborhood. Camp McGinnis is more vulnerable than Cumberland Gap, having fewer fortifications and fewer natural defenses. We need, therefore, to guard against invasion from that quarter; and while every one admits the bravery and vigilance of the officer in command (Captain Bledsoe, I believe), we all believe that the safety of the country demands that he be re-enforced. If you could spare General Elzey from the Potomac, with Col. J. C. Vaughn and the other regiments with him, and assign to them the disaffected country I have indicated as above, you will produce-1st. The entire acquiescence of the Tennessee malcontents, and make them assume at least a seeming loyalty and keep them on this side of the line. 2d. As these officers and their men have seen service elsewhere, they would inspire the enemy across the line with a wholesome dread of invasion-a respect for our experience as well as our prowess. 3d. It will excite (revive is not the word) the spirit of volunteering, which I am humiliated to say is very low. Could our young men, our citizens generally, see Colonel Vaughn and his brave men among us and hear a recital of the vincibility of Lincoln’s minions, &c., the old spirit of Sevier and Jackson would return to our deluded and misled masses, the standard of patriotism would be elevated, and our young soldiery be excited from very shame to rally to the defense of Tennessee. 4th. The Tennesseeans on the Potomac know all these mountain passes, and are the very troops to cross them and fight beyond them. Let Elzey lead a brigade north from Camp McGinnis, Zollicoffer another in the direction of Lexington, and Buckner another to Louisville. They will scatter dismay in the Kentucky ranks and prevent them from embodying, {p.512} and thus enable our troops to make a simultaneous march through Kentucky, and expel every Yankee this side of the Ohio to their own North. I beg you not to think that any of us are afraid of being really invaded. Johnson and his late adherents in Tennessee intend and predict it, hut the secessionists and our loyal people do not allow such an event to take place, and some of us concur in the opinion that the policy I have mentioned will make it impossible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. M. RAMSEY.

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MEMPHIS, November 4, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: I arrived at home last night. I find the founderies at Nashville are prepared to work on a large scale, but have engagements for some time ahead; but in case of emergency I have no doubt you can get the guns they are making for the Government. I can get six guns a week cut and bored at Huntsville, from 6-pounder to 24-pounder howitzers. I can have completed here about twelve guns a week after the order is-received and patterns made. The Parrott gun seems a failure; cast and wrought iron will not do combined. We are making a Dahlgren cast-iron 6-pounder gun that can be rifled, that will do, weighing about 900 pounds. Colonel Hunt tells me he has fifteen field guns here, 6-pounders, on carriages, not appropriated. He also has copper and tin to cast about fifty more, and is having them turned out about one per day. Would you prefer them rifled or not? How many brass 12-pounder howitzers would you like in proportion to 6-pounder smooth and rifled guns? Colonel Carroll tells me he is ordered to East Tennessee; is waiting for his guns to be repaired; says he can have it done at the rate of 100 per day. He says he will move 900 men this week. I think you load better write him to go, without waiting to have anything done to his guns except ordinary repairs. Colonel Reynolds has a regiment at Iuka, 100 miles past of here; no guns. General Walker has a brigade at Huntsville and no guns. M. Walker is sick; his regiment has but few guns, about 100; expects more this week. A Texas regiment is here, I learn, without guns. I have not seen them. Colonel Looney’s regiment here expects guns this week.

I have great fears for Zollicoffer’s safety if he does not get help soon. Could you not get the War Department to give us some submarine batteries on the river above here? I have my doubts about stopping these iron gunboats, but I am sure we could blow them out of water with proper batteries. They would cost but little; the scarcity of powder is the only trouble. Fort Pillow and Columbus I fear, from what Captain Lynch said to me a few days ago, is deficient in quality as well as quantity of powder. Morgan, of Nashville, assured me when I was there that their mills were now making 2,800 pounds per day. We have made requisitions on them for 35,000 pounds for our forts above, but get no response. I have been running around all day to find out what I could, and write now in great haste to go by train in a few minutes. Let me know how many and what kind of guns you want, and I will try and get them made as rapidly as possible. Say whether you want carriages or not.

Yours, truly,

SAM. TATE.

{p.513}

P. S.-Colonel Forrest’s regiment cavalry, as fine a body of men as ever went to the field, has gone to Dover or Fort Donelson. Give For-rest a chance and he will distinguish himself.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 4, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

General Johnston directs you to send 5,000 troops, with two field batteries, to Clarksville. Let there be a fair proportion of cavalry. Put General Pillow in command. Let him use the rail or march, or do both, in his discretion, but be prompt and say nothing of his destination.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, November 4, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: I have this evening received your dispatch ordering 5,000 troops of the force under my command to be sent forward to Clarksville. I telegraphed you in reply that measures were taken immediately to execute your orders. These measures are now being carried out. It is, however, due to you and to myself to submit to you, very respectfully, my views in regard to the proposed movement. Without attempting to undervalue the importance of force on the Cumberland and in experienced hands, as will be seen from my letter of the 31st ultimo, I am deeply impressed with the serious consequences that may follow from weakening the force at this place. Indeed, it was in the midst of a conference of all the general officers under my command, assembled for consultation, that your dispatch was received. We had agreed that in view of the information in our possession it was a matter of serious doubt whether we would be able to make successful resistance to the large force now being concentrated in our front with so small an army as that under our command. The fort is now nearly completed and armed, so that we have had time to turn to other dispositions and to consider plans for general defense. It was agreed by us all that to attack Paducah with its present defenses and the facility with which aid could be had by steamers from Cairo and its vicinity, while it might be successful, would be attended with great difficulty, and the prevailing opinion was that it would be not less difficult to hold it, should it be taken, with so small a force as ours. If that should be abandoned, then we must take the field in the direction of Mayfield to prevent being flanked, and occupy the strongest positions offered in that direction. To do this successfully with the force at my command would involve extraordinary exertion and good fortune. If then my force should be reduced by taking from it 5,000 men, I do not hesitate to say that for me to protect my flank with the remainder would be impossible. In that case the utmost that could be done would be to offer the best resistance possible, with the assurance that from the disparity of numbers isolation would be inevitable. We shall, of course, endeavor to do our duty, but I think it proper respectfully to submit these views as those which weigh upon my mind in view of the condition in which this command will be by the withdrawal of the force called for. That my im-

R R-VOL IV. {p.514} pressions may be more clearly stated I have thought it best to send this letter by General Pillow, to whom I have communicated them very fully, and who will give you any information you may desire of our condition.

After consultation, I have thought it best to send the troops forward by land as far as to Tennessee River. They will there take the railroad, and will accomplish the journey in less time than in any other way. I will get off a part of them, if possible, to-morrow.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., November 4, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I did not mention in my communication of yesterday the want of additional guns for the proper defense of the Cumberland River and for other purposes. At Fort Donelson there are now only 4 32-pounders and 2 naval guns, an armament insufficient, I fear, to make a reliable defense against a fleet of gunboats. The number of guns should be doubled; say 4 additional 32-pounders and 2 of heavier caliber 8-inch columbiads, or long-range Parrott guns, all with garrison carriages. Heavy guns may also be required for defending the Cumberland River near this city, but on this point I will report positively in a few days. For arming defenses against a land attack here or elsewhere a supply of 12-pounders should be obtained, say 20 to 25 guns, mounted on siege carriages, to be employed in conjunction with such field batteries as can be supplied here or from other points. In addition to the 12-pounder guns it will be advisable to procure some howitzers for throwing shells. In addition to the 4 32-pounders and 2 naval guns at Fort Donelson (that fire over the river), there are 2 small iron guns that were manufactured at Clarksville and a battery of bronze field pieces, which will be effective in the land defense of the place.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. F. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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JAMESTOWN, November 4, 1861-1 p.m.

General ZOLLICOFFER:

SIR: I have information that is entirely reliable that the enemy is approaching this point 6,000 strong-1,500 cavalry and the balance artillery and infantry. The infantry and artillery camped last night 5 miles east of Monticello, a portion of the cavalry in town, their pickets 7 miles below. Colonel Murray is at Camp Zollicoffer, in Overton County. I dispatched him yesterday, urging him to move to this place. Colonel Stanton, I understand, is at Celina. I forwarded your dispatch to Colonel Murray last night, requesting him to forward to Colonel Stanton. Have heard nothing from either since we were at Albany. Captain Bledsoe, with his company, is at Camp Myers. I have with me not more than 500 effective men, and I have determined to retire, with the commissary stores, in direction of Pikeville, which is 15 miles from Brison’s Landing, on the Tennessee River. Fine road from here {p.515} to Pikeville. Bad road and great danger of being cut off by way of Montgomery has determined me to take former route. We will defend them the best we can until re-enforced. I am informed that the enemy understands that we have a large amount of stores here, and they wish to capture them by surprise. I have brought all my command up to this place, except our pickets back on the different roads, and we are felling timber in the strong passes behind us to obstruct their advance. Let me hear from you without delay.

Yours, truly,

GEO. R. MCCLELLAN, Lieutenant-Colonel.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., November 4, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and inspector General:

SIR: The dispatches from General Zollicoffer state that he has reason to believe that the enemy with a force of 9,000 is approaching by Jacksborough or Jamestown. Information from Assistant Adjutant-General Mackall says that there are about 10,000 men between Camp Dick Robinson and Cincinnati. This information has been received by the Union men in East Tennessee, and they are openly preparing for rebellion. Men are arriving here daily from the adjoining counties, bringing information that the Unionists are talking exultingly of the approach of the Lincoln Army and their intention to join it. The state of the country here is evidently worse at this time than at any previous period. General Zollicoffer has taken all the troops from here, except about 200 infantry and one company of cavalry, and most of the latter are absent on special duty. The necessity for a larger force at this point is urgent. Our commissary and quartermaster’s stores are liable to be seized at any moment, as also the railroad.

It is a great mistake to suppose that the people of East Tennessee are submissive or willing to acquiesce. They have only been held quiet by the force which was at Knoxville, and now that it is gone, they are evidently preparing for a general uprising if the Lincoln Army should make any advance into Tennessee. I need at least a regiment at this place to give protection to the stores of the Government and preserve quiet. There are three companies of infantry here under the late call of the governor for 30,000, but they have no arms.

I communicate directly to the Department, because I think the exigency admits of no delay, and have no doubt it will meet with the approval of General Zollicoffer, to whom I send a copy.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. WOOD, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., November 4, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have to-day written to General Cooper in reference to the state of affairs in East Tennessee and the necessity of re-enforcements being sent immediately; but as there is a misapprehension in reference to the feeling of the late Union party existing abroad, I have requested Mr. Archer, of Richmond, now on a visit here, to call on you and give you fuller information than I can write. In addition to what I have written to General Cooper, I will say that there can be no doubt of the {p.516} fact that large parties, numbering from 20 to 100, are every day passing through the narrow and unfrequented gaps of the mountain into Kentucky to join the enemy. My courier, just in from Jamestown, informs me that a few nights ago 170 men passed from Roane County over into Kentucky. I do not believe that the Unionists are in the least reconciled to the Government, but on the contrary are as hostile to it as the people of Ohio, and will be ready to take up arms as soon as they believe the Lincoln forces are near enough to sustain them. I do not believe that the Southern men here are alarmed or nervous. They are as brave and fearless as any I ever saw, but they do live in constant apprehension that a general uprising and rebellion may take place at any day.

I submit the matter to the determination of the Department, assuring you that I will do all that I can with 200 infantry and one company of cavalry to prevent any disturbance.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. B. WOOD, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 4, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

No late indications of enemy. Begin to suspect the movement was a feint, and that their forces may be withdrawing to support concentration on General Buckner’s front.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 4, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: After all the efforts I have known how to employ, I have at no time been able to procure any but uncertain information of the strength and movements of the enemy in my front. The population between here and Camp Robertson [Dick Robinson?] is generally hostile and ignorant. Of the few professing friendship, some are treacherous; others afraid to attempt to furnish information. I am liable, therefore, to error from want of reliable information. I am now inclined to suspect that the enemy will make no forward movement toward East Tennessee, but will retire from this line to give support to a concentrated movement in General Buckner’s front. We have vague news to this effect from citizens, communicated through our cavalry scouts on the Barboursville road. No news yet from our cavalry scouting from Jacksborough back towards Williamsburg and Pine Knot Tavern, in Kentucky. I have now five regiments concentrating near Jacksborough, with all our field artillery. Captain Shellaha [Sheliha?] is in that quarter, making reconnaissance, and I will employ the troops in making such defensive works as he may direct. The work here is still being pushed vigorously with the labor of two regiments and a half. Colonel Murray was in Overton County on the 30th. I have not heard from Colonel Stanton. Six cavalry companies, under Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan, were near Jamestown on the 30th. On the 2d instant I sent an express messenger through under a cavalry escort with letters, the object of which was {p.517} to concentrate the commands of Stanton, Murray, and McClellan near Jamestown.

It appears to me that the railroad facilities of the enemy, connecting Cincinnati and Louisville with Nicholasville and the Louisville and Nashville road, enable the enemy with great ease to bring up reserves, and, when I advance, glide them round and concentrate in my front; and when General Buckner advances, glide them around the other way and concentrate in his front. They therefore seem to occupy a central position between us, and may with facility strike at our separate forces in detail. It appears to me if my main force could properly be placed nearer General Buckner’s, the two lines, within supporting distance of each other, would be able to advance more safely and effectively. If therefore it should meet your approval, I will as rapidly as possible endeavor to so fortify Cumberland Gap that the smallest possible force will be necessary here; will simultaneously endeavor to fortify or thoroughly blockade the passes near Jacksborough, and all the by-ways east and west of these passes, so as to set free as large a number of my troops as possible, and concentrate then upon some point in the open country near Jamestown, with the view of advancing towards Danville. The country is not so sterile through which to make a forward movement as the one in front of me, called “The Wilderness of Kentucky.” It cannot be more hostile, and my column would not be so much exposed to attack by overwhelming force in an isolated position without reserves or co-operation.

It may require some time to prepare this mode of defense for East Tennessee, but I think it can be made effectual, and leave us a much larger field force for aggression upon the enemy and in a more effective position.

As this will necessarily be a permanent post, I have authorized the regiments here to employ any surplus force more than can be employed on the fortifications in constructing some huts to shelter them.

The late cold, rainy weather here has been severe upon those who are thinly clad.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 5, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding First Division:

GENERAL: Your letter of November 4 has been received and duly considered by the general.

Your force is not so great as he would wish it to be, but, viewed from his stand-point, now that your river defenses are complete, it is fully as large, after deducting the detachment ordered, as he can spare from other parts of the field.

That order, then, will be executed.

In addition to General Pillow’s division, you will send another regiment, if necessary, to make the complement of 5,000 effective men.

If there are no special reasons to the contrary, permit General Pillow to bring with him his siege battery.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.518}

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MEMPHIS, November 5, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

Have just received dispatch stating that you order unarmed twelve-months’ troops to be disbanded. This will have a demoralizing effect. If the Government will pay the value of arms, I will arm them with sporting guns within a reasonable time. Will you continue troops in camp and give me reasonable time to arm.

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 5, 1861.

His Excellency Gov. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:

I am not yet prepared to muster out of service the volunteers at Camps Cheatham, Trousdale, and Red Sulphur Springs, and it is within my hopes that before the time of muster, say fifteen days, it may be in your excellency’s power to arm these troops, and thus enable me to retain them or some portion of them for the defense of your State now endangered by the heavy masses in my front and those pressing on East Tennessee on my right and the line of the Cumberland and Tennessee to the west.

If you can arm these men, or any other portion of the quota called out and assembled, and will designate the numbers and the troops, and the time at which efficient arms can be put into their hands, I will if the time be not too far distant, keep all such in service, and so try to secure my command from danger, and perhaps strike a heavy blow on the advancing enemy. A prompt reply is urgently requested.

I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 5, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

I reported that I had ordered all troops unarmed to be discharged, but, desirous as I was to execute your orders promptly and fully, finding how very few armed men had presented themselves, I have, under pressing necessity and the hopes of speedy arming given to me by the governor of Tennessee, suspended the order for fifteen days.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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WYTHEVILLE, VA., November 5, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

GENERAL: In obedience to orders from the Adjutant-General, I have proceeded thus far on my way to Prestonburg, Ky., “to assume command of the forces at that point and in its vicinity, for the protection and defense of that frontier,” and I have the honor, in obedience to the same authority, to report by letter to you for such orders and instructions as you may have to communicate to me. I should have obeyed my orders literally by delaying this report until I arrived at Prestonburg, but the distance hence is so great (170 miles) and the means of {p.519} communication so precarious, I consider it best to address you from this point. I shall repeat my letter when upon the theater of my command.

Of the general condition of things on the eastern frontier you are probably already better advised than I am. I understand in general terms that Col. John S. Williams has succeeded in mustering some 600 or 700 men into the Confederate service, and that there are, in all, collected at that place some 2,000 Kentucky people; but of these many act in their own behalf and do not enter the service. My authority to muster troops into the service is estimated to be ample by the orders I have received from the Adjutant-General. Those orders contemplated the immediate use of two Virginia regiments (Trigg’s and Moore’s), and one battery of four pieces, commanded by Captain Jeffress, of Virginia. But I have been surprised to find that Moore’s regiment has no arms nor ammunition, camp equipage nor transportation, to give the expected mobility to it, and how long before these will be furnished I cannot guess. The battery is yet here, one of the caissons not having come up from Lynchburg, but 1 hope it will be able to move to-morrow. I have ordered Colonel Trigg to move from Christiansburg, but am not advised that he has done so up to this moment.

I shall proceed on my journey in the morning, though the officers of my staff have not arrived. Thomas Hawkins is in your own camp at Bowling Green. 1 wish you would communicate to him my expectation that he shall report to me as aide as soon as practicable.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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NASHVILLE, November 5, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

DEAR SIR: Inclosed you will find a requisition for 60 axes and helves for your approval. Major Gilmer and Captain Dixon ordered an abatis to be made to protect the rear at Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, and we have not a sufficient number of axes. I reached here this morning, and will return to the fort on Thursday. I wrote to General Polk by Captain Dixon to send one well armed and drilled regiment to Fort Donelson at once. We have there now Colonel Forrest’s command of cavalry, one company of light artillery, with a battery of seven guns and a sufficient amount of heavy guns. I also have five companies of infantry tolerably armed, but not so well drilled as I would like, having been in camp only a short time. General Polk ordered Colonel Thornton’s Mississippi regiment to this post, but for some cause they did not reach there.

The people in the counties of Trigg and Lyon, in Kentucky, are calling on us every day for protection, and I think we are losing ground in that region simply because they are overawed by gunboats and small parties that come out from Smithland and steal everything that they can lay their hands upon. Please send the requisitions back to Maj. V. K. Stevenson as soon as possible.

Yours, very respectfully,

R. W. MacGAVOCK, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding at Fort Donelson.

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HUNTSVILLE, November 5, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

A dispatch just received from Secretary of War directs me to move my troops to Pensacola and Mobile, where they will be temporarily {p.520} armed for the defense of those points, respectively; to be returned, however, to your department so soon as they can be permanently armed.

L. P. WALKER, Brigadier-General.

While dispatching the above I received yours of this date. I have no armed troops.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 5, 1861.

Brigadier-General WALKER, Huntsville, Ala.:

Your telegram of the 4th received. Send your unarmed men to General Bragg. Your armed men must move, as General Johnston has before-ordered, to General Zollicoffer. He cannot spare them. Telegraph these instructions to the War Department.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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KNOXVILLE, November 5, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

Reliable information received that the enemy in large force is at the Tennessee line, moving on Jacksborough. Re-enforcements should be sent to this point immediately.

W. B. WOOD, Colonel, Commanding.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 5, 1861.

Information through prisoners captured that enemy-8,000-are near London, fortifying against apprehended attack.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 5, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I have no recent information of the enemy. Examinations of the mountains east and west of this gap for miles disclose various footpaths, requiring obstructions and sentinels in case an enemy should attempt to throw light infantry over them. Having put in train every means of defense which occurs to me, and left Col. James E. Rains in command of the post, with his regiment, that of Colonel Churchwell, and a battalion of the Sixteenth Alabama Regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Harris, with seven cavalry companies to watch the roads to Barboursville, Manchester, and Harlan Court-House, I will to-morrow morning proceed to Jacksborough and look to the necessary work at the gaps near there. Four regiments are in that neighborhood, and one at Wilson’s Gap, 20 miles this side. Four cavalry companies are scouting back on the roads into Kentucky from Jacksborough. The 6-pounder battery of eight guns (inclusive of the two Parrott guns) has been sent to Jacksborough, to be ready in case the enemy should advance on that road with artillery. In the event of approach in this direction, we have guns enough in fixed battery here to hold the enemy in check until the Parrott guns can be brought up and put in position.

{p.521}

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EIGHT P. M.

An express messenger is just in from Jacksborough, with dispatches from Captains Rowan and Ashby, of the cavalry. The former scouted to Huntsville and Chitwood’s, on the Kentucky line, took 2 prisoners near Huntsville, who state that there are 1,000 or 1,200 of the enemy encamped at or near Isabel’s Point, which I think is at the Forks of the Cumberland, under command of Colonel Hoskins. The latter took 2 prisoners from London, 1 of whom was at the Rockcastle Camp at the time of the fight. They say that the enemy are now 8,000 strong at London, fortifying, in anticipation of an attack from me.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 5, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD, Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: I will start for Jacksborough to-morrow, where there are five regiments. The letters you send me from Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan show that no force is advancing in that direction. The heavy movement he has information of “from Wild Cat to Crab Orchard” is in direction toward Camp Robinson, and not towards Jamestown or Jacksborough, and indicates a supporting movement to a concentration in front of General Buckner, as I have heretofore telegraphed General Johnston. My scouts from Jacksborough and Big Creek Gap out to Kentucky hear of no advance in that direction; but prisoners taken represent the enemy as fortifying near London, in apprehension of an attack from me. The man you mentioned who circulated the report of the approach of 30,000 of the enemy near the East Tennessee line was doubtless a Lincolnite, and ought to have been arrested.

I regret that you hurried a request to the Government for a regiment before applying to me for aid. Colonels Stanton and Murray have been ordered to Jamestown by General Johnston, and are, I hope, by this time there. The regiments here and at Jacksborough are busily employed making defensive works at the gaps, and I should regret to detail a single regiment unnecessarily; but if you still think the indications around you are of so pressing a character, write to me at Jacksborough, and I will send you a regiment without delay.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CAMP MCGINNIS, November 5, 1861.

General ZOLLICOFFER:

SIR: I had information from my pickets this morning, who were up the road within 10 miles of Monticello yesterday evening at sundown. There were at the town Federal troops; the number and character they could not ascertain. I have sent a strong picket to-day up both roads to Monticello, also to Albany. They have sent in a messenger at dark, and report that they have made no discovery of the approach of the enemy. I directed the different pickets to go as far up the roads as would be safe, and report back to-night or early in the morning. I shall dispatch again to-morrow, if we ascertain the movements of the {p.522} enemy. From the information I had yesterday of the approach of the Federal forces, and the small force here and the uncertainty of being re-enforced in time, I sent the most valuable stores at Jamestown to Mr. Bledsoe, 18 miles on the road to Pikeville, under a guard. I am here at this camp, having fallen timbers in the other approaches, determined, if the enemy should present himself here, to annoy them and retard their advance to the last.

Since writing the above a messenger has arrived with reports from Monticello, with information that there are no forces of the enemy below Monticello, and perhaps none nearer than Camp Goggin, except their pickets. I had a note from Colonel Murray this evening, informing me that he would be up here in a day or so. I would again suggest, if we have the forces, we should move into Kentucky from this point. Let me hear from you.

Yours, truly,

GEO. R. MCCLELLAN, Lieutenant-Colonel.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 6, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President C. S. A.:

SIR: You will remember with what reluctance I consented to accept the commission of major-general in the Provisional Army. You will remember also that the considerations inducing my acceptance were the duty which I felt I owed the country at whose hands I had received a military education, in connection with the difficulty of your finding a commander to whom you were willing to intrust the department you wished to assign to me. These considerations, supported by the conviction that “resistance to tyrants is duty to God,” warranted my turning aside from employments far more congenial to my feelings and tastes to devote myself for the time to the military service of the country.

I have been in that service now more than four months, and have devoted myself with untiring constancy to the duties of my office, with what efficiency and success the country must judge.

Within the last few weeks you have been able to avail yourself of a distinguished military commander, our mutual friend, who was not in the country at the date of my appointment, upon whom you have devolved, partly at my instance, the duties of the office I consented to fill.

It will be agreed, I believe, upon all hands, that a more judicious selection could not have been made, and that his military knowledge and experience will supply all that was needed. I have been willing to remain as second in command until the fortifications at Fort Pillow and this very important point were completed. This has now been substantially accomplished, and I feel that, as the necessity which induced me to take office no longer exists, and as the other general officers with whom I have been associated are men of ability and experience, I may be permitted to retire and resume my former pursuits.

I beg leave, therefore, to tender to you my resignation of my commission as major-general of the Provisional Army of the Confederate States.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.523}

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., November 6, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. A., Bowling Green:

SIR: The arrival of the Texas battalion of infantry relieves me somewhat in that arm, but still leaves me very inefficiently provided with the important arm of cavalry in a position such as this, and without which I cannot render the important service I might. The enemy, now a little more quiet (rendered so by the late low water in the Cumberland), on my left, will, now that the river has risen again very much, carry out their designs with their new gunboats, and endeavor to try the metal of Fort Donelson, with a cavalry force to move on my left again. These are their designs I know; and their preparations at Smithland prove the fact. The cavalry force is intended, I have no doubt, to prevent the delivery here and at Clarksville of a large number of hogs and beeves collecting at various points in the counties above. In looking at the military defenses of this county [country?], I keep in mind a wholesome amount of these two important sinews, and when I solve the problem thus, that the necessary force to guard my front and give me security here attains the end of covering these vast supplies, I can see in my own mind full justification of a reiteration of my request to have a force of not less than 500 cavalry sent at once to me.

My scout in the direction of Ashbysburg (within 5 miles) returned last evening; a large re-enforcement has left Owensborough, and another regiment from Henderson. At 7 p.m. last night a courier from a safety committee at Henderson reached me. It is known there that the force referred to above is intended for this place. I feel that with such a number of sick, with but little improvement for the last three days, owing, I suppose, to this terrible weather, having now 750 cases, I cannot remove them, at any rate not until the weather improves. The thing is impossible, having any regard for the lives of not less than 500, who are too low to move with any chance of success. Again, the importance of a force here is immense and better appreciated from my stand-point here than from anywhere else. I need not only more force, but I need some person besides myself to rely on in case of an accident. Should I fall, there is not a man, sir, who could manage over 100 men on the ground. They are good men, but with no military knowledge. The raw troops are very raw, and it will take good handling to make them at all steady under the first fire in action. Can you not send me my old regiment, with Lyon at its head? Lyon and Anderson will be worth the mere force of many more men. Lyon knows this region, and it is a difficult one, and the men know it. This regiment, with part of, say, Adams’ cavalry and Captain Woodward’s company, is suggested respectfully. I am endeavoring to get the country people organized, but with not much success. Please reply by telegraph to Clarksville and write fully by mail.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

P. S.-I am just issuing a short proclamation. Will send copy tomorrow. I have written fully to Major Gilmer of the character of the new gunboats. They are very formidable; vastly more so than is generally considered.

{p.524}

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KNOXVILLE, November 6, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Six thousand of enemy at Monticello advancing on Jamestown. Our forces retreating. Railroad bridges in danger. My force insufficient to protect them.

W. B. WOOD, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 6, 1861.

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan, stationed near Jamestown, reports the enemy advancing in that direction, 6,000 strong; infantry, cavalry, and artillery.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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CUMBERLAND GAP, November 6, 1861.

Col. W. B. WOOD, Knoxville:

SIR: I will move as rapidly as possible with five regiments, the battery of artillery, and some cavalry, from Jacksborough, by way of Clinton, toward Montgomery and Jamestown. Get the commissary at Knoxville to forward subsistence to Clinton and the quartermaster to provide a train for it. Hurry McCluug with all practical preparations for his battery. McClellan seems to have gone to Pikeville. Communicate with him, and, if possible, with Stanton and Murray. Let them know our movement, that we may endeavor to co-operate. Enjoin upon them to report to me by every possible opportunity.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., November 7, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

SIR: Hurried on to this point by an order from yourself, I failed to conclude a report commenced at Clarksville. To show you the speed with which our companies were got together and hurried to this place, I need only say that I was at Nashville on the 20th of September on my way to Texas to assemble our companies. When but six of our companies were ready I received a dispatch from the Secretary of War, directing us to “proceed to Memphis as soon as possible and report to General A. S. Johnston.” This dispatch was dated the 4th of October. The companies came on as soon as they could; two days after them our seventh company set out, and one week after the eighth and ninth companies also commenced their march. One of these companies marched 400 miles, and the shortest distance made by any company on foot is nearly 200. We think we have a tenth company on the road. Immediately after seven companies reached Memphis we informed Colonel Walker, the commandant of the post, and let him know that we were partially armed, but not organized into a regiment. He stated to myself that he had informed you by telegraph that we were there {p.525} and “partially armed.” I received through him the order of General Johnston to proceed at once to Clarksville. I then dispatched to learn whether we should proceed as our companies arrived, or whether we should wait for our entire regiment. The reply came directing us to proceed as our companies arrived. We were out three whole nights in open cars and a steamboat; reached Clarksville in the morning, and it rained incessantly during the day, and our men were not in dry clothing whilst there. We received an order to march to General Tilghman’s aid, and came on as soon as we could exchange our guns, which were unfit for use, for others furnished by the military board, and get ammunition.

Except a number of sick men on the road our nine companies are all here. The number is 749. Five of our number died on the way. From exposure to cold and wet on our journey we have more coughs and colds than I ever saw among the same number of memo. Under General Tilghman’s direction we will organize and elect our officers to-day or to-morrow. We have the consent of the Secretary of War to that purpose.

Upon my arrival at this place I immediately made to Brigadier-General Tilghman a report concerning our arms as full as I can now make it. Captain Van Zandt’s company have 13 double-barreled shot-guns and 16 rifles in good order. They also have 9 double-barreled shotguns and 25 rifles out of repair. Capt. H. B. Granbury’s company have no guns that they brought with them. Capt. W. B. Hill’s company have 19 double-barreled guns and 8 rifles in good order. They have 20 rifles and 14 double-barreled guns out of repair, Capt. W. H. Smith’s company have 69 muskets in good order, but without equipments. These were guns loaned by the State of Louisiana to the State of Texas. Capt. Jack Davis’ company have 16 rifles, 3 of which are out of order, and 16 double-barreled shot-guns, 2 of which are out of order. They brought other guns from Texas, but all their guns were appraised at Clarksville, and the number of those left cannot now be ascertained. Capt. R S. Camp’s company have one musket, without equipments, 27 double-barreled shot-guns and 11 rifles, all here and in good order. They also have 31 double-barreled shot-guns and rifles (number of each kind not known) which were left at Clarksville. Capt. Win. L. Moody’s company have 3 muskets, 13 double-barreled shot-guns, and 26 rifles, all here and in good order. They also have 12 other guns (kind not known) left at Clarksville. Capt. E. T. Broughton’s company have 31 muskets similar to those of Captain Smith’s company, and obtained from the same source. They have also one rifle. Capt. John Brown’s company had guns as follows, viz: 32 rifles, 12 double-barreled shotguns, 3 Mississippi rifles, and 2 yagers; all of which were appraised by the military board at Clarksville, as I am informed, and the men paid for them. Captain Brown’s men had other guns, which they sold at Memphis, as I am informed. This company was behind. The guns left by us at Clarksville were those not fit for immediate use; and in the hurry of departure we could not bring them. I sent back for them in order that they might be valued, but the military board refused to deliver some of them to the officer sent by me. Some he obtained. The board had loaned us other guns.

There is nothing for me to communicate now except that we are here by order of Brigadier-General Tilghman.

Very respectfully,

JOHN GREGG, Acting for Texas Volunteers.

{p.526}

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CLARKSVILLE, November 7, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green:

SIR: I hope you will not consider me importunate, but the condition of things at Fort Donelson demands immediate attention. There are there about 800 cavalry and 500 infantry, and great want of organization and drill. They have not men enough to form a regiment, and no sort of order prevails. Some of the cavalry might be transferred to Tilghman, and five more companies of infantry ought to be sent there (to Donelson), so as to organize a regiment immediately. Captain Sugg’s Company, now ready to march, already sworn in and armed, can go to Donelson at any moment. There is another company at Camp Cheatham, Dr. J. B. Walton, commander, could also be transferred there. They have no arms, but are sworn in the service. Three other companies cam be organized in a few days if proper energy is used.

The guns at Donelson are wholly unprotected, as they were at the date of my last letter, and will probably remain so till the regiment is organized and some one is in command who will push on the work to completion. Captain Dixon is ready and willing to work, but he is not sustained. I strongly urge that Sugg’s and Walton’s companies be ordered immediately to Donelson, and the regiment be put in an organized condition as soon as possible. The abatis is finished at Donelson, but no work done to protect the guns. They are in a very exposed condition, for we learn the enemy’s gunboats have passed the place on the river where Captain Harrison sunk the barges. They constitute an ineffectual blockade, as our board here are advised.

Truly, your obedient servant,

G. A. HENRY.

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., November 7, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

SIR: The completeness of the artillery arm is so difficult to obtain that I have sent Lieutenant Dunlap to Clarksville and on to Nashville and Bowling Green, with a view to looking into the condition of the batteries being sent forward from Nashville.

Captain Griffith, commanding a battery, has arrived at Clarksville, but in a very incomplete condition; thus six pieces, with harness for four teams; about ten rounds of fixed ammunition to each gun, and none of the et ceteras. Lieutenant Baxter, with 60 men and no guns, is at Clarksville. Lieutenant Dunlap is instructed to make requisition for everything to furnish completely two batteries, and I beg you will favor the application. You will have received the report of a board ordered to examine the pieces of artillery now here. I desire that they be replaced at once by new pieces. I repeat the request, that the general commanding allow me to draw from the depots at Nashville and Memphis for all supplies until I equip my command. I will confine myself strictly to what is allowable by regulations. I am preparing pay rolls for commutation, clothing, money, and unless the depots can supply me with clothing I will have my own quartermaster to have them made. I need funds for quartermaster’s department for purchase of wagons, mules, harness, forage, and horses for artillery commands. The estimate will go forward to-day. I am purchasing, and promise to pay as long as funds can be had. The estimate for commissary department goes forward {p.527} to-day. I can purchase largely here and at fair rates, saving hauling and delays. I need supplies from ordnance departments, such as sabers and pistols, which I think can be furnished better from Memphis than Nashville, if the permission asked for be granted.

Respectfully, yours,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., November 7, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

SIR: I have started (yesterday) a small cavalry force in the direction of Ashbysburg, to control, if possible, the marauding parties of the enemy, who are inflicting terrible injuries on the Southern men. I hope to be able to accomplish something, but really fear my own weakness. A small party will join them from here to-night to head off their retreat by the only route they can escape me. I can do nothing with my weak cavalry force in preventing the driving off of hogs and cattle from the counties north of me. I hope you appreciate this matter.

The gunboat has passed behind me to Dover, and I think, from the firing, has tried Fort Donelson.

The health of my command is improving under the influence of a little system.

Respectfully, yours,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 7, 1861.

Brigadier-General ZOLLICOFFER, Knoxville:

Your telegrams of 5th and 6th instant just received. The movement of the enemy by Jamestown route appears to the general decided; his fortifying at London is perfectly reconcilable with this view.

He will not give orders at this distance, but will only suggest that, holding the gap by your breastworks and a small force, you concentrate to meet the enemy on your left, if you have not already done so.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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JACKSBOROUGH, November 7, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

Four regiments here; one 10 miles back. Battalion of Alabama regiment left Cumberland Gap yesterday morning. All moving to try to intercept enemy before he descends the mountain. Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan flying in direction of Pikeville. Stanton and Murray not heard from. Re-enforcements should be sent to London.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

{p.528}

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 8, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: The great superiority of the enemy’s force has enabled him to place a heavy column, estimated at 20,000 men, in front of me, and to concentrate auxiliary forces of Kentuckians, supported by Federal troops, on my right and left, threatening flank movements. One of these movements has for its object Nashville, Tenn., which is one of our principal depots, where large supplies of subsistence for the army East and West are accumulated, and valuable manufactories of arms, powder, clothing, &c., are established and in successful operation. The object of the other movement is the breaking up of the Memphis and Ohio Railroad, and the occupation of Clarksville, Tenn., which, if effected, turns the right of the column under General Polk’s command.

The effectiveness of the force here is considerably diminished by sickness (in most cases measles), and the same cause has left but a small portion of General Tilghman’s command at Hopkinsville, Ky., fit for duty.

These considerations have induced me to draw 5,000 men from General Polk’s command to cover the defenses of Clarksville. The Cumberland River defenses will also be thus provided for, besides enabling me to drive back the forces of the enemy concentrating at Hartford, north of Green River, designed, I think, to operate against Clarksville and Russellville, both of which are on the Memphis and Ohio Railroad.

Three regiments will garrison the fort at Columbus. After deducting them and the force ordered to Clarksville, 10,000 or 11,000 effective men will be left under General Polk’s command; a sufficient force for the defense of his front for the present, but munch less than I would suggest for the contingencies of the future.

The country between Columbus and the Tennessee River is generally covered by a heavy forest with undergrowth and is intersected by numerous roads. It can be defended by a force inferior to the invading force. I am not apprised that the force of the enemy which may be put in motion in his front is superior to that of General Polk.

The iron-clad gunboats of the enemy have appeared in the Cumberland River, but were prevented from ascending higher than near Eddyville by obstructions lately placed there by order of General Polk. Boats loaded with stones and sunk on the shoals have also been placed in the river at Line Port.

Twelve miles above Line Port is the site of Fort Donelson. By this time it is in a state of defense, having, besides other guns of less caliber, four 32-pounders and a sufficient garrison. I have also sent to that point four other 32-pounder guns.

Fort Henry is located on the Tennessee River, about 12 miles from Fort Donelson. It is a strong work, and sufficiently garrisoned by an excellent regiment. There is a small supporting force at each of these forts, consisting at Fort Donelson of one regiment of cavalry and at Fort Henry of one regiment of infantry.

I find it extremely difficult to acquire reliable intelligence of the movements of the enemy, except that which the activity of our scouts enables them to furnish, and would be glad to have $5,000 deposited in a Nashville bank to my credit for secret service.

I beg leave to ask that the staff of the disbursing department, particularly the commissary department, may be supplied at the earliest practicable moment with money.

{p.529}

Extensive preparations have and are being made at Nashville, under the medical director, for the accommodation of the sick, who will be sent to that place at the rate of 250 per day, and more if practicable, till they are conveyed hence.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

This letter has been delayed in consequence of the cutting the direct railroad communication.

Since this was written General Polk has gained a victory over the Federal troops opposite Columbus. They were routed with great loss, and I now consider his situation better than before the conflict.

The movements of the enemy now clearly indicate the correctness of the views expressed in the first part of this dispatch. I therefore find still greater reason for bringing forward the troops ordered from Columbus. Their movement has been delayed by the battle, but I hope they will be in time to anticipate the enemy. I have received information that a gunboat of the enemy has been enabled by a rise in the Cumberland to pass over the obstructions placed in the river.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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MEMPHIS, November 8, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

My guns will not be ready in three weeks. I might in the mean time be of assistance to General Polk if he can furnish me with guns. Have 1,700 men ready for the field.

WM. H. CARROLL, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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KNOXVILLE, TENN., November 8, 1861.

His Excellency President DAVIS:

DEAR SIR: Many friends here have urged me to address your excellency this note. Heretofore I have declined to do so, on account of the extreme delicacy I feel in suggesting anything to the Government in regard to which it is to be presumed they are fully informed. What I have to say is in regard to General Zollicoffer’s perilous position at Cumberland Gap, and the danger of invasion by the Lincoln forces of East Tennessee by way of Jamestown, Fentress County, Tennessee.

It is thought here, by all who are acquainted with things in East Tennessee, that re-enforcements, if practicable, ought to be sent forthwith. It is, I fear, a grand mistake to suppose the Union party in East Tennessee has lost its hostility to the Confederacy. At the election day before yesterday, with perfect unanimity, that party refused to cast a vote for men who had been its late leaders, because they were running for seats in the Confederate Congress; and if a force shall be thrown into East Tennessee or on the line, which now seems probable, and which General Zollicoffer is unable to defeat, the flames of rebellion will flash throughout East Tennessee, the railroad will be destroyed, the bridges burned, and other calamities not necessary to mention will {p.530} follow. I regard the state of affairs, from all the information I possess, as perilous.

Would it be consistent with the interest of the public service elsewhere and the security of the army on the Potomac to send Colonel Vaughn’s regiment, and indeed the brigade of which his regiment is one, to re-enforce General Zollicoffer? If not, could there be any other troops sent to East Tennessee from any other quarter?

Any volunteers that might be raised here would be wholly inefficient for want of arms.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LANDON C. HAYNES.

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TEN MILES FROM JACKSBOROUGH, November 8, 1861.

I am pressing on to meet the enemy somewhere between Montgomery and the foot of the mountain towards Kingston, supposing they are making for Loudon Bridge. A reliable citizen from Huntsville, Tenn., just in, reports there general impression that the enemy are sending in a force by Chitwood’s, from Williamsburg and Cumberland Gap, in addition to the 6,000 by Monticello.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS AT OLIVER’S, Twenty-three miles from Montgomery, November 8, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond:

SIR: On the 4th instant Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan sent me a dispatch, stating that he had information “entirely reliable” that 6,000 of the enemy-1,500 cavalry and the balance infantry and artillery-were encamped in 5 miles of Monticello, and were advancing towards Jamestown. He stated that he knew nothing of the whereabouts of Colonels Stanton and Murray, and that he had determined to retire with his cavalry force towards Pikeville, fearing he might be cut off if he attempted to retreat towards Montgomery.

I inferred that the enemy’s force would advance towards Loudon Bridge, through Montgomery, and conceived the plan of intercepting them at Winter’s Gap, in a mile of this place, or at the pass down the mountain, 18 miles from here, on the road from Montgomery to Kingston. I sent cavalry forward to pass up both roads and ascertain which way they were coming, I got the news two days ago at Cumberland Gap, and reached here this evening with my disposable force, a distance of 71 miles, one regiment having started from that gap and got up to within 15 miles of this position.

Just as I entered the road from Knoxville to Montgomery a messenger was passing from Colonel McClellan to Colonel Wood, at Knoxville, and I found he had a dispatch for me, stating that the information he had given on the 4th was founded in error. This letter is dated yesterday. He says there is a camp of the enemy 5 miles east of Monticello, but he does not know its strength or character. His pickets have been into Monticello. He is encamped at Camp McGinnis, 8 or 9 miles north of Jamestown. He says that he has not heard {p.531} of Stanton and Murray for two days, but understands they are approaching.

I have determined to fall back to Jacksborough and completely blockade the two wagon roads through the mountains in that neighborhood. I have written to Stanton, Murray, and McClellan to unite their forces, and make a stand in a strong position, if they can find it, where the wagon road ascends the mountain from Monticello to Jamestown, forming intrenchments for the infantry commanding the pass. I left the regiments of Colonels Churchwell and Rains at Cumberland Gap, busily engaged in completing the works there. Within a week or ten days I think the defenses there will be very strong. I think the Jacksborough routes can soon be made effectively impassable, and then I hope to move by the Jamestown route and advance.

If you will examine the topography of the country you will perceive I have passed to this point along a valley at the foot of the mountain. The road is good. To pass from Jacksborough direct to Huntsville or Montgomery or Jamestown direct, I would have to pursue a mountain road, poor and broken, and the mountain is generally 30 or 40 miles wide.

Very respectfully,

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

(Same to Col. W. W. Mackall.)

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 9, 1861.

Brigadier-General HARDEE, First Division:

General Johnston orders you to send to-morrow morning 1,200 infantry and one half-section of artillery (including one howitzer), under an intelligent officer, to Jamestown and Tompkinsville. This force will be increased by a squadron from Colonel Terry’s command. This is the information reported to the general, viz: There are 400 or 500 of the enemy in Jamestown, and an additional force supposed to be at Tompkinsville. The orders to be given to the commanders are these, viz: Go to Jamestown, and if the enemy are there, and not in too great force, attack and destroy them. Proceed to Tompkinsville and do the same thing. Inform him in advance that he moves through a wooded country, and his infantry should cover his cavalry and artillery, with the exception of a few troops with the advanced guard to act as messengers. If possible examine the roads leading to Gallatin, as it is reported that attempts will be made by the enemy to reach and cut the railway in that district. Report from time to time, and return to this place as soon as these orders are executed or it is apparent they cannot be. Create the impression in the country that this force is only an advance guard.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, Ky., November 9, 1861.

General POLK, Columbus:

The general wishes to know by telegraph your opinion of the sufficiency of your present supply of cannon powder.

{p.532}

Below you have a telegram of the burning of bridges at Chattanooga (this has been done by the population-no enemy’s troops are in that part of Tennessee), viz:

One railroad bridge five miles from Chattanooga, on Georgia road, burned, and also another between Chattanooga and Cleveland. Telegraph lines, both routes, torn down. Thus railroad and telegraph cut off beyond Chattanooga. Can still telegraph to Richmond via New Orleans.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 9, [1861.

Major-General POLK, Columbus:

The necessity for General Pillow’s force at Clarksville is greater now than when ordered. The general hopes that no delay beyond that caused by the battle of the 7th instant will be made. You have reported no imperious necessity for suspension of the order, and your decisive victory has doubled your forces. Seventy-six cars and eight locomotives will be at Paris for the troops Monday night.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 10, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

SIR: I now renew my reply * to your favor of 22d ultimo on some points not before answered.

1st. I concur entirely in your view about the arrangement of the commissariat at Nashville, and I have ordered Capt. T. K. Jackson’s promotion to major in the Commissary Department, and specie has been ordered up from Savannah to be sent to him, so that he may obtain Kentucky bank notes for his purchases.

2d. The President and Cabinet consider that the act of Congress prohibiting the exportation of certain commodities from the Confederacy except through seaports is not applicable to such portions of Kentucky as are held by our armies under military rule. At the same time the policy of the Government would be violated by introducing articles not required for the consumption of the people. We therefore suggest, as the best plan, that you announce that you will issue licenses to loyal Kentuckians within your lines for the introduction of such Southern products as sugar, molasses, rice, &c. (but not cotton or naval stores), as shall suffice for the consumption of the inhabitants, taking care not to allow any to cross your lines into the section of the country occupied by the enemy.

3d. Whatever may be our rights, if we consider Kentucky to be in a state of war against us, it is not considered politic to exercise them as regards any taxation of the inhabitants. On the contrary, we think it would be advisable to issue a proclamation declaring that your army will protect the people against the collection of a tax to which they have not consented, and which has been imposed on them by a body of men assuming to be their legislators, but who were compelled by {p.533} the threats and duress of despotic power to levy taxes known to be in opposition to the will of the people, and intended for the prosecution of a war against their brethren which the people of Kentucky have solemnly denounced as unjust and unconstitutional at a time when they were able to express their will unawed by the legislature.

4th. Since my last letter the President has, as you requested, appointed Major Stewart a brigadier-general. You had written his name Stuart, and we were unable to find out who the officer was, till a letter from himself enabled us to locate him.

5th. The President has also appointed General Crittenden to be major-general, to take command of the Cumberland Gap district, where we hope to send re-enforcements almost immediately, and where the command will be too large for a brigadier. He will report to you by letter. With the addition of these two generals to Generals Breckinridge and Marshall, recently appointed, it is supposed that the number of your general officers will be sufficiently increased to enable you to organize your forces effectively for the present, and avoid the necessity for further appointments till the developments of the campaign shall indicate which of your officers really merit promotion to such high rank.

6th. I fear it will not be possible to appoint a colonel for the Third Kentucky Regiment to succeed General Tilghman, as proposed by you. The lieutenant-colonel has a right to promotion under the law, unless incompetent, and in that event the major must be promoted over him, just as in the regular service. The promotion must take place, unless you are able to report that there is no commissioned officer in the regiment competent to be colonel, in which event the President would be justified in making an outside appointment.

A petition has been sent to the President by the chamber of commerce of Memphis, remonstrating against the action of General Polk in interfering with the free commerce in grain. This action of General Polk is not approved by the Government, and is in violation of the policy we have made it a special point to pursue in all parts of the Confederacy. Our people have been so generous and cordial in yielding their support, and have been so unstinting in their sacrifices and contributions in this war, that it is due to them that the utmost confidence be reposed in their patriotism and readiness to aid in the supply of the Army. We prefer to buy at somewhat high prices to making any seizure or impressment of property. We have left commerce free in everything but the arms and munitions of war indispensable for defense. There is no danger of any deficiency in the supply of bread. It can always be procured at reasonable prices. Our people are jealous of their liberties, and impatient of any control over their private rights not clearly necessary. For these reasons the President thinks there was error of judgment in the embargo laid by General Polk on the trade in grain, and he desires that the obstruction to free commerce imposed by that embargo be removed.

We have as yet received only telegraphic dispatches of the results of the battle of Belmont, but enough is known to inspire us with liveliest joy, and to make us impatient for such further details as will enable us to express to the generals and their gallant troops our high sense of their conduct.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

P. S.-A return of your forces, stated by you to be inclosed in a letter written to General Cooper, has not been-found, and your adjutant

* See November 3, p. 502.

{p.534} must have omitted it in closing the letter. Please send it immediately, as I am preparing estimates for appropriation at the session of Congress which is close at hand.

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JACKSBOROUGH, November 10, 1861, (via KNOXVILLE, 11th.)

General S. COOPER:

Colonel Churchwell, Cumberland Gap, writes that General Nelson was advancing on the 3d from Hazel Green, Ky., on Prestonburg, and Colonel Williams fell back to Piketon. Information received from Kentuckians passing through Pound Gap.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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TREDEGAR IRON WORKS, Richmond, November 11, 1861.

The Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

SIR: The inclosed letter from an influential gentleman of Memphis, Tenn., speaks for itself, and believing that you fully appreciate the position of matters at the point referred to, we have nothing to add to the contents of Colonel Tate’s letter.

We have the honor to be, the Secretary’s most obedient servants,

J. R. ANDERSON & CO.

[Inclosure.]

HUNTSVILLE, ALA., November 2, 1861.

JOHN P. TANNER, Of Messrs. J. B. Anderson & Co., Richmond, Va.:

I have just returned from Kentucky, and from the best information I could get I am satisfied that Zollicoffer’s command is in great danger, and Virginia and the Army of the Potomac are in great peril of being cut off by the line of road in Eastern Tennessee falling into the hands of our enemies, and unless the Government will send re-enforcements to that point, and that without delay, we are in the utmost peril. We have as much as we can do to protect Nashville and Memphis, and cannot spare a man. We now have ten or twelve regiments in the field without a gun. There is no want of men, but we are ruined unless we get guns. Go to your friends who have influence with the War Department, and urge them to help Zollicoffer, and do it speedily, unless they are willing to be cut off from the West, and suffer disaster and ruin. I regard this the most dangerous point we now have. There are as many enemies in the rear as in front. Do not delay. Cannot some of the troops in Western Virginia go into winter quarters at Cumberland Gap as well as anywhere else? We look alone to the Department to support this point. Walker’s brigade here cannot move for want of guns. Johnston has ordered it to support Zollicoffer, but Walker says he has not a gun and cannot move, and does not know when he can.

Yours, truly,

SAM. TATE.

{p.535}

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., November 11, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

SIR: I am glad to be able to report “improvement” in my whole command, and the gradual assuming of form and energy in every department. A thorough change in my entire hospital arrangement, by the use of appropriate buildings and the procurement of proper supplies, aided by thorough police, has produced the results usually attainable through such means. The cheerful and able assistance rendered me by those of my own staff, as well as many of the regimental officers, is deserving of high commendation. The command, however, is yet very insufficient for the objects I know you would desire to have attained, and as it seems my only hope is in a patient waiting for re-enforcements, I can only hope I may now he allowed a little respite from the constant danger, real, that has surrounded me for the last ten days.

The movements referred to in your last communication-the crossing of Federal troops over Green River-were watched by my scouts, who were thrown out as far as within 9 miles of Ashbysburg, and also to Pond River Bridge, on the road from Greenville to Madisonville. As the scouts retired by way of Madisonville and Nebo towards Princeton, Shackelford occupied Madisonville with 500 infantry and 300 of Jackson’s cavalry, whilst some 300 more of Jackson’s cavalry crossed Pond River at the point referred to above, coming out from Greenville; they (the latter) advanced to “White Plains” (see the map). The best information I could get led me to believe that there was a force of some two regiments of infantry moving up behind then from Greenville, or more likely from Calhoun, by way of Millport and Clark Cross-Roads, the whole of both forces to concentrate on Hopkinsville, by the Madisonville and White Plains roads.

The relative position of parties here described was that held this morning at 3 o’clock. I got a good position to meet them in, and could have successfully handled them, I am well assured. My right, composed of the Third Mississippi and Kentucky battalion, under Colonel Davidson, resting on the right of the Greenville road, just south of the bridge (a very strong position), to be assisted by three pieces of artillery. My left, composed of the First Mississippi and a battalion of Texans, rested on the Madisonville road near Brenaugh Bridge, supported by three pieces of artillery. The center was held by the seven remaining companies of Texans on a cross road connecting the right and left, with one piece of artillery. The latter force was intended as a reserve, inasmuch as its front could not be reached easily, and the cross road gave easy access to the right or left. A small cavalry force co-operated with each body, and a small force left in the town.

Much to the chagrin of the men we were relieved at 5 o’clock of our anxiety by a messenger from Madisonville, giving me reliable information that the enemy, becoming alarmed, struck camp and retired precipitately to Ashbysburg; the Greenville force (exaggerated) having gone northward also. I still hold my positions on the two roads, retiring the Texan regiment back to town, and shall do so until my next messenger arrives, when I will resume my original ground. I will send you a map, which will give you full details. General Buckner will understand the ground I took. I do not complain of this disappointment; the men are instructed better in this way, and a repetition of it insures alacrity and vigilance. I never saw men more enthused and at the same time more steady. The scout referred to in the first part {p.536} of this, hearing of the crossing near Dyersburg, on the Cumberland, of one of those predatory bands of Germans (59) from Smithland, continued on towards the Cumberland, came upon their rear retreating. They escaped, losing one man, whom our scouts ran into the river, where he was drowned. The scout commanded by Captain Meriwether, a most valuable man, rendered good service throughout, especially in reassuring our people in a measure, and checking an attempt by the enemy to drive off stock.

I should remark that the beginning of the stampede at Madisonville was occasioned by the arrival, by an unexpected road of the Jackson Cavalry advance from White Plains. The cry was raised by some one “the rebels are coming.” The shock was too violent, as one messenger declared, and they concluded to retire. Upon hearing of this whole movement by the enemy, I promptly sent a courier to the commanding officer at Russellville, requesting him, if practicable, to advance a small force towards Sulphur Lick, and cut off the retreat of any part of their force taking the Greenville road.

Should my force go on improving as it has done in the last few days, I feel satisfied that, with security against a fire in my rear from the Cumberland, I could deal them a heavy blow on Green River.

I am collecting by a simple process the means of transportation for my brigade, so that I may be able to act if circumstances permit. I would be glad to have some instructions on this point, so that I may not act too much at variance with the commanding general’s views. You will remember that I came without instructions from him, save a verbal one. I have started with thins people just as I mean to continue. The community are very bitter, and gave me much trouble at first. I have tightened the screws until I have them in complete control. The Federal troops have arrested many inoffensive Southern men, one of whom was whipped most unmercifully after being taken to Henderson, and then sent to New York Harbor. I have retaliated so far as the arrest goes, only arresting those, however, who are actively engaged in aiding our enemies. I have been obliged to arrest to-day three of the citizens of this place, who were reported as being actively engaged in arranging with the Union men to rise behind me in case the enemy had advanced upon my position to-day. I shall hold them for a while at any rate.

I neglected to copy my communication before the last, and am not sure that I mentioned to you that, hearing from Nashville that the governor had men in camp, but no arms, I wrote to him in my strait here that I could arm 500 from arms I had here. To this he replied yesterday that he would send me the men. May I ask the commanding general’s approval of this? The men, I hear, will be here to-morrow. I can arm them well. The scouting parties have been successful in looking up the arms sent here to the Union men. A detachment came in to-day with two full boxes of new percussion muskets, which they dug out of a hole where a notorious character had buried them. With a view to greater efficiency, I have organized all the companies of Kentucky infantry into a battalion, and allowed them to elect, for temporary purposes, a lieutenant-colonel and major. There are nine companies in all, three of whom only have the requisite number authorized by law for a minimum company. The aggregate number is 586. I see not much chance to complete the regiment. It is the same that Colonel Burnett, I believe, was to command, and he does not seem to interest himself much in filling it up. I desire to have instructions particularly on this point. Captain Wilcox, who commands a very good cavalry company, {p.537} the same that was routed near Eddyville, represents to me that he needs some thirty horses to replace those taken by the enemy on that occasion. His company had been regularly mustered into service, but his horses were not valued. He lost quite a number of guns and saddles, bridles, &c. Captain Wilcox is a very efficient man. I desire some instructions also on this subject. The colonels of the First and Third Mississippi Regiments desire to know if, in making up their first pay rolls, they can embrace the period spent in the service of the State before being turned over to the Confederate States, inasmuch as the Confederate States were indebted to the State of Mississippi. My own reply was in the negative, but promised to lay the-matter before the commanding general. You will therefore please advise me what to do.

Can the brigade quartermaster arrange at once for the commutation for clothing for this command, so that he may be able to pay for what is being made and refund what has been advanced for clothing by other quartermasters, or in any way arrange for a speedy equipment of the army here? If this can be done, I can in two weeks have the command in perfect order. I shall send forward an estimate for pay of officers, and funds for quartermaster’s department, such as purchase of artillery horses, mules, wagons, forage, &c. Under my instructions, I am organizing thoroughly my transportation department, so that I shall have full amount in case of need in front or rear. I will send forward in a few days nominations for my staff. Having no quartermaster regularly commissioned, I have appointed an acting assistant quartermaster, and taken his bond for $30,000.

Requesting your earliest attention to the several points mentioned, I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding, C. S. Army.

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CAMP AT JAMESTOWN, KY., Monday Evening, [November] 11, 1861.

Maj. Gen. W. J. HARDEE:

GENERAL: We have just arrived safely at this point. I left in Scottsville one man hurt by falling from wagon and two sick. The people of Scottsville, as a general thing, appear to be with us. We had an enthusiastic reception. We took them by surprise. Not so here; they knew of our approach Saturday night, and seem bitterly hostile. Nearly every house has some member with friend in the Lincoln Army. We have forded some streams that in very rainy weather are impassable. One of our skirmishers of the advance guard saw 40 or 50 cavalry and infantry, doubtless of the enemy, within a mile of this camp. I have a party now on their track. We can get nothing from the inhabitants, except that the men are all absent and gone to some camp, but where the camp is I can’t find out. I will start on my mission early in the morning.

Since writing the above I have positive information that the enemy (probably in small force) are somewhere concealed in our neighborhood. You may rely on my taking every precaution. The country from here to Barren River is admirably adapted to a surprise. The ford over this river is from two to three feet deep. I will not have enough provision to last the expedition. I am just informed that there are 3,000 troops [at] {p.538} Campbellsville, between 2,500 and 3,000 at Columbia, and an equal number at Lebanon. Some people advise me to go home by Glasgow.

Respectfully,

P. R. CLEBURNE, Colonel, Commanding, &c.

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RICHMOND, November 11, 1861.

General HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Wytheville, Va.:

If Colonel Williams retires by Pound Gap road, you must make your forward movement from Abingdon, where your troops should be concentrated in the event. It is stated that Trigg’s regiment was to march to-day from Wytheville. It had better be kept back until you have definite and reliable information respecting Williams’ intentions. Reply by telegraph.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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WYTHEVILLE, 17 MILES FROM JEFFERSONVILLE, November 11, 1861.

General COOPER:

Colonel Williams reports two actions.* Ten killed on our side; 150 reported as enemy’s loss; but Williams retreated from Piketon on Pound Gap, and abandoned public property for want of transportation. Wytheville road now open to enemy. I shall keep Trigg’s regiment and the battery on this road, and order Moore to re-enforce Williams at Pound Gap. Wytheville must be covered. The enemy at Piketon 3,000 to 3,500 and main body behind. Give me two regiments at once, if possible, and another battery, and I will succeed quickly, and return what may be left. If this cannot be done, I will do all I can.

HUMPHREY MARSHALL.

* At Ivy Mountain and Piketon. See reports, pp. 227, 228.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 216.}

ADJT. AND INSP’R GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, Va., November 11, 1861.

1. Col. Danville Leadbetter, Provisional Army, is hereby assigned to the command of the troops to be stationed for the protection of the railroad between Bristol and Chattanooga, Tenn. He will reconstruct bridges, repair and keep open the line of communication between those points, and will call upon railroad companies for such aid as he may require to carry out this order.

...

3. Maj. Gen. G. B. Crittenden, Provisional Army, will immediately proceed to Cumberland Gap, Ky., and assume command of the troops in that district, reporting at once by letter to General A. S. Johnston at Bowling Green, Ky.

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.539}

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RICHMOND, VA., November 12, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

MY DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of November 6, which I had the pleasure to receive from your son, and to reply that I think the present condition of the service imperiously demands your continuance in the Army, at least until there is such change as will justify me in substituting you by another.

I did not expect General Johnston to relieve you of your special charge, nor is it possible that he should do so. His command embraces so great an extent of territory, that its successful defense must mainly depend upon the efficiency of the division commanders.

You are master of the subjects involved in the defense of the Mississippi and its contiguous territory. You have just won a victory, which gives you fresh claim to the affection and confidence of your troops. How should I hope to replace you without injury to the cause which you beautifully and reverently described to me when you resolved to enter the military service as equally that of our altars and our firesides? Whilst our trust is in God as our shield, He requires of us that all human means shall be employed to justify us in expecting His favor.

I must ask of you, then, to postpone your resignation, and to be assured that I will not forget your desire to resume your functions as bishop of a diocese of the church, and will be happy to gratify your wish as soon as the public welfare will permit.

Very respectfully, your friend,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 12, 1861.

General POLK, Columbus:

General Johnston’s order for railroad transportation to be at Paris yesterday morning was, he is told by Quartermaster Stevenson, countermanded from Columbus. He now directs the arrangements to be made by you to the end that cars may meet General Pillow at the time and place he may appoint. Add a regiment to his division, and send his force to Clarksville as speedily as possible. Tell General Pillow to be on his guard. It is here reported that the enemy have crossed Green River at Calhoun.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FIFTH KENTUCKY REGIMENT, Russellville, November 12, 1861.

Maj. GEORGE B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: A courier came in last night with a letter from General Tilghman, in which he stated that a body of troops was moving in his direction from Madisonville and Greenville; that about 200 cavalry had passed from Greenville to Pond River Bridge, and asking me to move a small force towards Sulphur Lick, with a small scout of cavalry to watch their flank and rear. I replied to the general that my force here was small; that I had no cavalry; but that I would try send out a mounted party in the direction he indicated. I then supposed I {p.540} could get a number of the citizens to turn out and unite with such men as I could mount, but when I started my men, after a delay far beyond the hour appointed, there were but six of them to be found. The party, 21 altogether, is too small to effect much, and [I] fear will be able to bring back but little information.

Up to Monday there was no considerable body of troops in Greenville. No troops at all have been stationed there, but scouting parties of from 25 to 75 men are almost daily sent into the place and several miles south of it. The force at Calhoun is large, by report 6,000 to 10,000, and a considerable body-2,000 infantry and 300 cavalry-is reported to have been moved in a southwardly direction. They have recruited largely from the second Congressional district, and Calhoun has no doubt been their place of rendezvous. There is no doubt that cavalry has been passed from some point to Pond River Bridge, and perhaps a larger force than stated above. My information as to scouting parties scouring Mecklenburg County and coming south of Greenville is reliable.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HUNT, Colonel, Commanding Fifth Kentucky Regiment.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 12, 1861.

J. G. M. RAMSEY, Esq., Knoxville, Tenn.:

SIR: I have had the honor to receive, through the President, your letter of the 4th instant.

The condition of East Tennessee is not unknown to the Confederate Government, and the safety of that section of our country, now threatened by the approach of the enemy, engages already our most earnest solicitude. No measure of precaution within our command shall be neglected, and the loyal citizens of East Tennessee may rest assured that every energy of the Government shall be exerted in their behalf and for the common cause in Tennessee, but it is impossible to withdraw General Elzey’s brigade at this time from the front of the enemy. The measures which have been taken in other directions for your defense will, I trust, convince you that this is unnecessary.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, November 12, 1861.

General HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Wytheville, Va.:

Your telegram of yesterday received. You must act according to your best judgment, on the most reliable information you have, without regard to my dispatch of yesterday.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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JEFFERSONVILLE, November 12, 1861-10 a.m.

Adjutant-General S. COOPER, Richmond:

SIR: I am this moment in receipt of your dispatch of the 11th, suggesting that “Trigg’s regiment had better be kept back until you (I) {p.541} have definite information respecting Williams’ intentions,” and “if Williams retires by Pound Gap your (my) forward movement must be from Abingdon, where your troops should be concentrated in that event.”

I left Wytheville the day before yesterday (Sunday, 10th), having ordered Moore to detach his major to move the two companies of his regiment which are on the road between Abingdon and Pound Gap immediately to Pound Gap, and to follow himself with the other five companies so soon as his arms arrived (for he had no arms for the five companies so late as last Sunday, and he had no blankets or overcoats, and I did not intend to wait for them). I ordered Trigg to move on this road with Jeffries’ battery so soon as his transportation arrived (expected to arrive Sunday, and did so arrive). I would not wait for the caisson any longer, but ordered the gun and ammunition to be brought along, and a squad to remain and bring up the empty caisson. I came forward alone, and met the courier at Sharon, 18 miles from Wytheville, returning from Williams, and received there the intelligence from Williams that he occupied the night of the 8th “in preparing to fall back in the direction of Pound Gap,” and that he should “fall back until I (he) can make a stand or am re-enforced. Our route will be towards Abingdon.”

I send inclosed herewith Colonel Williams’ letter to me,* remarking thereon that Colonel Williams was not personally in the action he describes, but it was fought by Capt. Jack May; and I have learned from very cool and intelligent soldiers who participated in the fight that the action lasted about three-quarters of an hour-300 on our side against 1,500 on the other side; our loss some 5 or 6 killed, 15 to 18 wounded; theirs very heavy-from 175 to 200 killed and wounded. Their force consisted solely of infantry and artillery. The ambuscade was very perfect, and the action a very decided success.

I have no means of knowing at this moment whether the enemy occupies Piketon, for from all I hear from credible sources I think he has cautiously taken just what has been abandoned to him. I do not mean to intimate that any point has been abandoned unwisely or precipitately, for I have no means of forming a military judgment on these points, and I appreciate the sense of responsibility under which an officer acts who has charge of an undisciplined and badly-armed force; yet I see no reason for alarm, exactly, in the events which have transpired in the movements from Prestonburg to Piketon, &c.

Colonel Williams does not account at all for one of the columns he heard was moving upon his flank, nor does he estimate the size of the other on John’s Creek. The central one is properly estimated at 1,500 in sight at the action of the 8th, which occurred 12 miles below Piketon, and it may be that this force all came from Paintsville or all came from Prestonburg. My speculation is that the enemy by this time has occupied Piketon, and this judgment is founded on the idea that he will do so when he finds it has been abandoned. Where will he then go? Will he pursue Williams to Pound Gap, or will he let Williams go, and come through what he supposes to be an unobstructed country down upon this road, pass Buchanan County, descend upon Richland, (20 miles from this point,) destroy the salt works and the railroad between Wytheville and Abingdon, and hold a position at Richland until re-enforced? This can be done, sir, by 300 cavalry, who would be perfectly unobstructed, and who could ravage all the country to the vicinity of Wytheville. The loss to us would be irreparable, for the whole Confederacy depends upon these salt works greatly.

{p.542}

I have gravely considered the duty before me under the light of your dispatch and my position, and have determined for the present not to alter my instructions to Colonel Trigg, who, I presume, is on his line of march to this point, at any rate, to-day. My reason is this: The town of Jeffersonville is situated on the headwaters of the Clinch River, 45 miles from Wytheville. From it to the westward open two valleys, which unite again in the county of Scott. Down one of these (the southern), running a little south of west, is a good turnpike valley road to Lebanon 38 miles, thence to Hansonville 7 miles, making hence to Hansonville 45 miles. The road from Abingdon to Hansonville is 21 miles, and the regiment moving from Abingdon to Pound Gap passes Hansonville on the way to Gladesville. The distance from Wytheville to Abingdon is 56 miles by the road, or to Hansonville from Wytheville 77 miles; to which add the day’s march of Trigg to return to Wytheville, 16 miles, makes 93 miles to go to Hansonville. By this point to Hansonville, from the end of this day’s march, 73 miles, to wit: 45 and 28=73; 50 that if I must go to Pound Gap road, and leave this country open, by this point from where Trigg is to-night is 20 miles nearer than to return by Wytheville. The wagons must move by the road, and the companies cannot go forward without the wagons. Transportation cannot be had at Abingdon; so Colonel Moore intimated to me at Wytheville. Again, 1 mile from this town to the southeast the road from the Tug Fork of Sandy comes into the road hence to Wytheville, and a force may be approaching by that route to cut this line of communication, though I do not know such is the fact.

From this point to Richland is 20 miles on the road to Piketon, and thence across to Lebanon road is 5 miles, but a bad road for wagons. At Richland the road to Piketon makes a turn northward towards Buchanan Court-House. At Richland my force would be within 30 miles of Hansonville, by which Moore must pass to the Pound Gap, and at that point I would cover the way to the salt works and Abingdon should the enemy follow the Wytheville road, which Colonel Williams leaves open, and yet pickets can communicate from the Tug Fork road. Richland is the wealthiest neighborhood in Tazewell County, and most productive.

My plan is to send forward scouts on the Tug Fork road to ascertain if any force is coming in that direction; to send forward force of scouts on the Wytheville road, to see if he approaches by that direction; to move Trigg and the battery to Richland, if proper to do so, and there to determine my course, whether to advance on Piketon by this road or to re-enforce Moore and Williams at Pound Gap, and contest that ground with the enemy, if he is pursuing Williams on that road. The people on this road are much alarmed at the aspect of affairs and have urged me to call out the militia. I know of no legal authority for me to do so, unless instructed by the President, and shall not exercise it unless so instructed. The officer in command of this brigade informs me he will send a messenger to Richmond, and I avail myself of the chance to send you this, requesting that you will consider my views, and unless your own mind is made up (I mean the Secretary’s, of course), that you will leave the movements here to my judgment and responsibility satisfied that I shall act only upon such reasons as have in view the public interest and the success of my arms. Had I listened to the spasmodic efforts of the popular mind I should have been launched into East Tennessee to guard the railroad and burning bridges or to defend Bristol. Dispatches and couriers have pursued me with the same intent. I mention this because I infer your own ear is assailed by the {p.543} same popular clamor-the offspring of excitement and alarm. I think it will be proper to avail ourselves of the militia, of which, I understand, this county can turn out about 500 and Buchanan about 150, and the counties west about an equal number, at least until the enemy is pressed beyond the gorges of the mountains should he attempt to pass them. I telegraphed you to let me have another battery, for which I made requisition while at Richmond. I repeat that request now; also, I request urgently that another regiment or two may be sent forward if they can be possibly spared from other important fields of service, until I can call on General Johnston and get two of the new Tennessee levies.

I am, dear sir, your obedient servant,

HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

N. B.-Please telegraph to me at once if you-dissent from my exercise of discretion, and courier will find me here to-morrow and next day; for I shall wait for Trigg, and can then turn him to Hansonville if you direct and order it so.

* See reports of engagement at Ivy Mountain, &c., November 8, 9, pp. 227, 228.

[Indorsement.]

General Marshall was telegraphed on the 12th to act according to his own judgment, on the most reliable information he might have, without regard to my dispatch of the 11th.

S. C.

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JACKSBOROUGH, November 12, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

Dispatch of 10th, from Pound Gap, says Colonel Williams is retreating, and expected at Gap that evening. Force of enemy, 3,000.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 13, [1861.]

General POLK, Columbus:

The enemy’s advance reported at Madisonville. The general wishes General Pillow’s advance hastened to Clarksville.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. B. BUCKNER, Commanding Second Division:

GENERAL: You will direct Maj. T. B. Munro, and Captain Boyd, assistant quartermaster, to take a subaltern and 10 men, to proceed to the building occupied as the Branch of the Bank of Kentucky at this place, and demand of H. Calvert, the cashier of said bank, the immediate surrender of all the books, papers, furniture, and the keys of the vaults, safes, drawers, and of building in his possession or in that of any other person connected with or about the bank. If the president of the bank, Mr. James Hines, or any of the directory thereof, be present, let him or them receive anything so surrendered, provided they {p.544} assent to the terms stated in the accompanying paper, which you will exhibit to them. If he or they are not present, send for them, deliver it to them. If they do not appear, or being present refuse to receive the same, you will lock up the building and place a guard over it. After your demand of the cashier, do not permit him or any other person in the bank to have access to any book, vault, safe, drawer, or paper; and, upon securing the surrender, you will cause the cashier and all others employed with him therein to leave the building, except the president and directors above named, if they be present.

The officer having executed this order will report to you the fact and manner of its execution.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

It has been deemed proper by General Johnston to withdraw the management of the Branch of the Bank of Kentucky at this place from Mr. Calvert, the cashier, and to remove him and others employed with him entirely from any participation in it. Being desirous to protect the interest of depositors, bill and stock holders in the bank, he desires you to take charge upon the following conditions:

1st. That a careful inventory be made of the deposits in the bank, discriminating between those strictly private and those in the name of the State of Kentucky, or any other State, or any agent of them, or officer acting under their authority, to be returned to him.

2d. That the specie on hand be counted, and as well as the bills of other banks.

3d. That specie payment of the bills of said bank or any other bank be suspended.

BOWLING GREEN, Ky., November 13, 1861.

We, the undersigned, directors of the Branch Bank of Kentucky at Bowling Green, hereby assent to the within terms, and agree to receive the keys of the building, vaults, &c., now delivered to the president, Mr. James Hines, by Maj. T. B. Munro, jr., upon the conditions herein prescribed.

JAMES HINES, President. J. VANNUTER. [VANMETER.] J. K. McGOODWIN. T. B. WRIGHT. Q. S. BAKER.

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NASHVILLE, TENN., November 13, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: During my stay at Clarksville, from evening of 9th instant to morning of the 11th, I decided upon the position for a battery of three 32-pounders to command the river approach to that town; also as to the position for a small field work to hold the high ground commanding the road leading across the Hopkinsville bridges. Mr. Sayers, civil engineer, is now engaged in laying out the works and employing laborers for their construction. At Clarksville I also employed a competent person to establish a timber obstruction in the Cumberland River under the range of the guns of Fort Donelson.

Monday, the 11th instant, at 12 o’clock, I arrived at this place, and {p.545} through the quartermaster’s department chartered a steamer to go to Fort Donelson, to be employed in placing the obstructions in the river. Yesterday and to-day I have been making reconnaissances around this city, to determine the points for defense, especially against a force approaching by way of the river. The guns I proposed for this defense-32-pounders and 8-inch columbiads-should be obtained with the least delay practicable. In this city no guns of these sizes are being made.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. P. GILMER, Major, and Chief Engineer Western Department.

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HDQRS. ADVANCE GUARD, HARDEE’S DIVISION, Tompkinsville, Ky., November 13, 1861.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding Division, &c.:

GENERAL: We arrived at this place on yesterday evening about 5 o’clock. We did not find a friend along the whole road from Jamestown here; the houses were closed, the country apparently deserted. We saw a few women and children, but in almost every instance they were surprised and tried to run and conceal themselves at our approach; they have been told, and evidently believed, that we were burning, killing, and destroying as we advanced. One old woman met us with an open Bible in her hand, said she was prepared and ready to die, and could not be convinced that we meant her no harm. As we entered this town, having sent a party in advance to prepare for our encampment, I ordered the advance guard to fall back, our bands to the from, our colors opened, bayonets fixed, and the march at attention resumed, for the purpose of making the strongest display we could. In this order we got nearly to the center of this town, when I was so astonished at the utter silence and desertion, not having seen a human being but two, who both fled, and not having heard from the party sent in advance, that I halted, under the belief the enemy must be at hand, sent our music away, loaded a strong advance guard, and sent out skirmishers, and advanced in this way until we met the party sent out under Major Glenn to select a camp. I merely mention this as an illustration of the feeling existing among the people here. To-day most of the women and children have returned, but all the men (a dozen, perhaps, excepted) are absent in Grider’s camp at Columbia.

There is a rumor here that a detachment of Rousseau’s force, 10,000 or 15,000 strong, is advancing, and but a few miles from here. This I regard as too false to base any calculation whatever upon it. I am satisfied of one thing, there is no force on any of the roads leading to Gallatin, Tenn., and no very immediate danger to the railroad in that quarter from any section of the country through which I have passed. The people here are under the impression that the Federals have possession of the railroad south of Bowling Green, and that we are only waiting a favorable opportunity to get away from there. This and the thousand other lies and influences brought to bear upon them have sent them by hundreds to Grider’s camp at Columbia. This is the nearest camp to us. There are two regiments of Kentucky volunteers there, and hundreds have fled there in front of our advance. I am informed, however, they are dissatisfied with their officers, dispirited, badly armed, and many down with measles. I am reliably informed that there are few, {p.546} if any, slave-owners among them, and the majority are fighting for the $13 a month and other pecuniary inducements. Did my instructions permit an advance on their camp, I would not hesitate to make it. I believe they would leave, and even if they fought, unless strongly re-enforced, I believe we could destroy them. The alacrity with which they fled from this strongly defensible country, leaving their wives, daughters, and children to the tender mercies of supposed ravishers, murderers, and barbarians, shows they are not yet very formidable as soldiers.

I made it my special business and used every effort to convince the people we were friends to all but soldiers in arms against us and those giving them aid and information. I think on the whole we have succeeded. No insult or injury to the person of any one has come to my notice. I am sorry to state that on yesterday, for the first time, the same respect was not paid to property. Our teamsters, rear guard, and guard with the teams, and individuals who fell back under the pretense of being sick, stole some poultry and other things along the road. I think this conduct was confined to a very few; but it was witnessed by officers, who never exercised their authority to put it down, and it only comes to my knowledge now when it is too late to repair it.

On reaching the residence of Colonel Frame, a bitter enemy, in open arms against us, the chief circulator of all the slanders against us, a man who has ordered the plundering of all the southern-rights men he could find, I ordered his house, late headquarters of his camp at same place, to be searched for arms anti ammunition. We found immense quantities of empty gun boxes, receipts for Lincoln guns sent through the country, and all other indications of a recruiting camp. I ordered one quartermaster to seize sheep enough on the place to do us for two or three days; also to take some tallow, sweet oil, and turpentine, which we were in great need of. I then ordered the-house to be closed up and nothing else taken. Some unprincipled men took advantage of this circumstance to commence stealing on their own account.

In view of this state of affairs I immediately issued and caused to be read to the men the inclosed special order (marked A*).

FRIDAY, November 15, 1861.

I found it unsafe to send a dispatch back, unless with such a force as I could not spare. I am camped here, 7 miles west of Tompkinsville, and expect to be at Jamestown or beyond by night. On the 13th, 12 in., 1 advanced on the Columbia road, with the intention of taking the Burkesville and Glasgow road home. My guides represented it to me as the best road, and as my orders were silent as to route returning, I thought it best to take the easiest and that which would most advance the object in view, which, as I understood, was to make a strong impression (on the people of these hostile counties) as to our strength and readiness to exert it. I feared a return by same route might be construed into a retreat, especially as the enemy were reported on this road, within a few miles of our camp. For these and other good reasons, which I will give when I get back, I determined to take this route. We started at 12 m., intending to make McRea’s Cross-Roads (9 miles distant, as I was informed by everybody at Tompkinsville, but which I found utterly untrue). I managed it so as to make the impression on everybody I would take a different road, and then suddenly turned off on this road. Two miles from town, my advanced guard jumped the enemy’s pickets. The Texas Rangers, 10 in front, gave chase, followed 4 miles, when they suddenly found themselves in {p.547} presence of 40 U. S. cavalry. Our men fell back and sent for re-enforcements. I sent on 20 more cavalry to join them, and ordered 60 more to keep well in advance of our infantry and to keep up communication with the party in chase. By the time we had advanced 7 miles night was coming on, I found the Cross-Roads were 16 instead of 9 miles distant, and the enemy’s scouts were seen on our flanks and even in our rear.

In this state of affairs I halted the main body, taking up a strong position on Skaggs’ Creek. I could not tell whether we were approaching an army or a mere scouting party; I was completely in the dark. I knew nothing of the general movements of the enemy, not having heard from Bowling Green since I left. I knew, however, they were in great force in front and might get in our rear. In this emergency I determined to have our train loaded for any movement. A hotly pressed retreat through 50 miles of hostile country would, I feared, prove very disastrous, and I determined not to be caught in such a trap. I had false camp fires lighted on every surrounding hill, and a wide lime of outlying pickets. In the mean time our cavalry pressed the enemy in the direction of the Cross-Roads so closely that they got confused and dispersed in the woods at McCrea’s Cross-Roads. Our cavalry fell on the main body of the enemy’s cavalry, about 100 strong, and after a little skirmish, in which the enemy broke and left and got 2 of their men killed, other men and horses wounded, without damage to us, our cavalry fell back 5 miles to camp for the night.

During the evening and night we captured a number of U. S. dragoon horses, fully accoutered, a number of muskets, pistols, and sabers. A great deal of credit is due Major Harrison, of the Rangers, also Captain Phillips, volunteer, for the way they managed to disorganize and disperse this large body of the enemy’s cavalry in an unknown country in the night, and without one friend among the country people. My infantry pickets captured several U. S. horses, fully accoutered in the most approved style, Within our lines. The truth is, the rush of the Rangers so dispersed and confused the enemy that they got lost and were wandering about in every direction, and this accounts for their appearance on our flanks and rear.

I sent Lieutenant Cage, of my regiment, with a dispatch to Major Harrison at midnight, ordering him to fall back on me. Cage and his escort lost their way, got almost into the enemy’s lines, and in returning were fired on by our cavalry picket, and returned the fire before the sad mistake was found out. Cage was shot in the leg, his horse was twice shot, and Bankhead, of the Rangers, was shot badly in the leg and arm.

Yesterday morning, finding the road clear beyond the Cross-Roads, the enemy all fled, and thinking [it] imprudent to advance, blindfold as I was, I commenced returning by the same route I came, and am here this morning. The Rangers advanced to and beyond the Cross-Roads and up the Glasgow road; they heard artillery in the direction of Columbia, and believe a force is advancing along that road. They left Cross-Roads at 1 o’clock yesterday and reached here, a distance of 23 miles, last night.

I doubt whether any force is advancing, and do not think the enemy’s cavalry will visit this section soon again. If energetic, the enemy may advance along the Columbia and Jamestown road and attempt to cut us off. I have sent a strong cavalry force ahead to guard against this. The road mentioned is a good one, and Jamestown is as close to Columbia as Tompkinsville. Our advance has been fired at twice from {p.548} the woods. No damage done. My seven days’ provisions are almost out. I think some ought to be sent to meet me.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. R. CLEBURNE.

P. S.-I will have a detailed report of captured property of the enemy made out and sent in.

* Not Found.

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CAMP NEAR BOWLING GREEN, November 13, 1861.

Major-General HARDEE, Commanding First Division, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: In obedience to orders I left camp on the evening of the 9th instant, in command of a squadron of dragoons, composed of the companies of Captains Gaines and Sugg, numbering 124 men. I encamped that night about 8 miles from Bowling Green. On next day I entered Morgantown about 3 o’clock, having previously turned my wagons off on the road to Rochester. At Morgantown I remained about an hour, sending scouting parties out in the direction of Bora’s Ferry and other roads, without meeting any opposition. Whilst in the town, I made inquiries as to the best points to cross the river for lumber to erect a bridge and for forage sufficient to support about 2,500 cavalry and artillery horses, and other matters relating to an advance of an army of 12,000 or 15,000 men. There were but three men left in this town, which, as I have before reported, is strongly opposed to us.

I learned from a reliable person, before entering the town, that the opposite bank at Bora’s Ferry was protected by some pieces of artillery. Anticipating another attack at that point, I encamped that night about 8 miles from Morgantown, on the road to Rochester. Some three or four men, who lived in the vicinity of our encampment, left soon after our arrival. I posted strong pickets on the roads leading to my camp, also a sufficient camp guard, and sent out patrols. I found the neighborhood entirely deserted by men, and learned that 18 men from that point had joined the enemy, and were in camp on the other side of the river.

On the next day I reached Rochester, which I approached cautiously, having heard during my march that a force, estimated at from 8,000 to 10,000 men, were to cross either on Sunday or Monday, with the View of taking possession of Russellville. After a careful reconnaissance, I entered the town, and found but three or four men. The opposite bank was unoccupied. After making inquiries as to the facilities for a large force to cross the river, &c., I marched omit by the Russellville road, which I followed to its intersection with the Greenville road, on which I encamped, about 10 miles from Rochester, at a point called Berry’s Lick. From that point I crossed Gaspar River on next day, and encamped after a march of about 15 miles, and on next day, the 13th, I reached our camp at this place at 11 o’clock.

I found the people generally impressed with the idea that a large force of the enemy were on the point of crossing the river at Rochester, and that large re-enforcements had reached their camps from Indiana. They were also filled with apprehension as to the course our troops would pursue towards them. My approach to town was always anticipated by spies, and I have no doubt an exaggerated report of our number and objects of visit has already reached the camp of the enemy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES HAGAN, Major, Commanding Department Detachment.

{p.549}

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, Oakland, Ky., November 13, 1861.

Lieut. D. G. WHITE, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I have information this morning direct from the enemy’s camp, on Nolin, beyond Munfordville, up to yesterday morning. General Sherman was then there with his main force, and there were no indications of any intention to move. His strength ranges from 15,000 to 20,000. According to rumor, coming from so many sources as to seem credible, there is a Federal force at Litchfield of about 2,000 or 3,000 men. A reconnoitering party of the enemy appeared yesterday in Brownsville. The ferry flats at all the ferries from Mammoth Cave to Honcker’s [?], inclusive, were on yesterday moved to the opposite bank of Green River, favoring the idea of a considerable force being in the vicinity. I this morning sent a party of 20 mounted men to that locality, instructed to ford the river and destroy the boats. I have had daily battalion drills since encamping here but no brigade drill. I have no officer who can drill the brigade, and I am not yet fully capable of doing so myself. I am occupied in study of battalion drill, and will undertake to drill the brigade as soon as possible. If convenient, I should be very glad the general commanding the division would, as proposed in your letter of yesterday, come to this place and drill my brigade.

I am, very respectfully,

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HOPKINSVILLE, KY., November 13, 1861.

Col. W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General, Bowling Green:

SIR: A battalion of Colonel Forrest’s cavalry having left the vicinity of Fort Donelson for want of forage and encamped on this side of the Cumberland, at Canton, I have made use of them since my communication of the 11th in strengthening my force here, retaining then but for thirty-six hours. The command was distant from me only 25 miles, and being fresh, reached me in good order, Major Kelly in command, with about 300 men. To-day I have sent a small force, under Major Kelly, consisting of his own command, 250 infantry, and one piece of artillery, hoping to catch a force of some 300 from below, who have crossed at Ross’ Ferry, on the Cumberland, having in view the capture of a large lot of hogs ready for moving this way, and intended for the agent of the Confederate States at Clarksville (Dr. Blackburn, I think). If I miss them, the move will have a good effect in keeping our people assured and holding the Hessians in check.

An act of Congress allows, upon application of colonels of regiments, the appointment of cadets for the purpose of instructing inexperienced troops. Colonel Gregg has a fine body of men, but has no one to drill them. He desires me to ask if the commanding general will permit this in his case; if so, I will nominate for him several that I know who are non-commissioned officers and privates in my old regiment, the Third Kentucky. My command still improves; are getting into their new hospitals.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

{p.550}

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COLUMBUS, November 13, 1861.

General JOHNSTON:

In your dispatch of the 10th [9th?] you say “you have reported no imperious necessity for suspension of the order for the movement of General Pillow’s command.” Intelligence just received has created that imperious necessity. We have undoubted intelligence, making it indispensable that this command should remain in its present position, and that if possible we should have re-enforcements.

L. POLK.

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COLUMBUS, November 13, 1861.

Major MACKALL:

General [Polk] is not so well. His physician advises repose as absolutely necessary. He directs me to recall my advance and suspend the column upon the ground of an imperious and overruling necessity, involving the safety of this post and of this command, and places me in present command.

We have had for several days intelligence, from sources which we know are entitled to full confidence, that the enemy are making preparations upon a gigantic scale to assault. To-day a deserter from Cairo, an artillerist from the fixed battery at Cairo, came in, and said that the movement will be made on this place in the latter part of the coming week. They are bringing all their available forces from the interior of Missouri and Illinois, and will invest this place with 30,000 men.

The state of things here General Polk considers as coming within the purview of Major Mackall’s dispatch, viz: that no report had been made by him showing any imperious necessity for the suspension of the movement of my division. He now makes that report, and seriously assures General Johnston that no necessity more important or urgent could exist. This dispatch is directed by General Polk, and has been read to him and myself General Cheatham and General McCown all concur, upon full conference, in the statement of fact and opinion expressed.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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WYTHEVILLE, November 13, 1861.

General COOPER:

Dispatch of 11th received at Jeffersonville. Trigg supposed to have moved this morning. If so, this is his nearest way to Abingdon road, at Harrisonville, 21 miles from Abingdon. I think if enemy penetrates Virginia, it will be by this road. Richland covers the salt works. Scouts sent forward to ascertain his route. My movements determine from Richland or this place. If orders are positive telegraph, but as at present situated I think best plan to move on at least to this point. Supplies stopped by order, except ammunition.

HUMPHREY MARSHALL, Brigadier-General.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 14, 1861.

Generals POLK and PILLOW:

Your dispatch of the 13th received. General Johnston insists that General Pillow’s command move at once to Clarksville. Let the infantry {p.551} take the first train, the cavalry and artillery horses marching, the guns following the infantry by the railroad, the baggage and wagons to bring up the rear on the railroad. Detain the train, after the troops reach Clarksville, at that place until farther orders. Explanations by mail. Orders for General Pillow by aide-de-camp at Clarksville.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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COLUMBUS, KY., November 14, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Just heard of an arrival of arms and ammunition at Savannah, Ga. Can you not send me 4,000 or 5,000 stand of arms and 20,000 pounds of powder? Answer.

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, November 14, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

I have ordered 4,500 Enfield rifles sent to you, being half of all that were received by the recent arrival from England. You see you are not forgotten.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HOPKINSVILLE, November 14, 1861.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I have been operating with my command of eight companies near Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, by order of General Polk. Finding the country impracticable for cavalry, and with scant subsistence, I moved a part of my command to Canton, north side Cumberland River, leaving two companies at Dover. I am of no use south of Cumberland; desire my command united, and can do vast service with General Tilghman. Will you so order?

N. B. FORREST, Commanding Tennessee Cavalry.

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HEADQUARTERS FIFTH KENTUCKY REGIMENT, Russellville, November 14, 1861.

Maj. GEORGE B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: On yesterday afternoon I telegraphed, giving information I had received in relation to the removal of troops by boats up Green River. I now learn they were landed some 10 or 12 miles above South Carrollton and from thence went to Hartford. This latter information comes in an indirect manner, but has a show of probability about it. The length of time the boats were above South Carrollton was hardly sufficient to make the trip to Rochester. You can judge of the size of the force as well as I can, as you know the capacity of the boats would not {p.552} be equal to more than 250 or 300 men each, and then very much crowded.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HUNT, Colonel, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT. Columbus, Ky., November 14, 1861.

[Colonel BOWEN:]

COLONEL: I have, from two distinct sources, information this morning that a movement of the enemy from Paducah will be made this day or to-morrow. I entertain no doubt that it is against your force, and that their main object is to get possession of the locomotive and cars. You will, therefore, burn the cars and destroy the locomotive at once. I will send up to your support a regiment from this place and Colonel Wickliffe’s command as promptly as possible, and also a field battery. Do your work promptly, and get ready for the work to be done.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 89.}

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 14, 1861.

I. Brig. Gen. John C. Breckinridge is assigned to duty in the second division, and will report to General Buckner, commanding.

II. Brig. Gen. Charles Clark will repair to Hopkinsville and take command of the brigade composed of the two Mississippi regiments at that place, and, as senior officer, will relieve General Tilghman in command of the whole force.

III. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman will repair to Columbus, Ky., and report to Major-General Polk, by whom, in obedience to instructions from the Secretary of War, he will be assigned to the command of the fortifications at that point.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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Abstract from report of the First Division, Central Army of Kentucky, at Bowling Green, Ky., commanded by Major-General Hardee, for November 14, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Total present.Aggregate present.Total present and absent.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
Staff777
First (Hindman’s) Brigade1171,4311,8401,9782,2442,403
Second (Cleburne’s) Brigade675481,5751 6723,6123,804
Third (Shavers) Brigade847441,9492,0622,7392,914
Adams’ cavalry30391519552567601
Shoup’s artillery787137148213229
Grand total3123,2016,0106,419 9,3759,988
{p.553}

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RICHMOND, November 15, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

We received but about 9,000 rifles by the steamer, and I have assigned one-halt to the coast defense, and ordered the other half sent to General A. S. Johnston at Nashville.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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COLUMBUS, KY., November 14, (via Chattanooga, November 15, 1861.

Col. S. COOPER, or SECRETARY OF WAR:

From information in my possession, and from what I know of the enemy’s preparations, I am fully assured that he will attack me in a few days with an overwhelming force. I beg that re-enforcements may be ordered to me at the earliest moment.

L. POLK.

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BOWLING GREEN, November 15, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Columbus:

Retain General Pillow’s command at Columbus. General Johnston revokes the order for his movement on Clarksville. Send at once a return of your troops by regiments and independent companies.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 15, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of [14th] this date, and to express the gratification which the announcement of soon being provided with a few thousand Enfield rifles affords me. I shall endeavor as far as practicable, in the urgency for immediate armament, to give those arms into the hands of the troops for the war who are now in the field and not efficiently armed, and then distribute the remainder among the volunteers for shorter periods. I have not been able yet to ascertain how many men have joined the different rendezvous under the call upon the governor of Tennessee. So far as heard from I believe not a large fraction of the number called and very few armed. Under the belief that by proper exertions many of them might be furnished with arms, and at the request of the governor, I have suspended my order for mustering out the unarmed men for fifteen days in Tennessee. The call upon Mississippi not being approved, the order for the discharge of the unarmed men there was not suspended except for those at the rendezvous. I shall further extend the time, to give the opportunity of arming them if possible. I shall soon have emptied the hospitals at this place by transferring the sick to Nashville. My force here has been much diminished by the number of sick.

On the 4th instant, an anticipating that the enemy would send a column {p.554} in the direction of Clarksville with the view of turning the right of General Polk’s line of defense, I ordered a division of that command to Clarksville. The battle of Belmont near Columbus intervening delayed the movement of the division, and finally General Polk, his generals concurring, suspended the movement, on the ground that in view of probable movements of the enemy against that position the force called for was necessary there. On the receipt of his telegram announcing that suspension of the movement of the force I reiterated my order for the immediate transfer of the division to his right at Clarksville to re-enforce the force at Hopkinsville. He sends me this morning the following telegram, to wit:

A. S. JOHNSTON:

GENERAL: We are informed beyond a doubt that there arc from 20,000 to 25,000 men at Cairo and vicinity, recruits daily arriving, and that their intention is to march on this place immediately. I will nevertheless send on Pillow’s division, unless otherwise ordered immediately. I will he left with about 6,000 effective men.

Our defenses are unfinished.

L. POLK.

I therefore revoked my order. General Polk’s force is stated far below what I have estimated it, and with a knowledge of the case as he presents it I had left but the choice of difficulties-the great probability of defeat at Columbus or the successful advance of the enemy on may left. I have risked the latter. The first would be a great misfortune, scarcely reparable for a long time; the latter may be prevented. I have, however, at Nolin, on my front, about 27 regiments, and a large auxiliary force at Columbia, on my right. The force on my front will not attack here at present; they will await the success of movements on my left. My force must soon be put in motion. I am making every preparation with that object. It has taken much time to provide transportation, which is nearly completed, and all else, for a force suddenly raised. A portion of my force is well armed and instructed; the remainder badly armed, but improving in all other respects. A good spirit prevails throughout.

General Zollicoffer is taking measures to suppress the uprising of the disaffected in Rhea and Hamilton Counties Tennessee, and if it is true that Williams has retreated through Pound Gap, Marshall could easily suppress the insurrection in Carter, Johnson, and other counties, and then unite his forces with Zollicoffer. The force under Zollicoffer as everywhere on this line, should be re-enforced; but this you know without my suggestion. The effective force here is 12,500.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 15, 1861.

Brigadier-General CLARK:

GENERAL: I am instructed by General Johnston to say you will proceed to Hopkinsville, in obedience to the orders you have received. Six companies of cavalry, under Colonel Forrest, have been ordered to that point. General Pillow will not take charge of the operations projected on that front.

You will receive no troops from General Polk. A regiment, partially armed by the governor of Tennessee, is, or will be shortly, at Clarksville, {p.555} and General Tilghman has been ordered to send some 500 arms to that point to meet it. See that this is done, and give orders to this regiment. General Tilghman will be retained by you at Hopkinsville until you are fully posted as to the country and the command. Clarksville will form a part of your command, and you will see that the works now in progress are properly garrisoned.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, CENTRAL ARMY OF KENTUCKY, Oakland, Ky., November 15, 1861.

Lieut. D. G. WHITE, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I beg to call attention to the condition of the troops of this brigade enlisted for the term of during the war. By the extraordinary exposure to which they have been subjected discharges and deaths have more than decimated nearly every company. It is manifestly very desirable that these companies shall be recruited speedily up to fall strength; but that is impossible under existing circumstances. Regiments originally enlisted for twelve months, whose terms are now about one-half expired, offer superior inducements, and no recruits are obtained for the war. Unless something is done to counteract this, the strength of regiments enlisted for the war will be more and more reduced, and finally at no distant day their ranks will be so thinned as to destroy their organization. This is now almost the case in some of the companies of the Second Arkansas Regiment and First Arkansas Battalion.

I suggest, as the only efficient remedy, that the pay of soldiers enlisted or enlisting for the war be increased to 25 per month; that their commutation money be increased to $50 for each period of six months; that their pay be continued four months after expiration of service, and also that extra attention be given to their armament, equipments, &c., so as to make their service more desirable and attractive in all respects than service for shorter terms.

There are six-mouths’ companies armed with Minie muskets and Enfield rifles, while the Second Arkansas Regiment and First Arkansas Battalion, enlisted for the war, have the common flint-lock musket. If this was just oppositely arranged, it would seem more just, and would certainly be more politic.

I request that this communication be forwarded to the Headquarters of the Army at Richmond.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

T. C. HINDMAN, Brigadier-General.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, November 22, 1861.

I do not doubt that greater inducements should be given men to enroll for during the war. The manner in which the men for short periods yet to serve are armed is due, I suppose, to the States from which they came.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

{p.556}

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JACKSBOROUGH November 15, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

Attack on Churchwell’s picket only by few hostile citizens. Enemy has four regiments at London, a few cavalry at Barboursville, three regiments at Somerset, and battalion of cavalry; one regiment at Crab Orchard, Rockcastle Camp, and one at Camp Robinson. Hope soon to have tories crushed in Central and Lower East Tennessee. Regiment at Chattanooga from Pensacola one from Memphis. Colonel Williams retreated through Pound Gap to Big Stone Gap.

F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Brigadier-General.

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SMITH’S CROSS-ROADS TENN., November 15 1861.

MAJOR COMMANDING, Second Battalion, Sixteenth Alabama Regiment:

I arrived at Washington on yesterday with my company, and there found about 250 citizens, armed as best they could be under the circumstances. Upon information that I gained from scouts and citizens living near Clift’s camps, I learned that his probable force at Salt Creek camp ground (which is 15 miles below Washington) was from 300 to 500, and there was a force of from 500 to 1,000 somewhere on the mountains at no great distance from his camp. I also learned that citizens from Bradley, Bledsoe, and other counties, who have heretofore acted with the Union party, have visited Clift’s camps, with the ostensible purpose of getting them to disband immediately.

I deemed it necessary to move my command to Smith’s Cross-Roads, 7 1/2 miles below Washington, that I might be the better enabled to picket and watch their movements. I did so, and my command, numbering 325 men, arrived here late last evening. I immediately dispatched a small force to take possession of Blythe’s and Daughtie’s Ferries. Since my arrival here I have further information that a part of Clift’s force in the valley have gone, but there still remain with him about 180 men, who say they are determined to fight. If the programme, as 1 have it, is carried out, we have them completely cut off; except by the way of the mountains. Our cavalry force is sufficient to stop them in that direction, but I deem it prudent to await your orders.

G. W. McKENZIE, Captain.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 18.}

HDQRS. SECOND KENTUCKY DIVISION, Bowling Green, Ky., November 15, 1861.

Brig. Gen. John C. Breckinridge is hereby assigned to the command of the First Brigade, Second Division, composed of the following regiments, viz: The Second Kentucky, Col. R. W. Hanson; Third Kentucky, Col. A. P. Thompson; Fourth Kentucky, Col. R. P. Trabue; Fifth Kentucky, Col. T. H. Hunt; Sixth Kentucky, Col. J. H. Lewis.

General Breckinridge will assume command on to-morrow, the 16th instant.

By command of General S. B. Buckner:

G. B. COSBY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.557}

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Abstract from return for November 16, 1861, of the First Division, Western Department, commanded by Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army (headquarters, Columbus, Ky.).

Troops.Present for duty.Total present.Aggregate present.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
First Division2163,5551328710114,6114,864
Second Division1492,498151474663,2463,429
Third Division1231,981918871933,0343,200
Fifth Tennessee40789922964
Ninth and Thirteenth Arkansas588261,0031,170
Artillery battalion (A. P. Stewart’s)13175226239
Totals5869,649376223454513,14213,866

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 16, 1861.

Col. JOHN S. BOWEN, Camp Beauregard:

COLONEL: I thank you for the intelligence afforded by your dispatch. Its contents are confirmed by that received from all other sources. The enemy is making preparations upon a large scale to invest this place. My opinion is that he will aim to avoid a conflict or assault on our works, but will surround my position, cut off our supplies, and aim to reduce the place by distress, at the same time harassing us with his gunboats. To provide for this state of things I have procured the fleet of Commodore Hollins, consisting of four gunboats and two floating batteries, mounting in all about 50 or 60 guns. I am making extraordinary efforts to prepare for the enemy’s reception. If you have not yet destroyed the cars I am willing for you to exercise your discretion as to the time of doing so, but do not take too much risk upon that subject. For the enemy to get possession of the cars would be a great point gained by him. If the enemy should throw his forces around my position and cut off communication with you (a possible contingency), you must be prepared to advance upon and attack him in rear; or, in certain contingencies, to dash upon Paducah (if its garrison should be greatly reduced) and seize that place. In other words, confiding much in your judgement, you must have and exercise a large discretion. I will keep you advised, as well as I can, of the condition of things here, and you must aid me in doing so. With the fleet of gunboats we will destroy the enemy in the end, but we will have hard fighting and plenty of it. If you do not want Wickliffe’s command we can use him here most advantageously, but you must so fortify your position as to be able to maintain your own ground, and, if necessary, assail him around mine. I speak of Wickliffe, because Captain King said you did not want Wickliffe unless he and King could or would unite their commands.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, Tenn., November 16, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

DEAR SIR: I have conferred fully with Hon. G. A. Henry upon the subject of the defenses of the Cumberland River, and concur with him {p.558} fully as to the importance-indispensable necessity, indeed-of effectual defenses and obstructions below the iron establishments on that river. Such work not only involves the protection of our citizens in that quarter, but the protection of those iron works which are at this time an absolute national necessity.

I hope you will linear Major Henry with all the favor possible.

Very respectfully,

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, November 16, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee, Nashville:

GOVERNOR: The great necessity for an increase of the army, and the fair prospects you hold out that the volunteers called out shall be armed, induces me to revoke the order I have given for their discharge. I will muster into service all you may be able to arm, without restricting the time to fifteen days.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 16, 1861.

Brigadier-General BUCKNER, Commanding Second Division:

General Johnston directs you to detach 2,500 men (one battery and 500 cavalry included), under a proper officer, to-morrow, for Russellville. Order him to ascertain if the enemy has crossed the Green River this side of the Muddy.

If they have crossed, and the force is not overpowering, let him attack it. If, however, the enemy’s force is too great, direct him to take a strong position to await re-enforcements, or fall back to this place to receive them.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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NEW YORK, KY., November 16, 1861.

Maj. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, Commanding First Division, &c.:

GENERAL: We crossed Barren River at this point yesterday evening all safe. There is a small body of mounted Union men somewhere in this neighborhood, but we could not find them. I arrested a man to day who says he has just escaped from the North. I believe him to be a Northern spy. I took some Cincinnati papers from him. He says the enemy were falling back from Columbia to Camilsville [Campbellsville] ; that they were in consternation; that he met a party carrying some wounded to Columbia; that they seemed frightened, and did not stop to question him. One of the men killed at Cross-Roads was Lieutenant Clark, a {p.559} renegade Tennesseean, of Captain Dickenson’s company, U. S. Cavalry die was shot in the stomach, and died in six hours); the other was shot below the left shoulder. Others were wounded.

I have examined into the circumstances of the pickets firing on each other. The picket stationed was not to blame. Mr. Cage and his escort got north of the picket and canine galloping back from the direction of the enemy, riding captured horses with their gaudy trappings; and were mistaken for the enemy; and when the firing commenced, instead of calling out the name of one of the Rangers whom the picket would have known, they called, “It’s Cage! It’s Cage!” This confirmed the picket, and they kept up the fire. I have paid out of my own pocket for the articles stolen by our men. Confidence is restored, all the houses open, and families returned. Trunks and other articles found by our flankers in the woods I had carried to the house and labeled “Returned by Southern soldiers.” The people all acknowledge they have been grossly lied to. Colonel Frame has another farm here at the river. I supplied our men with meat from it last night, and left word for the colonel that I would settle with him if he would come and see us at Bowling Green.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. R. CLEBURNE, Colonel, Commanding, &c.

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RALEIGH, November 16, 1861.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

The reports from East Tennessee are so threatening, that the western borders of North Carolina are demanding protection. I have a regiment here, Colonel Vance’s, just from that section. Shall I order them to the borders of East Tennessee?

HENRY T. CLARK.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 224.}

ADJT. AND INSP’R GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, November 16, 1861.

...

XIII. Brig. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart, Provisional Army, will report for duty to General A. S. Johnston, C. S. Army, at Bowling Green, Ky.

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, November 17, 1861.

Governor HENRY T. CLARK, Raleigh:

Please order your regiment at once to Jonesborough, Tenn., with orders to report to Colonel Leadbetter, of the Engineer Corps, who is in command of the line of railroad and needs re-enforcement to crush out the traitors.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

{p.560}

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NASHVILLE, TENN., November 17, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

The following just received from General Pillow at Columbus:

Immense numbers of enemy are gathering on my front. I anticipate being entirely surrounded and cut off from supplies as fairly within the range of probabilities. The works at Fort Pillow are nearly completed and are entirely defensible. My force at Union City is entirely too weak to protect that flank. My judgment is that you should call out the militia of West Tennessee, should place 10,000 men in Fort Pillow, and the balance at Union City or that vicinity. I mean, of course, such as have arms. The works at Fort Pillow should be supplied with powder. We are very short here. We will hold the place and fight to the end; but I should be false to my duty to the country did I not place before you my sense of the danger with which it is menaced.

If you concur in the opinion of General Pillow, I will call out the militia at any moment.

ISHAM G. HARRIS.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., November 17, 1861.

Brig. Gen. LLOYD TILGHMAN, Hopkinsville, Ky.:

In turning over your command at Hopkinsville, in pursuance of Special Orders, No. 89, you will repair to the Cumberland, and assume command of Forts Donelson and Henry and their defenses and the defenses of the intermediate country. You will push forward the completion of the works and their armament with the utmost activity, and to this end will apply to the citizens of the surrounding country for assistance in labor, for which you will give them certificates for amounts due for such labor. You will make your requisitions for quartermaster, subsistence, and ordnance stores upon the chiefs of the several departments at these headquarters.

The utmost vigilance is enjoined. The general regrets to hear that there has been heretofore gross negligence in this respect-the commander at Fort Donelson away from his post nightly and the officer in charge of the field batteries frequently absent. This cannot be tolerated.

I will ask Governor Harris to-morrow for four additional armed companies, which he will send to Fort Donelson. These, with the six companies now there, will make up a regiment, when organized by the election of field officers. The colonel will command the fort.

You will then order Lieutenant-Colonel MacGavock to return to his regiment at Fort Henry. Your command is embraced in the division of Major-General Polk, to whom you will report monthly.

By command of General Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 17, 1861.

Colonel DIXON, Memphis, Tenn.:

We are soon, very soon, to have an immense force on our front, and anticipate being entirely surrounded, and probably cut off from the country south of us. Their forces are now accumulating rapidly. If your legion intends at any period of time coming to the help of the country, it is now of the highest importance they should act. Your safety below would be greatly increased by throwing your legion into {p.561} the works at Fort Pillow. The whole militia of the west end of the State should be called out and placed at Fort Pillow. Answer.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 17, 1861.

Governor PETTUS, Jackson, Miss.:

Immense numbers of the enemy are gathering on my front. Our position is a strong one, and we will fight it to the last extremity; but from the very weak force in my rear about Union City my flank is without protection, and I anticipate being entirely surrounded and cut off from the country south as probable. I have called upon the governor of Tennessee to call out the militia of West Tennessee to garrison Fort Pillow and to protect the open country upon the flank about Union City. In this emergency, if you can send up any re-enforcements, now is the time to do it. We have four regiments without arms. Answer.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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NASHVILLE, November 18, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

I beg that no time may be lost in forwarding the Enfield rifles. My present necessity is very urgent. If sabers can be spared I have some good cavalry much in need. I am here to-day on business, making arrangements with the governor to call out all the effective force of the State. I return to Bowling Green to-morrow.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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NASHVILLE, November 18, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

General Pillow, in command at Columbus, urges the necessity of an immediate large re-enforcement of troops to furnish a garrison at Fort Pillow and to add to his force at Columbus. He has information upon which he relies that large bodies of troops are accumulating at Cairo to attack him.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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COLUMBUS, Ky., November 18, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

It is of the utmost importance that I should have a quartermaster and commissary attached to my staff. I nominate, as I have already done, Mr. Thomas Peters as quartermaster, Mr. John J. Murphy as commissary, each with the rank of major. The efficiency of the service requires these appointments. Please answer.

L. POLK, Major-General. {p.562}

RICHMOND, November 18, 1861.

General LEONIDAS POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

If General Johnston cannot fill your requisition, it will be impossible to do it from here.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General.

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MEMPHIS, November 18, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON:

MY DEAR SIR: I have been unavoidably detained by our legislature. They have sent me to the C. S. Senate, which makes of mine a life of civil service. Had it been otherwise, I should have thrown up my position in the Provisional Congress and attached myself to your command for the war.

And here allow me again to express to you the high appreciation and grateful sense in which I hold the appointment and position with which you honored me on your personal staff. I had expected to join you for a few days on my way to Congress, but I find here that the Congress (meeting to-day) has not one Representative from Arkansas present, and that my presence is specially required there on account of the various treaties of amity with the numerous Indian tribes which are depending before Congress and the Government, and which, to secure them, must be ratified without delay. Not to be able to report myself to you at this day is matter of sincere regret, as it may deprive me [of] the power of fully ascertaining and personally representing your wishes at the capital. Yet in all matters and instances in which you may think my humble services can be of avail to promote your views, I beg you will not hesitate to command them by your letters.

There are persons enough to keep you advised of affairs on the Mississippi River far better than I can. I will venture, how ever, to call to your attention the war on the borders of Arkansas, in Missouri, Kansas, and the Indian Territory. You were aware of my earnest desire that the Missouri war should have secured your personal presence; but von were called to a more difficult and perhaps more glorious field, and though I could but regret the fact, I could say nothing against it. Now, the difficulty still exists that I had hoped was remedied. There is no superior officer in Missouri, no unity among the divisions of the army there. Price and McCulloch have had some, and are liable to still more, serious disagreements, and Colonel Borland’s command is wholly independent. No one short of a major-general, and perhaps even a general, can conclusively give orders and command their obedience.

The news here of the withdrawal of Hunter’s (Frémont) army I don’t believe. We are illy prepared in that quarter, yet I expect speedily to hear of a battle, and if we sustain a defeat our treaties will be worthless with the Cherokees and Creeks and with all other tribes except Choctaws and Chickasaws. Such a result would be deplorable, and could not be remedied for a great while, and never but by utmost energy and double the force now required for a complete success. I commend these matters to your attention and say no more. Von are the better judge of their value and of all or any appropriate remedies.

Yet further I beg you to reflect, all the Confederacy supports the Kentucky war and is within reach, but Missouri makes the truest and most desperate struggle, and has almost no help but Arkansas, a feeble {p.563} State. Yet the most effective body of the troops of Arkansas have been called away to Virginia and Kentucky. That this should continue so I submit most respectfully, but seriously, does not seem to me to be either wise or just for Missouri, Arkansas, or the Indian Territories.

If disaster befalls in your division, it must lie at your door, onerous as your duties are, unless it shall appear that you have fully comprehended the whole field of operations and made every effort, not for means, but for adequate means, to sustain such high and imposing interests. You have not even a major-general west of the Mississippi River; a country as broad as all Austria, Prussia, and Germany.

It is not so with the enemy and ought not to be so with us. They know the value of Missouri. All Missouri is now in their hands. It was not so when you took command, and would not have been so could we have had your presence there. And Arkansas is threatened at two points, and in my judgment will be invaded as subsidiary to their operations on Memphis and down the Mississippi River. And I cannot regard it, with all respect for Colonel Borland, that he is the proper person to hold the chief command at such a point as Pocahontas, whether by military education or experience in the field. His statement that a column is moving against him I believe, and if not yet true, I am satisfied it must become so with the very first successes of the enemy in Missouri or upon the Mississippi River or in Kentucky.

We have done nothing to assail them in Missouri or to defend in comparison with their preparations. What is it all for? If Price’s army disbands, we shall soon know. I doubt not you have thought of these matters. One defeat disbands the disorderly and illy-united army of General Price. Success alone can keep it together. The consequences in that State and this valley are too palpable to mention.

The responsibilities, my dear sir, of a command so wide-spread and of two wars at once so distant thrown wholly upon your hands I know to be stupendous and do most anxiously appreciate, and if you have not demanded an officer of the highest rank and experience and all other adequate war material for his operations subject to your orders only I hope you will do so promptly, and I shall be more than happy to receive any expression from you, as it will at once command every effort on my part to sustain you.

One other subject I beg to call to your attention: I understood that the Arkansas regiment formerly Colonel Hindman’s is greatly discontented. It is because of the action of General Hardee placing a stranger from another State over them, and the regiment protests. I learn the facts from Lieutenant-Colonel Bocage, who has resigned. I will not go into the many particulars he relates, embracing the protest of all the officers of the regiment, but will merely say that it is a course pursued towards the troops of no other State, and would be submitted to by no other State quietly. The State of Arkansas has no fame to bank upon that she can see her opportunities sacrificed to the personal preferences of General Hardee, and we all know that honor won by the Missourian, the commanding officer, would inure to Missouri, if not also reflect upon Arkansas, that she had no man fit, in the opinion of the commanding officer, to lead them. I have protested to the Government against this course, and had wished to lay the matter personally before you, but find I cannot. I feel earnestly upon it, and you will pardon me if I have said too much in this or other respects.

And believe me, sir, with the warmest wishes for your glory and triumph to the end, yours, very truly,

R. W. JOHNSON.

{p.564}

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RICHMOND, November 19, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Nashville:

Your rifles will reach you in a day or two. I have also ordered for you 500 sabers, being all on board; also several thousand accouterments, and sufficient cartridges for the rifles.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Nashville, November 19, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor State of Tennessee, Nashville:

All my information goes to show that the danger is imminent of an invasion of the Confederate States through the northern line of Tennessee, by heavy columns of the enemy attempting to penetrate by the valley of the Mississippi; while other but little less formidable forces cover and threaten the capital by the line of the Cumberland.

I therefore call upon your excellency to assist me to repel and drive back these forces by the armed forces of the State, and beg you to this end to call forth every loyal soldier of the militia into whose hands arms can be placed, or to provide a volunteer force large enough to use all the arms that can be procured.

A volunteer force is more desirable if it can be raised as promptly as the militia, as more economical and producing less inconvenience to the citizen; but now time is of the first importance, that I may cover the homes of your citizens and save them from the sufferings always attending an invasion. The force you may thus raise in East Tennessee will not be removed from the district until their homes are secure from danger both from the foreign and domestic foe.

I have selected Nashville, Memphis, and Jackson as good points of rendezvous, and at these points staff officers will be prepared to furnish supplies.

Companies will be transported at the expense of the Confederate States from any point at which they are organized to the railroad, and your excellency’s order for the movement will be authority to my officers to pass the same.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

(Copies of this letter sent to the governors of Alabama and Mississippi.)

NASHVILLE, November 19, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

I have this day called for the whole force, militia or volunteers, of this State, that can be armed, to meet the advance of what I assume now to be the overwhelming force of the enemy through the Mississippi Valley and between that river and this point. In my opinion a like call should be made on Mississippi, but in deference to the exhausted condition of that State, referred to in one of your dispatches-I cannot {p.565} here give the date-and the fear that this call might again interfere with your enlnstment for the war, I have thought it proper to submit the case to you, and ask you to put that State in arms to repel invasion or to permit me so to do.

A. S. JOHNSTON, General.

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RICHMOND, November 19, 1861.

General A. SIDNEY JOHNSTON, Nashville:

You may call out all the armed men you can get from Mississippi, Northern Alabama, Kentucky, or Tennessee. Do not call any from the seacoast. You can use your discretion as to terms of enlistment of armed men, or you can call out the militia so far as armed. Do not give any of our arms to men enlisted for less than the war. We hope soon to receive 10,000 stand of arms from another quarter, and you shall have your full share.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6