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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 4, Ch. XI–Union Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER XI.
OPERATIONS IN TEXAS, NEW MEXICO, AND ARIZONA.
June 11, 1861-February 1, 1862.
–––
UNION CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.35}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 16, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Hdqrs. of the Army, City of New York:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt on the 14th instant of special orders from the Headquarters of the Army of the 17th ultimo, directing the movements of troops, recruits, &c.

The preparatory arrangements for the movement of the troops from the department are being made with as much rapidity as possible, but the scarcity of transportation (both public and private) in this country will occasion some delay. The companies at the interior posts that can be spared before the volunteers are mustered into the service have already been ordered in. Those of the Fifth Infantry will be concentrated at Albuquerque and Fort Union until transportation for the {p.36} march can be provided, and those of the Seventh Infantry at Fort Fillmore.

Since my report of the 11th instant * information has been received here giving greater consistency to the rumored invasion of this Territory by the people of Texas, and I have in consequence taken measures to hasten as much as possible the concentration of troops at Fort Fillmore, and hope in a few days to have a sufficient force at that point to secure the interests of the United States against attack from any quarter. The headquarters of the Seventh Infantry will be temporarily established at that post, and the troops in that quarter placed under the orders of the senior officer (Major Lynde, Seventh Infantry), with such instructions as will enable him to meet any emergency. This information applies also to the trains on their way to this country from the Missouri frontier, and I have given instructions to prepare a mounted force to move in the direction of the Arkansas River for the protection of these trains. If necessary I shall anticipate the orders of the War Department, by calling for a portion of the volunteers immediately, for the purpose of replacing the troops detached on this duty.

The commanding officers at Fort Wise and Fort Larned will be furnished with the information in relation to the anticipated movements of the Texans, in order that they may be on their guard.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, and Bvt. Lieut. Col., U. S. Army.

* Vol. I of this series, p. 606.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, June 16 1861.

Bvt. Lieut. Col. B. S. ROBERTS, R. M. R., Commanding Fort Stanton, N. Mex:

SIR: Information from private sources indicates the possibility of a demonstration by Texas troops against the posts and public property in or en route to this department. The particular objects of this demonstration can of course only be conjectured, but the lieutenant-colonel commanding directs me to advise you of the facts, in order that you may be on your guard and prepared to resist attack from any quarter. He desires that you will as fully as possible keep yourself advised of any movements of the Texas troops in the direction of New Mexico, and particularly that you will take measures for watching the approach from that State by the Pecos route. This should be done as quietly as possible, and by Mexicans or friendly Indians, if you can secure the services of men that are perfectly reliable. With the ostensible object of trading with the Indians they would be less liable to attract observation than parties of troops. In carrying out this object you are authorized to employ 15 or 20 Mexicans or Indians as spies and guides, &c. They will be required to furnish their own animals and arms, but will be supplied by you with subsistence and ammunition. The rate of compensation will be the same as has heretofore been authorized by department orders for similar services.

It is important, of course, that no unnecessary alarm should be created among the inhabitants in the neighborhood of your post, and you will accordingly take your measures with as much secrecy as possible, and conceal the real under some other plausible object.

{p.37}

The lieutenant-colonel commanding does not wish to trammel you by specific instructions, but trusts entirely to your judgment and discretion for the adoption of such measures as will best secure the interests of the United States and maintain the honor of its flag.

I am directed also to put you on your guard against any attempts to tamper with the enlisted men of your command similar to that which is disclosed by the copy of a letter which I send herewith.

Please advise the department commander as soon as possible what effective force (volunteer) can be raised in the neighborhood of your post, and the amount of transportation that can be obtained there by purchase or by contract.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 16, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.:

SIR: I inclose a copy of instructions to Major Lynde, Seventh Infantry, to meet a contingency of which you are already apprised. If the necessity for an immediate concentration of troops at Fort Fillmore should exist, you will, without waiting for the instructions of Major Lynde, take such measures as you may consider expedient to facilitate the movement of the troops from Fort McLane.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 16, 1861.

Maj. I. LYNDE, Seventh Inf, Comdg. Southern Mil. Dist. of N. Mex., Fort McLane:

SIR: Information from private but reliable sources indicates the possibility of a demonstration by the people of Texas, aided perhaps by some disaffected individuals in Arizona, against the posts and property of the United States in that Territory, and Colonel Canby desires that you will at once concentrate such a force at Fort Fillmore as will enable you to resist an attack from any quarter.

To do this Fort McLane will at once be abandoned, and the troops and public property transferred to Fort Fillmore. The transportation at both posts and any that can be hired in the neighborhood of either will be employed for this purpose. When the concentration is effected it is believed that you will have under your command a sufficient force to prevent or defeat any attempt of this character. If satisfied of your ability to do this, the transfer of the companies of the First Dragoons to Fort Buchanan will proceed as indicated in Special Orders, No. 85, of the 14th instant, the four companies constituting the garrison of Fort Buchanan until further orders; but if these posts should be threatened by a force which in your judgment cannot be resisted, you will take such measures for abandoning them as will best subserve the interests of the Government, transferring the troops and property to other posts in this or in the Department of California (Fort Yuma), as may be determined by circumstances. It is of course important that {p.38} both troops and property should be transferred to Fort Fillmore or other posts in this department if it can be done without endangering the loss of one or both, but in no event will stores of any kind be allowed to fall into the hands of the invaders if it be possible to remove or destroy them.

It is understood here that Mr. Grant, late a contractor for supplying the posts in Arizona, has a train of wagons at Tucson, which may probably be hired or purchased if these movements become necessary.

It is probable that Fort Buchanan is the only post in the interior of Arizona that will be retained, and the effort to maintain that will be contingent upon the loyalty of the neighboring population.

You are desired to keep yourself as fully informed as possible of the movements of the Texas troops at and below Fort Bliss, the strength of the garrisons at that post and Fort Quitman, of any re-enforcements that they may receive, and any movements that may be made in the direction of any post of New Mexico, keeping these headquarters advised as frequently and as speedily as possible.

The extent of the disaffection in the Mesilla Valley is not fully known here, and probably will not be fully developed there until the civil authorities enter upon their duties. The action of the civil authorities will not be anticipated by the military authorities, but any active opposition to the Government of the United States, any measures that would be likely to endanger the safety of your command, or any efforts to furnish assistance to Texas by raising troops or sending supplies of any kind will be quietly but effectually frustrated.

Efforts have been made, and will no doubt continue to be made, to induce the men to desert, and to carry with them into Texas public property of every description, and particularly arms and ammunition. Every effort will be used to defeat these attempts, and particularly to prevent the transfer of arms and ammunition into Texas.

It is stated here upon good authority that the collector of customs at Las Cruces, who is also the sutler at Fort Fillmore, has openly expressed his determination to turn over the funds of the United States in his possession to the State of Texas. It will be the duty of the military authorities to prevent this and similar thefts of public funds and property by every means that may be in their power.

Colonel Canby desires that you will not consider yourself trammeled by instructions, but will do whatever in your judgment will best secure the interest of the United States and maintain the honor of its flag, and he wishes you to feel assured that you will be supported by every means in his power.

A copy of this communication will be sent to Major Paul, at Fort Fillmore, for his information, and for such action as may be necessary before your arrival at that post.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS FORT FILLMORE, NEW MEXICO, June 16, 1861.

ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the bad faith of Texas in capturing the United States troops who were within the limits of the State, after having made a solemn agreement that they should be permitted {p.39} to leave the country unmolested; also the invasion by Texas militia of the Indian Territory, and the occupation by them of Forts Washita and Arbuckle, and again the expected occupation of Fort Bliss by four companies of Texas militia, renders this frontier peculiarly important.

In connection with the above it may be proper to state that a Convention was held in Mesilla on the 16th of March, 1861, purporting to be a “Convention of the people of Arizona,” acting separately from the government of the Territory of New Mexico, repudiating the United States, and attaching themselves to the Confederate States. I considered the whole transaction as a farce, and treated it with silent contempt, determined, however, if they attempted to carry out any of their resolutions by resisting or interfering with any of the United States civil officers, that I would protect the latter and punish the former.

Yesterday Mr. L. Labadi, the United States agent for the Indians near Tucson, showed me a paper (a copy of which is inclosed), saying that it was handed to him by Mr. Kelly, editor of the Mesilla Times, who was accompanied by three other citizens of Mesilla, who threatened to tar and feather him if he attempted to exercise the duties of his office. I promised Mr. Labadi military protection should any attempt be made against his person.

The paper referred to is the sixth resolution of the Convention, in which they do not recognize the United States Government, and bind them selves to resist any officer appointed by said Government with whatever means in their power. The signatures of the document are also appended to the petition to the governor of New Mexico begging him to use his influence to have United States troops stationed in Mesilla for the protection of its citizens. Now that their fears are allayed with reference to an alleged invasion from Mexico, they are secretly engaged in fomenting opposition to the United States, and when the four companies of Texas militia reach Fort Bliss difficulties may be reasonably apprehended, and I therefore recommend that a stronger force be stationed here to overawe any attempt on this post. Two additional companies would probably be sufficient.

I think it proper to state that inducements are held out to our men to desert, with their horses, arms, &c., by secret agents of Texas. They are told that it is not desertion to quit the United States Army and to join the South, and that they will be paid all arrearages due them, &c.

Thus far I am happy to report that there has been no discontent among the men, and the discipline of the command is perfect. They are now engaged in target practice.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. R. PAUL, Brevet Major, U. S. Army, Comdg. Post.

[Inclosure.]

MESILLA, 14 de Junio de 1861.

Dr. LORENZO LABADI, Las Cruces, N. Mex.:

The sixth resolution of a Convention held in the city of Mesilla, Ariz., the 16th day of March, 1861, is as follows:

Resolved, That we will not recognize the present Black Republican administration, and that we will resist any officers appointed to this Territory by said administration with whatever means in our power.

A true copy.

JAS. A. LUCAS, President of the Convention.

Attest:

CH. S. A. HAPPIN, Secretary.

{p.40}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 16, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICERS, Forts Wise and Lard, Kans.:

SIRS: It is stated here that a considerable body of Texas troops are being organized for a special service, and that one of the presumed objects of this organization is an attempt upon the trains now on their way to this country from the Missouri frontier. Much of this is no doubt conjectural, but I have thought proper to advise you of it, in order that you may put those passing your post on their guard. Will you do me the favor to give me any information that you may possess in relation to the trains now on the road?

Very respectfully, sirs, your obedient servant,

ED. R S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry and Bet. Lieut. Col., U. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 19, 1861.

Bvt. Lieut. Col. WM. CHAPMAN, Major Second Infantry, Comdg. Fort Union, N. Mex.:

SIR: The lieutenant-colonel commanding desires that you will organize a small party of spies, for the purpose of watching the road from Fort Smith to Anton Chico, and another for the purpose of watching the country east of Fort Union and south of the road to the crossing of the Arkansas. These parties should be composed of Mexicans or Indians, if reliable men can be found, as under the ostensible object of trading with the Indians they will he less likely to attract observation than parties of troops. They will be required to furnish their own animals and arms, but will be furnished by you with subsistence and ammunition. The compensation will be the same as has heretofore been allowed by department orders for similar services. It is important that the parties should be organized as quietly as possible, and that the real object of the service should be cloaked under some plausible pretext. They should be advanced so far in both directions as to be able to give you timely information of any movements being made in the direction of the frontier or against the trains on the road.

Arrangements are being made by the War Department for guarding the line of communication between the Missouri frontier and this country. The extent of these arrangements is not fully known here, but no apprehensions are entertained except for the trains that may now be between your post and the crossing of the Arkansas. If you should apprehend any danger for them, you will, without waiting for instructions, make the best arrangements that may be in your power for their protection. If it be necessary, in order to replace any portion of your command that may be detached for this purpose, you are authorized to call into the service two or more companies of volunteers to strengthen your command. These companies, if called for, will be regarded as a part of the two regiments to be raised in New Mexico, and their organization will conform to the minimum organization prescribed in War Department General Orders, No. 15, of the 4th ultimo.

On the 14th instant two companies of the Fifth Infantry were ordered from Fort Fauntleroy, for the purpose of strengthening the depots at {p.41} Albuquerque and Fort Union, but it will be some time before the company intended for your post can reach it, and in the mean time the lieutenant-colonel commanding does not wish the strength of the garrison at Fort Union to be reduced below 200 men without calling for the volunteers.

You will please report as early as possible any information that you may obtain in reference to the state of affairs in the country to the east and south of your post.

Three or four Indians will be sent from this place to Lieutenant Walker’s party, at Hatch’s ranch, to be used for the same purpose as those you are authorized to employ. Instructions in regard to their employment similar to the above will be sent from these headquarters to Lieutenant Walker

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON. Second Lieutenant, Fifth Inf., A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 20, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to submit for the consideration of the General-in-Chief the following statements and suggestions in relation to the service of this department, basing them upon the supposition that it will not only be necessary to protect the inhabitants of New Mexico from Indian hostilities, but to defend the country against invasion and to guard our communications with the East-at least as far as the crossing of the Arkansas.

In this view Fort Fillmore, or preferably Fort Bliss, on the south, and Forts Union and Stanton, on the east, will be important strategical points, and should be strongly garrisoned with, if possible, a large portion of each command-regular troops, both infantry and cavalry. Fort Garland and Fort Craig are of subordinate importance, but their garrisons should be determined by the same considerations. The principal depot (Albuquerque) should also be guarded by regular troops.

Fort Fillmore, Fort Stanton, and Fort Union are at remote and exposed points, and it will not be well to trust either entirely to new and undisciplined troops. Seven-tenths of the population and resources of the Territory and all the military supplies (in depot) are north of Fort Craig; hence the necessity for a strong and reliable garrison at that point, for the purpose of keeping open the communication with and supporting the posts in the South. Fort Garland, commanding the route to Colorado Territory, will be important in the event of political troubles in this country. This contingency is not anticipated, but it will not be wise to disregard it entirely. The contemplated change of the depot at Albuquerque, and the consequent abandonment of Fort Union, would remove the necessity for a separate garrison for the depot, but under existing circumstances it will not be prudent to establish it at a point where it would be exposed to the danger of being broken up by the operations of a war.

To distribute the regular force left in the department at the points above indicated would leave no reserve, and would disseminate them so widely that they could not be concentrated to meet any emergency.

From a full consideration of the subject, it is my opinion that one of {p.42} the infantry regiments (Fifth or Seventh) should be retained in this country at least until the volunteer regiments have attained some degree of instruction and discipline, and that some portion of this (volunteer) force should be mounted; and I have the honor to recommend that the force to be retained in the department may be 1 regiment (10 companies) of regular infantry, 1 regiment (10 companies) of regular cavalry, 2 battalions (16 companies) of foot volunteers, and I squadrons (6 companies) of mounted volunteers; in all, 42 companies, or an increase of 8 companies over the force authorized by the special orders of May 17, 1861.

If it should be found that the volunteer force authorized for this Territory will draw too heavily upon its population, it is respectfully suggested that a part of it be drawn from Colorado Territory. It would be appropriate and politic to draw from that Territory the volunteers that will be needed within its limits.

Many of the duties of escort, spies, scouts, &c., can be performed very efficiently by mounted volunteers, and, the substitution of mounted for a portion of the foot volunteers authorized is suggested, for the purpose of relieving the regular cavalry from a part of these duties and husbanding their horses (which cannot be replaced in this country) as much as possible.

A heavy harnessed battery (four 12-pounder guns and two 24-pounder howitzers) is greatly needed in this department. There are two 24-pounder howitzers at the depot, but I have just learned from the military storekeeper that the carriages are unserviceable. The battery-wagon is also unserviceable.

I have also the honor to invite the attention of the General-in-Chief to the number of officers now absent from the mounted companies to remain in this department, and to request that as many as possible may be ordered to join their companies as soon as practicable. Lieutenant Averell, of the rifle regiment, although unfit for service in the field, may be usefully employed at one of the depots, and his services would be especially important when so many inexperienced officers are about to be called into the service.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 20, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: In consequence of impending difficulties with the Comanche Indians, and the insecurity of the trains on the road from the crossing of the Arkansas to Fort Union, I have the honor to call for three companies of infantry volunteers, to aid in the protection of the eastern frontier of this Territory and guarding the trains on the routes from the Arkansas to this department. As three companies will probably form an integral portion of one of the regiments to be mustered into the service of the United States from this Territory, they should be raised in conformity with regulations prescribed in General Orders, No. 15, of May 4, 1861, and until otherwise directed by the War Department the organization of the companies should be the minimum prescribed by {p.43} that order. The services of these companies will be needed immediately, and it is respectfully recommended that they be raised in San Miguel County, or as near Fort Union as possible and be ordered to rendezvous at that post at as early a period as may be practicable. Instructions will be given to the commanding officer at Fort Union to muster these companies into the service of the United States, to arm them fully, and to equip them, as far as the means in the department will permit.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 22, 1861.

His Excellency Governor RENCHER, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: In addition to my requisition of yesterday, I have the honor to call for four companies of foot volunteers, to rendezvous at Albuquerque, N. Mex.; one company of foot and one of mounted volunteers, to rendezvous at Fort Craig; and one company of foot and one of mounted volunteers, to rendezvous at Fort Stanton; the whole to assemble at the points indicated as soon as possible, and to be mustered into the service of the United States in conformity with the regulations prescribed in War Department General Orders, No. 15, of 1861.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 23, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF CHIHUAHUA, Chihuahua, N. Mex.:

SIR: The bearer of this communication, First Lieut. Donald C. Stith, of the U. S. Army, has been commissioned by me to visit your excellency, for the purpose of asking your assistance in effecting the restoration of a train of wagons and a large quantity of stores, the property of the Government of the United States, which were carried into the State of Chihuahua in the month of March last, by William D. Kirk, then a wagon-master in the U. S. Army. This flagrant robbery and breach of faith will be fully reprobated by your excellency, and I have the fullest confidence that you will at once, in the exercise of your powers, direct the restoration of the public property and the delivery of the robber (Kirk) into the hands of the accredited agent of the United States. Lieutenant Stith takes with him, for the information of your excellency, a full statement of the circumstances connected with this robbery, so that you can see at once the true history and merits of the case. He will also take inventories of the stolen property, in order that everything may be verified. When this property is restored to Lieutenant Stith I have the honor to request that your excellency will cause him to be furnished with any assistance that may be necessary to facilitate his return to this department, and if it should be needed that you will direct the train to be escorted to the frontier of Chihuahua, where an escort from the troops of this department will meet it. I beg to assure your excellency that the action that you may take in this matter will be fully recognized and appreciated by the Government of the United States.

{p.44}

With the assurances of my most distinguished consideration and respect, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 23, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: Since my report of the 16th instant the statements in relation to a contemplated invasion of the Territory appear to be confirmed by information received from various sources, and it is positively known that a considerable force of Texan troops is now on the march for El Paso or that neighborhood, with the ostensible object of garrisoning Forts Quitman and Bliss. I feel assured, however, that a sufficient force will in two or three days be concentrated at Fort Fillmore to render that portion of the country entirely secure, and enable the commanding officer to repress any revolutionary movements that may be set on foot by the people of the Mesilla Valley.

I hope, too, that Major Lynde will find himself in sufficient force to reoccupy Fort Bliss and recover the public property now at that place. Two mounted companies have been ordered to report to him at Fort Fillmore as soon as practicable, and he has been authorized to call for volunteers if he should find it necessary.

The next point in importance is Fort Union, and to enable the commanding officer of that post to guard the depot, protect the trains on the road, and watch the approach by the Canadian I have called upon the governor of the Territory for four companies of foot volunteers, who will rendezvous at that place in two or three days. Four companies of foot volunteers have also been called for the purpose of relieving the companies of the Fifth Infantry now at Fort Fauntleroy. They will rendezvous at Albuquerque. One company of foot and one of mounted volunteers will rendezvous at Fort Stanton, and one company of foot and one of mounted volunteers at Fort Craig, making in all ten companies of foot and two of mounted volunteers. These requisitions have been made in anticipation of the orders of the War Department calling them into the service, and for the purpose of defending exposed points and facilitating the concentration of the regular troops that are to leave the department.

Our Indian relations are still unsatisfactory. The Apaches of Arizona are still actively hostile, and have committed many depredations during the past month, and the Comanches are openly at war with us.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, and Bvt. Lieut. Col.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 23, 1861.

Maj. I. LYNDE, Seventh Infantry, Comdg. Southern District, Department of New Mexico, Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.:

SIR: The bearer of these communications, Judge John S. Watts, of this city, is thoroughly acquainted with the inhabitants of Mesilla, {p.45} Doña Aña County, and will be able to render you valuable assistance in organizing volunteer companies, if you should find it necessary to call for any, or in any event in which you may require his aid. His intimate knowledge of the people in that part of the country will enable him to indicate to you those upon whose fidelity you can rely, and this, at the present juncture, will be a matter of the utmost importance. I have requested him to take charge of these communications, for the reason that I do not feel assured that they would reach you if sent through the post-office, and for the same reason a triplicate of the instructions of the 16th inst. is also sent. My own knowledge of Judge Watts and his reputation here warrant me in saying that you can rely upon him for any service in which you may require the assistance of an active, zealous, and faithful man.

Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg.

[Inclosures.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 23, 1861.

Maj. ISAAC LYNDE, Seventh Infantry, Comdg. Southern District, Department of New Mexico, Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.:

SIR: I am instructed to say that your communication of the 14th instant and Major Paul’s report of the 16th instant, in relation to affairs in the Mesilla Valley, have been received. The orders and instructions heretofore given you anticipate the recommendations made by Major Paul and yourself. Duplicates of these orders and instructions will be sent herewith. I am instructed to state, for your information, that your command will be re-enforced by two mounted companies: one from Fort Craig and one from Fort Stanton. A requisition has been made upon the governor for volunteers to strengthen the garrisons at Forts Stanton and Craig, and keep open the communication between these posts and Fort Fillmore.

You are authorized, if you should consider it necessary, to call into the service of the United States two or more companies of volunteers from the neighborhood of your post. Three hundred rifles and muskets and 12,000 cartridges will also be sent for the purpose of arming any volunteers that you call for. Twenty thousand rations of subsistence have been ordered from the depot at Albuquerque for the use of your force. Assistant Surgeon Alden will be ordered to report to you for duty with your command. You are requested to transmit, at as early a period as possible, your requisitions for any supplies that may be needed for your command, basing them upon the supposition that there will not be less than 2,000 men to be provided for, in order that arrangements may be made for filling them as rapidly and as fully as possible.

It is impossible, at this distance, and with the imperfect knowledge of passing events in your neighborhood, to give you definite instructions, but the lieutenant-colonel commanding relies upon your zeal and judgment to give the greatest effect for defense or for offense to the means that will be under your control. The present strength of Fort Bliss and the period of the expected arrival of the re-enforcements from Texas are not known here, but it is scarcely necessary to suggest to you that the frontier in charge could be more permanently secured from invasion by the seizure of that post and the property of the United States now {p.46} there than by any other course and before the re-enforcements have arrived. You must judge whether the means under your control will be sufficient to accomplish this object without hazard to the more important object of maintaining your position at Fort Fillmore.

It is represented that there are many loyal men in the Mesilla Valley who would really volunteer their services, and as the organization of volunteer companies in their midst would tend greatly to paralyze the disaffected, this course is suggested in calling for any volunteers you may consider necessary.

The promotion of Major Paul to the Eighth Infantry has been received here, but as his services will be necessary in organizing and mustering volunteers into the service of the United States, you are authorized to retain him for the present, and will please give the same directions at other posts within your district where the immediate change would leave a company without an officer or occasion other serious embarrassments to the service.

Very respectfully, sir, &c.,

A. L. ANDERSON Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO Santa. Fe, N. Mex., June 25, 1861.

Capt. R. M. MORRIS, Commanding Officer, Fort Craig, N. Mex.:

SIR: For the purpose of strengthening your post and enabling you to furnish escorts of sufficient strength for public property that may be sent to Fort Fillmore and other posts in the South a requisition has been made upon the governor of the Territory for one company of mounted and one company of foot volunteers, to be mustered into the service of the United States at Fort Craig.

Mr. Robert H. Stapleton, who lives near your post, will be authorized by the governor to raise the mounted company. Col. M. E. Pino, appointed by the President to the command of the Second Regiment of New Mexican Volunteers, will designate the foot company. The mounted company will be mustered into the service as an independent company and for the period of three months. The foot company will be one of the companies of the Second Regiment, and will be mustered in for three years, unless sooner discharged. The organization in both cases will be the minimum prescribed by General Orders (War Department), No. 15, of 1861. You are charged with the duty of organizing, inspecting, and mustering these companies into the service, and you will be governed in this duty by the instructions of the War Department of June 12, 1848, as modified by General Orders (War Department), Nos. 15 and 25, of 1861, and the General Regulations of 1857.

It is supposed that a copy of the instructions above referred to will be found with your company records. For fear that it should not extracts that relate to the muster into the service will be sent to you. The General Orders, Nos. 15 and 25, are inclosed herewith. There are no blank muster rolls on hand, and it will be necessary to muster on manuscript rolls. A form is sent herewith. The oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States must be taken by all who enter the service, and the refusal to take it will be an absolute cause of rejection. The oath of the commissioned officers of the company will be attested by a civil magistrate and sent to this office by the mustering {p.47} officer. To the non-commissioned officers and men it will be administered as prescribed by the instructions of 1848, paragraph 104.

As soon as mustered, these companies will be armed and equipped for immediate service. Arms, ammunition, and camp and garrison equipage will be issued upon requisitions approved by you, but no clothing will be issued without further orders. If you have not on hand a sufficiency of camp equipage (tents, axes, spades, camp-kettles, and mess pans), you will make your requisitions upon the department quartermaster at Albuquerque, who will be instructed to fill them without reference to department headquarters.

The mounted company will be armed with rifles and the foot company with muskets. The arms for this purpose and the necessary ammunition have been ordered to be sent you from the depot at Fort Union. If they should not reach you in season, you can probably obtain for temporary use the arms in the possession of the volunteers in the neighborhood of your post, to be returned when the regular supply is received. A list of these will be sent to you herewith.

The action of the State of Texas and of the people of the Mesilla Valley make it necessary that your post should be strengthened, so as to enable you to keep open the communication with the posts in the South. Your own company, the company (F) of the Seventh Infantry, and the two companies of volunteers will probably be sufficient for this purpose.

Your views in relation to this are invited, bearing in mind that strong escorts will be required for all trains going South, and that it is known privately that a movement against New Mexico is being organized at Fort Bliss, and, if not frustrated, will take place soon after the Texan troops reach that post. They are expected about the first of next month.

By direction of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Canby:

Very respectfully, &c.,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 25, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. N. B. ROSSELL, Fifth Infantry, Commanding Albuquerque:

SIR: A requisition has been made upon the governor of New Mexico for four companies of foot volunteers, to rendezvous at Albuquerque, where they will be mustered into the service of the United States, and sent, as soon as they are armed and equipped, to relieve the companies of the Fifth Infantry at Fort Fauntleroy. Col. M. E. Pino, appointed by the President to the command of the Second Regiment of New Mexican Volunteers, will designate the companies that are to assemble at Albuquerque. These companies will form part of the Second Regiment, and they will be mustered into the service for the period of three years, unless sooner discharged, and the organization will be the minimum prescribed by General Orders (War Department), No 15, of 1861.*

...

By direction of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Canby:

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

* Details omitted.

{p.48}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 26 1861. Bvt. Lieut. Col. B. S. ROBERTS,

Mounted Rifles, Commanding Fort Stanton:

SIR: For the purpose of strengthening your post and enabling you to watch the approach to this Territory by the Pecos route, a requisition has been made upon the governor of the Territory for one company of mounted and one company of foot volunteers, to be mustered into the service of the United States at Fort Stanton. The governor of the Territory will appoint the commander of the mounted company, and Col. M. E. Pino, appointed by the President to the command of the Second Regiment of New Mexican Volunteers, will designate the foot company. Both will be ordered to report to you at the earliest practicable moment. The mounted company will be mustered into the service as an independent company, and for the period of three months. The foot company will be one of the companies of the Second Regiment, and will be mustered into the service for the period of three years, unless sooner discharged. The organization in both cases will be the minimum prescribed by General Orders (War Department), No. 15, of 1861.*

...

Very respectfully, sir, you obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

* Details omitted.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 29, 1861.

Bvt. Lieut. Col. WILLIAM CHAPMAN, Major Second Infantry, Commanding Fort Union:

COLONEL: I am directed by the lieutenant-colonel commanding to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 26th instant. He considers Lieutenant Claflin’s report* as very interesting, and the result of his operations very satisfactory, as it will no doubt lead to the breaking up of the band of robbers that have infested that part of the country. If the Comanche women cannot be made useful in furnishing information, they will be released and permitted to return to their tribe. You will please tell them to say to the Comanche chiefs that the Government of the United States has no wish to make war upon the Comanches but that a large force is now being collected, and will be sent into their country to punish them if they fail to keep the promises they made at Abamo Guras. The form for the muster roll will be sent by the mail.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 30, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Union, N. Mex.:

SIR: I am instructed by the lieutenant-colonel commanding to say that, as the companies of New Mexican volunteers to be mustered into the service at Fort Union are equipped, you will organize a command of at {p.49} least 100 mounted men and two companies of New Mexican volunteers, the whole to be under the command of Captain Duncan, Mounted Rifles, for the protection of the trains on the road from the crossing of the Arkansas to Fort Union. The command will move as lightly equipped as possible, and will take with it rations for thirty days. As the service will be performed on or near the road, wagon transportation will be used, but a few fresh mules should be taken to meet the contingency of temporary detachments if it should be necessary to make any: A party of ten spies and guides will be attached to the command, and particular care should be taken in selecting them. You will please indicate to Captain Duncan that the lieutenant-colonel commanding trusts entirely to his discretion for the protection of the trains, and that he will take such measures as may, in his judgment, be most necessary to accomplish this object. He thinks proper, however, to suggest that the command should be kept as compact as possible; that no detachments should be made if it is possible to avoid it, and the country in his front and flank should be thoroughly searched by the spies attached to his command.

The commanding officer at Fort Larned has been requested to advise trains passing that post to keep up the Arkansas and come into New Mexico by the Raton route.

Captain Duncan will be relieved in season to return to Fort Union at the expiration of thirty days for which provisioned, if it should be found necessary to keep out a command for a longer period. It has been found necessary to send the company of the Fifth Infantry intended for Fort Union to Fort Stanton, and a company of the Tenth Infantry has been ordered to report to you in its place.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 30, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Buchanan, N. Mex.:

SIR: I inclose an extract from special orders directing the abandonment of Fort Buchanan, which should be done with as little delay as is consistent with the proper disposition of the property at your post and other interest in your charge. If the abandonment of Fort Buchanan has not yet been completed, it will be hastened as much as possible. The command will move in one body, if it be possible to procure the necessary transportation for the whole command, and prepared to resist attack from any quarter. Your artillery may possibly be needed, and should be put in a condition for service. If there should be any loyal citizens in the neighborhood of your post that wish to occupy the improvements that have been made at Fort Buchanan, you are authorized to turn it over to them.

At this distance, and under the circumstances, no special instructions can be given to you, but you will exercise your own judgment in carrying out this object in the manner that will best subserve the interests of the United States. This communication will be sent to you by express from Fort Craig, and you will please advise the commanding officer of the receipt by the return of the expressman.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

{p.50}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 30, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: Since my report of the 23d instant positive information has been received of the contemplated movements of the Texans against the interests of the Government in this Territory. This was naturally to have been expected, and measures were taken at an early period after Colonel Loring left this place to concentrate a sufficient force at Fort Fillmore to defeat any measures of this kind and to cover the movements that would be necessary in withdrawing the troops from the interior of Arizona. Several resigned officers who have left the Territory through Texas have aided and counseled in these contemplated movements, and my information implicates one or more who have not yet left the department. The commanders interested have been warned, and if the mischief has not already been accomplished it will be prevented.

Major Paul’s report of the 22d instant undoubtedly chronicles one of a series of robberies that have for some time been in contemplation, and I cannot comprehend how the officers at Fort Fillmore can still place any faith in the protestations and disclaimers of the Texan authorities at Fort Bliss. It is notorious that for two months past they have been tampering with the enlisted men at the posts in the South and offering them large bribes to induce them to desert.

Indian depredations still continue; one near Socorro of some magnitude. The others are generally of but little importance. Several proved upon investigation to have been committed by citizens, several of whom have been caught by the troops and are now in jail at this place.

The most assailable point in this department is the approach from Arkansas and Texas by the Canadian, and rumors indicate the probability of an invasion from that quarter. If it should be made in large force, serious difficulties may be apprehended, as the Mexican population will not furnish, for some time at least, a reliable force to resist invasion. To meet this possibility I am hastening as much as I can the organization of the volunteers called for, in order to concentrate as large a force of regulars as possible.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry and Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 30, 1861.

Maj. I. LYNDE, Seventh Infantry, Comdg. Southern District New Mexico:

SIR: Major Paul’s communication of the 22d instant, reporting the loss of 41 horses, of Company A, Mounted Rifles, and other communications from Fort Bliss in relation to the same subject, have been received, and I am instructed to say there is sufficient evidence here to show conclusively that this robbery was not the unauthorized act of a band of robbers, but was planned at Hart’s Mill as early as the 10th or 12th of this month, and is only one of a series that will be undertaken if prompt measures are not taken to defeat them. The horses were stolen for the purpose of mounting one of the companies of Texas troops now on their way to Fort Bliss. The reward offered by Magoffin and {p.51} the disclaimers of the Texan authorities are mere blinds, to throw you off your guard and keep the troops inactive until Fort Bliss is re-enforced. When this object is secured there will be demonstrations against your post, the trains that supply it, or against Fort Stanton.

The movements of the Texans at Fort Bliss have been watched, and although the precise object and the details of their contemplated movements cannot be ascertained, it is positively known that movements against New Mexico are on foot; that officers who recently left the country by that route have aided and counseled in the plans, and it is alleged that others still in the service are implicated in these transactions. There is no doubt that these movements will be undertaken the moment that the instigators feel assured of a probability of success. The leading secessionists in Mesilla are apprised of these plans, and to the extent of their ability will assist in carrying them out.

The State of Texas is avowedly at war with the Government of the United States. The character of the enemy you have to deal with has been fully exhibited in the last few months, and they now expect to be able in a few days to carry the war into New Mexico. It is hoped that before this time you have a sufficient force under your control to make them feel that the war is not to be entirely upon one side.

The surplus horses at Fort Craig will be seat down as soon as possible to Fort Fillmore for the purpose of remounting a part of Company A, but it will be very difficult to procure a sufficient number in the department to remount the whole company. As many as can be procured will be sent.

Orders have been sent direct to-day for the abandonment of Fort Buchanan; the garrison to report to you at Fort Fillmore as soon as possible.

The lieutenant-colonel commanding directs me to repeat his assurance that you will be supported in any measures that you may undertake by all the means that he can control, and that there is no intention of withdrawing any portion of the regular force under your command until the affairs within the limits of your command are placed upon a satisfactory footing. He desires that you will keep him fully advised of matters that transpire in your neighborhood, and that you will keep the commanding officer at Fort Stanton advised of any matters that may affect his post.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 1, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Stanton, N. Mex.:

SIR: I am instructed by the lieutenant-colonel commanding to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 24th ultimo, and to say in reply to your application for re-enforcements that one company of the Fifth Infantry from Albuquerque has been ordered to proceed at once to your post; that a requisition has been made upon the governor of the Territory for additional companies of volunteers, one of which will be sent to you as soon as it can be organized, and that a company of your regiment will be ordered from Fort Union to report to you as soon as a company of mounted volunteers can be organized for service at that post.

{p.52}

More definite information from Texas indicates that the people in the neighborhood of Fort Bliss will not be in a condition to make important demonstrations against New Mexico before the arrival of the Texan troops at that post. These troops are not expected before the 10th of this month. It is believed that if any demonstrations are made before that time they will be confined to marauding expeditions, for the purpose of stealing your horses or disabling your command by driving off your means of transportation. It is known that movements of this kind are in contemplation, and will be undertaken as soon as the instigators find themselves sufficiently strong to hope for success, and it is believed that Fort Stanton is one of the points at which they will he aimed. The lieutenant-colonel commanding therefore desires that you will at once put your post in the best condition for defense that it is capable of, and that every arrangement that your experience and judgment may suggest should be brought into requisition. It is to be hoped that you may be able to pacify the Apaches without the necessity of making war upon them, as any difficulty of this kind would be productive of great embarrassment, and at all events they will be of subordinate importance until the arrangements for resisting invasion are complete. It is not intended to withdraw any of the means of transportation at your post. The object of the inquiry was to ascertain the amount of transportation that could be procured in the neighborhood of your post for general purposes. If you should find it necessary before the arrival of the volunteers referred to in my communication of the 26th ultimo, you are authorized to muster into the service any volunteers that can be obtained in the neighboring country.

Nothing has yet been heard from Colonel Pino, or of the company of mounted volunteers called for your post. It is hoped, however, that they will soon arrive there. The operations of Lieutenant Howland were executed with such judgment and energy as to entitle his command and himself to warm commendation. You are regarded as the commanding officer of the Rifle Regiment, but considerations enumerated in my communication of the 22d instant render it advisable to defer the transfer of the headquarters at present.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 1, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to call for two companies of foot and two of mounted volunteers, to be mustered into the service of the United States in conformity with the regulations of the War Department, as prescribed in General Orders, No. 15, of 1861. If more convenient, one company of the foot and one of the mounted volunteers may be mustered into service at this place. The other two companies will rendezvous at Albuquerque.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry and Bvt. Lieut. Col., Commanding.

{p.53}

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WASHINGTON, D. C., July 3, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: The President informed me last evening that you had completed your report, and advised me to call on you in reference to the troops about to be raised in New Mexico.

Advices from Governor Stanton and Judge Watts urge the importance of having three regiments, two of them to be mounted, and, in view of threatened aggressions in the northern as well as the southern portion of the Territory by the domestic foe, immediate action in the premises is deemed absolutely necessary.

I have seen Adjutant-General Thomas, and he concedes the propriety of having some cavalry, and is willing to recommend the addition of one regiment of mounted men to the two regiments already authorized; but it is almost unanimously agreed by officers of the Army and civilians who are acquainted with the character of the country, its wants, its population, and the existing emergency, that there should be at least three regiments, and that a majority of them should be cavalry. Every man will furnish his own horse for the mounted service, and thus a heavy preliminary expenditure will be avoided by the Government.

Major-General Frémont and Colonel Blair, whom I had the honor of meeting at the President’s, fully concur in the opinion that infantry troops are not well adapted to active service in the field in New Mexico, and the experience of those gentlemen in the country in question invests their opinions with the weight of high authority. The zeal I have manifested in this matter is prompted by no interest beyond that which every patriot should feel in his devotion to the integrity, the honor, and the flag of his country.

If you would most effectually strengthen the Government of the United States, physically and morally, in that recently conquered and imperfectly loyalized region of our country; if you would plant most deeply in the soil of New Mexico and in the hearts of her people the staff from which floats the “flag of the free,” you must show the good faith of giving them ample protection, alike against the marauding savage and the rebellious domestic foe.

Earnestly hoping, my dear sir, that you may find it consistent with your sense of public duty and congenial with your well-known patriotism to give us the three regiments, two of them cavalry, and that in view of the exigencies you may immediately give the order to that effect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

PERRY E. BROCCHUS.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 6, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF COLORADO TERRITORY, Denver City, Colo.:

SIR: The increasing hostilities of the Indians in New Mexico will render it inexpedient to divert any portion of the volunteer force authorized for this department for the purpose of garrisoning Fort Garland. As this post is within the limits of Colorado Territory, I have the honor to request that you will cause two companies of infantry volunteers to be enrolled and sent to that post, to be mustered into the service of the United States at as early a period as possible. The {p.54} organization of these companies should conform to that prescribed by the regulations of the War Department of 1861.*

...

The commanding officer at Fort Garland will be instructed to muster these companies into the service, and the arms and camp and garrison equipage necessary to equip them for service will immediately be sent to that post. No clothing can be issued at present, and the volunteers should be provided in this respect for at least three months.

Most respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry and Bvt. Lieut. Col., U. S. Army, Comdg.

* Details omitted.

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CIRCULAR.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 6, 1861.

The reclamation of persons who have been enrolled in the volunteer companies mustered into the service of the United States will no doubt be raised at your post; and I am instructed to state for your information that no discharge for this cause will be ordered at department headquarters; consequently, that the only resource of the persons claiming such service will be by the writ of habeas corpus from the United States courts in the Territory. The local courts of the Territory have no jurisdiction, and their writs will not be respected.

By order of Bvt. Lieut. Col. E. R. S. Canby:

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 7, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army:

SIR: No information, except the special orders of May 17, has yet been received in relation to the volunteers to be called into the service in this department, and as the organization of the regiments cannot be postponed without delaying the concentration of the regular troops or hazarding important interests, I have informed the governor of the Territory that, in addition to the requisitions that have already been made, I would at once accept and muster into service the companies that are required to complete the organization of Colonels St. Vrain’s and Pino’s regiments.

The organization of the companies already called for progresses very slowly, and I entertain such serious doubts of the ability of the Territory to furnish all, that I have made a requisition on the governor of Colorado Territory for two companies of infantry for the garrison of Fort Garland. The state of affairs at the South and the increasing Indian hostilities will reminder it inexpedient to detach any of the force now in this section.

Fort Bliss has been re-enforced by four companies of Texas troops. The movements of these troops have no doubt been hastened for a special purpose, in connection with enterprises against this department. Colonel Loring left the department on the 23d instant, but I had previously, for reasons that have already been assigned, exercised the command of the department without reference to him. There is reason to {p.55} fear that his influence, coupled with other causes, may have been productive of evil in that quarter, but I hope that a sufficient force was concentrated at Fort Fillmore in season to counteract the designs of the Texans upon that post. Major Lynde, with a portion of the command from Fort McLane, was expected on the 5th instant, and I think that there are by this time eight or ten companies at that post, which will be sufficient, I think, to resist the threatened invasion, and give time and cover for any movements that may be necessary to protect the interests of the United States in that quarter.

A command of about 300 men, regulars and volunteers, will be detached from Fort Union for the protection of the trains coming into this country from the Missouri frontier. This force will be sufficient to secure them against the attacks of Indians or marauding parties, but not against a large organized force from the frontiers of Arkansas or Texas.

The inclosed papers will give the General-in-Chief some idea of the state of affairs in the South, but I hope that the measures that have been taken and are in progress will be sufficient to defeat these designs.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANDY, Major Tenth Infantry and Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg. Dep’t.

[Inclosures.]

HART’S MILL, EL PASO, TEX., June 12, 1861.

Col. W. W. LORING:

MY DEAR LORING: We are at last under the glorious banner of the Confederate States of America. It was indeed a glorious sensation of protection, hope, and pride. Though its folds were modest and unpretending, the emblem was still there. The very Southern verdure and familiar foliage, as we progressed on our journey, filled us with enthusiasm and home feeling.

We shall have no trouble from here down to San Antonio. The stage runs regularly semi-weekly, carrying five passengers and a reasonable amount of baggage, reaching San Antonio in six days; thence to Berwick Bay in stages, and to New Orleans by rail.

Van Dorn is in command at San Antonio. He has ordered four companies of Texas troops to garrison this post. They cannot be expected to reach here, however, before the 1st proximo. Meanwhile, Colonel Magoffin, Judge Hart, and Crosby are very much exercised and concerned on account of the public stores here in their present unguarded condition.

There are full supplies of subsistence and ammunition here for two or more companies for twelve months. The loss of these supplies by capture or destruction would occasion serious embarrassment to the cause. The gentlemen I have named have applied to me for advice in the premises. I have promised to hasten on from below by forced marches the cavalry force en route here. Meanwhile you may, by delaying your own departure a week or two, add much to the security of this property.

I regret now more than ever the sickly sentimentality (I can call it by no other name) by which I was overruled in my desire to bring my whole command with me. I am satisfied now of the disaffection of the best of the rank and file in New Mexico, and that we are regarded as having betrayed and deserted them. I wish I had my part to play over again; no such peace scruples should deter me from doing what I considered a bounden duty to my friends and my cause. I do not advocate the meeting of duplicity and dishonesty by the like weapons, but {p.56} if I capture the treasury buildings I shall certainly not send back to my enemy the golden bricks.

Should you be relieved from command too soon to prevent an attempt on the part of your successor to recapture, by a coup de main, the property here, send a notice by extraordinary express to Judge Hart. Your seat in the stage may at the same time be engaged.

Movements are in contemplation from this direction which I am not at liberty to disclose. You will arrive here in time for everything and to hear everything.

Rhett, I fear, has shamefully betrayed his money trust. My love to those who love me.

Faithfully, yours,

H. H. SIBLEY.

LA MESILLA, N. MEX., June 23, 1861.

Hon. JOHN S. WATTS:

SIR: I came up here two days ago hoping to meet you. I assure you that I find matters here in a most deplorable condition. A disunion flag is now flying from the house in which I write, and this country is now as much in the possession of the enemy as Charleston is. All the officers at Fort Fillmore, except two, are avowedly with the South, and are only holding on to their commissions in order to embarrass our Government, and at the proper time to turn over everything to the South, after the manner of General Twiggs. The Mesilla Times is bitterly disunion, and threatens with death any one who refuses to acknowledge this usurpation. There is, however, a latent Union sentiment here, especially among the Mexicans, but they are effectually overawed. Give them something to rally to, and let them know that they have a Government worthy of their support, and they will teach their would-be masters a lesson. The soldiers also, in defiance of the teaching of their officers and the offer of gold from Hart, are yet faithful, and if a second lieutenant were to ask them to follow him, they would tear down this flag and throw the Times office into the river in one hour. Fifty of them could now go to Fort Bliss and bring up all the Government stores from that place, but instead of this a few thieves came up from El Paso a few days ago and stole 40 of the horses belonging to the mounted company at Fillmore. No effort was made to retake these horses, although the soldiers plead with their officers to allow them to follow the thieves. If Colonel Roberts, from Stanton, or any other faithful officer, would come here and take command, all would be right in three days. About 300 Texas troops are expected at Fort Bliss in about two weeks from this time, and if something is not done before that time Fort Fillmore will be surrendered. I have yet faith that this will be prevented. The only reason why I do not go immediately to Santa Fe is that I think I can be of some service to you here when you come to hold your court, and I claim it as my right to take part in the fight here, if light it must be. I go to El Paso to-morrow, but will return in a few days to await coming events. I hope to find a letter from you at El Paso. I have nothing late from the States or from my brother.

Hoping that you will excuse my great haste, I am, very respectfully,

W. W. MILLS.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 24, 1861.

Maj. I. LYNDE, Seventh Infantry, Commanding Fort Fillmore:

SIR: Information has been received here that some movement is in contemplation from Fort Bliss against the interests of the Government {p.57} in this Territory, at the head of which are Magoffin, Hart, and Crosby. Sibley is also said to be associated with them. It is alleged that Colonel Loring is in communication with these parties, and that he will remain in the department long enough to prevent any measures being taken to frustrate these designs. When Colonel Loring left this place every officer here had implicit confidence in his integrity, but I am sorry to say that some information received since he left has shaken that confidence. It is a long step from confidence to absolute distrust, but it is necessary that you should be on your guard against any betrayal of the honor or interests of the United States. I send this communication by Dr. Alden.

In haste, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Tenth Infantry, Comdg. Dep’t.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., June 30, 1861.

Maj. I. LYNDE, Seventh Inf, Comdg. Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.:

SIR: I had occasion on the 24th instant to put you on your guard against the alleged complicity of Colonel Loring in the treasonable designs of the Texas authorities at Fort Bliss. I now send a copy of one and extracts from another letter, sent to me after the arrival of the mail yesterday, which fully confirm all the information I had previously received. Although Colonel Loring was still in the department, I have not hesitated, since this information was communicated to me, to exercise the command and to give any orders or to take any measures that I considered necessary to protect the honor or the interests of the Government.

Sibley’s letter shows the Texas authorities at Fort Bliss count upon Colonel Loring’s aid in furthering their plans, and indicates the manner (by delaying his departure) in which this aid is to be rendered. Colonel Loring’s resignation was tendered on the 13th of last month, and has doubtless long since been accepted; but this is not material, for any failure to act at once, or any hesitancy in acting, may be in the highest degree disastrous. In this case, then, as in all similar cases that may occur, you will at once arrest the implicated parties, and hold them securely until their guilt or innocence can be determined by the proper tribunals. No considerations of delicacy or of regard must be permitted to interfere when the honor of the country and the safety of your command are involved. I send these communications by Lieutenant Hall, Tenth Infantry.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army, Comdg. Dep’t.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 7, 1861.

Maj. I. LYNDE, Seventh Inf., Comdg. Southern Mil. Dist., Fort Fillmore, N. Mex.:

MAJOR: In the organization of the volunteer companies in this part of the department I have endeavored to secure at least one American who could be relied upon among the commissioned officers of each company. It is desirable that the same principle should be observed in organizing the companies that you may call for in your neighborhood. {p.58} The names of the commissioned officers should be sent to this office, in order that they may be reported to the governor of the Territory for commissions. Dr. Steck, Mr. Labardine, and Mr. Mills have been suggested to me as suitable persons for these positions. It will be advisable that the companies now organized by you should be mustered in for the period of three months. Such of them as desire it may hereafter be mustered in for the period of three years.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Maj. Tenth U. S. Inf., Bvt. Lieut. Col., U. S. A., Comdg. Dep’t.

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FORT FILLMORE, N. MEX., July 7, 1861.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: I received your dispatches yesterday by Lieutenant Hall, and was very much astonished to receive such proofs of treachery against Colonel Loring. I had always believed him to be a man of the most unflinching honor and integrity. I was not so much disappointed in Major Sibley. I think the extracts inclosed do great injustice to the officers at this post. I fully believe that every officer at this post will do their whole duty as long as they retain their commissions in our Army, though some may intend to resign soon. I believe that if the post had been attacked before my arrival, Captain Garland would have fought with his command to the last extremity.

This fort is very badly situated for defense. It is placed in a basin, surrounded by sand hills, at least half the circumference of the circle, and they are covered by a dense growth of chaparral. These sand hills completely command the post, and render it indefensible against a force supplied with artillery. A force of a thousand men could approach it within 500 yards under perfect cover.

As yet I have not been able to make myself acquainted with the surrounding localities, but I am now of the opinion that if Texas should make a strong effort to overcome Arizona, it would be policy to withdraw our force beyond the Jornada to Fort Craig, as I do not think this post or the valley worth the exertion to hold it. If no more troops reach Fort Bliss I do not think they will attempt any aggressive movement against this Territory other than theft or robbery, yet I shall be on my guard at all times. I shall make an effort to raise a company of volunteers, but am not able to say with what success. I presume you are informed before this of the departure of Colonel Loring prior to my arrival.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. LYNDE, Major Seventh Infantry.

P. S.-From what I have just learned, I think I can raise one or two companies of volunteers, and they are the kind of troops I want to act as spies.

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HEADQUARTERS SOUTHERN DISTRICT, Fort Fillmore, N. Mex., July 7, 1861.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived at this post on the 4th instant with the regimental staff, band, and Company B, Seventh Infantry, {p.59} and found that no demonstration from Texas had been made on this post. The remaining companies of the Fort McLane command, viz, B and I, Seventh Infantry, will be here to-day. I shall then have very little fear of the result of any attack that will be likely to be made from Texas. From the best information that I can obtain, there are four companies of Texas troops at Fort Bliss, with two 18-pounders and four or more small guns. It is stated that they are fortifying for their own defense. It is probable that there are two companies now at Fort Stanton. With the force that I shall have at this post in a few days I do not think that the enemy will attempt to attack us, but if they do, I think we shall give them a warm reception.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. LYNDE, Major Seventh infantry, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 11, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that there has been no material change in the state of affairs in this department since my report of the 7th instant.

The garrison of Fort Fillmore has been increased to seven companies of infantry and two of rifles, relieving the anxiety that had previously been felt for the security of that post. Under cover of this force the troops and public property in the interior of Arizona are now being withdrawn. Arrangements are being made as rapidly as possible for the withdrawal of the regular troops and disposition of public property, as required by the special orders (Headquarters of the Army) of May 17 and June 12, 1861. The organization of the volunteer regiments, particularly the Second (Colonel Pino’s), progresses very slowly.

Our relations with the Comanche Indians and the Fort Stanton Apaches are more satisfactory than they were at the date of my last report.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry and Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg.

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FORT BLISS, TEX., July 20, 1861.

Lieut. A. L. ANDERSON, A. A. A. G., Department of New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to report, for the information of the commanding officer of the Department of New Mexico, the circumstances connected with my arrest and being brought to this place. While on my way to Chihuahua, in pursuance of instructions from the department, having proceeded as far as 1 mile beyond the town of Guadalupe, Mexico-which place is about 40 miles distant from the town of El Paso, Mexico-and while encamped, a party of men from 12 to 15 in number came up; and one, representing himself to be Lieutenant Adams, told me he had orders to arrest me and take me to Fort Bliss.

I asked him by what authority he did so. He replied, “By authority of the Southern Confederacy.” I told him I did not recognize any such power, and that it was a violation of the law of nations-my [I] being {p.60} on the soil of a foreign power. He replied that he was acting under the orders of his commanding officer, Colonel Baylor.

As I had not sufficient force to resist him, I obeyed the order under protest, and was brought to this place, together with those who had accompanied me the whole way from Fort Fillmore, which we reached on the morning of the 18th instant.

I was brought into the presence of Colonel Baylor, who told me that I was a prisoner of war. I told him in substance the same I did Lieutenant Adams, saying that I acknowledged no such power as the Southern Confederacy, and that it was a violation of the soil of Mexico. He replied that he had not given any orders for my arrest, but that as long as I had been brought to the garrison, he did not see fit to release me; he, however, acknowledged that his command had exceeded their authority in arresting me on the soil of Mexico. He then offered me a parole, which I signed, the only alternative being close confinement.

I have given the full particulars of the matter, with my regret that my mission has been so abruptly terminated. I beg leave to state that I have been treated by Colonel Baylor and his officers with the utmost kindness and consideration.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. C. STITH, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, U. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS SOUTHERN DISTRICT NEW MEXICO, Fort Fillmore, N. Mex., July 21, 1861.

To the ACTING ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Hdqrs. Dept. of New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex:

SIR: Since my last weekly report no material change has occurred in affairs at this post or in this valley. Scouting parties from Fort Bliss penetrate this country as far as the Cottonwoods (22 miles below this place), and on one occasion I detached a column of infantry for this side and a column of rifles for the other side of the river, to capture or drive back a party said to be at the Mesa, a town 10 miles below this post. The command returned without finding any suspicious bodies of men. On the 18th instant, I detached two companies of infantry, under command of Capt. J. H. Potter, Seventh Infantry, and occupied the town of San Tomas, on the opposite side of the river, and distant about two and a half miles. From its location, the town commands the road from El Paso to Mesilla. A series of lagunas between the town and hills prevent the passage of artillery or wagons, and only horsemen could pass over the lava ridge in rear of the town. A detail of 1 noncommissioned officer and 10 mounted men is sent to Captain Potter daily, for such service as may be necessary.

Information has reached me that ammunition is being sent from Fort Bliss to Mesilla. I have accordingly ordered all wagons from that direction to be stopped and searched.

The Apaches have commenced operations in our immediate vicinity. On the night of the 19th instant they killed 2 persons 2 or 3 miles in rear of the post, and stole a pair of horses and the harness, and the next morning killed 2 men and drove off over 2,000 sheep. Application was made to me for mounted troops to pursue them. I declined furnishing any, but stated that when the volunteers called for were forthcoming I would then assist them as far as was in my power.

In compliance with instructions received yesterday from department {p.61} headquarters the enlistment of volunteers is suspended. About 50 names were on the list up to that time.

Capt. J. M. Jones, Seventh Infantry, is still absent. Contradictory rumors are in circulation as to the number of troops at and en route to Fort Bliss. From the best information I can obtain, the number all told will not exceed 500. The effective force at present under my command is 450, exclusive of sick (38). There are 98 men on detached service, nearly all of whom will join within a week. Nothing has been heard of the troops from Forts Buchanan and Breckinridge since the reception of the order requiring the abandonment of both posts.

Inclosed I transmit oaths of allegiance of Lieutenants Lane (Rifles) and Stivers, Seventh Infantry.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. LYNDE, Major Seventh Infantry, Commanding District.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., July 29, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington:

SIR: I have the honor to report that thus far only twelve of the volunteer companies called for in this department have been organized, and that the enrollment of the others is progressing very slowly. It is certain that a sufficient force cannot be raised to hold the posts in Doña Aña and Arizona Counties, and it is questionable whether Fort Stanton can be retained. The withdrawal of the regular troops will leave the lower counties entirely exposed to Indian and Texan depredations, and the upper country to invasion by two routes that are now covered by Forts Fillmore and Stanton. My opinion of the result of such an invasion, if opposed only by New Mexico volunteers, has already been communicated through Captain Wainwright.

The troops from the most distant posts are being withdrawn as rapidly as the circumstances of the country and the slow organization of the volunteers will permit, but a strong force will be kept at Fort Stanton and Fort Fillmore until the troops have been withdrawn and the public property removed from the most exposed points.

The disturbed state of the lower country and the difficulty of procuring transportation will delay these movements, but I expect that the first column (six companies of infantry and four of cavalry) will be in readiness to march from Fort Union by or soon after the middle of next month.

Indian depredations, particularly in Arizona, continue to be very frequent. In other respects the state of affairs has not materially changed since my last report.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, and Bvt. Lieut. Col., Comdg.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., August 2, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to make a requisition for two squadrons (four companies) of mounted volunteers, under the command of a lieutenant-colonel, {p.62} to be mustered into the service of the United States, with the organization prescribed for volunteer cavalry in War Department General Orders, No. 15, of May 4, 1861. Should they desire it, the independent companies that have already been mustered in, or are being raised under previous requisitions, will be accepted, in order to complete the organization of a regiment of four squadrons (eight companies). The term of service will be for three years, unless sooner discharged.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Major Tenth Infantry, Bvt. Lt. Col., Comdg. Dep’t.

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CIRCULAR.]

HEADQUARTERS DEP’T OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., August 8, 1861.

The writ of habeas corpus has been suspended in order to enable every commander to guard against the treasonable designs of persons disloyal to the Government of the United States, particularly agents and spies, persons engaged in furnishing information to, or in other treasonable correspondence with, the enemy, or in inciting insurrection or rebellion.

Care will be taken to guard against any abuse of this power by unauthorized arrests or by annoyances to peaceable and well-disposed citizens, and, except in the case of overt acts, arrests will only be made by the superior commander of any district, post, or body of troops in the service of the United States, and only upon probable cause of suspicion of being dangerous to the public safety.

When arrests are made, the person arrested will immediately be examined, and if there be no ground for suspicion, will be released; if otherwise, held in confinement until his case is disposed of by the proper authorities. If there be evidence of treason or misprision of treason, he will be turned over to the civil courts for trial.

In the execution of these duties the troops will at all times unite with and assist the civil authorities in maintaining order throughout the country.

By order of Col. E. R. S. Canby:

A. L. ANDERSON Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 27.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, August 8, 1861.

The Southern Military District of New Mexico is extended so as to include all the country south of, and including, Albuquerque-headquarters at the discretion of the commander-under the command of Bvt. Lieut. Col. B. S. Roberts, U. S. Army, who is assigned to duty according to his brevet rank.

By order of Col. E. R. S. Canby:

A. L. ANDERSON. Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, August 13, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel CANBY, Comdg., &c., Department of New Mexico, Santa Fe:

SIR: Under instructions from the War Department, the General-in-Chief directs that you withdraw the regular troops from New Mexico, {p.63} &c., as heretofore ordered, at such time and in such manner as will not expose the Territory to conquest or invasion from Texas before the volunteer forces of New Mexico are properly organized, armed, and posted; The general, nevertheless, urges upon you the greatest possible dispatch in these movements.

I am, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., August 14, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF COLORADO TERRITORY, Denver City, Colo.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit a copy of a telegraphic dispatch received since my communication of last night was written .* It gives additional probability to the information I then communicated to you, and I have the honor to recommend that one or two companies of volunteers may be organized at the nearest points in Colorado Territory, for the purpose of supporting Fort Wise if it should be found necessary. Fort Larned should be substituted in the dispatch for Fort Laramie.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Comdg. Department.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, August 16, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, St. Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of General Orders, No. 1, of the 25th ultimo,* and to submit for the information of the commanding general a summary statement of the affairs of this department.

Colonel Loring, late commander of the department, left this post on the 11th and the department on the 23d of June last. On the 14th of that month the instructions of the General-in-Chief to withdraw the infantry force from the department were received, and measures were immediately taken to bring them in from the interior and most distant posts. By the same instructions the commander of the department was instructed to post the regular troops remaining in the department and such volunteers as would be presented to him so as to best protect the United States. No instructions were then or have since been received in relation to the volunteers, and the agent who it was understood had been appointed for the purpose of organizing them, did not reach this country until last night. Requisitions were, however, made upon the governors of this and of Colorado Territory for such volunteers as were required to replace the troops to be withdrawn.

As the southern part of the Territory was in a very disturbed condition in consequence of Indian hostilities and the revolutionary efforts of a few individuals, it was considered necessary to establish a strong force (one mounted and seven infantry companies) at Fort Fillmore to protect the interests of the United States in that quarter and cover the withdrawal of the troops from the interior of Arizona.

{p.64}

It soon became apparent that the volunteer forces could not be relied on for the defense of this Territory, unless supported by a considerable force of regular troops. This fact was represented in a special report of the 20th of June. On the 12th of July instructions were received for the withdrawal of the remainder of the regular troops, and an officer of the department staff (Captain Wainwright) was sent to the headquarters of the Army to represent that if all the regular troops were removed, it would inevitably result in the abandonment of the country and the absolute loss of the immense amount of public property already in or en route to the Territory.

In consequence of the anticipated arrivals of Texan re-enforcements on the line below Fort Fillmore, that post was re-enforced by two additional companies of mounted troops, and Forts Stanton and Craig were strengthened. On the 15th of July the commanding officer at Fort Fillmore was advised that Fort Fillmore would be abandoned, and was instructed to remove the public property, so as to abandon the post as soon as the troops from Arizona had passed up; the regular troops from Forts Stanton and Craig to be withdrawn as soon as volunteers could be raised to replace them.

On the 25th of July a Texan force occupied the town of Mesilla, and after an unsuccessful attempt to dislodge it Major Lynde abandoned his post, and on the 27th surrendered his entire command (about 500 men) to an inferior force of Texans. I have abstained from making any comments upon this transaction, for the reason that Major Lynde’s conduct will be made the subject of a judicial investigation.

The troops surrendered were paroled by the Texans, and are now on their march for Fort Union. They will be sent out of the country, and may, I presume, be employed on the overland route to California.

A copy of the terms of surrender is herewith inclosed. For the purpose of supporting the troops at the South and resisting any further invasion of the country Fort, Stanton was abandoned, and a part of the troops at that post and those being withdrawn from Fort Fauntleroy were concentrated at Fort Craig. At the time of Major Lynde’s surrender two companies of the First Dragoons and two companies of the Seventh Infantry, under Captain Moore, were on their march to the river, but having been apprised by expresses from Fort Craig, destroyed a portion of his baggage, and conducting his command by a mountainous trail, reached Fort Craig on the 8th instant. Fort Union and Fort Craig are now strongly occupied, and may be regarded as the initial points both for offensive and defensive operations. The headquarters of the First Regiment of New Mexican Volunteers have been established at the former, and those of the Second will be at the latter, as soon as it can be organized. I have not yet succeeded in organizing a mounted force to replace the cavalry, as thus far but three companies have been raised, but I hope in a few days to have several completed and mustered into the service.

I have heretofore called the General-in-Chief’s attention to the destitute condition of this department in military resources and supplies of every kind. There is not artillery enough in the department to arm a single post properly, and the supply of ammunition, except for small-arms, is exceedingly limited. Remounts for cavalry horses and draught animals for the quartermaster’s department cannot be procured in the department, and the estimates made upon the Quartermaster-General have not yet been answered.

No information has yet been received with regard to the annual supply of ordnance stores required for the use of the troops in the department. {p.65} If it is the intention of the Government to retain this department, I urgently recommend that the supplies necessary for the efficiency of the troops (regulars or volunteers), and especially those already estimated for, should be furnished as soon as practicable.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding.

* See Vol. III of this series, p. 406.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., August 16, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of General Orders,* No. 2, of the 26th ultimo, and to transmit in reply a summary statement* of the volunteer force that has been mustered into the service in this department, and will submit a more detailed statement in a few days.

The organization of a volunteer force in this department has progressed. Of the thirty-two companies that I have called for to replace the regular troops that have been ordered out of the country only nineteen have been organized, and several of these are below the minimum organizations prescribed by War Department General Orders, No. 15, of May 4, 1861.

The people of the Territory, with few exceptions, I believe, are loyal, but they are apathetic in disposition, and will adopt any measures that may be necessary for the defense of their Territory with great tardiness, looking with greater concern to their private, and often petty interests, and delaying or defeating the objects of the Government by their personal or political quarrels. I question very much whether a sufficient force for the defense of the Territory can be raised within its limits, and I place no reliance upon any volunteer force that can be raised, unless strongly supported by regular troops. The most that can be hoped from them will be the occupation of two or three important points, which may be fortified and held by them until the policy of the Government with regard to this Territory has been settled and expressed.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Comdg. Dept.

* Not found.

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FORT UNION DEPOT, N. MEX., August 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. J. C. FRÉMONT, Commanding Western Dep’t, Hdqrs. Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the copy of a letter addressed to Colonel Canby, at present in command of the United States troops in New Mexico. In addition to this, Colonel St. Vrain and Kit Carson have addressed you on the subject. We trust that these statements in regard to the late events and present state of affairs in this Territory will reach you in time to arrest the operations of the order for the withdrawal of the regular troops from here at this time, as the whole aspect of affairs throughout New Mexico has completely changed since there has been time to make any representation to the authorities at {p.66} Washington. I know that you are well acquainted with the character of this population, and need only to inform you that the volunteers recently raised here are not composed of the rancheros, or even of the better class of Mexicans, but, on the contrary, for you to see how entirely defenseless the Territory will be if the U. S. Army is withdrawn.

I have informed the Department at Washington that abundant supplies of ordnance stores are on hand at this depot to last the troops now in the Territory for at least twelve months from this time, and I believe that this will apply to the supplies in the other departments-quartermaster’s, commissary, &c.-after the stores now arriving for them are received, so that want of supplies here cannot be advanced for the necessity of the withdrawal of the troops.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. R. SHOEMAKER, M. S. K., Ord., Comdg. Depot.

[Inclosure.]

FORT UNION DEPOT, August 15, 1861.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, 19th Inf., Comdg, U. S. Troops in New Mexico, Hdqrs. Santa Fe:

SIR: I have been informed that, in pursuance of orders from the Headquarters of the Army, dated at Washington, long previous to the invasion of this Territory by the Texan troops, you contemplate the marching out at an early day all of the regular troops under your command. Therefore I deem it proper to inform you that the property belonging to the United States in my charge, by the inventory taken on the 30th of June ultimo, amounts to more than a quarter of a million of dollars ($271,147.55) at Eastern cost, exclusive of the post store-houses, outworks, &c., and embraces all the fixtures for a new arsenal for the Territory of an expensive character.

A residence of twelve years among these people enables me to know, and it is the opinion of every well-informed, candid person resident among them, that without the support and protection of the Regular Army of the United States they are entirely unable to protect the public property in the Territory, or the lives of such officers, civil and military, as may be left among them after the withdrawal of the regular forces now under your command, no matter how many there may be or how well armed the New Mexican volunteers are.

A view of the present invasion by the Texan troops on the south, the threatened invasion on the east from Arkansas and Upper Texas, and the almost certain capture of all the posts and public property in the Territory, if left unguarded by the regular troops under your command, induces me to make this representation, with the hope that you will at least delay the movement now contemplated until after the present state of affairs in New Mexico is made known to the authorities in Washington, and they shall have been heard from on the subject.

A copy of this communication will be forwarded to the Hon. Secretary of War by the next outgoing mail.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. R. SHOEMAKER, M. S. K., Ord., Comdg. Depot.

We fully concur in the foregoing statement.

C. ST. VRAIN, Colonel First Regiment N. Mex. Vols. C. CARSON, Lieutenant-Colonel First Regiment N. Mex. Vols.

{p.67}

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FORT WISE, COLO., August 22, 1861.

Colonel CANBY, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: Yours of the 13th * has been received. In reply I have to state that I have been informed of three columns moving up from Texas east of the mountains in the direction of Fort Union. This news came from the Kiowa Indians.

Since then these Indians have been watching these columns, and the last two parties have reported that these columns have concentrated and turned back. This later news I cannot understand, and am waiting for further developments.

I have employed the Kiowas extensively as spies, and I think them faithful, as the Texans are their bitter enemies. I have a good interpreter.

The Kiowas are all here except those that are out on the watch. I do not think the Texans can get within 75 miles without my receiving a report of it. I would be thankful for any further news you may be able to send me with respect to the attempt to take this post.

I have directed one train by the way of Garland, now three days on the road.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ELMER OTIS, Captain, First Cavalry, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 6, 1861.

Capt. I. N. MOORE, First Dragoons, Comdg. column en route to Abo Pass:

SIR: Instructions have been sent to the commander of the Southern Military District to suspend the movement of the regular troops from Fort Craig until further orders, and if your command had marched, to halt the squadron of dragoons at the Abo Pass until the volunteer force now being organized for that point can relieve it. The colonel commanding accordingly directs that you establish a camp at the most advantageous position in the neighborhood of that pass, for the purpose of watching and guarding that portion of the frontier. Instructions were sent by the express this morning to the staff officers at Albuquerque to make the necessary arrangements for supplying the subsistence and forage required for your command during its halt at that point. The infantry companies of your command will be sent to Albuquerque, where they will be halted until further orders. The instructions are sent direct, because it is apprehended that the instructions to Colonel Roberts may not have reached him in season to communicate to you.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, September 8, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit copies of letters from and to the governor of Colorado Territory.

{p.68}

While I do not apprehend any serious trouble in that Territory, there no doubt have been, and probably still are, combinations among lawless individuals having for their object the seizure of military posts or public property that might be left in an unguarded condition with the design of plunder or of embarrassing the operations of the Government. I shall have no hesitation in supplying, so far as I can, the means of arming a sufficient force in Colorado Territory to repress any revolutionary acts that may be attempted there, but there is now in this department only arms enough to supply the volunteer troops that have been authorized for the Territory, and if any greater force should be necessary, there will not be enough to arm them unless new supplies are received. For this reason I respectfully recommend that such supplies as may be considered necessary in Colorado Territory may be sent from the arsenal at Fort Leavenworth.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

[Inclosures.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, COLORADO TERRITORY.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department of New Mexico:

COLONEL: In compliance with your requisition of July 6, two volunteer companies of infantry-Company A, Capt. J. P. Slough, 101, Company B, Capt. Sam. F. Tappan, 101-are organized and ordered to report for muster into the United States service at Fort Garland. In the event of any future call upon this Territory it will be absolutely necessary that an authorized mustering officer be present here at Denver, and that arms and ammunition be supplied here for their complete equipment. Without specifying reasons, these arrangements are an absolute necessity. The election just concluded exhibits an overwhelming popular majority in favor of the administration. It also reveals a strong malignant element essential to be controlled. The dependence exclusively of this industrial population upon supplies imported from the States over a line of communication of 800 miles, liable to be cut off by Indians as well as other hostile attacks, makes a complete home organization peremptory for self-defense. Have the kindness to send me for use within your military department 5,000 arms, equipments, and ammunition for infantry, and ordnance and equipments and guns for two batteries of artillery. I make this requisition perfectly understanding the existing condition of affairs both here and in all the surrounding relations, and as dictated by existing necessities, which cannot under any circumstances grow less.

Let me receive from you in reply to this an answer as full and early as possible.

With great respect,

WILLIAM GILPIN, Governor of Colorado Territory.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, September 8, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF COLORADO TERRITORY, Denver City, Colo.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication (without date) in relation to the volunteers called for by me under my requisition of July 6, and to arms, equipments, and ammunition {p.69} in your Territory. I have just been advised by a telegraphic dispatch that two additional regiments of volunteers have been ordered for this Territory. In my judgment they cannot be raised here, and it may be necessary to ask your excellency to organize four or six companies in Colorado Territory. The specific orders will be received by the next mail, and I will lose no time in communicating with you after they have been received. If the necessity should arise, your suggestions will be met by sending a mustering officer and the necessary arms to the place of rendezvous. In order to lose as little time as possible, it is suggested that the rendezvous may be established at some intermediate point. There are at present no more arms in the department than are necessary to arm the troops that have been called for within the department. I will send your excellency’s communication to the commanding general of the Western Department, with the recommendation that arms, &c., may be sent to you direct from the Fort Leavenworth Arsenal. Fort Garland is the only post in Colorado Territory that is within the limits of this command, but your excellency may rest assured that I will not hesitate to furnish you this assistance as far as the means under my control will permit. In the mean time, should any emergency arise, the commanding officer at Fort Laramie would probably be able to supply you to a limited extent with both arms and ammunition.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 8, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Dept., Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the defensive works at Fort Craig are nearly completed, and will be in readiness to turn over to the volunteers by the 9th or 10th instant. That post and Fort Union can then be easily held against a greatly superior force, and will leave the regular troops available for offensive operations. The organization of the volunteer force makes very little progress, as only two companies have been added to it since my last report. In the hope of completing it as soon as possible, Governor Connelly will call out the militia of the Territory, and then force the people to do what they seem indisposed to do voluntarily. There is nothing of interest to report since my communication of the 1st instant.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Comdg. Dept.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 8, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to state for the information of your excellency that the volunteer force required from the Territory of New Mexico is as follows: Two regiments of infantry, 2,092 officers and men, and two regiments of cavalry, 1,632 officers and men. The term of service, both {p.70} of infantry and cavalry, is three years, but upon the representation that cavalry could not be obtained for that term of service, I have authorized the mounted companies to be mustered in for the period of six months. Of this force the regimental organization of the First (Col. St. Vrain’s) Regiment of Infantry is completed, but the companies are not yet full. It will require at least 200 men to bring this regiment up to its maximum organization. In the Second (Colonel Pino’s) Regiment only eight companies have been mustered in, and it will require at least 400 men to complete the organization of this regiment. The organization of the cavalry regiments has just commenced, and only one company has been mustered in. Four other companies are reported to be nearly ready, but it will require at least 1,000 men to complete the two regiments, or 1,200 if they are raised to the maximum. In addition to the above force, independent companies of mounted volunteers are called for, but only three have been organized. It is intended to incorporate these companies with the cavalry regiments if the men consent to that extension of their term of service. If they do not, they will be disbanded at the expiration of the present term.

To recapitulate, there will be required for the infantry regiments 600 men and for the cavalry regiments 1,000 men: total, 1,600. The necessary expenditure incurred by the Territory in the organization of these regiments will be defrayed by the Government of the United States, and, as the appropriation for this purpose has already been made there will be but little delay in securing the reimbursements.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Comdg. Dept.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 10, 1861.

Lieut. Col. B. S. ROBERTS, U. S. A Comdg. Southern Military Dist., Fort Craig, N. Mex.:

SIR: I am instructed by the colonel commanding to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 7th instant, and to inform you that none of the companies of mounted volunteers that were to have been stationed at the Abo Pass have yet been raised. A party of spies has just returned from the Canadian River. They went a day’s journey beyond the Antelope Hills, and saw no trails nor any other evidence of the presence of the enemy in that quarter. They bring a report, however, from the Comanches, which is corroborated by information from other sources, that a large party had been on the plains some time since and had turned back.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

A. L. ANDERSON, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 22, 1861.

Capt. I. N. MOORE, First Cavalry, Commanding Camp near Manzano, N. Mex.:

SIR: I am directed by the colonel commanding the department to acknowledge the receipt of your two communications from Cerro de la {p.71} Espia, near Manzano, dated, respectively, the 19th and 20th instant.* The colonel wishes you to explore the country in the neighborhood of your present position, with a view of selecting the most eligible position for locating a force of volunteers, which will be directed to relieve you in a few days. The result of your reconnaissance you will report to these headquarters. You will push forward the spies of Barrientes’ company to the vicinity of Fort Stanton, and ascertain accurately, if possible, the exact state of affairs there. The information thus obtained you are desired to report. You are directed also to find out the state of feeling among the inhabitants on the Rio Bonito, as some of them were known rebels. They may now affect to claim the protection of the United States troops on the ground of their loyalty. Should you have any prisoners, or should you take any, you will send them to Albuquerque, with such evidence as you may have in the premises.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

GURDEN CHAPIN, Captain, Seventh Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 22, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that affairs in this department are progressing favorably. About 650 volunteers have been mustered into the service since my last report, and I think that six companies of the Fourth Regiment can be raised in this Territory and the remainder can be procured in Colorado. A collision has occurred between the volunteers at Fort Fauntleroy and a party of Navajo Indians. Twelve Indians are reported to have been killed and forty captured. The details will be reported by the next mail.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 27, 1861.

Maj. N. B. ROSSELL, U. S. A., Commanding Albuquerque, N. Mex.:

SIR: The colonel commanding has been informed by the governor of the Territory that some persons at and in the neighborhood of Albuquerque have refused to submit to the laws of the United States directing the enrollment of the militia, and he directs that, upon the application of any of the Territorial officers charged with the duty of enrolling the militia, a guard (to be taken preferably from the mounted volunteers) be sent for the purpose of arresting these individuals, and that they be placed in confinement until they can be brought to trial.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

GURDEN CHAPIN, Captain, Seventh Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.72}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., October 11, 1861.

His Excellency WILLIAM GILPIN, Governor of Colorado Territory, Denver City, Colo.:

SIR: I have just received a communication from the commanding officer at Fort Wise, in which it is stated that he has been advised by you that “there is no volunteer force available to relieve your (his) command or enable it to retire from Fort Wise.” The inability of your excellency to supply this force is a very great disappointment, as the regular troops at that post and at Fort Garland were relied upon as a part of the force intended for active operations at the South. I am sorry that this determination was not communicated at an earlier period, in order that I might (more seasonably than I now can) have made arrangements to replace the troops at Fort Wise from some other quarter.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex, October 13, 1861.

Capt. E. OTIS, Fourth Cavalry, Comdg. Fort Wise, Colo.:

SIR: Your report of the 4th instant, communicating the decision of Governor Gilpin, of Colorado Territory, not to furnish volunteer troops for Fort Wise, has been received. You are authorized to raise four companies (two of infantry and two of cavalry) from Colorado Territory, to be mustered into the service of the United States for three years. This force is designed for service at Fort Wise on the route from the Missouri frontier, or in New Mexico, as the exigencies of the service may require. You will please make requisitions upon the Adjutant-General of the Army for the funds necessary to defray the expenses of collecting and organizing these volunteers. If funds are needed immediately, a special estimate will be made upon this office. The names of the persons that may be authorized to raise these companies will be reported to this office. Such blanks as can be furnished will be sent you by this or by the succeeding mail. A large amount of public and private property is now on the road to this country, and you are desired to keep yourself advised of the movements of the trains, and to take such measures for their protection as may be necessary.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Comdg. Dept.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., October 22, 1861.

Lieut. Col. WILLIAM CHAPMAN, Commanding Fort Union, N. Mex.:

SIR: As the force in this part of the department has been untimely reduced, the colonel commanding desires that the utmost vigilance be observed in watching the country east of Fort Union, and particularly the approaches by the Canadian and Red Rivers, pushing your patrols and scouts from Fort Union and Hatch’s ranch in all directions far {p.73} enough to give you timely notice of any approach from that quarter. These parties should be out continually, and so arranged as to leave no interruption of watchfulness. Whenever necessary, you will call upon Major Paul for any additional mounted force that you may need in addition to that belonging to your own command. Require Major Baca to make constant reports at least tri-weekly, using some of his mounted men for that purpose.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

WM, J. L. NICODEMUS, First Lieutenant, Eleventh Infantry, Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, COLORADO TERRITORY, Denver, October 22, 1861.

Col. E. R. S. CANBY, Commanding Department of New Mexico:

COLONEL: Accept my thanks for dispatches by express messenger (from Fort Garland), bearing date of the 7th and 11th instant.

I am greatly in your debt for a supply of blanks and books; an attention especially apropos at a point so utterly destitute of such essentials to public business. I will respond promptly to the request of Governor Connelly and yourself for medical men who can be found here.

I have further received notice from Capt. Elmer Otis, Fort Wise, of the arrival there of arms for four companies of volunteers. The strong and malignant element within this Territory, added to the destitution of arms and ammunition of any kind up to this time, has rendered absolutely necessary the delay to furnish a garrison for Fort Wise. The population of the Arkansas River is not numerous enough to furnish one company, and to send them from the mining region has been impossible, from want of arms, ammunition, food, clothing, transportation, or money to procure any of these essentials. I am incessantly occupied to comply with your requisitions at the earliest moment.

The malignant secession element of this Territory has numbered 7,500. It has been ably and secretly organized from November last, and requires extreme and extraordinary measures to meet and control its onslaught. The core of its strength has at present withdrawn to gather strength from Texas, Utah, Arkansas, and from the country of the Confederated Cherokee, Creek, and other Indians. They contemplate to return with overwhelming strength and precipitate the neighboring Indians upon us. To prepare for what may be accomplished by them is my duty. This country, everywhere open to the east, can only be defended by a sufficient force to meet the enemy in the field. It also enters into their plans to capture Forts Wise and Garland; to surround New Mexico and invade it from the north. The Indian populations west of Arkansas have united with the rebel war to the amount of 64,500, capable of furnishing an efficient army for operations upon these Territories, familiar with this country, and allied to the Georgians, who sympathize with secession, and form a large proportion of our mining population.

You will learn that a guerilla party has been captured by Captain Otis near Fort Wise; the captain of this band, McKee, has been in jail for several weeks in this city.

Be well assured that I neglect no resource within my reach or attainable by energy to provide for the safety of this Territory, and produce a force capable of co-operating cordially in the operations in New Mexico, with which I am familiar.

Very respectfully,

WILLIAM GILPIN.

{p.74}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., October 27, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that there has been no material change in the state of affairs in this department since my report of the 20th instant. Twelve companies of regulars (six of infantry and six of cavalry) and eleven of volunteers (seven of infantry and four of cavalry) are now concentrated at Fort Craig. With some difficulty, and by uniting two cavalry companies, a harnessed battery of four pieces (two 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder field howitzers) has been organized; and will march for Fort Craig on the 30th instant. These preparations have been greatly delayed and embarrassed by the want of supplies and the difficulty of procuring such as could be found in the country from the want of funds. The trains en route for this country are again threatened by marauding parties from Colorado Territory, and the presence of an experienced officer at Fort Wise is so important in this connection, that I have instructed Captain Otis to remain at that post with the cavalry portion of his command until affairs in that quarter are in a more settled condition. No volunteers have yet been furnished from Colorado Territory for either Forts Garland or Wise, and very little progress is now being made in organizing volunteers in this Territory.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Comdg. Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., October 27, 1861.

Capt. E. OTIS, Fourth Cavalry, Comdg. Fort Wise, Colo.:

SIR: Your communication of the 17th instant has been received, and I am instructed by the colonel commanding to say that your action in suspending the removal of Company C, Tenth Infantry, is approved. Upon the arrival of a sufficient volunteer force to render your position perfectly secure, he desires that this company may then be sent to Fort Union. It is not his intention to give any orders in relation to your command, except such as may be necessary and incident to its position in keeping open the communication with the Missouri frontier or in carrying out the instructions of the commander of the Western Department, but will give any orders or assume any responsibility in relation to your post that you may consider necessary. Fort Wise is so important (both as regards our Indian relations and our communications with the East) that it would be unwise to hazard these interests by withdrawing you from that post, and it is his intention that your own, and probably both the cavalry companies, shall remain (even if a volunteer force is furnished by Governor Gilpin) until affairs in that quarter are in a settled condition.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

WM, J. L. NICODEMUS, First Lieutenant, Eleventh Infantry, Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.75}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., November 18, 1861.

PAYMASTER-GENERAL U. S. ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The military operations in this department have for several months past been greatly embarrassed, and are now almost entirely paralyzed, by the want of funds in the pay department. Many of the regular troops have not been paid for more than twelve mouths, and the volunteers not at all. This has occasioned a great deal of suffering and some dissatisfaction in both classes, and has almost effectually put an end to the raising of volunteers. This condition of affairs, so far as it then existed, was officially reported by me some months since (June 13, 1861), and has since repeatedly, by reports and estimates, been brought to the notice of the proper authorities.

An unsuccessful attempt was made some time since to borrow money for the Government, and a recent attempt has been made, which promises to be partially successful; but to insure this success, the chief quartermaster and chief commissary have united with me in promising that this money shall be repaid in Treasury notes, bearing 7.3 per cent. interest from the date of the loan; or, failing in this arrangement, I have personally pledged myself for the interest.

I have the honor to request that arrangements may be made by your department to redeem this promise. In making this arrangement many of the leading merchants and capitalists of the Territory have pledged their credit for the repayment of the loan.

This arrangement has been made mainly through the instrumentality of the chief quartermaster, Major Donaldson, and but for the confidence reposed in him by the community generally it could not have been made. In addition to this, $60,000 have been loaned by the quartermaster to the pay department.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANDY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., November 22, 1861.

His Excellency GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to state, for the information of your excellency, that arrangements are now being made to separate the Navajoes who are known to be friendly and to have acted in good faith from the remainder of that nation, and to establish them in communities where they can be isolated and protected from the consequences of war made upon the rest of the nation. Care will be taken in the selection of these, and in posting troops in their neighborhood, that these communities shall not leave places of refuge for the ladrones. As soon as practicable, troops will be established at the points that are best calculated to watch the approaches from the Navajo country and protect the inhabitants of New Mexico from the depredations of these Indians. By these arrangements and the active vigilance of the troops, it is believed that the persons and property of the inhabitants can be rendered secure until the necessary dispositions can be made for the effectual punishment of this and other Indian tribes now at war with the people of New Mexico.

{p.76}

As pertinent to this subject, I have also the honor to call your attention to some facts connected with the Indian affairs in this country. While the difficulties with the Navajoes have existed with varying phases almost since the original settlement of New Mexico, there is no doubt that some of the most recent, if they have not been caused by, have at least been greatly aggravated by, the unauthorized and illegal acts of a portion of the Mexican population. It is known that the consequences of these acts have almost invariably fallen upon the well-disposed Navajoes and upon the better classes of the Mexican people-those who had stock or other property to be stolen or farms which could not be cultivated in security-while the authors of these acts have profited by the division of their plunder and the sale of their captives. These acts and these principles do not apply to the Navajoes alone, but to all the tribes of Indians by which New Mexico is surrounded, and it is scarcely necessary to say that, if permitted; they can lead to but one result, that of converting all the Indians of New Mexico into robbers, and leading to a contest that will be as interminable as the Maroon war of the West Indies.

The policy of the Government towards the Indians is fully indicated by its laws and by the instructions to the officers of the Indian and War Departments, and it has a right to expect that all good citizens will aid in enforcing its laws and sustaining its policy. The duty of protection involves a reciprocal obligation upon the part of the people of New Mexico, and unless the illegal acts of a few vicious individuals are denounced by the moral sense of the community and enforcement of the laws aided by all, the best efforts that can be made to control the Indians and protect the inhabitants will be utterly fruitless. I will use all the means that I may be able to control to protect the inhabitants of New Mexico from depredations and secure them in the quiet possession of their property, and I ask the co-operation of your excellency and the people of New Mexico in sustaining the laws and regulations of the Government in relation to the Indians.

This policy, in my judgment, is not only the wisest, but the only one that can possibly be adopted without leading to interminable evils.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., December 1, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that there has been no material change, except the increasing hostilities of the Indians, in the state of affairs in this department since my last report. Operations are still greatly embarrassed by the want of supplies, and particularly transportation; but I hope that these difficulties will be overcome in a few days, as some of the supply trains are now near Fort Union.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. B. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

{p.77}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., December 1, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Western Department, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that our relations with the Indians in this department are daily becoming more unsatisfactory. The depredations of the Navajoes are constant. The Mescalero Apaches are becoming more daring in their inroads, and incursions have been made by the Kiowas and Comanches, ostensibly in pursuit of the Utes, but their depredations have not been confined to them. Between the Navajoes and people of New Mexico a state of hostilities, with occasional intervals of peace, has existed almost since the first settlement of the country. Each party claims that the treaty of peace has been broken by the other, and it is impossible now, even if it were profitable, to inquire which is in the right. Each successive war has reduced the Navajoes in strength and wealth, and has, by reducing them to poverty, added to the strength of the ladrones, or war party. There is no doubt that many of these difficulties, if not caused, have at least been greatly aggravated, by the illegal acts of a portion of the Mexican people, and in some cases have been the direct cause of the difficulties that immediately followed them. The consequences of these acts have almost invariably fallen upon that portion of the Navajoes known as the peace party and upon those of the inhabitants who have property to lose, while the aggressors profit by the sale of their booty and captives. These acts are not restrained by the moral sense of the community, and so long as these marauders find a ready sale for their plunder and for their captives, it will be impossible to prevent these depredations and the consequent retaliations by the Indians.

These remarks apply more particularly to the Navajoes, but they are pertinent to our relations with all the surrounding Indians; and unless measures can be adopted by which this system, encouraged by the sympathies of the people and fostered to some extent by the Territorial laws, can be broken up, the country will be involved in interminable evils. Recent occurrences in the Navajo country (see report of Captain Evans, inclosed herewith)* have so demoralized and broken up that nation, that there is now no choice between their absolute extermination or their removal and colonization at points so remote from the settlements as to isolate them entirely from the inhabitants of the Territory.

Aside from all considerations of humanity, the extermination of such a people will be a work of the greatest difficulty. The country they inhabit is impracticable and destitute of resources for military operations to a degree that can only be realized from personal observation. The Navajoes are too cowardly to fight in number, but are adroit robbers, and any operations that may be carried on against them will ultimately resolve itself into a chase of individual thieves, and will be procrastinated indefinitely. As a question of economy and expediency, I have determined, in concert with the superintendent of Indian affairs for this Territory, to establish such of the Navajoes as have heretofore acted in good faith in communities, where they can be isolated and protected until some permanent arrangement can be made by the Government. The policy of settling them on reserves, removed from the Mexican population, protecting and assisting them until they are able to sustain themselves as heretofore – repeatedly recommended by the superintendent of Indian affairs and the commanders of this department – inferior {p.79} in my judgment, the only policy that gives any assurance of success. It is recommended by considerations of humanity, economy, and experience. The same considerations, with equal pertinency, apply to all the surrounding tribes; but as the Navajoes, Apaches, and Utes are more immediately in contact with the settlements, the policy recommended should be applied to these Indians first. These measures are of such immediate and vital importance to the Territory and to the interests of the General Government in this country, that I have the honor to request that the major-general commanding will submit it, at his earliest convenience, to the consideration of the General-in-Chief and Secretary of War.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., December 8, 1861.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL Headquarters Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your instructions of November 9, and to report as follows:

First. The number of regular troops is shown by the inclosed abstract A; * the number of volunteers that have already been received by the abstract B; * the number and position of all the troops in the department by the field return C.*

Second. The regular troops are in excellent condition. They are well instructed and disciplined, zealous and loyal, and, except the want of officers and recruits to fill the companies, there are no defects of condition. The volunteer troops are improving slowly in discipline and instruction. They are not efficient and, in my judgment, cannot be made so in any reasonable period. They are deficient in self-reliance and military spirit, and their ignorance of the English language and want of capacity for instruction are serious obstacles to a rapid improvement. For Indian or partisan warfare, and in conjunction with regular troops or volunteers of American origin, they will make valuable auxiliaries, and their services in these respects are already of considerable importance.

Third. The regular troops have the most improved arms-the infantry the Springfield rifled musket, .58 caliber, and the cavalry the Harper’s Ferry rifle, Colt’s pistol (Navy), Sharp’s and Maynard’s carbines, and a few of Colt’s revolving rifles for experiment. The exact number of arms in the hands of the troops cannot be stated until the ordnance returns are received, but it is slightly in excess of the number of the troops. The volunteers have arms of older models-the rifled musket, .69 caliber; Harper’s Ferry rifle, calibers .54 and .58; the cavalry musketoon, the carbine pistol, and a few companies the smooth-bore musket, .69 caliber. These arms are all in serviceable condition, but the troops are imperfectly equipped, as there is a great deficiency of all classes of accouterments. The clothing of the regular troops is good, and there is a sufficient quantity for all their probable wants until the right period of receiving supplies. Clothing for two of the volunteer regiments has been received and distributed. It is reported to be inferior {p.79} in quality. For the two other regiments it is supposed to be in trains that are now near Fort Union.

The supplies in the quartermaster’s department are in good condition and, if those that are now on the road are received, will be sufficient to meet the wants of the service until new supplies can be sent out in the spring. It will be necessary, however, to receive a portion of these supplies earlier than usual, and estimates for them will be prepared and forwarded in season. There have been unavoidable deficiencies in the means of transportation and in camp and garrison equipage, but the first of them has been removed by the purchase of animals that have just reached the Territory, and the others will be by the arrival of trains that are expected daily. The supplies in the subsistence department are in good condition, and sufficient to last the force now in the department, and contemplated by the instructions of the Secretary of War, until June 30, 1862. Should any deficiencies be anticipated, they will be provided for by seasonable estimates. The inclosed statement (E) * shows the quantity in rations on hand at the posts and depots in the department on the 15th of last month. Contracts have been made for corresponding quantities of the articles that are produced in this country. The supplies of ordnance stores are very deficient. The annual supply for this department was stopped at Fort Leavenworth. This fact was not known here until August 24, and on the 22d ultimo, in reply to a renewed application, information was received that it was impossible to send at present the ordnance stores called for. The deficiency of ammunition is being supplied, as far as practicable, from the materials that can be procured in this country. The inclosed statement (F) * will exhibit the number of arms and the quantity of ammunition in depot.

The Confederate force in the Mesilla Valley is about 800 men of their regular troops and from 200 to 400 men organized from the floating population of the Mesilla. These troops are well armed and cavalry well mounted, but they are indifferently clothed and subsisted. They have fifteen pieces of artillery, of which two are said to be heavy-probably 18-pounders-four mountain howitzers, and the remainder field pieces, 6-pounder guns, and 12-pounder howitzers. They have fallen back from their advanced position at Robledo, and are now at or near Mesilla. The resources of the country for supplying an army are limited almost exclusively to articles of forage and subsistence. Of the first, the supply in ordinary seasons may be equal to the support of 5,000 animals, in addition to those of the country.

The horses and mules of the Territory are generally too light for cavalry or draught, and those purchased here for the use of the Army are generally brought from the East. Of subsistence, the articles that can be procured here are beef, flour, beans, and an inferior quality of salt. The cost of the first will be greater than if the cattle are purchased in the Western States and driven out. The quantity of flour that can be procured will not exceed three or three and a half millions of pounds in ordinary seasons. All the beans and salt that may be needed can be procured.

Very great embarrassments have frequently been experienced in this department from the want of coin to meet the necessities of disbursing officers, and to obviate this difficulty I have heretofore suggested that arrangements be made to send it out at frequent intervals and in small amounts by the express companies, instead of as heretofore, but once {p.80} in each year, and in larger amounts. In this last case it falls into the hands of the Mexican capitalists and is exported.

In addition to what has been stated in relation to the volunteers, it is proper to say that it will be very difficult, if not impracticable, to raise the entire force authorized for this department, and I do not think it desirable that it should be done. If it is practicable, send one or two regiments of volunteers from the East to replace the regular troops when they are withdrawn. The New Mexican volunteers, without the support of regular troops or of volunteers drawn from some other section of the country, cannot be relied on to resist an invasion of the country, if one is attempted.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., December 14, 1861.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that there has been no change in the position and number of the Confederate troops in the Mesilla Valley. The information from that quarter is as late as the 7th instant. No material changes within the department have taken place since my last report. The attitude assumed by the Indians on the Arkansas has rendered it necessary to detach a mounted force (50 men) from Fort Union for the protection of the trains on the road to this country. The best instructed of the volunteer troops are being put in position as fast as they can be replaced by raw troops, to support the movement upon the Mesilla Valley, which I hope soon to be able to make. I shall leave in a few days for the southern part of the Territory, for the purpose of seeing that the preparations for this object are as complete and perfect as possible.

Our operations are still greatly embarrassed by the want of transportation. The arrival of mules from the East in a few days will probably enable us to overcome this difficulty.

The contractors for supplying horses for the regular and volunteer cavalry have failed entirely, in consequence of the disturbed condition of affairs on the Western frontier. New contracts have been made, and it is hoped that the contractors will prove more successful.

Detailed estimates for supplies in the different staff departments are now being prepared and will be forwarded in a few days.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., December 28, 1861.

The ADJUTANT GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival at this post for the purposes indicated in my report of the 23d instant.

On the 26th I received a report from Colonel Roberts, commanding the troops in this district, communicating the information derived from one of his spies from El Paso, to the effect that the Texas forces in the {p.81} Mesilla had been re-enforced by 1,400 men and that 2,000 were moving up the Pecos for the purpose of attacking the central and northern parts of New Mexico. The first part of this information is no doubt mainly true, but the second I think doubtful, and circulated by the Texans for the purpose of dividing the force at this point. If it should be true it will involve some change in projected operations, and to provide for this contingency I have directed the re-enforcement of Fort Union and Santa Fe and the concentration of a large force at Albuquerque.

If the invasion of the country by the Pecos should be attempted this post will be strongly garrisoned, and I will move with the main body to the Abo Pass (in the direction of the Pecos), concentrating as I move all the available force from the upper country. Although this reported re-enforcement is larger than I anticipated, my greatest anxiety is with regard to Fort Wise and our communications with the East.

Governor Gilpin has repeatedly been urged to strengthen this post with Colorado volunteers, but it has not yet been done, and I have twice during the past season been obliged to make detachments to re-enforce it at times when the troops could very illy be spared.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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Abstract from field return of the Department of New Mexico, commanded by Col. E. R. S. Canby, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, for December 31, 1861.

Garrisons, &c.Present.Aggregate present and absent.
Officers.Men.
For duty.Total.For duty.Total.
Fort Marcy1214288352396
Fort Garland33302125130
Fort Union*39407218691,140
Albuquerque2829502624720
Fort Craig and vicinity62681,8032,0652,266
Cubero1114225297312
Abo Pass99141151216
Hatch’s ranch552539191
Camp Connelly6683107144
En route to Santa Fe11395359
En route to Fort Wise11707072
Total3773903,9994,7555,646

* Including ordnance detachment of 16 men.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., January 1, 1862.

His Excellency H. CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your excellency’s communication of the 29th ultimo,* and to state in reply that the reports {p.82} in relation to the Texan forces are apparently better founded than the previous reports have been. There appears to be but little doubt that a considerable force (estimated at 1,200 men, with seven pieces of artillery) is now on the march to this place. Whether any are approaching by the Pecos is uncertain, but probable. I think it advisable that all the militia should be held in readiness to turn out when called upon, and that all the arms and ammunition should be collected and held for the use of the troops; that the citizens should be instructed through the proper officers to watch the roads and trails, to prevent the entrance of scouts, spies, or small parties who will enter the country for the purpose of cutting off our couriers, plundering trains, &c. They would be useful also in procuring information, preventing the passage of spies, &c., blocking up the roads if the Texans attempt to penetrate the country, &c. A portion of the militia should be held in readiness to re-enforce Santa Fe and another Fort Union. There are a considerable number of Territorial arms below Albuquerque, which should be collected and sent to that place to arm the militia. If powder and lead are taken from the merchants, it should be receipted for, and will be paid for by the Government if it should be used.

I will keep you continually advised of any important movement in this quarter.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., January 1, 1862.

WILLIAM GILPIN Governor of Colorado Territory, Denver City, Colo.:

SIR: A large accession of the Texan force and the invasion of the Territory renders it necessary that I should again ask your excellency to send to Forts Wise and Garland as large a force of the Colorado volunteers as can possibly be spared. The necessity for this force, and particularly for a strong garrison at Fort Wise, is undoubted, and the prompt action of your excellency will be of material assistance mu defending this Territory.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Fort Craig, N. Mex., January 3, 1862.

J. L. DONALDSON, Maj. and Q. M., Comdg. Mil. Dis. Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

MAJOR: The Texan force that entered Alamosa yesterday morning was about 500 men, with two pieces of artillery. The object appears to have been the surprise of the outposts at that point. Information of the movement had been received from the Mesilla, and the immediate advance of the Texans was discovered by the advance pickets in season to permit the companies to retire without molestation and without loss of any kind. Failing in their object, the Texans retired rapidly by the {p.83} same road. As soon as satisfied that this movement is not a feint, I shall move (probably this evening or to-morrow) with four companies of infantry, four of cavalry (regulars), and five of volunteers, for the purpose of opposing the reported movement up the Pecos, governing myself in the direction to be taken by information received on the road from the parties now in that direction.

I have conclusive information that this movement was intended when the Texan troops left San Antonio, and that a co-operating movement up the Canadian was projected, but there is now reason to believe that the Texans failed to raise so large a force as was expected, and that the expedition may be suspended for a time. In this case I will establish a reserve camp at or near Las Lunas or Peralta, with sufficient force to act upon either of the lines by which an invasion may be attempted.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Camp Connelly, N. Mex., January 7, 1862.

Col. G. R. PAUL, Fort Union, N. Mex.:

SIR: The field battery, the regular cavalry (except two companies of the First), and the companies of the Fifth Infantry, have been moved up from Fort Craig. Four companies of volunteers have also been brought up for the purpose of keeping open the communication between this place and Fort Craig, and convoying any supply trains that it may be necessary to send to that point.

The regular force (500 men) will be established at some convenient point within supporting distance of any point that may be threatened. It will serve as the nucleus for the concentration of the regulars and volunteers to be drawn from points that are not immediately endangered, and will enable us to organize in a very short time a very considerable and effective force to repel any invasion that may be attempted.

The garrison at Fort Craig consists of seventeen companies, of which six are regulars and nine volunteers, having a reasonable degree of instruction and discipline; a sufficient force in my judgment to hold the post against any force that can be brought against it.

It is believed that the Confederates cannot invade the country with more than 2,000 men in one body. If the invasion be by the Pecos, Fort Craig can sustain itself until that invasion is disposed of If the demonstration is against Fort Craig, all the available force in the department can at once be turned in that direction. It is not may purpose to employ the militia in the field, but to use them in replacing the regulars and volunteers that may be drawn from posts that are not immediately threatened.

In carrying out these arrangements, the available forces at Fort Union, Santa Fe, Albuquerque, and Camp Connelly will be held in constant readiness to move in any direction that may become necessary. Transportation for the movement of the troops and at least ten days’ supplies will be held in reserve, and arrangements will be made for calling into the service any additional militia force that may be needed to replace the troops that may be withdrawn.

The governor of the Territory has been requested to hold the militia in readiness for any service that may be required of them, and will furnish any force that may be required by the commanders of forts or districts.

{p.84}

These views are furnished for the information of the several commanders, in order that they may act in furtherance of them in their several commands, and be prepared to co-operate whenever it becomes necessary.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Mex., January 11, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I left Fort Craig on the 6th instant, with a light battery, three companies of cavalry, three of infantry (regulars), and four of infantry volunteers, and have established a reserve camp at this place with the regular troops, the volunteers having been sent back to Fort Craig to escort trains on the road to that place.

The valley of the Rio Grande can be reached from the Pecos by the Abo, Manzano, and Galisteo Passes. This point is above the Abo Pass, and is centrally and conveniently situated for the concentration of troops to meet an enemy approaching from the Pecos by either of the above routes, or if the main demonstration should be against Fort Craig, with the entire force in that direction.

All the different approaches to the country are closely watched by scouts and spies, and I have no apprehension of the approach of the enemy without receiving several days’ notice. The available force in this part of the department, about 1,500 men, can be concentrated at this place in about twenty-four hours.

I have left at Fort Craig nineteen companies-1,400 men-of which six are regulars, ten volunteers of several months’ instruction and discipline, one of spies and guides, and two militia. In addition to these, Colonel Roberts has subject to his call six companies of volunteers that can join him in twenty-four hours.

The most reliable accounts from the Mesilla give 2,100 men as the force of the enemy in that quarter. Our scouts on the Pecos report no force on that river within 200 miles of this place. Two regiments that left San Antonio, Tex., on the 9th and 16th of November for New Mexico not accounted for among the troops that have reached the Mesilla. This fact, more than any other, gives probability to the reported invasion by the Pecos.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO Belen, N. Mex., January 13, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The last mail from the East brought information from private sources that the paymaster who was understood to be on his way to this country with funds for the payment of the troops has been detained at Fort Leavenworth, and that no funds would be sent out until spring {p.85} Whether this report be true or not, the effect of this circulation through the country at this time will be exceedingly unfortunate, and it is greatly to be apprehended that the volunteer forces already organized will melt away by desertion, and the people of New Mexico will be rendered still more apathetic than they now are, even if the disaffected of both classes are not stimulated into active opposition to the Government.

The Mexican people have no affection for the institutions of the United States; they have a strong, but hitherto restrained, hatred for the Americans as a race, and there are not wanting persons who, from the commencement of their troubles, have secretly but industriously endeavored to keep alive all the elements of discontent and fan them into flames. The long-deferred payment of the volunteers has given so much plausibility and coloring to their representation as to have produced a marked and pernicious influence upon these ignorant and impulsive people.

Without crediting these reports, I think it proper to state that, unless measures are taken at an early period to remove these causes of dissatisfaction, the consequences will be in the highest degree injurious to the interests of the Government.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mex., January 15 (?) p. 1862.

Col. G. R. PAUL, Fort Union, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: Your note of the 12th was received yesterday. The question you ask presents some difficulty, which I cannot decide at present. I had determined some time ago that, in consequence of the scarcity of officers in the department, I should not consent that any officers of the Army should be taken from their appropriate duties to accept any appointments in the volunteers, and in refusing the action taken mu Colonel Roberts’ case and your own, I urge as a reason for refusing it that, although it would add to your duties, it would remove you from those that you were then exercising. The reason cannot be urged in reference to any other officer at present.

Besides this, the prejudice of the Mexican population towards the Americans is so great that if the field officers are taken altogether from the latter class, it is to be apprehended that it will delay, if it does not defeat, the organization of these regiments.

This is not, perhaps, a good military reason, but it is a necessity, from the character of the people we have to deal with.

I have also instructed two or three of the most efficient volunteer officers now in the service that, if they would induce the men of their regiments to enter the service for three years, I would recommend them for commissions as field officers. Colonel Gallegos and Lieutenant-Colonel Valdez are among them, and until I can learn what these men are going to do, I could give no definite answer to your question, even if there were no other obstacles to a favorable answer.

Very respectfully, &c.,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

{p.86}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, January 15, 1862.

Mr. JOHN WARD, Indian Agent, Cevero, N. Mex.:

SIR: The department commander desires me to inform you that the Navajoes have overrun the southern part of the Territory, committing depredations in all directions, and that he wishes you to find out through friendly Indians what parties of Navajoes have left their country and their leading men, and what direction they have taken; in fine, all the information you can gather which may be useful in bringing these robbers to punishment.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

WM, J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain, Twelfth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Mex., January 17, 1862.

Col. M. E. PINO, Camp Connelly, Polvadera, N. Mex.:

SIR: The colonel commanding the department has learned through Captain Archer that there has been a serious revolt in two of the companies of your regiment, the men engaged in it alleging that they have not been paid and clothed as they were promised. Without stopping to inquire into the correctness of these complaints, he instructs me to say that all such mutinous conduct or tendencies must at once be suppressed by the most energetic measures, and all who have participated in the proceeding, either directly or indirectly, reduced to the most absolute subordination to law and discipline. In doing this, you should make such an exhibition of force as will prevent any attempt to resist, but if resistance is offered, force must be used to the extent that may be necessary in order to overcome resistance and compel absolute submission. Until this is accomplished, no concession or compromise can for a moment be entertained.

The colonel commanding cannot believe that so serious a revolt as this is represented to be would have been undertaken if it had not been prompted and encouraged by designing and traitorous persons opposed to the Government of the United States, but too cowardly to undertake the risk of doing in person what they have prompted others to do, and he desires that you will rigidly investigate this matter, and ascertain, if possible, who have been the ringleaders of the revolt.

Should you need any additional force to enable you to carry out your instructions fully, you will at once report by special express.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

WM, J. L. NICODEMUS, Captain, Twelfth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Hex., January 20, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: In my report of the 13th I stated that the news rumored from the East by the last mail would be likely to produce an unfortunate effect upon the volunteers in this country. The news by that mail was communicated to the Mexican population and volunteers with almost {p.87} telegraphic rapidity, and the first result was a revolt in one of the companies of volunteers (militia) at Fort Union, and in two companies of the Second Regiment Volunteers at Camp Connelly, posts 200 miles distant, but occurring within very short periods of each other, and from the same alleged cause-the failing to pay and clothe them as they had been promised.

The first of these was suppressed by the prompt and energetic action and the excitement allayed by the prudent and judicious conduct of Colonel Paul. The second was not so easily managed, and about 30 of the mutineers made their escape and fled to the mountains. Measures were immediately taken to pursue and apprehend this party, and I do not think they can escape.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Mex., January 21, 1862.

His Excellency H. CONNELLY, Governor of New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 12th instant * in relation to the protection of the inhabitants of the Territory against Indian depredations.

In answering this communication it is proper to state the actual circumstances of the country as regards the threatened invasion, the Indian depredations, and our means of resisting the first and anticipating the latter.

It is known from authentic sources that three regiments were organized at and have marched from San Antonio, Tex., for the invasion of this country, and it is understood that a fourth regiment, having the same destination, was organized at Austin. Two of these regiments (Reily’s and Steele’s) have reached Arizona. The other two (Green’s and the regiment from Austin) are not yet accounted for, and are said to be coming by the way of the Pecos. This may be considered doubtful, but the adjutant-general of Texas in his official report states the force in Arizona and New Mexico at 4,000 men, and it is safe to assume that it approximates to that number.

The Indians are numerous, but less formidable from their numbers than from their subdivisions into small parties and the impracticable character of their country.

The plan and scope of the Texan operations admits of the concentration of their entire force in one body, and permits them to assail the Territory with the great bulk of their force at any one of several points. Our own circumstances are widely different. We have an extensive country to defend and long lines of communication to protect, and it is barely possible to keep in hand a force that will not be inferior to that which the enemy is able to send into the country. It would be exceedingly unwise, in my judgement, so to disseminate our forces that they could not be concentrated in season to meet invasion at any point that may be attempted.

I appreciate fully the situation of the inhabitants of the country, and will do whatever I can to relieve them from the depredations from which they are now suffering. As soon as advised of the force that you can {p.88} raise and of the points at which it can be assembled, I will detach as large an additional force as will be prudent under existing circumstances, and will make the necessary preparations for the projected operations.

I do not think it advisable to leave this section of the country, but, if you can leave Santa Fe, will be happy to meet you at Albuquerque, to consult with you in relation to this matter.

I cannot undertake to arm or clothe this additional force, to supply it with transportation, or forage, or provision it fully. Ammunition to a limited extent, transportation to the depots that may be established, and for subsistence, beef, flour, coffee, and sugar, can be furnished. The troops will be mustered into the service of the United States for the time they are engaged in this service, and will be subject in all respects to the discipline and laws that govern other troops when in the service; and it must be distinctly understood by all who engage in this service that the campaigns against the Indians must be conducted in accordance with the laws of the United States and the policy and instructions of the War Department, and the campaign is to be made for the purpose of punishing the Indians, and not for the sake of plunder or captives.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Mex., January 25 [?], 1862.

Maj. JAMES L. DONALDSON, Comdg. Mil. Dis. Santa Fe, Santa Fe, N. Mex.:

MAJOR: I have received your communication of the 26th [?],* and I have read with some surprise that portion of it which refers to an immediate movement upon Fort Fillmore. The persons who ask these questions are the tools of the emissaries of the Confederates. You know as well as I do that this invasion of the country has been impending for months; that it was arranged by a secretary of state of the Territory; and that it has twice failed in consequence of the pressing necessity of the Confederates in other quarters.

It is a proof of a premeditated plan to induce the removal of the troops to the South in order that this movement may be more effective at the North. I do not wish any questions to be parried on my account; but I wish it to be said distinctly that I will move when I get ready to move; and that will be when I know that the country behind me is secured from a revolutionary movement. The present clamor I know to be instigated by enemies of the Government, fomented by emissaries, who have been busy in the exercise of this baneful influence since the middle of last month, but who have hitherto escaped detection.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Belen, N. Mex., January 25, 1862.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a copy of a report from El Paso, (old) Mexico, which furnishes the latest information in regard to the numbers {p.89} and movements of the enemy. The writer is reliable, and his information no doubt correct, so far as he had the means of acquiring it.

I also inclose a proclamation from the commander of the Confederate forces to the people of New Mexico. This paper is well calculated to exercise at this time a pernicious influence upon the least intelligent of the people. It was no doubt prepared by a former secretary of the Territory, and is part of a plan arranged before he left the country. Several of the packages intercepted are addressed to persons of influence in the Territory, who at the time Mr. Jackson left undoubtedly sympathized with this movement, but do not now.

What influence it will have it is impossible to determine yet; but I have put myself in communication with the most influential persons in the Territory, for the purpose of counteracting its effect.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. R. S. CANBY, Colonel Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department.

[Inclosures.]

General Sibley and staff arrived in El Paso about a month ago; staff officers A. M. Jackson, I. Ochiltree, Captain Dwyer, and Judge Crosby, assistant quartermaster and receiver of property to be confiscated in New Mexico. The first and second regiments are now between Robledo and Santa Barbara, and are not fortifying themselves. They have taken only four additional pieces of artillery besides those belonging to Colonel Baylor’s command (two 32-pounders). General Sibley and staff were to leave Mesilla for Fort Thorn on yesterday, the 16th instant.

The second regiment is expected next week. The troops are badly provisioned and armed; have had about 200 horses stolen since they passed here. Their only hope is to march into New Mexico in quick time, or engage in a war with Mexico (El Paso) to procure provisions. They have no money, and their paper is only taken by the merchants, not by the Mexicans. The Mexican population (El Paso, Mexico) arc much opposed to them, also at Mesilla and Doña Aña. Irisana and Ambugo goods at Mesilla have been confiscated, and that is the order of the day. S. Hart has done more to aid and assist them than the balance of the capitalists have, and has gone so far as to give a list of the principal capitalists in New Mexico, to confiscate their property, and that is their aim.

January 17, 1862.

Proclamation of Brig. Gen. H. H. Sibley, Army of the Confederate States, to the people of New Mexico.

An army under my command enters New Mexico, to take possession of it in the name and for the benefit of the Confederate States. By geographical position, by similarity of institutions, by commercial interests, and by future destinies New Mexico pertains to the Confederacy.

Upon the peaceful people of New Mexico the Confederate States wage no war. To them we come as friends, to re-establish a governmental connection agreeable and advantageous both to them and to us; to liberate them from the yoke of a military despotism erected by usurpers upon the ruins of the former free institutions of the United States; to relieve them from the iniquitous taxes and exactions imposed upon them by that usurpation; to insure and to revere their religion, and to restore their civil and political liberties.

{p.90}

The existing war is one most wickedly waged by the United States upon the Confederate States for the subjugation and oppression of the latter by force of arms. It has already failed. Victory has crowned the arms of the Confederate States wherever an encounter worthy of being called a battle has been joined. Witness the battles of Bull Run, of Manassas, of Springfield, of Lexington, of Leesburg, of Columbus, and the capture in the Mesilla Valley of the whole force of the enemy by scarcely half their number.

The army under my command is ample to seize and to maintain possession of New Mexico against any force which the enemy now has -or is able to place within its limits. It is my purpose to accomplish this object without injury to the peaceful people of the country. Follow, then, quietly your peaceful avocations, and from my forces you have nothing to fear. Your persons, your families, and your property shall be secure and safe. Such forage and supplies as my army shall require will be purchased in open market and paid for at fair prices. If destroyed or removed to prevent me from availing myself of them, those who so co-operate with our enemies will be treated accordingly, and must prepare to share their fate.

It is well known to me that many among you have already been forced by intimidation or inveigled by fraud into the ranks of our foes. The day will soon arrive when you can safely abjure their service. When it comes, throw down your arms and disperse to your homes, and you are safe. But persist in the service, and you are lost.

When the authority of the Confederate States shall be established in New Mexico, a government of your best men, to be conducted upon principles with which you are familiar and to which you are attached, will be inaugurated. Your religious, civil, and political rights and liberties will be re-established and maintained sacred and intact. In the mean time, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the President and Government of the Confederate States I abrogate and abolish the law of the United States levying taxes upon the people of New Mexico.

To my old comrades in arms, still in the ranks of the usurpers of their Government and liberties, I appeal in the name of former friendship: Drop at once the arms which degrade you into the tools of tyrants, renounce their service, and array yourselves under the colors of justice and freedom! I am empowered to receive you into the service of the Confederate States; the officers upon their commissions, the men upon their enlistments. By every principle of law and morality you are exonerated from service in the ranks of our enemies. You never engaged in the service of one portion of the old Union to fight against another portion, who, so far from being your enemies, have ever been your best friends. In the sight of God and man, you are justified in renouncing a service iniquitous in itself and in which you never engaged.

Done at headquarters of the Army of New Mexico by me this 20th day of December, A. D. 1861.

H. H. SIBLEY, Brigadier-General, Army C. S.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., January 31, 1862.

Col. JAMES H. CARLETON, Colonel First Regiment of Infantry, California Volunteers:

COLONEL: My proposition to the General-in-Chief to organize an expedition under your command, to consist of your own regiment, the {p.91} First Cavalry Regiment, and a light battery, to move from the southeastern frontier of this State, was immediately approved at headquarters.

The objects of the expedition you are fully aware of-the recapture of all our forts in Arizona and New Mexico, driving the rebel forces out of that country or capturing them, and opening the southern mail route. Every exertion has been and is still being made to provide your command with everything necessary to insure success, and had it not been for the unprecedented continuance of the rain, which made it impossible for the troops or wagons to move, an advance could have been made before this time.

The light artillery battery, Company A, Third Artillery, commanded by First-Lieutenant Shinn, is now at the Presidio, and will be sent to you as soon as the roads are passable. Four companies of the cavalry and seven companies of the Fifth Infantry have already been sent to your district. The remainder of the Fifth will be sent down soon.

I desire that you dispose of these troops in the manner you may deem best calculated to preserve the peace and quiet of the district. When you finally advance, the command of the district of Southern California will be devolved on Colonel Bowie or the senior officer then present.

I do not consider it necessary to be more minute in regard to the object to be accomplished or the mode of effecting it; with the first you are well acquainted, and as far as the second, I take great pleasure in assuring you that I confide everything to your well-known skill, zeal, and gallantry. I shall take occasion to write to you again before you commence your march, and give you all the information possible.

Wishing you success, I am, colonel, yours, most truly,

G. WRIGHT Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6