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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 3, Ch. X–Confederate Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER X.
OPERATIONS IN MISSOURI, ARKANSAS, KANSAS, AND THE INDIAN TERRITORY.*
May 10-November 19, 1861.
(Wilson’s Creek, Lexington, Belmont)
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CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.572}

LITTLE ROCK, May 11, 1861.

Hon. R. W. JOHNSON:

DEAR JOHNSON: It is absolute certainty that the enemy’s Government will not permit the Indian country west of us to belong to the Confederate States without a severe struggle. I foresaw some time ago that the regular troops would be withdrawn, as too much needed elsewhere to be left there inactive, and that they would be replaced by volunteers, under men actuated by personal hatred of the South. I do not think that more than five or six thousand men will be sent there for a time, but those, I am satisfied, will be there soon.

To occupy that country with safety we ought to have at least an equal force, if we first occupy it, and shall need a much larger one if they establish themselves in it during an inaction. It will hardly be sate to count upon putting in the field more than 3,500 Indians; maybe we may get 5,000. To procure any, or at least any respectable number we must guarantee them their lands, annuities, and other rights under treaties, furnish them arms, (rifles and revolvers, if the latter can be had), advance them some $25 a head in cash, and send a respectable force there, as evidence that they will be efficiently seconded by us.

I wrote Mr. Toombs that we ought to have three regiments from Arkansas, or Arkansas and Texas, and must have two or three batteries of artillery. Now I am entirely convinced that we ought to have at least five regiments, two of cavalry and three of infantry. When a little while in service we could not calculate on each regiment affording for duty more than 60 men to a company, or 600 to the regiment. Volunteers {p.573} are more weakened by sickness than regulars, owing to their inexperience and want of seasoning.

We ought to have four batteries of 6-pounders, six guns each, for field service. We can be furnished two of these batteries, perhaps, or twelve guns, here. The Confederate Government should forward us two batteries more, and we shall need also some heavier guns, 18-pounders, say, on carriages, and ammunition, for the posts to be established, and half a dozen howitzers for casting shells. In addition, we shall have to create a reserve, to be stationed in the State, near the northwestern frontier, of three regiments more, to be called into service by the Confederate Government at a moment’s warning.

I am informed by Lieutenant Pearce that all the force needed can be procured in the march West when it reaches the line. Commissary stores to supply them for a limited time would have to be forwarded to this point. You know our condition. We can get from the State, for the purpose of putting the force in the field, a hundred thousand dollars. I think and believe all the rest, except that and the men, must be furnished. We have almost literally no arms. If possible, our regiments ought to be well armed. I fear that, the supply of revolvers being limited, it may not be in the power of the Government to supply them to all the cavalry. If they cannot be furnished, there had better be but one regiment of cavalry.

The arms for the Indians should be forwarded as soon as possible, to be placed in depot on the frontier, and there distributed to organized bodies. Of course ammunition must come with the arms. The river is in tolerable stage now, and if speed is made we may use it to convey everything to the frontier, at Fort Smith or Ozark, and there obtain wagons and mules for transportation.

My plan, if I were put in command, would be to proceed instantly to raise the regiments, rendezvousing them at this point and in Washington or Benton Counties. I should, with as little delay as possible, proceed to the frontier and get the troops in hand, and as soon as we were in sufficient force occupy old Fort Wayne, or a point near it, and also a proper point near the junction of the Arkansas and Grand Rivers where the great Missouri and Texas road crosses the former. At these points field works ought to be thrown up, so that a part of our force could neutralize or be equal to double their number of any enemy. With our Western frontier for our base of operations, open communications south of the Arkansas with Fort Smith, those communications being properly guarded, I with the power to operate from Fort Wayne on the flank of any force marching south between our frontier and the Neosho River, and to cut its line of communication, we ought not to lose the country. Of course we would need a competent engineer officer and a competent artillery officer. For the latter I hope the Secretary of War will select Capt. James Totten, lately stationed here, and who desires to serve the Confederate States. If he is placed in command of our artillery force, with the rank of major, we shall soon see it efficient. We must also have several regular officers to command the bodies of Indians enlisted. Among these I hope Captain McIntosh, late of the U. S. Army and now in Georgia, will be included. He desires to go into the service in the Indian country, and I should, if I were to command here, much desire to have him.

I have no right to anticipate that the Confederate Government will confer so important a trust on me as the command of the department to be formed of the Indian country. I should not think of seeking it or any other appointment, and have already written Mr. Toombs that I {p.574} should prefer the selection of a regular officer of experience and rank. All I can say is, that if it should please the Government to employ me, I will do all and the best I can. If I am employed, I shall wish to indicate one gentleman, eminently qualified, for the appointment of surgeon. Please see to it, if the contingency occurs, that permission to do this be given me.

Arkansas can raise ten regiments. I can raise on shortest notice all that we will need on the frontier. I do not think the troops so raised or called for would be dissatisfied to be placed under my command; but of all this it is more fit you should speak than I. Above all, do not, out of regard for me, in any way embarrass President Davis or the Secretary of War, if other arrangements are thought of. I am nothing, and seek nothing to benefit myself.

Immediate action, speedy raising and arming and forwarding of troops to our frontier, is imperatively demanded. Not a day ought to be lost. I wish to Heaven we were there now. The moment you can say that I am or am not to be commissioned, telegraph me. Moments are worth lives now.

God bless you.

ALBERT PIKE.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. ARMY, Montgomery, May 13, 1861.

Major DOUGLAS H. COOPER, Choctaw Nation:

SIR: The desire of this Government is to cultivate the most friendly relations and the closest alliance with the Choctaw Nation and all the Indian tribes west of Arkansas and south of Kansas. Appreciating your sympathies with these tribes, and their reciprocal regard for you, we have thought it advisable to enlist your services in the line of this desire. From information in possession of the Government it is deemed expedient to take measures to secure the protection of these tribes in their present country from the agrarian rapacity of the North, that, unless opposed must soon drive them from their homes and supplant them in their possessions, as, indeed, would have been the case with the entire South but for our present efforts at resistance. It is well known that with these unjust designs against the Indian country the Northern movement for several years has had its emissaries scheming among the tribes for their ultimate destruction. Their destiny has thus become our own, and common with that of all the Southern States entering this Confederation.

Entertaining these views and feelings, and with these objects before us, we have commissioned General Ben. McCulloch, with three regiments under his command, from the States of Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana, to take charge of the military district embracing the Indian country, and I now empower you to raise among the Choctaws and Chickasaws a mounted regiment, to be commanded by yourself, in cooperation with General McCulloch. It is designed also to raise two other similar regiments among the Creeks, Cherokees, Seminoles, and other friendly tribes for the same purpose. This combined force of six regiments will be ample to secure the frontiers upon Kansas and the interests of the Indians, while to the south of the Red River three regiments from Texas, under different command have been already assigned to the Rio Grande and western border.

It will thus appear, I trust, that the resources of this Government are adequate to its ends, and assured to the friendly Indians. We have {p.575} our agents actively engaged in the manufacture of ammunition and in the purchase of arms, and when your regiment has been reported organized in ten companies, ranging from 64 to 100 men each, and enrolled for twelve months, if possible, it will be received into the Confederate service, and supplied with arms and ammunition. Such will be the course pursued also in relation to the two other regiments I have indicated.

The arms we are purchasing for the Indians are rifles, and they will be forwarded to Fort Smith.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 13, 1861.

Brigadier-General MCCULLOCH, Commanding, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: The following instructions are communicated by direction of the Secretary of War:

Having been appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers in the service of the Confederate States, you are assigned to the command of the district embracing the Indian Territory lying west of Arkansas and south of Kansas. Your field of operations will be to guard that Territory against invasion from Kansas or elsewhere. For this purpose there will be placed at your disposal three regiments of volunteers, viz: one regiment of mounted men from Texas, to serve for a term of eighteen months; one of mounted men from Arkansas, to serve for during the war, and one regiment of foot from Louisiana, to serve for twelve mouths. These several regiments will be organized in conformity to the law relating to volunteer forces, and will rendezvous-that from Texas at Dallas, in that State, and the two others at Fort Smith, Ark.

Independently of this force, it is desirable to engage, if possible, the service of any of the Indian tribes occupying the Territory referred to in numbers equal to two regiments. This force, should you be able to obtain it, you are authorized to receive and organize as a part of your command, for such service as your judgment may determine.

Such supplies of the ordnance, quartermaster’s and commissary departments in Texas and Arkansas as are under the control of the War Department, and to such extent as may be needed for your operations, will be subject to your orders.

Besides the duties above referred to, there are others which are deemed highly important, and which demand your earliest attention. It has been represented to the Department that there is at this time a large garrison of U. S. troops at Fort Washita. This force, consisting of six companies of cavalry and five companies of infantry, in all about 800 men, with a battery of field artillery, has been concentrated at Washita, preparatory to a movement thence in a northern direction through the Indian country into Kansas. It is desirable that these troops should be captured with the least practicable delay. You will therefore, in proceeding to Texas, take Arkansas in your route, and after satisfying yourself there of the position and numbers of these troops, organize such force as may be necessary in your opinion to take Fort Washita and capture its garrison, or should the troops have left there, to intercept them on their march. Captain McIntosh, of cavalry, has {p.576} been ordered to report to you at Little Rock for such duties as you may assign to him, and such other officers of the C. S. Army as can be spared from their present duties will be ordered to report to you for similar service. The sum of $25,000 will be placed in your hands for disbursement in the service of your command, and for which you will account to the proper accounting officers of the Treasury Department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., May 13, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

I have the honor to inform you that the convention of Arkansas has created me brigadier-general of Arkansas, to command the Western frontier. I most, respectfully request that you inform me of your views, in order that I may carry them out as far as possible in placing that part of the State in the best practicable state of defense. My headquarters for the present will be in Benton County, at Osage Mills post-office, but will be wherever I think my presence most necessary.

We have no tactics in this State. Can you send us 500 copies of “Hardee’s Tactics”? The Convention will probably order some printed, but we need them at once.

Any suggestions that you may be pleased to give me in relation to our frontier will be very acceptable. Capt. A. Pike and myself are anxious that some steps be taken at once to secure the co-operation of the Indians in the West, and especially to prevent any emissaries of the Republicans from poisoning the minds of the full-bloods. Many of the Cherokees are already abolitionists, but the half-breeds and enlightened part of the nation are true to the South in their sympathies.

I have the honor to remain, your most obedient servant,

N. BART. PEARCE, Brigadier-General, Arkansas.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Montgomery, May 14, 1861.

Hon. DAVID HUBBARD, Superintendent of Indian Affairs:

SIR: As superintendent of Indian affairs on behalf of this Government, originally appointed because of your well known sympathy for the Indian tribes and the deep concern you have ever manifested in their welfare, you are now specially charged to proceed to the Creek Nation, and make known to them, as well as to the rest of the tribes west of Arkansas and south of Kansas, of all of whom you are constituted the superintendent, and whose interests and feelings you will respect as if they were your children, the earnest desire of the Confederate States to defend and protect them against the rapacious and avaricious designs of their and our enemies at the North yet holding the Government at Washington. You will, in an especial manner, impress upon the Creek Nation and surrounding Indian tribes the imperious fact they will doubtless recognize, that the real design of the north and the Government at Washington in regard to them has been and still is the same entertained and sought to be enforced against ourselves, and if suffered {p.577} to be consummated, will terminate in the emancipation of their slaves and the robbery of their lands. To these nefarious ends all the schemes of the North have tended for many years past, as the Indian nations and tribes well know from the character and conduct of those emissaries who have been in their midst, preaching up abolition sentiments under the disguise of the holy religion of Christ, and denouncing slaveholders as abandoned by God and unfit associates for humanity on earth.

You will be diligent to explain to them, under these circumstances, how their cause has become our cause, and themselves and ourselves stand inseparably associated in respect to national existence and property interests; and in view of this identification of cause and interests between them and ourselves, entailing a common destiny, give to them profound assurances that the Government of the Confederate States of America, now powerfully constituted through an immense league of sovereign political societies, great forces in the field, and abundant resources, will assume all the expense and responsibility of protecting them against all adversaries, if they will manifest a disposition to co-operate with us in the general struggle occupying the people at the North and those at the South. To do this effectively they must call out their warriors and form them into military organizations, to be received into the service of this Government in the same manner that our present volunteer troops are received, and to be armed and paid accordingly.

Give them to understand, in this connection, that a brigadier-general of character and experience has been assigned to the military district embracing the Indian Territories south of Kansas, with three regiments under his command, while in Texas another military district has been formed under another distinguished and able commander, with three other regiments sub to his orders. With these six regiments from the States of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas it is desired that three mounted regiments of Indian warriors, in the service and pay of this Government, shall co-operate, thus constituting an irresistible force, capable of guaranteeing the safety of the Indian nations and tribes and the security of their property. Let them know that our agents are now actively employed in procuring rifles and providing ammunition to be immediately forwarded to Fort Smith, for the purpose of supplying these three regiments as soon as they shall have been organized, one of which will be raised among the Choctaws and Chickasaws, another among the Cherokees, and the third from among the Creeks, Seminoles, and other friendly tribes entertaining the proposition.

In addition to these things, regarded of primary importance, you will, without committing the Government to any especial conduct, express our serious anxiety to establish and enforce the debts and annuities due to them from the Government at Washington, which otherwise they will never obtain, as that Government would, undoubtedly, sooner rob them of their lands, emancipate their slaves, and utterly exterminate them, than render to them justice. Finally, communicate to them the abiding solicitude of the Confederate States of America to advance their condition in the direction of a proud political society, with a distinctive civilization, and holding lands in severalty under well-defined laws, by forming them into a Territorial government; but you will give no assurance of State organization and independence, as they still require the strong arm of protecting power, and may probably always need our fostering care; and, so far as the agents of the late Government of the United States may be concerned, you will converse with {p.578} them, and such of them as are willing to act with you in the policy herein set forth you are authorized to substantiate in the employment of this Government at their present compensation.

All of which is confided to your wisdom, prudence, and judgment.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Montgomery, May 17, 1861.

Hon. T. C. HINDMAN, &c.:

SIR: In relation to the arming of the regiment tendered by you to this Department and conditionally accepted, it is important the arms should be supplied by the State of Arkansas, not only because it is important to have these troops in the field at the earliest practicable moment for local purposes associated with Arkansas, but because of the heavy demand made upon the Confederate Government for arms by the border States and our very greatly extended lines of operation in every direction. It is apparent the War Department is called upon by the highest public considerations, and in view of the probabilities of a prolonged war, to dispense the arms in its possession only when it becomes absolutely necessary in connection with the most weighty movements.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER.

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MARYSYILLE, KANS., May 20, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of Confederate States of America:

SIR: I addressed you on the 16th instant a brief communication in reference to the propriety and importance of taking possession of the forts and property of the United States Government in the Northwest, and now avail myself of an opportunity of going more fully into detail on the subject. I refer to all that portion of country west of the Mississippi River to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and south of the Platte River, in Nebraska, and northern line of Missouri to the northern line of Arkansas and Texas, almost all of which is rich in agricultural and mineral resources.

The population of Colorado Territory is about 40,000 persons, of whom 30,000 are capable of bearing arms. They are now much displeased and dissatisfied with the course of the Federal Government in removing the U. S. troops from the Western frontier, whereby great dangers are apprehended from Indians and the serious interruption of their trade and commercial intercourse. One-third of the population sympathizes with your Government, independent of those who may be controlled by other influences, and one-fourth of them would take up arms in its behalf as soon as an opportunity is presented. There are some eight military posts within the district of country referred to, which, in consequence of the withdrawal of U. S. troops, have not more than a skeleton company in each. A large number of the soldiers would immediately enlist in the services of the Confederate States, and the officers are daily resigning to join the Southern Army. These posts are all well supplied with a large amount of commissary stores and munitions of war. The Cherokee and other Indian tribes on the southern border of Kansas are intelligent {p.579} and quite civilized races, and owning, as they do, considerable slave property themselves, their interests and feelings are wholly with the South.

Within the boundaries of this great country are the States of Missouri and Kansas. The former, being surrounded on three sides by free States, although identified in sympathy and interest with the Southern Confederacy, scarcely dare make a move toward secession in the present state of affairs. Kansas is controlled by a majority of poor, worthless, starving abolitionists, who receive their support from donations of provisions from the Northern States, which are transported through Missouri and delivered to them on the banks of the Missouri River. There is still in Kansas a strong pro-slavery element, kept in subjection to this dominant party, that will gladly unite with any movement made by the Confederate States to throw off the yoke, and will fly to arms at a moment’s warning. The question now presents itself whether all this valuable territory shall go with the North or the South. The answer depends upon the prompt action of your Government. Missouri cannot be secured to the South unless the country west of it is taken possession of and held by the Confederate States. With six regiments of cavalry from Arkansas and Texas and the forces that can be obtained from the Indian Territory, I can seize and hold Forts Laramie and Wise, and Fort Union, if necessary, and take possession of all military stores and munitions of war at the other forts in Kansas and Colorado, and will destroy what will be of no utility, establish headquarters near the Cheyenne Pass, and with the possession of Forts Laramie and Wise, cut off all communication between the Northern States and the Pacific coast; and at the same time, acting in conjunction with Missouri, can seize Forts Leavenworth and Riley, and expel from Kansas the horde of Northern vandals that now infests it, opposed to your Government, and declare Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado a part of the Confederate States of America. Also seize the daily overland express mail to California, and appropriate it to the transportation of mail and express matter to and from the Southern States only. A majority of the owners of the capital stock of this company entertain warm Southern views, and would willingly acquiesce therein.

Hoping these suggestions will meet with your approbation, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

F. J. MARSHALL.

I have carefully read the foregoing, and heartily indorse the suggestions therein politically and in a military point of view.

H. H. WEIGHTMAN, Col., Comdg. Camp Holloway, Missouri State Guard.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., May 20, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: I have the honor to make the following statement in reference to military matters in this State for your information:

Since my arrival here I have ascertained that although a large amount of arms and munitions of war was secured by the capture of the arsenal at this place, there is now but a small amount left. At the present time there are only 2,260 flint-lock muskets (new), 60 percussion muskets, and 160 Hall’s rifles. The ammunition for small-arms consists of 250,000 {p.580} musket ball-cartridges, 40,000 Colt’s pistol cartridges, 2,000 Sharp’s carbine cartridges, and 520,000 percussion caps, also 86 barrels of musket and 30 barrels of rifle powder. All the other arms and munitions of war seized here have been scattered over the State in every direction, without any method or accountability, and it is impossible to tell what has become of them. Very few arms suitable for cavalry service were found in the arsenal, and the regiment of mounted men you have authorized me to take from the State will be very destitute of arms suitable for the service. I would therefore respectfully call your attention to the necessity of at once forwarding to Fort Smith a sufficient supply of rifles or carbines, pistols and sabers, to equip a regiment of cavalry. Of course the necessary ammunition would be required at the same time.

As the river is now in fine navigable order, I would suggest the propriety of at once sending to Fort Smith a sufficient supply of rations for six months for the use of my brigade, deducting the amount I may be able to get here, and of which I will inform you by telegraph as soon as the Convention determines to turn it over to me. The navigation of the river is so uncertain, that an opportunity of sending supplies may not again occur for months. Flour can be purchased in the country and supplied by my own quartermaster. I would also call your attention to the fact that I have neither officers of the quartermaster’s nor commissary department, and as it is absolutely necessary for a successful campaign here to secure officers familiar with these duties, I would respectfully urge upon you the necessity of sending them at once. The officer of the subsistence department you determine to send should go directly to New Orleans, purchase supplies for my command, and bring them with him.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., May 20, 1861.

Hon. ROBERT TOOMBS:

SIR: I shall go by steamboat to Fort Smith on the day after to-morrow, and thence immediately to the Cherokee country, where there is more danger of division and disaffection than anywhere else.

It is much to be regretted that arms to the number of 2,000 rifles are not here now on their way to our frontier. Permit me respectfully, but very urgently, to say that it is of vital importance they, or half the number at least, should be forwarded instantly, and the residue as soon as possible. They ought to be on the frontier now for distribution It is also indispensable (and I use the word with the full knowledge of its meaning)-it is indispensable to have at least $25 in money for each Indian we enlist. That for 2,400 will be only $60,000, which ought to be sent out instantly. It would be better it should be $100,000.

Provisions, commissary stores of all kinds, except flour, will have to be sent on here, and medicines. There is but a limited supply of provisions here of those seized by the State, and it is very doubtful whether the State will not want all these for her own troops now on and going to the frontier. At all events, there will be none for the Indians. The river is falling and will soon be low. Then we will have to haul in by wagons at least 200 miles, and much of the provisions 300. You can {p.581} plainly see that there is no time to be lost. Delay is denial in this case, and denial is to insure disaster.

In addition to the regiments of Indians, I earnestly advise the organization of a battalion of about 350 Delawares, Shawnees, and Kickapoos. I can raise them, and they will be invaluable. One of them will be at least worth any two other Indians. General McCulloch coincides with me in regard to this battalion, and agrees with me that its value can hardly be overestimated. There are no braver and better soldiers in the world, and for outposts and scouts no men are more than their equals.

I very much regret that I have not received distinct authority to give the Indians guarantees of all their legal and just rights under treaties. It cannot be expected they will join us without them, and it would be very ungenerous, as well as unwise and useless, in me to ask them to do it. Why should they, if we will not bind ourselves to give them what they hazard in giving us their rights under treaties?

As you have told me to act at my discretion, and as I am not directed not to give the guarantees, I shall give them, formal, full, and ample, by treaty, if the Indians will accept them and make treaties. General McCulloch will join me in this, and so, I hope and suppose, will Mr. Hubbard, and when we shall have done so we shall, I am sure, not look in vain to you, at least, to affirm these guarantees and insist they shall be carried out in good faith.

Once more I earnestly urge the immediate transmission of arms, money, and provisions.

It will be better for you to write to me at Fort Smith. I shall probably be in the Indian country two months, with not very frequent chances to receive letters.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,

ALBERT PIKE.

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LITTLE ROCK, May 20, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Colonel Churchill informs me that it will cause great delay to bring his regiment into service for the war. The captains find difficulty in enlisting men for so indefinite a period, but the companies are ready to enlist for twelve months, and can march at once. The companies composing it are the only ones suitably armed, and have the only arms in the State for mounted service. Please authorize me to accept them at once for twelve months. Great want of arms for mounted service; want carbines and pistols, with the necessary ammunition; also sabers. It is necessary to put the regiment into the field at once.

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General; Commanding.

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MONTGOMERY, ALA., May 20, 1861.

General BEN. MCCULLOCH or Colonel CHURCHILL, Little Rock, Ark.:

If the companies are armed the regiment will be accepted for twelve months. Answer.

L. P. WALKER.

{p.582}

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LITTLE ROCK May 21, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

The companies, of Churchill’s regiment are only partially armed. There are not sufficient arms in the State suitable for a mounted regiment. I will want an immediate supply of them. I prefer rifles. Will the regiment be accepted for twelve months I Answer.

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

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Know all men by these presents:

That whereas the State of Arkansas, by her Convention duly assembled, by ordinance passed the 11th day of May, A. D. 1861, authorized and empowered Robert W. Johnson, Albert Rust, Hugh F. Thomason, William W. Watkins, and Augustus H. Garland, her delegates to the Provisional Congress assembled at Montgomery, in the State of Alabama, for the Government of the Confederate States of America, to cede to said Confederate States, among other property, the arsenal at Little Rock, in the State of Arkansas, and Fort Smith, at the city of Fort Smith, in said State of Arkansas, together with the land, improvements, appurtenances, and buildings to each belonging and attached– and whereas the Provisional Congress aforesaid did, by act of the 21st day of May, 1861, accept such cession as provided for in said ordinance, and authorized the Secretary of War to accept from said delegates of the State of Arkansas a deed of cession for such property: Now, therefore, we, the delegates aforesaid, do hereby grant, convey, and cede to the Confederate States of America the arsenal at Little Rock and the fort aforesaid at the city of Fort Smith, in said State, and all the land, improvements, buildings, and appurtenances thereto attached and belonging; and we do hereby convey unto said Confederate States all the right, title, and interest of the State of Arkansas in and to all the property aforesaid.

Witness our hands and seals this 21st day of May, A. D. 1861.

R. W. JOHNSON. A. RUST. H. F. THOMASON. W. W. WATKINS. A. H. GARLAND.

THE STATE OF ALABAMA, Montgomery County:

I, John Gill Shorter, judge of the circuit court in and for the State aforesaid, do hereby certify that Robert W. Johnson, A. Rust, H. F. Thomason, W. W. Watkins, and A. H. Garland, who are severally personally known to me, appeared before me on this day, and severally acknowledged that, being informed of the contents of the foregoing conveyance, they severally and voluntarily signed, sealed, and delivered the same, as grantors and delegates duly authorized by the State of Arkansas, to the grantee, the Confederate States of America, on the day and year therein stated, and for the purposes therein specified.

Given under my hand the 21st day of May, 1861.

JOHN GILL SHORTER, Circuit Judge.

{p.583}

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MONTGOMERY, May 22, 1861.

General BEN. MCCULLOCH or Governor RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

Colonel Churchill telegraphs that four companies are armed. If so, direct Captain McIntosh to muster them into service, and order them to proceed to Fort Smith, and as other companies are armed they will be mustered into service with like orders. We have no rifles.

L. P. WALKER.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., May 23, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: I have the honor to state that from the most reliable source I have ascertained that Colonel Emory marched with all the Federal forces in the Indian Nation to Fort Leavenworth. He started near the end of last month, and must have reached his destination before this. I was informed a day or two since that he had been heard of within two on three days’ march of Leavenworth. I have learned that the notorious General Lane is rapidly organizing a force in Kansas to march into the Territory. Montgomery is no doubt hovering near the border. I shall proceed direct to Fort Smith, and organize my force as rapidly as possible and put them at once in the field. I must again call your attention to the condition of arms in this State. The regiment of mounted men from this State will be of very little service unless arms suitable for them are at once sent. There are no arms suitable for the regiments of Indians that I am authorized to muster into the service. Some of them will present themselves with their rifles, but the greater part will be entirely without arms, and it will be necessary to scud an immediate supply for their use. Without the Indian regiments I will be able to oppose but an insignificant force to the numbers sent against me. I telegraphed yesterday about a supply of tents. I hope you will be able to send me a supply. There are no tents of any description in the State. The regiment will be entirely without them. The Convention has passed an ordinance sending all the subsistence stores mow in the arsenal to Fort Smith, where they will be turned over to General Pearce, of the State forces, at the same time authorizing me to draw upon General Pearce for such supplies as I may want, with the understanding that they will be returned by the Confederate States. These subsistence stores, which were seized in going up the river to the Federal troops, would have been sufficient for my whole command for two months, but as I have no certain control of them, and as there is a large force of State troops to draw upon them at the same time, I think it necessary to have supplies sent at once. We may not have another opportunity of getting them for six or eight months, on account of the uncertainty of the river. I will also be much in need of quartermaster’s stores. A brigade quartermaster and commissary should be at once appointed and sent to me, with ample means.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.584}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Montgomery, May 25, 1861.

His Excellency C. F. JACKSON, Governor of Missouri, at Jefferson City.

SIR: In answer to your letter of the 5th of May,* it gives me very great pleasure to be enabled to say to your excellency that this department fully appreciates the sentiments of your heart, the embarrassments of your position, and the judgment displayed in view of all the obstacles opposing your policy. That the popular and momentarily suppressed feeling and sympathy of Missouri are with the cause of the Confederate States is not questioned by this Government, but at the same time we are forced to acknowledge the critical nature of her condition environed as she is on three sides by the enemy. Four years ago I felt satisfied when the present issue came she would be thus circumstanced, and in the administration of this department, recognizing your situation, I have only regretted I have not, for the want of Confederate authority within your limits, been able to extend towards you that measure of relief called for by your necessities. I have, nevertheless, set forward movements which I flatter myself will before very long contribute largely to disrupt the fetters that now shackle the freedom of your own and the popular action. Your excellency may feel assured we have forces in the field and have made preparations for defense sufficient to retard the advance across our lines of the most formidable power, at least until additional supplies of men and arms can be brought not only to the rescue, but to drive back the invaders of our soil, and even to carry the war into the enemy’s country. Our people to the last man have already definitely made up their minds to the final result of a desperate and bloody issue, and there resides with them and our cause a sustaining spirit which can never animate our enemies, and with which the history of the world demonstrates victory invariably reposes.

In this connection, it is to be deeply regretted that two prominent officers, late prisoners of war to our forces, and liberated in the most generous manner, are now to be found with arms in their hands-the one in Missouri and the other in Kentucky-seeking with the sword to requite our humanity: I mean General Harney and Major Anderson. Such conduct can only serve to exasperate our soldiers on the battlefield to spare this Government all occasion for the display of magnanimity by urging them to yield no quarter to prisoners.

If I do not write more fully and in detail, it is for the reasons expressed by your excellency in regard to the probabilities of interception.

But, with renewed expressions of high regard, personally and politically, I remain, your friend and servant,

L. P. WALKER.

* Not found.

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CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, WAR DEP’T, Montgomery, May 25, 1861.

To the Military Commission of Arkansas, at Little Rock, R. W. JOHNSON, A. RUST, H. F. THOMASON, W. W. WATKINS, A. H. GARLAND:

GENTLEMEN: It is understood by this Department that Arkansas has now two regiments organized, armed, and equipped, under her authority. If this fact be so, and the State of Arkansas desires to be {p.585} relieved from the expense of their maintenance, this Department will receive them into the Confederate service and assign them to duty on the Indian frontier.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER. Secretary of War.

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Resolutions of the Senate and House of Representatives of the Chickasaw Legislature assembled.

MAY 25, 1861.

Whereas the Government of the United States has been broken up by the secession of a large number of States composing the Federal Union-that the dissolution has been followed by war between the parties; and whereas the destruction of the Union as it existed by the Federal Constitution is irreparable, and consequently the Government of the United States as it was when the Chickasaw and other Indian nations formed alliances and treaties with it no longer exists; and whereas the Lincoln Government pretending to represent said Union, has shown by its course towards us, in withdrawing from our country the protection of the Federal troops, and withholding, unjustly and unlawfully, our money placed in the hands of the Government of the United States as trustee, to be applied for our benefit, a total disregard of treaty obligations toward us; and whereas our geographical position, our social and domestic institutions, our feelings and sympathies, all attach us to our Southern friends, against whom is about to be waged a war of subjugation or extermination, of conquest and confiscation-a war which, if we can judge from the declarations of the political partisans of the Lincoln Government, will surpass the French revolution in scenes of blood and that of San Domingo in atrocious horrors; and whereas it is impossible that the Chickasaws, deprived of their money and destitute of all means of separate self-protection, can maintain neutrality or escape the storm which is about to burst upon the South, but, on the contrary, would be suspected, oppressed, and plundered alternately by armed bands from the North, South, East, and West; and whereas we have an abiding confidence that all our rights-tribal and individual-secured to us under treaties with the United States, will be fully recognized, guaranteed, and protected by our friends of the Confederate States; and whereas as a Southern people we consider their cause our own: Therefore,

Be it resolved by the Chickasaw Legislature assembled, 1st. That the dissolution of the Federal Union, under which the Government of the United States existed, has absolved the Chickasaws from allegiance to any foreign government whatever; that the current of the events of the last few-months has left the Chickasaw Nation independent, the people thereof free to form such alliances, and take such steps to secure their own safety, happiness, and future welfare as may to them seem best.

2d. Resolved, That our neighboring Indian nations-Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Osages, Senecas, Quapaws, Comanches, Kiowas, together with the fragmentary bands of Delawares, Kickapoos, Caddoes, Wichitas, and others within the Choctaw and Chickasaw country who are similarly situated with ourselves, be invited to co-operate, in order to secure the independence of the Indian nations and the defense of the territory they inhabit from northern invasion by the Lincoln hordes and Kansas robbers, who have plundered and oppressed our red brethren among them, and who doubtless would extend towards {p.586} us the protection which the wolf gives to the lamb should they succeed in overrunning our country; that the Chickasaws pledge themselves to resist by all means and to the death any such invasion of the lands occupied by themselves or by any of the Indian nations; anal that their country shall not be occupied or passed through by the Lincoln forces for the purpose of invading our neighbors, the States of Arkansas and Texas, but, on the contrary, any attempt to do so will be regarded as an act of war against ourselves, and should be resisted by all the Indian nations as insulting to themselves and tending to endanger their Territorial rights.

3d. Resolved, That it is expedient, at the very earliest day possible, that commissioners from other Indian nations for the purpose of forming a league or confederation among them for mutual safety and protection, and also to the Confederate States in order to enter into such alliance and to conclude such treaties as may be necessary to secure the rights, interests, and welfare of the Indian tribes, and that the co-operation of all the Indian nations west of the State of Arkansas and south of Kansas be invited for the attainment of these objects.

4th. Resolved, That the Chickasaws look with confidence especially to the Choctaws (whose interests are so closely interwoven with their own, and who were the first through their national council to declare their sympathy for, and their determination, in case of a permanent dissolution of the Federal Union, to adhere to the Southern States), and hope they will speedily unite with us in such measures as may be necessary for the defense of our common country and a union with our natural allies, the Confederate States of America.

5th. Resolved, That while the Chickasaw people entertain the most sincere friendship for the people of the neighboring States of Texas and Arkansas, and are deeply grateful for the prompt offer from them of assistance in all measures of defense necessary for the protection of our country against hostile invasion, we are desirous to hold undisputed possession of our lands and all forts and other places lately occupied by the Federal troops and other offices and persons acting under the authority of the United States, and that the governor of the Chickasaw Nation be, and he is hereby, instructed to take immediate steps to obtain possession of all such forts and places within the Choctaw and Chickasaw country, and have the same garrisoned, if possible, by Chickasaw troops, or else by troops acting expressly under and by virtue of the authority of the Chickasaw or Choctaw nations, until such time as said forts, Indian agencies, etc., may be transferred by treaty to the Confederate States.

6th. Resolved, That the governor of the Chickasaw Nation be and he is hereby, instructed to issue his proclamation to the Chickasaw Nation, declaring their independence, and calling upon the Chickasaw warriors to form themselves into volunteer companies of such strength and with such officers (to be chosen by themselves) as the governor may prescribe, to report themselves by filing their company rolls at the Chickasaw Agency, and to hold themselves, with the best arms and ammunition, together with a reasonable supply of provisions, in readiness at a minute’s warning to turn out, under the orders of the commanding general of the Chickasaws, for the defense of their country or to aid the civil authorities in the enforcement of the laws.

7th. Resolved, That we have full faith and confidence in the justice of the cause in which we are embarked, and that we appeal to the Chickasaw people to be prepared to meet the conflict which will surely, and perhaps speedily, take place, and hereby call upon every man capable {p.587} of bearing arms to be ready to defend his home and family, his country and his property, and to render prompt obedience to all orders from the officers set over them.

9th. Resolved, That the governor cause these resolutions to be published in the National Register, at Boggy Depot, and copies thereof sent to the several Indian nations, to the governors of the adjacent States, to the President of the Confederate States, and to Abraham Lincoln, President of the Black Republican party.

Passed the House of Representatives May 25, 1865.

A. ALEXANAN, Speaker House Representatives.

Attest:

C. CARTER, Clerk House Representatives.

Passed the Senate.

JOHN B. ANDERSON, President of Senate.

Attest:

JAMES N. MCLISH, Clerk of Senate.

Approved, Tishomingo, May 25, 1861.

C. HARRIS, Governor.

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MONTGOMERY, May 25, 1861.

Col. T. C. HINDMAN, Helena, Ark.:

If ten companies are raised, they are hereby ordered to Fort Smith, for General McCulloch’s command. Camp equipage will be provided as soon as possible. The companies will be mustered into service as they arrive there, and subsisted at Government expense. You must obtain flint-lock muskets from your State.

L. P. WALKER.

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FORT SMITH, ARK., May 28, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I arrived here on the 25th instant. Since my arrival I have endeavored to get all the information I could in reference to the sentiments of the Indian tribes in the Territory. It appears from the best information that the Choctaws and Chickasaws are all anxious to join the Southern Confederacy, and I think that Colonel Cooper will have no difficulty in organizing his regiment. The Creek Nation will also come in, and there will be no difficulty in raising a regiment in the tribe. It appears that there are two parties in the Cherokee Nation-one very much in favor of joining the Southern Confederacy; the other hesitates, and favors the idea of remaining neutral. These two parties are kept apart by bitter feuds of long standing, and it is possible that feelings of animosity may tempt one party to join the North, should their forces march into the Indian Territory. It is therefore necessary to see the chief of the tribe (John Ross), and by enlisting him on our side to get a force into the nation that will prevent any force from the North getting a foothold and enlisting the sympathies of any portion with their party. Captain Pike, commissioner, accompanies me to-day on my mission to the chief.

{p.588}

There are very few arms in the Indian Territory, and I am continually applied to for a supply. I hope a supply will be sent at once. It is absolutely necessary for the success of my mission to have an ample supply to arm the Indian regiments, particularly the Cherokees.

The control of this post is necessary, and if it has been turned over by the State to the Government of the Confederate States, I hope you will at once authorize me to take possession of it and all public property in it.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General Commanding.

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HELENA, ARK., May 29, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

Ten companies ready on June 1 for McCulloch’s command. Five are lost if ordered elsewhere. Will dismiss them and fill up before June 15 if immediately provided here with money to buy subsistence, and authorized to muster companies in as they arrive, and send them to Virginia with promise of rifles there. I prefer Virginia. If ordered to Fort Smith, must have subsistence and transportation from here. Have no money. Can get it here. If ordered there can’t you send blankets for men, blue jeans for their shirts and pants, and swords for officers, and stop pay to cover costs? All much needed. Can’t get them in the Southwest. State authorities refuse arms of any kind, retaining them for militia. Answer.

T. C. HINDMAN.

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NEW ORLEANS, May 31, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of letter received this morning from Lieutenant-Colonel Hyams, of the Third Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, which left this place on the 20th instant for their destination, Fort Smith. I beg leave to call the attention of your excellency to the matters therein set forth. A deputation from the Creeks passed through this place on the 25th instant en route to Montgomery, and will, I presume, now continue their journey to Richmond.

I must also repeat what I have already telegraphed to the Secretary of War, that our Fourth Regiment has not received marching orders, and the Fifth and Sixth Regiments are and have been awaiting the action of Lieutenant Phifer to receive them into Confederate service, who is without orders for that purpose.

I must also, at the risk of being thought importunate and troublesome, call your excellency’s attention to the necessity of a more complete and extended system of defenses for the coast of this State than has yet been made or commenced.

General Twiggs assumed command of this district this morning, with whom I shall be most happy to co-operate in any measures which the public exigencies may require.

I am, very respectfully, your excellency’s obedient servant,

THO. O. MOORE, Governor.

{p.589}

[Inclosure.]

LITTLE ROCK, May 28, 1861.

THO. O. MOORE, Governor of Louisiana, New Orleans:

DEAR Sum: The regiment arrived here last night and this morning, in good health. We debarked here for two reasons: The water has so much fallen in the Arkansas, as we were informed, that we could proceed no farther by the steamers we were on, and because the governor of this State and the military board had received certain information that Lane, with a large body of troops, is within the northern boundary of this State at a place called Pocahontas. On this information, authoritatively received, I at once determined to debark and make requisition for ammunition, of which we have received none until the governor of Arkansas gave me an order for its receipt from the State arsenal.

The agent of the Indians called on me this morning, and states that the nations on the borders of this State are anxious and desirous to be armed; that they can and will muster into the service 25,000 men; that they have immense supplies of beeves, sufficient to supply the meat for the whole Confederate service. All they ask is arms and enrollment. If within your power to forward their views with the President, it would be a great step in the right direction, and erect a more effectual barrier against the Kansas marauders than any force that could be sent against them, and thereby protect the northern boundary of both Arkansas and Louisiana. The reasons why every effort should be made to arm these people (now heart and soul with us) to defend themselves and us are so palpable, that I do not attempt to urge them on you, but do solicit your attention, so far as is compatible with your high position, to this matter, to impress its importance on the President, and use your well-known influence to effect this much desirable result. Our colonel is not yet with us. I received a dispatch at Napoleon from Hon. Judge Moise, for which I return my thanks. Please say to my brother that we are all well and preparing for duty.

With highest regard, believe me, sir, your friend sincerely,

S. M. HYAMS, Lieut. Col., Third Regt. La. Vols.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., June 2, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

DEAR SIR: I have been detained by pneumonia, an attack from which kept me ten days in bed. Then low water and the sinking of a steamboat kept me until yesterday. I am not able to report upon the condition of timings among the Indians, but hear they are favorable. General McCulloch is about the frontier of Arkansas, northwest of Fort Smith, as I hear. I do not think these matters worth talking about, but my sense of duty requires me to report that with about 25,000 able-bodied brave men Arkansas has less the appearance of a military organization than any people I ever yet knew. The people are nearly all under arms, and daily rumors of invasions calling them from home, and I never yet saw people who appeared to know so little about commanders, or who seemed so utterly devoid of confidence in any one faction or leader of a faction in the State. My belief and conviction is that but little can be done among these factions, and that a military leader from without the State is needed, who when he gets here shall have command of all the {p.590} forces not under McCulloch, and that the bold and brave men can rally under such without disturbance from leaders of any faction whatever, and that without this Arkansas with her brave and hardy hunters cannot be made available in any other way, unless it will be by waiting for a new man to grow up.

These are my thoughts, freely given. If able, I go up the river to Fort Smith to-morrow.

I have the honor to be, truly, &c., yours,

DAVID HUBBARD.

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HELENA, ARK., June 3, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Will certainly lose five companies if not ordered to McCulloch’s command immediately. Will have more trouble than I supposed in filling up if they leave. Hope you will order me to Fort Smith immediately. Afterward can send me where you please. Have permission from State authorities to stop in arsenal till tents reach here. Must be ordered somewhere at once. Expense is ruinous. Men have no shelter. Defer staff appointments till letter reaches you.

T. C. HINDMAN.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 11, 1861.

Col. T. C. HINDMAN, Arkansas Volunteers, Helena, Ark.:

SIR: In reply to yours of May 23, 1861, the Secretary of War directs that you will take post as proposed, after organization of the regiment, in the northeastern part of the State of Arkansas, for the defense of that section of country. So soon as prepared for mustering in, you will advise Capt. W. S. Walker, C. S. Army, now at Memphis, Tenn., who has been directed to muster in your regiment. You will make requisitions upon the quartermaster’s and subsistence departments for such stores pertaining to each as may be required by your regiment, this being your authority therefor. Governor Rector will furnish the arms and munitions required for the armament. Respecting staff appointments, send in the names of those whom you wish to be appointed as surgeons, assistant surgeon, assistant quartermaster, and assistant commissary of subsistence, and their commissions will be made out and forwarded to you.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. CHILTON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Fort Smith, Ark., June 12, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to state that I left this post on the 30th of May, with the view of having an interview with the chief of the Cherokees, and to select some military position in the Indian Territory for my command. I found no point suitable for such a position, except in the Cherokee country, and I had determined to take the first opportunity of moving my command to it; but in my interview with John Ross, the chief of the Cherokees, objection was made to my entering his country, {p.591} at the same time stating that he wished to maintain a neutral position, and would endeavor to keep his country from being occupied by either party.

There are two parties in the Cherokee Nation-one in favor of immediate secession, the other represented by John Ross, and wishing to be neutral. This party is in the majority, and consists of all the full-bloods and a part of the half breeds. To give offense to this party now by marching into their country would injure our cause, and might unite the whole nation against us.

This chief has assured me that in the event of an invasion from the North he will put himself at the head of his people and march to repel it, and he has also assured Captain Pike (commissioner) that he will call his executive council together this month, for the purpose of conferring with them on the subject. Under these circumstances I have deemed it advisable to respect his wishes, and have addressed him a letter, a copy of which is herewith inclosed.

The command at my disposal would not warrant me in advancing at present, especially as most of the supplies are still behind. The Louisiana regiment has arrived, and seven companies of Churchill’s regiment, but the latter are entirely without tents or camp equipage of any kind. The Texas regiment and the expected transportation from that quarter will not be here in less than three weeks. There are a number of State troops (nearly 2,000) in and around this post belonging to the western division of the State. I think it very essential for the success of a command on this frontier that this military division and the Confederate troops here be put under our control. I therefore apply, respectfully, for authority to command it. The State is divided into two military divisions, the eastern and western. This western division should be put under my command, as under the above circumstances I may be obliged to act in the northwestern corner of the State to repel an attack from the North.

From the best authority I can gain I believe all the other Indians in the Territory are with us. They only want arms to be of immediate service to us.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Fort Smith, Ark., June 12, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN ROSS, Chief of the Cherokee Nation:

SIR: Having been sent by my Government (the Confederate States of America) to take command of the district embracing the Indian Territory, and to guard it from invasion by the people of the North, I take the first opportunity of assuring you of the friendship of my Government, and the desire that the Cherokees and other tribes in the Territory unite their fortunes with the Confederacy. I hope that you, as chief of the Cherokees, will meet me with the same feelings of friendship that actuate me in coming among you, and that I may have your hearty co-operation in one common cause against a people who are endeavoring to deprive us of our rights. It is not my desire to give offense, or interfere with any of your rights or wishes, and shall not do {p.592} so unless circumstances compel me. The neutral position you wish to maintain will not be molested without good cause. In the mean time those of your people who are in favor of joining the Confederacy must be allowed to organize into military companies as Home Guards, for the purpose of defending themselves in case of invasion from the North. This of course will be in accordance with the views you expressed to me, that in case of an invasion from the North you would lead your men yourself to repel it. Should a body of men march into your Territory from the North, or if I have an intimation that a body is in hue of march for the Territory from that quarter, I must assure you that I will at once advance into your country, if I deem it advisable.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 12, 1861.

His Excellency Gov. H. M. RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

SIR: Colonel Hindman, Arkansas Volunteers, has been ordered, so soon as his regiment is organized, armed, and equipped, to proceed to Northeastern Arkansas, in the vicinity of Clark’s Bluffs, there to adopt defensive measures for protection of the State. It is desired that you will furnish him with arms, ammunition, &c., as he remains within the State and has been advised that his armament would be furnished by you.

It has been reported that provisions captured at Helena and Napoleon were placed under your control. It is requested that you will place them subject to the order of Colonel Hindman, regiment Arkansas volunteers, to be used and accounted for as stores belonging to the Confederate States service.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11.}

HDQRS. MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Jefferson City, Mo., June 12, 1861.

I. The commanders of the military districts of the Missouri State Guard will immediately assemble all the available troops in their respective districts for actual service.

II. The forces of the third district will, as they assemble, march by regiments, battalions, or companies, without delay, to Booneville, Cooper County, which will be the rendezvous. On their arrival at this place the commanders of such regiments, battalions, and companies will report to the senior officer present, who will report each arrival to these headquarters and to the commanders of the Sixth Military District.

III. The forces of the first, second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth will assemble in camp, the place to be designated by the respective district commanders, who will repair in person to said camp and superintend the organization and equipment of their commands. They will from time to time report to these headquarters the number and condition of their command.

{p.471}

IV. The district quartermasters and commissaries will use all the means at their command in their respective districts to furnish supplies for this movement, and will make requisitions on the Quartermaster-General and Commissary-General for funds.

By command Maj. Gen. S. Price:

HENRY LITTLE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 14.}

You are hereby ordered to immediately cause to be destroyed all railroad bridges and telegraph wires in your vicinity.

By command Maj. Gen. S. Price:

HENRY LITTLE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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Proclamation by the Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation.

JUNE 14, 1861.

Whereas the general council of the Choctaw Nation, on the 10th day of June, 1861, by resolution declared that in consequence of the dissolution of the United States, by the withdrawal of eleven States formerly comprising a part of said Government, and their formation into a separate government, and the existing war consequent thereon between the States, and the refusal on the part of that portion of the States claiming to be, and exercising the functions of the Government of, the United States to comply with solemn treaty stipulations between the Government of the United States and the Choctaw Nation, said nation was absolved from all obligations under said treaties, and thereby was left independent, and free to enter into alliance with other governments, and to take such other steps as may be necessary to secure the safety and welfare of the nation.

And whereas the general council of the Choctaw Nation did further resolve that the interest and safety of the Choctaw people require that an alliance be made with the Southern Confederacy, and did appoint commissioners to negotiate a treaty of alliance and amity; and whereas the defense of the nation against invasion, and the preservation of order and the due execution of the laws of the nation, which have been extended over all persons within the limits thereof, require the organization of an efficient military corps, and all of which it is proper should be made known to the Choctaw people and to the world:

Now, therefore, I, George Hudson, principal chief of the Choctaw Nation, do hereby publish and proclaim that the Choctaw Nation is, and of right ought to be, free and independent; that all citizens and residents of said nation between the ages of 18 and 45 years, subject to military duty, are required to enroll, either in the volunteer or the reserve militia, according to law, and to hold themselves in readiness to turn out for the defense of the nation at a minute’s warning, for the preservation of order and the protection of life and property, or in aid of the civil authorities in the general execution of the laws, and (in accordance with a law passed by the general council) that Apuckshanubbee district shall furnish three volunteer companies, consisting of not less than 64 privates, 4 commissioned officers, 5 non-commissioned {p.594} officers, and 1 bugler, nor more than 100 to each company; two companies of like strength from Pushmataha district, and two from Mosholatubbee district; making in all 700 men, as near as possible, will be enrolled, elect their officers, and report themselves ready for immediate service in the mounted regiment of Choctaw and Chickasaw riflemen called for by the Confederate States of America, to be commanded by Col. D. H. Cooper, of C. S. Army; and, further, I require that all free male persons not subject to military duty under the laws of the nation shall forthwith form themselves into squads of patrol, under a headman to be chosen by themselves, in each neighborhood, as “Home Guards,” for the protection of the country and preservation of order, whenever the volunteer and reserve militia of the nation shall have been called into active service. The sheriffs of each county are required by law to enroll and report a list of all those capable of military service, either in the volunteer or reserve militia, to the adjutant-general of the Choctaw Nation. I hereby appeal to all persons in the nation to render prompt obedience to all civil and military officers, and enjoin all civil and military officers to be prompt in the discharge of their duty. Our position now requires that every effort be used to defend the country and repress all disorderly and unlawful acts.

Given under my hand and seal, as principal chief of the Choctaw Nation, at the executive office, in the town of Doaksville, on the 14th day of June, A. D. 1861.

[L. S.]

GEORGE HUDSON, Principal Chief Choctaw Nation.

By the principal chief:

L. P. PITCHLYNN, National Secretary.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE Fort Smith, Ark., June 14, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: The bearer of this communication (Captain Green) has been sent by the governor of the State of Missouri to urge upon me the necessity of advancing a force into the State to give countenance to the secessionists in their attempt to free themselves from the yoke which has been placed upon them. The governor is ready for the crisis, and he only wants the aid of a force from this quarter to put his forces in action. Captain Green will give you all the necessary information in regard to the views and secret movements of the governor of his State.

I think the proposition made by the governor is one of great importance to the Confederate Government, and I hope may meet with your favorable consideration. I will briefly lay before you a plan of operations. As I have before communicated to you, the chief of the Cherokees is not willing to have a force marched into his country, and he desires to remain neutral. The only way to force his country into the Confederacy is to throw a force into the northeastern portion of this State, take possession of Fort Scott on the Missouri line and subjugate that portion of Kansas. I am satisfied that Lane has no force yet of any importance, and the occupation of Fort Scott would not only place Kansas in my power, but would give heart and countenance to our friends in Missouri, and accomplish the very object for which I was sent here, preventing a force from the North invading the Indian Territory. All the border counties on the western line of Missouri are {p.595} with us. We would therefore be able to draw our supplies from them. After strengthening myself at Fort Scott I could, by co-operating with Missouri, take such a position on the Kansas River as I might desire.

In order to carry out this plan I would again respectfully apply to have the Western Military Division of Arkansas put under my orders, with authority to muster the troops now in it (about 1,600) into the provisional forces, and to accept such other regiments and battalions until my force is at least 7,000 strong. The Indians are much opposed to marching out of their country. They are willing to organize for its defense, but want to remain in it. From what I have seen of them, I do not think it would be prudent to march them into Kansas, for they would be difficult to restrain, and I should much fear the censures that would be heaped on our Government by employing them. If the State of Arkansas is supplied with sufficient arms, I will have no difficulty in getting the requisite force, but as this matter is of the utmost importance, I think if a well-drilled regiment is available it should be at once sent to report to me.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., June 21, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

We have a large armed force in the field, say 8,000 men. Missouri calls for our aid, which cannot be effectively furnished under State authority. We will turn over this force by their consent to the Confederate Government, including arms, with the provision that the arms are to be so used as to secure ample protection and security to Arkansas in future. In contemplation of this proposition we have called no general officer into the field; making prompt and speedy answer highly important. It is suggested that an active campaign in Missouri would aid Virginia. Please reply promptly.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor, and President Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Fort Smith, Ark., June 22, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit the inclosed copy of a communication from John Ross, the principal chief of the Cherokee Nation.

Under all the circumstances of the case I do not think it advisable to march into the Cherokee country at this time unless there is some urgent necessity for it. If the views expressed in my communication to you of the 14th instant are carried out, it will, I am satisfied, force the conviction on the Cherokees that they have but one course to pursue– that is, to join the Confederacy. The Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment will be kept on the south of them; Arkansas will be to the east; and with my force on the western border of Missouri no force will be able to march into the Cherokee Nation, and surrounded as they will be by Southern troops, they will have but one alternative at all events. From my position to the north of them, in any event, I will have a controlling {p.596} power over them. I am satisfied from my interview with John Ross and from his communication that he is only waiting for some favorable opportunity to put himself with the North. His neutrality is only a pretext to await the issue of events.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, C. N., Park Hill, June 17, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Commanding Troops of Confederate States, Fort Smith, Ark.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge by the first return mail the receipt of your communication, dated at Fort Smith, Ark., the 12th instant, informing me that you have been sent by the Government of the Confederate States of America to take command of the district embracing the Indian Territory, and to guard it from invasion by the people of the North. For the expression of your friendship be pleased to accept my heartfelt thank, and the assurance that I cherish none other than a similar sentiment for yourself and people. I am also gratified to be informed that you will not interfere with any of our rights and wishes unless circumstances compel you to do so, nor violate or molest our neutrality without good cause. In regard to the pending conflict between the United States and Confederate States, I have already signified my purpose to take no part in it whatever, and have admonished the Cherokee people to pursue the same course. The determination to adopt that course was the result of considerations of law and policy, and seeing no reasons to doubt its propriety, I shall adhere to it in good faith, and hope that the Cherokee people will not fail to follow my example. I have not been able to see any reason why the Cherokee Nation should take any other course, for it seems to me to be dictated by their treaties and sanctioned by wisdom and humanity. It ought not to give ground for complaint to either side, and should cause our rights to be respected by both. Our country and institutions are our own. However small the one and humble the others, they are as sacred and valuable to us as are those of your own populous and wealthy State to yourself and people. We have done nothing to bring about the conflict in which you are engaged with your own people, and I am unwilling that my people shall become its victims, and I am determined to do no act that shall furnish any pretext to either of the contending parties to overrun our country and destroy our rights. If we are destined to be overwhelmed, it shall not be through any agency of mine. The United States are pledged not to disturb us in our rights, nor can we for a moment suppose that your Government will do it, as the avowed principles upon which it is struggling for an acknowledged existence are the rights of the States and freedom from outside interference. The Cherokee people and Government have given every assurance in their power of their sympathy and friendship for the people of Arkansas and of other Confederate States, unless it be in voluntarily assuming an attitude of hostility towards the Government of the United States, with whom their treaties exist and from whom they are not experiencing any new burdens or exactions. That I cannot advise them to do, and hope that their good faith in adhering to the requirements of their treaties and {p.597} of their friendship for all the whites will be manifested by strict observance of the neutrality enjoined.

Your demand that those people of the nation who are in favor of joining the Confederacy be allowed to organize into military companies as Home Guards, for the purpose of defending themselves in case of invasion from the North, is most respectfully declined. I cannot give my consent to any such organization for very obvious reasons: First, it would be a palpable violation of my position as a neutral; second, it would place in our midst organized companies not authorized by our laws but in violation of treaty, and who would soon become efficient instruments in stirring up domestic strife and creating internal difficulties among the Cherokee people. As in this connection you have misapprehended a remark made in conversation at our interview some eight or ten days ago, I hope you will allow me to repeat what I did say. I informed you that I had taken a neutral position, and would maintain it honestly, but that in case of a foreign invasion, old as I am, I would assist in repelling it. I have not signified any purpose as to an invasion of our soil and an interference with our rights from the United or Confederate States, because I have apprehended none, and cannot give my consent to any.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

JNO. ROSS, Principal Chief Cherokee Nation.

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RICHMOND, June 22, 1861.

Gov. H. M. RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

The Arkansas troops we will receive with the regiment organized according to the law of Congress, and Arkansas, as every other State will receive watchful care of the Government.

L. P. WALKER.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Fort Smith, Ark., June 23, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that in the organization of a Creek regiment there will be some difficulty, as there are two parties, known as the Upper and Lower Creeks. I would therefore respectfully recommend that instead of receiving a regiment, two battalions be received, one from the Upper Creeks and another from the Lower Creeks, allowing them to elect their own officers.

I have heard that Colonel Garrett, formerly the Creek agent, has been recommended to you to command the regiment. I hope the appointment will not be made, for Colonel Garrett is in no way qualified for the position, and from what I know of his habits, I am satisfied that a worse appointment could not be made.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General Commanding.

{p.598}

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. WM. J. HARDEE, Memphis, Tenn.:

SIR: Herewith you will receive the appointment of brigadier-general of provisional forces in the service of the Confederate States. Your command will embrace that portion of Arkansas lying west of the White and Black Rivers and north of the Arkansas River to the Missouri line. The general purpose of this assignment is to watch over and protect the country within the limits referred to, and also that part of the State of Missouri contiguous thereto. Besides the regiment from Arkansas under the command of Colonel Hindman, recently ordered there, it is the purpose of the Department to send an additional force of about 3,000 men in that direction. You will establish your headquarters at such point within the district referred to as will best subserve the purpose of your command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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PINE BLUFF, June 25, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Before leaving I understood of you that the incumbents of the Indian agencies west of Arkansas would be continued. I believed it wise. I beg of you earnestly to send them their appointments promptly.

The movement of our Indians into our Confederacy will be natural and easy if under the lead of the officers and agents they are accustomed to be led and advised by; but strike them out, put in new men, and then propose to change their allegiance, with war before them, and with doubts as to their annuities and the debts due them, and the nature of their own governments hereafter, and a new and necessarily untrained and ignorant set of agents to explain, to control, or to advise them, and it will all be unfortunate-very, very unfortunate.

My old friend the Hon. D. Hubbard is sick, and stays at Dr. Griffith’s, at Fort Smith. With his good heart it is to be expected he will be desirous to support Dr. Griffith’s wishes, and Dr. Griffith wants to be appointed superintendent in place of E. Rector. Do not allow this to be done. Hold everything as it is until peace and unity are attained, and then make all the changes you think proper; but not now-not now, by all manner of means.

I do earnestly beg you to keep your agencies as they were. They are good and true men, and popular and qualified with the tribes and their business. Restore and commission Elias Rector, superintendent; John Crawford, Cherokee agent; William Quesenbury, Creek agent; Samuel M. Rutherford, Seminole agent; and Matthew Leeper, Wichita agent; and if Cooper has resigned (which I fear is the case), appoint Richard P. Pulliam (who is the next best living man on earth for the place, I believe) as agent of the Choctaws. With this programme you will have peace and success; without it, no one can tell your troubles or our misfortunes on this frontier.

If you raise an Indian regiment, I commend to you J. W. Washburne for quartermaster. He is a favorite with them (particularly with the Creeks), and is a man of talent and capacity.

In conclusion, it is proper, as I am so much of a stranger to you, that {p.599} I should apologize for any seeming abruptness of expression in my letter, for in none of it is there aught but the haste of a letter written in the pain and weakness of a sick bed, and dictated by a sentiment of that sincere respect of which it is begged you will be assured by your obedient servant,

R. W. JOHNSON.

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RICHMOND, VA., June 25, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States:

SIR: Permit me respectfully to suggest to you that in the event that the Confederate States forces find it necessary to advance into Missouri, they might find it advantageous to have among both their men and their officers as many Missourians as possible. To that end, if the Hon. E. Carrington Cabell could be attached in some suitable position, as aide-de-camp or otherwise, to the staff of the commanding officer of those forces, and should Mr. Cabell be willing to accept the position, I decidedly advise its being done. His high standing in Missouri, as also elsewhere, his sound judgment, practical common sense, and thorough acquaintance with the condition of affairs in Missouri, would enable him to be of essential service. As an officer of militia cavalry he acquired sufficient knowledge of military affairs to justify such an appointment.

I remain, Mr. President, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. C. REYNOLDS.

[Indorsement.]

Hon. B. C. CABELL:

Please read the within, and give me your views and wishes thereon.

Your friend,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Commanding, &c., Fort Smith, Ark.:

GENERAL: In reply to your communication of the 14th instant, addressed to the Secretary of War, I am instructed to say that you are authorized, should you think proper, to take position at Fort Scott, and that you may give such assistance to Missouri as will subserve the main purpose of your command. If an invasion of Kansas is rendered necessary for that purpose, it will be a question for you to determine, after fully considering the consequences as affecting the neutrality of the Cherokees, which should not be disregarded if it is possible by diplomacy to prevent it; the great object of your command being not only to conciliate the Indian nations, but to obtain their active co-operation with us in prosecuting the war. You will perceive that by exciting the hostility of the Cherokee Nation the prospect of a successful termination of your command will be greatly diminished.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.600}

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Fort Smith, Ark., June 29, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to state to you that I will leave here to-morrow morning with the regiments of Arkansas and Louisiana volunteers to march to Maysville, on the northwestern frontier of Arkansas. General Pearce is already there with 900 men. Missouri has been crushed, and all of her forces are falling back from the Federal troops in the State. I have authentic information that a force of nearly 3,000 Federal troops are now in Springfield, Mo., and that General Lyon, with 9,000 men, will soon be with them. From reliable information it is the intention to enter this State and the Indian Territory. Under these circumstances I have deemed it necessary to issue a proclamation, calling all the men of Western Arkansas to arms for the emergency, and to rally upon Fayetteville, twenty miles from Maysville. I hope soon to have such a force at my disposal on the northern frontier to drive this force back; at all events to keep them from entering the State. The Texas regiment has orders to join me as soon as possible. It has not yet reported here. My embarrassment here has been very great. Sent here without a force, without transportation, and without arms, I have found myself very much crippled; but by taking the necessary responsibility I have organized a train, the necessary staff department, called for an additional force, and am determined to march against this force to hold it in check, and, if an opportunity occurs, to strike them a blow in Missouri. I hope that I will be sustained in all the steps that I have deemed it necessary to take.

We are much in need of arms and ammunition. Is it not possible to send me a supply?

From the last accounts such of the State troops of Missouri as are still under the command of the governor and General Rains are falling back from the Federal forces toward the southwestern corner of the State. I have sent reliable men to them, with advice to fall back and form a junction with me.

I have the honor to be, sir,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding,

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RICHMOND, July 2, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

MY DEAR SIR: As Governor Reynolds was about leaving Richmond he told me he would make the suggestion which he has made in his letter of the 25th of June, which you inclose to me to-day.

The proposition was new and unexpected, and at first presentation, I told Governor Reynolds that the position alluded to would not suit me. But further consideration has brought my mind to the conclusion that I have no right to decline a position which may enable me to render important service to our country. My heart and soul are in this cause, and I have long since resolved to devote myself as far as practicable to its success.

To insure the accession of Missouri to the Confederate States has been the object of my labors for several months past. This great result may, and I feel confident will, be attained. But it is secondary to the cause of Southern independence, and should it fail, which God forbid, {p.601} and which I do not apprehend, I shall be none the less devoted to that cause; for I shall never reside, and I would rather bury my children than have them live in, any State which, willingly or unwillingly, remains under the rule of the men of the Northern portion of the late United States.

The suggestion of Governor Reynolds is certainly a good one, that there would be great advantage in the presence of Missourians with such forces of the Confederate States as may be required to advance into Missouri; and it is probable that in this connection I may be of more benefit to our cause than in any other. If so, and I now incline to that opinion, I would prefer the appointment suggested; but I shall be most happy to render service in army position which may be assigned me; only let me go where it is deemed I can be most useful.

I am sincerely obliged to you, my dear sir, for your kind indorsement on the letter of Governor Reynolds, which I return.

With great respect, I am, yours, most cordially,

B. C. CABELL.

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POCAHONTAS, ARK., July 2, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I notified you several days ago that a rendezvous had been appointed for the exiled Missourians at this place, and as I am here to organize them, I will notify you of the rumors which the men bring from the different portions of the State, as some of them may occasionally be of importance, and not reach you through the ordinary channels of communication.

Governor Jackson has undoubtedly gone into the southwest corner of the State, probably directly to McCulloch’s camp. A portion of his cabinet are with him. I also hear from tolerably reliably authority that Lieutenant-Governor Reynolds is with him, although I know that he started to Richmond, Va., from Nashville, only about ten days ago. As General Price has been sick, and if now in the field at all his headquarters are unknown to any one in this portion of the country, therefore there is no system or plan of campaign for the people to go by, and the organizations which are now going on may either be broken up or rendered entirely inefficient for want of a leader. The funds of the State of Missouri are locked up in the banks, and every town in the State in which there is a bank is now in the possession of Federal troops. Every railroad, telegraph, and mail is also in their hands, and the only way the fifty to one hundred thousand gallant young soldiers can be made available and the rich prize of this great State secured is by a powerful demonstration from this portion of the country, which will attract the attention of friends and foes alike, giving confidence to one and striking terror to the other.

Missouri has no great leader in whom the people have confidence. Price and Doniphan are neither equal to the occasion, and besides these two there are none with a sufficient reputation to inspire that confidence which is necessary to bring out the people, surrounded as they are by so many enemies. There are men in Missouri who are competent, or rather capable, but they are unknown to the people; therefore please send us a leader and a few arms, and Missouri’s sons can rid her soil of the pollution which now infests her, and rush into line with her Southern sisters in double-quick time.

{p.602}

If Lieutenant-Governor Reynolds has been to see you these remarks are superfluous, but I mention them for fear he may have returned to Missouri without having seen you.

I herewith send you a small map of Missouri, on which I have marked the military districts and the brigadier-generals commanding each district, which may be of use to the War Department; and I would here remark that I am personally acquainted with all the leading men in the State, and probably know the military resources better than any one, and at any time that I can be of service to the cause of the Southern Confederacy, either individually or officially, I am at your command.

I suppose by this time Colonel Bowen’s regiment is full, but if you will receive another Missouri regiment I can have one at your service at any time in a week.

Any communication you may have to send to any one in Missouri by mail this is the most accessible point, as the people here and beyond the line are in constant intercourse.

Excuse the length of this letter, as my interest in the cause is great. I would respectfully refer you, if you should have forgotten my previous letters, to Andrew Hunter, of Jefferson; Daniel DeJarnett, of Caroline; or H. P. Poindexter, of Richmond.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Of Saint Joseph, Mo.

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MEMPHIS, TENN., July 3, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Inclosed you will please find copy of a telegram sent you on the 21st ultimo from Little Rock, Ark * I have never received an answer. I know you are worried to death with letters, importunities, &c., but the fact is, General McCulloch’s command is in a very bad fix as regards arms. His cavalry regiment, commanded by Colonel Churchill, are armed with old muskets, flint-and-steel locks, and bayonets; no cartridge-boxes, bayonet scabbards, or belts, and he is in great want of ammunition. Be pleased to answer the dispatch. I am here in Memphis, having the cartridge-boxes, bayonet scabbards, and belts made. General Hardee is here. He has requested me to say to you that he wishes Mr. John Pope, of Little Rock, Ark., appointed quartermaster for his division. Mr. Pope is the grandson of John Pope, who was formerly governor of Kentucky. He is a gentleman, and is well suited for the position, and would give universal satisfaction to all; can give a bond for any amount, and can give you any recommendation you might wish. General Hardee is very anxious to secure his services, and has written you on this subject. Should you appoint him, be pleased to let him know it as soon as possible. I succeeded in getting fresh quartermaster provisions to him without any loss, and took a receipt for it in good order. General McCulloch is on his way to the Missouri frontier. I am busy getting subscriptions of cotton and produce for the Confederate States. I write this letter in a great hurry, as the bearer is about to leave.

Very truly, your friend, &c.,

JOHN A. JORDAN.

* Not found.

{p.603}

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 4, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Fort Smith, Ark.:

GENERAL: Your communication of the 22d June has been received. Your policy in regard to Ross, the principal chief of the Cherokees, has my approbation. It is well to pursue a conciliatory course with this chief, so long as it not only involves no detriment to the cause, but embraces a prospect of immediate advantage.

Keeping steadily in view the great object of your command, you will avail yourself of any fitting opportunity of co-operation with Missouri; that is, when it is quite clear that co-operation will be likely to avail, as suggested in previous communications.

The position of Missouri as a Southern State still in the Union requires, as you will readily perceive, much prudence and circumspection, and it should only be when necessity and propriety unite that active and direct assistance should be afforded by crossing the boundary and entering the State before communicating with this Department.

In the progress of events it might be possible that the most effective co-operation would be for you to penetrate Kansas, whether through the Indian nation or Missouri to be determined by the special facts that may arise or the circumstances which may exist, of which, from the remoteness of the position, it would be impossible for this Department to receive information in time to give you specific and definite instructions.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, VA., July 6, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of Confederate States of America:

SIR: If not inconsistent with your views of constitutional powers, and if you have the troops at your command, I respectfully recommend that at least 10,000 well-appointed troops be concentrated on the northern border of Arkansas at the earliest practicable moment, within the military district of Brigadier-General Hardee, and a like number, if possible, within the department of Major-General Polk, and that both of these officers be distinctly authorized to enter the State of Missouri, to drive back and to pursue the enemy now threatening the invasion of Arkansas and a descent on Tennessee, as far into Missouri as they deem prudent and advisable. I would also respectfully ask that more specific instructions be given to General McCulloch, authorizing him to enter the State of Missouri with the same object and for the same purpose. None but the enemies of the Confederate States and of Missouri will protest against this-none others will object; but all whose wishes you would respect invite and will cordially welcome your troops in the State. I make this request because I have reason to know that the instructions to these officers are of so guarded a character as to produce doubt as to their authority and embarrassment as to their movements.

I also respectfully recommend that, if practicable, the troops destined to operate in North Arkansas and Missouri be armed with muskets with bayonets, and that an extra amount of field artillery be sent with them. Any army you may send will be immediately re-enforced to any extent you may desire by Missourians, armed with the ordinary guns and rifles of the country, and volunteers from that State will be on the spot to {p.604} serve all the field pieces your army may have. There will also be at hand as many cavalry as you may want, but not regularly equipped. The Missourians will furnish promptly men and horses enough to drive every man of the enemy’s forces far from Arkansas and back into Illinois. They want arms and organization, especially muskets with bayonets, and field artillery. Under command of the accomplished generals you have sent to Arkansas organization will soon be effected, and the deficiency of small-arms, which you cannot furnish, will be partially, and perhaps effectively, supplied by the private arms of the Missouri volunteers. In this way, I confidently believe, the enemy may be driven out of Missouri, and thus the safety of Arkansas and Tennessee and of the whole valley of the Mississippi be effectually secured; for the troops of Mr. Lincoln will never venture to descend the river with an enemy in their rear so powerful as the State of Missouri in arms against them and threatening Illinois and Iowa. Thus may the military operations be transferred from Arkansas and Tennessee to Missouri, and the battles of those States be fought on Missouri soil, to which the people of Missouri cordially invite you.

The danger of the invasion of Arkansas and the difficulty of driving back the enemy’s forces threatening that State have been greatly increased by the delay, for the most part unavoidable, in sending troops to North Arkansas. Three weeks ago half the number would have accomplished the object, and every day’s delay adds to the difficulties to be overcome. In view of the importance of prompt action, and of the magnitude of the object to be effected, I trust you will pardon me for suggesting that a portion of the troops now organized and ready for the field in North Carolina, or some other of the Confederate States, be dispatched to General Hardee’s command, and that General Polk be instructed to inquire if a portion of his command now in Tennessee could not with advantage to the service be ordered to Northeast Arkansas.

On the approach of any force you may order to the Missouri frontier, the citizens of Missouri will, as I have intimated, flock to your standard. They, as well as the executive of the State, desire that the chief military operations in the State shall be under the direction of your commanding officers when they enter Missouri. I would therefore suggest that provision be made for a much larger force than you may send to Arkansas. There are thousands of Missourians willing and anxious to volunteer in the service of the Confederate States, with the expectation of being employed in repelling the threatened invasion of Arkansas, which they know can best, and indeed alone, be effected by driving back the enemy’s forces now in Missouri and approaching the borders of Arkansas. Please inform me if you will receive volunteers from Missouri in companies or regiments, and how many and on what conditions. Their organization may be effected in Missouri, but if that is deemed unadvisable, they may organize in Arkansas. More troops will certainly be wanted in that quarter, and I suggest that Missouri volunteers be organized and received, whether they can be armed at present or not. We hope that arms may be had soon, and when they come these troops will be on the spot, ready for action. Missouri can supply brave and loyal and men, if organized and armed not only to drive out the invaders of her soil, but enough to furnish 30,000 good soldiers to fight the battles of the Confederate States elsewhere. Colonel Bowen’s regiment at Memphis is by this time full and with but few arms. It seems to me that there can be no more urgent demand for {p.605} arms than to complete the arming of this regiment, which I recommend to be sent to General Hardee.

I have felt authorized to make these suggestions and recommendations in consequence of your invitation to do so at our last personal interview. Your consideration of them, and as early a reply as convenient, will greatly oblige me. I hoped before this to have received an answer to my communication of the 22d of June.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. C. CABELL.

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[PRIVATE.]

RICHMOND, July 6, 1861.

President JEFFERSON DAVIS:

MY DEAR SIR: A few days ago you inclosed to me a note from Governor Reynolds, of Missouri, in which he suggested that I be appointed an aide-de-camp to one of your general officers, who might be required to enter Missouri to repel the threatened invasion of Arkansas. Your indorsement on the letter, asking my “views and wishes” on the subject, I presume contemplated my appointment to such position if I desired it. In reply I stated that I would accept that or any other place which might be assigned me in which I could benefit my State or serve the cause of Southern independence. It is proper now that I should state to you that on reflection I am unwilling to leave Richmond for the present, and that I feel it my duty to remain here till some definite arrangement can be made with your Government as advantageous as may be to the unfortunate citizens and endangered sovereignty of Missouri. The Congress of the Confederate States, which will meet in two weeks, may, and I trust will, authorize you to do what you do not now consider within the scope of your constitutional powers, notwithstanding your great sympathy for the people of Missouri in their unequal struggle for liberty.

I thought I was justified in assuring my friends in Missouri that the result of my mission would be very different from what it has proved to be, and have not the heart to go back to them and witness their sore disappointment at my failure to accomplish what was so confidently expected. When I shall have exhausted every effort to serve the people of Missouri here, whether successful or not, I shall be ready and am resolved to go into any field and to perform any service in which I can best advance the interest of the common cause of our common country.

Believe me, my dear sir, to be, most cordially, your sincere friend and obedient servant,

E. C. CABELL.

P. S.-Let me ask your early attention to an official communication from me to-day.

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RICHMOND, VA., July 8, 1861.

Hon. E. C. CABELL:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge your several letters of June -, 1861,* of July 6, 1861, and another of same date, marked private; also a printed copy of the proclamation of the governor of Missouri, bearing date June 12, 1861, which was inclosed in the first-named communication. {p.606} The last paragraph of the proclamation does not quite accord with the general proposition submitted by you. Accept my thanks for the information furnished by you. Your recommendations, requests, and suggestions have been noted, and your letters referred to the Secretary of War for file and future reference. You have been heretofore advised of the sympathy I feel for the cause of Missouri so graphically and feelingly described. Constant occupation leaves me little time for correspondence; but were it otherwise, you surely would not expect me to reply to your requisitions by stating the force and stores of the Confederate States to show that your large wants could not now be supplied, or by discussing with you questions of the constitutional power of the Executive.

Very respectfully, yours,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Camp Jackson, Ark., July 9, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to state that I returned to this camp to-day. It is 2 miles from Maysville, Ark., and 7 miles from the northern boundary of the State. I started from this position on the 4th instant with Churchill’s regiment of mounted riflemen and 1,200 men of General Pearce’s brigade, under the command of the general. General Price, of Missouri, had reached a position in the northwestern corner of his State with 1,700 men. The general offered to march with me to the aid of the governor of his State, and joined my command as we passed his camp on the first day’s march.

From authentic information I had learned that the governor of Missouri had formed a junction with General Rains and was endeavoring to make his way to General Price’s camp, and also that every effort was being made by the Northern troops to cut him off. A force of 2,400 well-drilled troops were marching north towards Carthage against him; a force of 3,600 were marching south, rapidly gaining upon him. Rumors were also afloat that a force was marching from the northeast, under General Lyon, and still another was marching against him from Kansas. Under these circumstances I knew there was no time to be lost, and if the forces marching against the governor could concentrate upon him, his force of disorganized, undisciplined men would probably be cut to pieces, and Missouri fall entirely under the control of the North. I at once saw Generals Pearce and Price, and concerted a plan of operations.

I had a few days previous issued a proclamation to the people of Western Arkansas calling them to arms, as their State was threatened. The effect of the proclamation had gathered a force of several hundred men at Fayetteville, Ark. I ordered Colonel McRae, of Arkansas, to take command of this force and make a demonstration on Springfield with it. I found out afterwards, through intercepted orders, that the effect of the demonstration was to call back portions of the force which was marching against the governor.

On the 5th instant I found from authentic information that if the governor was to be rescued by my command, it was necessary to move with more celerity than the infantry and artillery could march. I therefore moved on with about 3,000 cavalry, leaving the infantry and {p.607} artillery in camp 28 miles north of this camp. Upon arriving within 12 miles of Neosho I ascertained that the force had already left that place and marched north against the governor, leaving a detachment in Neosho between 100 and 300 men. I immediately sent two columns of cavalry on different roads to capture the detachment-one column of six companies, under Colonel Churchill, and another, under Captain McIntosh, of five companies. The movement was entirely successful, and 137 prisoners fell into my hands, with 150 stand of arms, 1 color, 7 wagons (loaded with subsistence stores), and an ambulance. In the hurry of reporting this affair I made the amount of property and prisoners captured less than it actually was. During the night, having heard that a heavy cannonading had been heard during the day towards the north, and knowing that the governor was fighting his way towards me, I immediately mounted my command, and reached Neosho before morning. After a short rest I started with the entire command, and after a rapid march of 20 miles I formed a junction with the governor, who was at the head of about 7,000 men. He had met about 10 miles north of Carthage the force of Federal troops, 2,000 strong, and had fought them nearly the whole of the preceding day, the Federal troops slowly falling back before him. They had evidently heard of our approach, and as soon as an opportunity occurred they had made a rapid retreat towards Springfield. The Missourians lost about 12 killed and 60 wounded. They think the loss of the enemy was fully equal to theirs.

Having made the movement without authority, and having accomplished my mission, I determined to fall back to this position, and organize a force with a view of future operations.*

The governor has determined to take position about 12 miles from me with his entire force, and effect an entire reorganization of it. He seems confident that if he had the necessary arms he could bring a force at once of 50,000 men into the field. The force that was marching upon the governor’s rear will no doubt move on to Springfield, and I think there will be an urgent necessity in the course of a few days to make an attack upon that place, or we will receive an attack from their concentrated forces. Should I receive no instructions in the mean time, I think that I will, together with Generals Pearce and Price, make an advance upon it as soon as the different forces are sufficiently organized to take the field.

I would here beg leave to call the attention of the Department to the conduct of the men of my command during a rapid march of several days and nights, and some of the time without any other provision than beef and salt; but, notwithstanding everything, they bore themselves like men, and their only regret seemed to be that they could not prove their strength against their Northern foes. I would take this occasion to call the attention of the Department to the conduct of Captain McIntosh since his appointment on my staff. His services in the camp and in the field have been invaluable, and I hope that other officers of military experience may be sent to my command for duty with it.

I would again beg leave to call your attention to the fact that neither arms nor ammunition have been furnished me, and that the Texas regiment will soon be with me. They only received 1,600 single-barreled pistols and a few sabers from the arsenal at San Antonio. I am also {p.608} much crippled for the want of the necessary funds. I hope you will see proper to have my requisitions filled at once.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* See Walker to McCulloch, July 26, and McCulloch to Benjamin, December 22, post.

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BENTONVILLE, ARK., July 15, 1861.

Major-General PRICE, Commanding Missouri Troops:

GENERAL: I find it impossible to occupy any point near the State line, owing to the scarcity of water and supplies; consequently, I will remain in this neighborhood until I learn more of the movements of the enemy. If I could be informed, at short notice, of the advance of the enemy from Neosho towards you, we could reach you in time to support you, in the event of your checking him on Buffalo Creek. A day or two will develop his plans, and I may return to my former camp or one still nigher to you. If there were supplies to be had, I would at once occupy Pineville. As soon as I hear from you and the enemy, I intend making an examination of the road as far as Cassville in person, so as to be able, if necessary, to take a position near that point.

Please keep me well informed of the movements of the enemy, and oblige your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH. Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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[JULY 15, 1861.]

General Polk’s memorandum.

Adjutant-General Little’s estimate on the 15th July: McCulloch had 2,500, in three regiments, without the Texas regiment, which is understood to be, with extra companies, say, 1,500. Besides these there were going to McCulloch three companies;

In all, say4,300
General Pearce, of Arkansas2,500
Price’s returns were (and 4,500 arms, 8 pieces of artillery)7,000
In Bradley’s command1,500
15,300
[Not explained]16,000
Total31,300

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HEADQUARTERS RIPLEY COUNTY BATTALION, Camp Burrows, July 16, 1861.

JOSEPH TUCKER, Esq., Editor of the State Journal, Saint Louis:

DEAR SIR: If there is any way to communicate with the governor through any person in Saint Louis, please let me know it. I am advancing, and General Yell will follow me in a few days with 5,000 men. He will take position between Rolla and Ironton, and act as circumstances {p.609} dictate. General Watkins will move up, sustained by General Pillow, and if proper energy is exercised, we can drive the enemy north of the Missouri and into Saint Louis in 30 days. You will please let me hear from you, verbally or not, through the person through whom this passes; and please send the Daily Journal for a short time to Doniphan, as it will be sent to me by my couriers.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Commanding Ripley County Battalion.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., July 17, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General:

GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to inclose the articles of agreement entered into by the military board of Arkansas and myself, by which the troops, arms, and munitions now in the service of the State of Arkansas are to be transferred to the Confederate States.

I desire to call attention to the provision by which the State of Arkansas agrees to furnish the troops of the State of Arkansas in the service of the Confederate States with clothing equal in amount to that required by the regulations of the Confederate States (the same as that in the U. S. service), and for which the State of Arkansas is to receive from the Confederate States the commutation allowance allowed to soldiers for clothing in the Confederate service.*

I shall leave for Pocahontas today.

Respectfully,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* See Walker to Rector and Hardee to Rector, August 8, pp. 635, 636.

[Inclosure.]

Articles of transfer of Arkansas Volunteers to the Confederate States.

JULY 15, 1861.

The military board of the State of Arkansas, upon the part of and in behalf of the State of Arkansas, and Brig. Gen. W. J. Hardee upon the part of the Government of the Confederate States of America, agree to the following stipulations and terms in regard to the use and control of the forces, arms, munitions, and supplies now in the service of the State of Arkansas:

1. The military board of the State of Arkansas, upon the part of and in behalf of the State of Arkansas, hereby transfers to the Government of the Confederate States of America (their consent having previously been obtained) all the troops now in the service of the State of Arkansas, consisting of the following regiments, battalions, companies, and detachments: The First Regiment of Infantry, commanded by Colonel Cleburne; the Second Regiment of Infantry, commanded by Colonel Gratiot; the Third and Fourth Regiments of Infantry, attached to General Pearce; the Fifth Regiment of Infantry, commanded by Col. David C. Cross; the Sixth Regiment of Infantry, commanded by Colonel Lyon; the Seventh Regiment of Infantry, commanded by Colonel Shaver; the First Regiment of Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Carroll; the First Battalion of Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Borland; the Pulaski Artillery, commanded by Captain Woodruff; the Clarke County {p.610} Artillery, commanded by Captain Roberts; the McCown Artillery, commanded by Captain McCown; Trigg’s Artillery, commanded by Captain Trigg; and a company of artillery attached to Brigadier-General Pearce’s command.

2. The military board of the State of Arkansas, upon the part of and in behalf of the State of Arkansas, hereby transfers the use and control of the arms and munitions of war now in the service of the above-described troops, and such other arms and munitions as may hereafter be deemed necessary to be transferred, to the Government of the Confederate States of America, upon an inventory being taken and a receipt given for the same by Brigadier-General Hardee, or such agent as he may authorize to receipt for the same; the State of Arkansas retaining her property in the arms, with the understanding that they or their equivalent shall be returned at the close of the war.

3. The military board of the State of Arkansas, upon the part of and in behalf of the State of Arkansas, hereby transfers to the Government of the Confederate States of America all the commissary and quartermaster supplies belonging to the above-described troops, and agrees to furnish them with an outfit consisting of horses for artillery, harness for artillery, ammunition wagons, caissons, with camp and garrison equipage, and the transportation necessary for field service.

4. Brigadier-General Hardee, upon the part of and in behalf of the Government of the Confederate States of America, agrees, either by himself or agent, to receipt for the above-described, stores, outfit, supplies, and transportation, and stipulates that said Government of the Confederate States of America shall pay to the State of Arkansas the amount expended, or to be expended, for said supplies, stores, &c.

5. The military board of the State of Arkansas, upon the part of and in behalf of the State of Arkansas, agrees to furnish the necessary clothing prescribed in the Regulations of the Army of the Confederate States to the above-described troops during the period for which they enlisted, and Brigadier-General Hardee, upon the part of and in behalf of the Government of the Confederate States of America, stipulates that said Government of the Confederate States of America shall pay to the State of Arkansas a sum equal to the cost of clothing of a non-commissioned officer or private in the Regular Army of the Confederate States for each soldier so furnished with clothing by the State of Arkansas.

In testimony whereof the parties above named hereunto sign their names and affix their seals.

Done at Little Rock, July 15, 1861.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor and ex officio President Military Board. BENJAMIN C. TOTTEN. SAMUEL W. WILLIAMS. W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

In the presence of-

D. W. DAVIS, Secretary of Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Camp on Sugar Creek, near Bentonville, Ark., July 18, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to report for your information that I am now occupying this position on the Springfield road, about 7 miles from {p.611} Bentonville. My force is now Colonel Hebert’s regiment of Louisiana volunteers; aggregate 868; Colonel Churchill’s regiment of Arkansas mounted riflemen, aggregate 768; Colonel Gratiot’s regiment of State infantry, aggregate 629; one battalion of Arkansas infantry, aggregate 277; two companies of mounted riflemen, aggregate 156; Captain Reid’s State battery of four guns, aggregate 73: making an aggregate of Confederate forces 2,009, and an aggregate of State forces 702. The total aggregate of my command is 2,771.

Since my last communication I have ascertained that General Lyon, who with his force of 3,000 was threatening the rear of the forces of the governor of Missouri, has formed a junction with a Kansas force of 2,000, and has marched to Springfield, and is no doubt there by this time. This re-enforcement will swell the force at Springfield to 9,000 or 10,000. These forces are now busily engaged in fortifying Springfield, and I am of the opinion that all the Federal forces in the southern part of Missouri have concentrated at Springfield, and will be busily engaged for some time in strengthening that place. I am anxious to march against them, and if all of the available force now near me could be depended upon I think we could meet with success, or at least cut them off entirely from their supplies and re-enforcements; but upon consulting with General Price, in command of the Missouri forces, I find that his force of 8,000 or 9;000 men is badly organized, badly armed, and now almost entirely out of ammunition. This force was made by the concentration of different commands under their own generals. The consequence is that there is no concert of action among them, and will not be until a competent military man is put in command of the entire force. Under these circumstances I do not think that there is any disposition on the part of the Missourians to advance until they are better prepared.

General Pearce, commanding the Arkansas State forces of the Western Division, is still at Camp Walker, near Maysville, Ark, with 2,200 men. General McBride, I also learn, is at the head of about 2,000 Missourians to the northeast of my position in Missouri. Were these forces properly armed, and supplied with the necessary ammunition, I think by rapid concentration we could drive the Federal forces out of Springfield, release the secession prisoners now there, and give our friends a chance of rallying around us. At present, however, the condition of the Missouri forces will not warrant me in marching with my small command. I have therefore chosen a strong position here and will probably wait until the Missourians are prepared to act. I am satisfied that I can keep back any force that may be sent in this direction.

In a communication to me you authorized me to receive Colonel Carroll’s regiment, if it was either organized as an infantry or cavalry regiment. This regiment is now in the State forces, under General Pearce, and as there is no disposition to make it an infantry regiment, and knowing how inefficient it will be as cavalry on account of the want of the proper arms, I have directed Captain McIntosh instead of it to muster into service for twelve months one battalion of infantry and one battalion of mounted riflemen. The infantry battalion is already mustered in and two companies of the mounted riflemen are also mustered in. Should other armed infantry companies present themselves I would respectfully request authority to increase the battalion to a regiment.

The regiment of Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians is no doubt now all assembled at Scullyville, about 15 miles from Fort Smith. I will arm them as soon as the arms can be sent, and keep them there as a check {p.612} on the Cherokees. The same disposition will be made of the Creek regiment, should one be organized.

I organized the battalion of mounted riflemen because the companies that will compose it are well acquainted with the country about here, and will be of much use as scouts, &c. I hope my action in regard to these matters will meet with your approval.

The cavalry here is very inefficient, and I have sufficient already, and in fact too much, to supply with forage.

I do not think that any force is now threatening the Indian Territory. I have frequent communication from the northern part through trusty men. Should any movement be made in that direction I will have timely notice of it and will be prepared. Should a force be marched into the Indian Territory, it will be necessary to leave a force on this road. I will take occasion to say that the force in my camp are all armed, either with the flint-lock or percussion musket, and that we have sufficient ammunition for the present.

The men are all healthy and in good spirits. They are a fine body of men, and through constant drilling are becoming very efficient. I place a great deal of reliance upon them.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF UPPER ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, July 22, 1861.

In obedience to orders from the War Department, dated Adjutant-General’s Office, June 25, 1861, the undersigned hereby assumes command of all the troops of the Confederate States service in that portion of Arkansas lying west of the White and Black Rivers and north of the Arkansas River to the Missouri line. The headquarters of the district are established at Pitman’s Ferry.

...

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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MEMPHIS, July 23, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

The governor of Tennessee is still waiting for information he has been soliciting, as I understand him, from the War Department as to certain details before he transfers his army.

In the mean time he consents to allow that army to be directed by me in certain operations I deem now expedient in Missouri. I have therefore directed General Pillow to detach from the force in the western district of Tennessee a column of 6,000 troops of various arms, and to make a movement on Missouri through New Madrid. He will be joined so soon as he lands by 3,000 Missourians, now posted near that place, and, as he goes forward, with other forces that are prepared to come to him. Governor Jackson arrived here yesterday while my preparations were in progress, and I shall find him willing, I think, instead of proceeding to Richmond, as he was intending, to return to Missouri, to aid in raising and concentrating his people. (Since writing the above {p.613} the governor gives his consent to return to Missouri with our troops.) I am advised by General Hardee that he is at Pocahontas, and will soon have a column of 7,000 men ready to co-operate with Pillow’s column. There are about 2,500 Missourians near him, who will join him. Governor Jackson left McCulloch’s camp, on the Arkansas line, on the 12th. McCulloch’s force consisted of 6,000 men-Louisianians and troops from Arkansas. He was expecting every moment a Texas regiment and an additional Arkansas regiment. His force; I learn, is well distributed as to the different description of arms. Near him is General Price, 12 miles distant, with a force of 12,000 Missourians, ready to co-operate with him. This column of 23,000 men I am in communication with. They will advance on the enemy’s position (Springfield), where I learn General Lyon has concentrated the principal part of his force, say 10,000 or 12,000 men. In the mean time I shall, on Saturday next, direct the column of which I have spoken, under General Pillow, to cross the river to New Madrid and take up the line of march into Missouri for Ironton. He will be joined by 3,000 Missourians, now near New Madrid, very fairly armed and equipped, and by the time he is ready to move I shall send him two other regiments (Martin’s and Bowen’s), both of which are nearly ready for the field. With this force of 11,000, having as a part of its appointments three batteries complete, with two extra guns, he will find no difficulty in reaching the point indicated. At that point he will be joined by General Hardee with a column of 7,000, who will move about the same time from Pocahontas. They are directed to pass in behind Lyon’s force by land, or to proceed to Saint Louis, seize it, and, taking possession of the boats at that point, to proceed up the river Missouri, raising the Missourians as they go, and at such point as may appear most suitable to detach a force to cut off Lyon’s return from the West. Any supporting force that may become necessary I will draw from Arkansas, from whence I am promised 10,000 additional troops at an early day. I shall draw three of the regiments to go with Pillow from Union City, and shall order up the three Mississippi regiments, under General Clark, to replace them. General Clark’s headquarters will be transferred to Union City. General Cheatham will accompany General Pillow.

As to the force on this side the river, Governor Harris is increasing it by fresh accessions, and it will in a few days be as strong as it was before we sent forward the five regiments you called for. I find, too, I could strengthen it very materially by drawing men from Kentucky and organizing them on the border, and I may add that every man we draw out of Kentucky relieves us from drawing by so much on Tennessee and the States south of us. I submit to the Department, therefore, whether facilities-extra facilities-should not be placed at our disposal for drawing a force from Kentucky.

As to Bird’s Point and Cairo, I know the exact force there to be about 5,000 men, divided between the two places. I have also information that they are short of men in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, who could be spared now to give support to Cairo. Besides that, they are without arms. I have no apprehension, therefore, of any strong support being sent to that point while I am operating in Missouri, or that they could send in any force strong enough in my rear to be formidable. Added to that, my forces at Union City and Randolph will hold them in check. If as I think, I can drive the enemy from Missouri with the force indicated, I will then enter Illinois and take Cairo in the rear on my return. With the prestige of your great success at Manassas the {p.614} spirits of our troops are high, and we trust we may count on favorable results.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Division.

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OLD CHOCTAW AGENCY, July 25, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America, Richmond:

SIR: The organization of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment of Mounted Rifles will be completed this week, but as yet no arms have been furnished at Fort Smith for them. I hope speedy and effectual measures will be taken to arm the people of this (Indian) Territory-the Creeks, Seminoles, Cherokees. These will be all right now. The Choctaws and Chickasaws can furnish 10,000 warriors if needed. The Choctaws and Chickasaws are extremely anxious to form another regiment.

There seems to be a disposition to keep the Indians at home. This seems to me bad policy. They are unfit for garrison duty, and would be a terror to the Yankees.

I hope you will excuse the freedom with which I write, but the Fort Smith clique, who oppose me in everything, right or wrong, seem to have obtained a controlling influence on matters at headquarters.

Captain Pike has intimated that the holding of the agency for the Choctaws and Chickasaws and that of colonel of their regiment are “incompatible.” It has been the effort of the set with whom he is identified for years to break me down, and especially to get control of the Choctaw and Chickasaw agency. Pike himself has not entered into this scheme heretofore, but his hint shows that an excuse is only wanted to do so. Now, the Confederate States having adopted the old intercourse law, there is no difficulty in the way. The President, as you know, can assign to any military officer the duties of Indian agent. My own opinion, formed long since, is that military officers should in all cases perform the duties of Indian agents. I have taken the oath of allegiance and the pledge to accept the Indian agency as required by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Mr. Hubbard.

Colonel Greer’s regiment from Texas will arrive near my camp, 10 miles west of this, to-night. I learn it, too, is poorly armed. The Indians have few or no guns. I could not arm over three companies from all the guns in the regiment.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

DOUGLAS H. COOPER.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, July 25, 1861.

His Excellency H. M. RECTOR, President Military Board:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I have established my headquarters at this place, which is on the Current River and within 400 yards of the Missouri line. It is a healthy location, and beef and flour can be had sufficient for the wants of the troops.

{p.615}

The men are being turned over to the Confederate States. The process so far has been slow.

The troops are much in want of clothing of every description, shoes, shirts, socks, pantaloons, and coats and hats. I hope that this matter may be attended to promptly by the military board.

I inclose a requisition for camp and garrison equipage and for such other supplies as are absolutely required.

I shall make a requisition on Memphis for 50 additional wagons and harness complete. This was my understanding with the board, and I wish to fulfill fully my part of the agreement.

It will require energy and dispatch to place this command in condition to take the field.

I shall keep you advised of all my movements, and I hope you will lose no time in supplying my wants.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-I hope you will forward the ammunition, harness, &c., if you have not already done so, without delay.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, July 25, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding, Memphis:

GENERAL: Herewith I have the honor to inclose requisitions for quartermaster and subsistence stores for the use of my command, which I hope you will order to be shipped to me without delay.

I have established my headquarters at this place, which is on Current River, and within 400 yards of the Missouri line. It is a healthy location, and convenient to get supplies of beef and flour, of which there is sufficient for my command.

A report reached me to-day from General Watkins, of the Missouri forces, who is near Bloomfield, that the enemy is marching on line from Ironton with 1,050, and from a captured dispatch he learns that similar expeditions are on their way from Cape Girardeau and Saxton. I have dispatched a messenger to ascertain the truth of these reports; if reliable, I shall sustain General Watkins with a strong detachment from this place.

Very respectfully,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Headquarters, Camp Jackson, Ark.:

SIR: Your letter of the 9th instant has been received. The brilliant operations therein communicated could not receive too high praise, and this Department approves your conduct in every particular. Your future operations will be looked for with great interest, and in every emergency this Department confides fully in your ability, courage, and skill. Your requisitions upon this Department have all received attention, {p.616} and all except those for arms and ammunition have been filled. With regard to these, orders have been issued in the most urgent manner to the Bureau of Ordnance to furnish you with a full supply of ammunition at the earliest possible day, and of arms purchases are being made by every means within the reach of this Government. You shall be supplied, therefore, at the earliest possible moment.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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LITTLE ROCK, July 26, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

The extreme necessity of the forces under command of Maj. Gen. Sterling Price, of Missouri, now in the southwest corner of that State, has induced the military board of the State of Arkansas, as a means of temporary relief, to advise to credit of the State $10,000. Supposing that the Confederate States are making common cause with your Southern friends in Missouri, we ask that the Confederate authority approve and assume the payment of the loan we have made.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor, and President Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS, Pocahontas, Ark, July 27, 1861.

Maj. Gen. STERLING PRICE, Commanding, &c., Cowskin Prairie:

GENERAL: I received your communication of the 19th instant, inviting my co-operation in a combined attack of the forces under McCulloch, Pearce, and yourself on the Federal forces at Springfield, Mo. I regret to say that it is impossible for me at this time to move my command. The forces in Arkansas are now being transferred to the Confederate States. Only about 800 men have been so transferred, and I have actually under my command less than 2,300 men. When all the forces in this part of the State are transferred, I shall have less than 5,000 men, badly organized, badly equipped, and wanting in discipline and instruction. One of my batteries has no harness and no horses, and not one of the regiments has transportation enough for active field service. I have not been in command a week. I am doing all in my power to remedy these deficiencies, but it takes time to get harness and transportation. I do not wish to march to your assistance with less than 5,000 men, well appointed, and a full complement of artillery. With every desire to aid and co-operate with the forces in the West, I am compelled at this time to forego that gratification. I hope at no distant day to be able to lend you efficient aid in overthrowing the Federal domination in Missouri.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-Colonel Mitchell is fully possessed of my views, and will be able to give you such details as you may need.

{p.617}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Memphis, Tenn., July 28, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

I had the honor of addressing you a few days ago, informing you of a movement I was contemplating on Missouri. I submitted a statement of what I understood to be the force which had been collected by Generals McCulloch and Pearce of Arkansas, General Price, of Missouri, and General Hardee. The information submitted was based, as far as the commands of the first three generals are concerned, on information I obtained from Governor Jackson, of Missouri, who came directly from their respective camps. The force under General Hardee I obtained from a letter from himself. Upon the supposition that this information was correct it was that my letter containing the plan of campaign I submitted was written. Since dispatching that letter I have directed General Pillow to move a column of 6,000 across the river to New Madrid. The details of the movement have been left to him, and the forces employed were exclusively those hitherto belonging to his command. Part were taken from Randolph and part from Union City. General Cheatham accompanied him, and I have ordered General Clark to move up from Corinth to Union City the two Mississippi regiments at that place to replace those withdrawn, and himself to replace General Cheatham in the command of that post. I have not as yet heard from General Pillow the result of the movement beyond Randolph. The boats with troops from that point left there last night.

Since yesterday I have had to arrive at headquarters the gentleman who is the bearer of this, Colonel Little, adjutant-general of the forces of Missouri. He comes directly from General Price’s camp. From him I learn that the force stated to be under the command of the respective generals above, as stated by Governor Jackson, is greatly exaggerated, to the extent, indeed, of one-half As a military man he would of course be likely to be more accurate than the governor, and his position of adjutant would compel him to know the extent of his own immediate force. The governor, I do not doubt, was deceived and withal not perhaps very critical as to details.

This abatement of the force disposable for the invasion of Missouri has caused me to pause in the execution of the plan indicated. I shall proceed to fortify my position at New Madrid, with the view of making it a base of operations, and will move forward as soon as circumstances will allow.

My opinion is, nevertheless, that now is the time to operate in Missouri, if we are to do anything towards setting her on her feet again; and I am also satisfied that the enemy in Virginia will be content for some months to come with their experiences at Manassas, and that they will make no forward movement there very soon. That will set them free to act in the West, and they will most probably commence active operations in Missouri. In that event we must have additional troops, and I submit whether I be not authorized to collect a force in Tennessee and from the States below sufficient to enable us to act vigorously in Missouri, while we maintain a strong position in front of Kentucky, ready for any contingency that may arise in that quarter. I shall find no difficulty in getting the force I need around me it I had the requisite authority.* The way to effect it is simply to say to picked men that if they will raise regiments they shall be mustered into the Confederate service. I am taking measures to collect arms dispersed through the {p.618} Southern States, and have been surprised to find how large a number there are that are available.

I am in want of a special judge-advocate for my department, and ask for the detail of Lieut, B. L. Hodge, of Dreux’s Louisiana battalion. I desire also to have Lieut. George Williamson, of the same battalion, relieved and sent to me for duty. I wish him to act as one of my aides. I want him as legal counselor. I have asked also for Dr. Anderson as medical director of my department. He has been appointed surgeon, and directed to report to General Anderson. I should like still to have him, and think he can be of more service in this Mississippi bottom region, with the diseases of which he is especially familiar, than in the mountains of East Tennessee. I submit the names of Dr. B. W. Avent and Dr. John D. Winston, who are the other members of the Tennessee military board, either of whom would no doubt be acceptable to General Anderson.

I desire to add that it is agreed by our medical staff that the offices of medical director and medical purveyor for such a department as this cannot be performed by the same person; and if they could they ought not to be, as the one has to pass upon the accounts of the other. I recommend Dr. Potts, now in commission, for medical purveyor, and Dr. Anderson for medical director of this department.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Department.

P. S.-For particulars as to Missouri I refer you to the bearer of this, Colonel Little.

* Answered August 8. See Chap. XII, Series I, Vol. IV.

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HEADQUARTERS, Pocahontas, July 28, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: The Fifth Regiment of Arkansas Volunteers commanded by Colonel Cross, has been removed from the Saint Francis to this place. Chalk Bluff has been considered a point of importance. A force has been stationed there to guard Crowly’s Bridge, by which an advance might be made into Arkansas. If New Madrid is occupied, there will be, in my opinion, no necessity of occupying Chalk Bluff; and, indeed, with the force I have at Pitman’s Ferry, I do not believe an invasion can be anticipated in that direction. If it should be attempted, I shall be in position to attack their rear.

I have had a courier from General Price, commanding the Missouri forces, also one from General McCulloch, advising me of their intention to move on Springfield, Mo., and asking my active co-operation. I was compelled to decline. The forces here are just in a transition state; only a portion has been transferred, and to-day I have less than 2,300 men under my command. When all are transferred I shall have only about 5,000, and these are badly equipped, and without discipline, without instruction, and without transportation. General McCulloch stated that he contemplated moving on Springfield about the 30th instant, where it is supposed General Lyon has a force of 12,000 men.

I have sent you a requisition for supplies; among other articles mentioned arc wagons and harness. Since writing I have directed Captain Crump, one of the officers of my command, who is now at Vicksburg, to buy fifty wagons, with harness and mules, complete, and to call on you {p.619} through your quartermaster for funds to make the payment. I learn that transportation, including what is mentioned above, may be had at Vicksburg, Natchez, and New Orleans. I shall send this communication, with others, by express to Memphis, and in a few days I shall make my arrangements for communicating with you by express twice a week, and oftener if necessary.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, July 28, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

SIR: We are in possession of this place. We made a most successful movement and advance. Not an accident or incident of any character interfered with our advance.

The whole force is full of enthusiasm and eager for the “Dutch hunt.” It required eight large steamers to move my force and its baggage. The movement of the fleet was a beautiful sight. The whole population of New Madrid and the country around met me with a thousand cheers.

I have much to do to get matters in order to-night, and make you this hurried dispatch simply to announce the result.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Pocahontas, July 29, 1861.

Major General POLK, Commanding, &c., Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I received last night your dispatch of the 26th. In a communication sent to you by express yesterday, I informed you of the actual condition of my command, that the Arkansas forces had not been entirely turned over to me, and when turned over my entire force would number less than 5,000 men, badly equipped, and without the means of moving.

Since yesterday I have received information, which is thought reliable, that the enemy is moving in two columns from Ironton and Cape Girardeau upon Greenville. I shall at once send out a strong detachment to support General Jeff. Thompson, who says he will fight. My opinion is that General Pillow ought not to move upon Ironton until I am in readiness to support him. It has been my intention from the beginning to attack the force at Ironton, and my plan is to throw a considerable body of cavalry on the railroad between Ironton and Saint Louis, with orders to break up the road and burn the bridges, to prevent any re-enforcements being sent to Ironton, and at the same time to prevent the escape of the force from that place. I am still of opinion that this ought to be the mode in which the attack should be made, and that General Pillow and myself ought to move simultaneously from New Madrid and Pitman’s Ferry, the distance to Ironton being about the same from either point.

I am organizing my force with the greatest energy. Two regiments now here are ordered above to-day, and I shall strain every nerve to {p.620} move in a week with 3,000 men, and as many more as practicable. I agree with you that now is the proper time to move into Missouri.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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FORT SMITH, ARK. (via Little Rock), July 30, 1861.

Hon, L. P. WALKER:

Colonel Cooper, with his Choctaw and Chickasaw regiments, are encamped near the old Choctaw Agency. No arms here for them; discontent prevailing among the Indians in consequence; am requested to telegraph the fact to you, and ask for arms. The “Texas” has not arrived here yet.

GEO. W. CLARK, Assistant Quartermaster-General.

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MEMPHIS, July 30, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

My column has made the landing at New Madrid [Mo.] safely. They will fortify it. Frémont is at Cairo.

...

L. POLK.

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POCAHONTAS, ARK., July 30, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding, Memphis, Tenn.:

MY DEAR GENERAL: It is a matter of the last importance that my command should be furnished without delay with transportation. With this view I have dispatched Colonel Cross to Memphis to consult with you, and procure the fifty teams complete which I had the honor to make a requisition for a few days ago.

I informed you that I had directed Captain Crump to procure the teams in Vicksburg, and when so procured to arrange with you about the payment. If not procurable in Vicksburg, do put Colonel Cross in the way of obtaining them elsewhere. I am more anxious than I can express to unite with General Pillow in the movement on Ironton, but to do so effectively, I must have more transportation, otherwise I shall be able to move only a part of my command.

With best wishes, truly yours,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

Captain Crump is at Vicksburg, and if you have not heard from him, do telegraph him on the subject. I am told mules are procurable in Natchez and New Orleans, also wagons and harness.

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NEW MADRID, MO., July 30, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

Nothing of interest has occurred since my last dispatch. The advance of the Union [City] force has arrived safely. There are yet two regiments to come forward, which will not leave Union City till Thursday, for want of transportation for subsistence. The distance from {p.621} Union City to the river is 42 miles. I am using every effort to draw together from the surrounding country all the transportation I can. Don’t know yet how much I can get. The positions in the interior occupied by the enemy are all abandoned, and he is concentrating his forces at Cape Girardeau. Troops from Illinois and Saint Louis are being gathered in at that point, and we have reports that Frémont is there. The forces at Cairo are said to be crossing at Bird’s Point, and they are working night and day fortifying that place.

I understand that General Hardee will soon commence a forward movement, and that he will probably advance on the military road leading to Jackson, on the road from Cape Girardeau to Ironton. Until I hear from him, however, I cannot know his purpose. Brigadier-General Thompson, who now is in command of Watkins’ force, is at Bloomfield. He has about 2,000 men, badly armed.

I will need more force before I can advance upon Cape Girardeau, unless Hardee unites with me. The enemy will have from 5,000 to 10,000 men there; a force too strong, combined with the Bird’s Point forces, for me to attack alone. If Hardee would advance on the route, at some point between this and Cape Girardeau we would dislodge the enemy. The forces at Bird’s Point and Cape Girardeau will be united when my movements indicate my route. That force is too large to leave in my rear. The route across the country to Ironton does not furnish subsistence. It is important that Martin’s regiment should be sent forward to occupy Fort [Pillow?], and let Neely’s regiment, now in efficient condition, come to my support. This would give Martin an opportunity to drill his troops, and qualify them for the field.

If another new regiment could take the place of Walker’s, at Randolph, and let that regiment come forward, I could then advance and sweep the enemy from my way. I will keep you advised of everything that will interest you. My work of constructing the battery is going on.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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LITTLE ROCK, July 30, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

In reply to your dispatch of yesterday we have to say, that at the time of the first transfer of volunteers to Brigadier-General Hardee, the additional ten regiments were spoken of as a valuable body of reserve as connected with the forces then turned over to him. Our agreement with Colonel Johnson is consistent with this idea, and we decline to change it; we appreciate the fact, however, that the generals in command make such disposition of forces as will best subserve the public good, and expect they will do so.

H. M. RECTOR, President Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, Bloomfield, Mo., July 30, 1861-8 a. m.

Maj. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Commanding the Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Yours of the 29th instant is at hand. I would immediately start to see you, but think it better I should wait for the return {p.622} of my courier of yesterday. I have information, supposed to be reliable, that the enemy have called in all their outposts, and, if so, the strike at Hamburg would amount to nothing. If however, you have sent me any guns, we will go and occupy their fort, and make a depot for supplies there. As soon as Captain Byrne returns, I will issue the proper orders for the conduct of this brigade and start for your headquarters.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Bloomfield, Mo., July 30, 1861-9 p. m.

Maj. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: I find it to be impossible for me to go to your camp tonight, as I promised this morning. A courier reports 400 Dutch at Greenville, and as they may be laying a trap for my Ripley County battalion, I must move to their support. The different departments in my division are yet in an embryo state, and my orders may all miscarry, unless I am about, to correct mistakes. I will go to you the moment I think I can leave my men in order, and, in the mean time, you can lay out the plan of the campaign with the lights and talents you have around you, and you will find me ever ready to submit to your superior age, experience, and judgment. I am working for the cause, and am willing to work in any kind of harness, and in any part of the team, so you do not tie me behind the wagon. I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you very shortly, and in the mean time consider me subject to your orders in everything.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-Not having heard from you to-night, I will defer my march on Hamburg.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Camp near Cassville, Mo., July 30, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I am now at this place with my command on my way to Springfield. Since my communication of the 18th I have been busily engaged in preparing my force for a forward march, and have also been urging on the commanders of the different forces near me to be ready to co-operate with me.

By furnishing the Missouri force with all the ammunition I could spare, and also what could be spared from General Pearce’s command, I have given them sufficient to warrant them in again taking the field. General Price, with his force of between 9,000 and 10,000 men, is encamped around Cassville. His effective force will hardly reach 7,000, and they are nearly all armed with shot-guns and common rifles. General Pearce of Arkansas, is within 10 miles of Cassville with his command of 2,500 men. His infantry is well armed. My brigade is also near me, amounting to about 3,200, nearly all well armed. I shall {p.623} move towards Springfield as rapidly as possible with the entire force, and hope soon to put the Missourians again in possession of it.

I communicated my plans to General Hardee at Pocahontas, Ark., and suggested the propriety of his making a demonstration at the same time on Rolla, in Missouri, the terminus of the Southwestern Railroad. I have been compelled to furnish other commands with so much of my ammunition that my supply is now very limited, and if the enemy are re-enforced it may be necessary to have a large supply here to carry on the war. In any event it is necessary to have a supply sent to Fort Smith for the use of my command, and I hope you will see the necessity of at once sending me a large amount of flint-lock musket cartridges, percussion musket cartridges for percussion and minie muskets, and caps, and such cannon ammunition for field pieces as can be spared.

We are very much in need of caps, both for the musket and the ordinary rifle. I am in hopes that you have sent me the cavalry arms that I have applied for in former communications. Major Clark has notified me that the ammunition lately sent for the use of the brigade (seventy boxes of musket cartridges and a quantity of accouterments) were lost with the steamboat William Henry, on the Arkansas River.

I write in haste, as I move early to-morrow morning. I herewith inclose my general order of march, which has been left to me, and which the generals commanding other forces have agreed to observe.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Camp near Cassville, Ark., July 30, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to state that I have just received authentic information that the Texas regiment has reached Fort Smith with no other arms than a few shot-guns. The authorities in Texas refused to furnish them arms on my requisition.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, VA., July 31, 1861.

GEORGE W. CLARK, Quarter master, Fort Smith, Ark. (via Little Rock):

Arms have been sent to Fort Smith for the Indian regiments. Supposed they had arrived.

L. P. WALKER.

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SEMINOLE AGENCY, July 31, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: When I recommended the appointment of William H. Garrett, the present agent for the Creeks, to be colonel of the Creek regiment, I had not sufficiently estimated the ambition and desire for distinction of the leading men of that nation, and I also supposed that Mr. Garrett, popular with them as an agent, would be acceptable as colonel of their {p.624} regiment; but when I concluded with them the very important treaty of July 10, instant, they strenuously insisted that the colonel of the regiment to be raised should be elected by the men. As the public interest did not require I should insist on a contrary provision, by which I might have jeoparded the treaty, I yielded, and the consequence is that by the treaty, as signed and ratified by the Creek council, the field officers are all to be elected by the men of the regiment.

This being the case, I have this day written Colonel Garrett, requesting him to inform the Creeks immediately, as I have already done, that notwithstanding his appointment they will elect their colonel. If he should not do so he will cause munch mischief, and would deserve severe censure; but I do not doubt he will promptly do it.

I embrace this opportunity to inform you that the organization of eight companies of the Creek regiment has been reported to me, of three of which complete rolls have been furnished, and that I have accepted these three, to be mustered into service by General McCulloch. Have certified rolls in duplicate, and forwarded one copy to the general.

I have written fully to the Secretary of State in regard to the necessity of at once receiving this regiment and a battalion offered by the Seminoles, and he will no doubt confer with you on the subject. Colonel Cooper informs me that the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment is raised and ready to receive its arms. The Creeks would readily raise and offer another battalion; and in the condition of the Cherokee country, and as an invasion of this region from Kansas is threatened, I think it would be well to accept it. Two thousand Creeks and Seminoles against Lane’s and Montgomery’s marauders will be a force not to be despised.

I take an escort of 56 Creeks and Seminoles, organized as a company, as my escort to the Wichita country, where I am going to treat with the wild Comanches of the prairie; and I consider it no small matter, in the present sate of affairs on our border, that we have so dealt, by fairness and frankness, with these brave and honest Indians, so lately at war with us, and whose old homes we possess, that they are now with us almost to a man, as zealous as we are for the rights of the South.

I have the honor to be, very truly, your obedient servant,

ALBERT PIKE, Com’r of Confederate States to the Indians West of Arkansas.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Major-General PILLOW, Bloomfield, Mo., August 1, 1861.

Commanding the Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: As soon as my monthly reports are received, and I issue my orders upon them, I hope to be able to leave my command for a few hours and be with you. Capt. Billy West (whom you know) has just arrived from General Hardee’s command, and informs me that Hardee marched yesterday for Greenville, and will reach that point to-morrow night. I will probably send my command to Buchanan or Lakeville to-morrow, and hope it will suit your pleasure to send a regiment to Benton or Hamburg. We hear that Frémont is expected at Cape Girardeau. Of course he will bring a large command, and our field will be too far from Saint Louis. I would, if I could, advance and lessen the circle around Saint Louis, for that is the “heart of the battle.”

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.625}

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, CHOCTAW NATION, Scullyville, August 1, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the regiment of mounted rifles authorized for the service of the Confederate States from among the Choctaws and Chickasaws has been raised, and is now fully organized according to law. When supplied with arms, I can justly state no more ardent, efficient, and patriotic body of warriors will be found under the banner of Southern independence.

It is an unkind and certainly an incorrect statement, made by some Southern journals, that the Indian warriors design using the scalping-knife in any conflict in which they may be engaged with the enemy. These warriors are a civilized people, are Christians in principle, observe the Army Regulations, and drill with commendable closeness, and will show, when proper occasion offers, they are worthy the age, the cause, and the brotherhood they share with their white allies.

There are two Choctaw and one Chickasaw companies organized, besides the number authorized, that are very anxious to enter the service. I learn there will shortly be organized one Choctaw and one Chickasaw company more, expecting to be called into the field.

Five additional companies can be raised in the two nations. It is presumed that the failure of the Cherokees to furnish the regiment asked of them will insure the Choctaws and Chickasaws a chance to supply that deficiency to the extent of a battalion of three or five companies, if not an entire regiment. Such an order from the War Department would be eminently just to our Chickasaw brethren, because, for good reasons, they have been enabled to furnish only about twenty men to the first regiment. I believe the men who would answer another call would enter the service until the close of the war, and, if necessary, could be armed at home with shotguns and old-pattern rifles to the number of five hundred. More than half that number have Colt’s six shooters. This portion of our people, being what are termed half-breeds, most all speak the English language, and have better horses and more arms than the full-bloods, who comprise most of those already in the service. I would urge upon your excellency a further call for warriors among the people of the two nations. It would allay a disappointment and rivalry toward the Choctaws, now apparent among the Chickasaws, to allow them to furnish two or three companies to the service, and strengthen the many relations destiny has affixed to the contiguity of soil and the similarity of interests of the Southerners and the Indians of the South.

In view of an anticipated call for warriors, it affords me great pleasure to testify to your excellency the propriety of giving the command of them to Josephus Dotson, esq., of Fort Smith, Ark. His high standing among the leaders of both the Choctaw and Chickasaw people, and his services for seven years as a legal adviser, political sympathizer, and steadfast friend, is filly attested by the recommendations from the Principal national authorities of both nations, asking his appointment to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the regiment now in the service, which are now on file in the War Office at Richmond.

I ask the appointment of Mr. Dotson, knowing the brave men among us so eager for the field would rally around him with increased enthusiasm, and believing he would lead them at any hour with credit to the Confederacy. I learn Mr. Dotson designs aiding in the organization {p.626} of all the men capable of bearing arms in anticipation of a further demand.

I have the honor to be, your excellency’s obedient servant,

TANDY WALKER, Adjutant-General Army Choctaw Nation.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY LIBERATION, New Madrid, Mo., August 1, 1861.

Major-General POLK, C. S. Army:

The enemy are exceedingly active in pushing his works at Bird’s Point. The ninety-days troops all went home from Cairo. They are supplying their place by large additions of troops (I suppose new levies). They are cutting down all the timber around Bird’s Point and pushing their defenses. A large force is concentrating at Cape Girardeau. My information induces the belief that they look for the attack at the Cape, and that is the point, and only one, which I can well advance upon. I have no news from Hardee; my messenger has not returned. It is, as you know, essential that I shall have a stronger force in hand before I advance into the interior. I must have the support of Hardee’s force. There are few now left in this part of the State except the old men; they have gone down to join Bowen’s regiment.

I have a prospect of drawing four companies from Kentucky. I before advised you that Thompson’s brigade (Walker’s) was about 2,000 strong and badly armed. I am pushing up the defenses at this place, having some 160 negroes at work on the work. I will be able, I think, to get 100 wagons and teams, but no wagon covers; they should be made with the bows at Memphis and sent forward as early as possible. Cheatham is on the way, having left Union City this morning. I am drilling the troops closely and fitting the command to march as early as possible.

I beg you to press Hardee to move and join me here. If he should not join me at this place, crossing the swamp on the plank road below here, we cannot unite our forces until I shall have passed Cape Girardeau, a point my force will not be able to move upon without additional force. The swamp is impassable all the way to Jackson, except on the plank road.

If Hardee should not join me, we cannot unite our forces before we reach Jackson. You will therefore see the necessity of giving me the support of Hardee’s forces or supports from below. I have a good deal of sickness among the troops, some measles and diarrhea, and some fever, but not a great deal.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 2, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

I am in receipt of dispatches from General Hardee. He states that he was in receipt of telegraphic dispatches from General McCulloch. Hardee was about to advance with 3,000 men (leaving balance of his force, which he states less than 5,000, for want of transportation). He {p.627} marches directly upon Greenville, which you will see by the map is on the direct road to Ironton, and that he leaves me to clear away the forces accumulating on the river, intending to engage my force if I do not dodge them by going out through the mountain, and then these forces may be thrown upon our rear. I must engage the force at Cape Girardeau. I cannot leave it in rear, and were I to do so, if it did not fall upon my rear it would certainly throw itself against my base here. I therefore consider it a necessity to engage that force. In doing so, I will have to fight the forces now at Bird’s Point, for it will certainly be thrown up to the Cape when my movements indicate my route. As I cannot have the co-operation of Hardee’s force, I wish you to send me two or three more regiments as promptly as practicable. There is no use in the forces remaining at Randolph and Fort Pillow, while I am in possession of the river above and occupy his entire forces above. He has no preparation for a river movement; his gunboats cannot get out of the Ohio; he has no fleet of steamboats adequate for the purpose, and he can take no step towards such a movement for want of troops. The force at these points ought to be advanced to my support at once, leaving the artillery companies to take care of the guns. You might, without any sort of risk, send one of the Union City regiments to occupy the position at Fort Pillow or Randolph, if you thought proper. It is certain my five regiments (weakened by sickness to an average of about 700) and battalion of infantry, 395 strong, and my cavalry, is too small a force to advance upon such duty, especially when I leave a sufficient force here to garrison the posts. I do not place much confidence, as you will perceive, on Thompson’s force-less since I know its character and manner in which it is armed than I did before. If you will send me Walker’s and Neely’s regiments I will move in three days after their arrival, and I will cut my way through to Ironton, and there form a union with Hardee.

I address this dispatch for the express purpose of getting you to advance these two regiments. They are more efficient than any other regiment remaining below. If we can push the movement forward rapidly now, we can do the work of expelling the enemy promptly and return. The swamp makes it impossible to form a union with Hardee, as he has taken the Greenville route. If you will authorize me to act upon my own judgment I will at once order up these two regiments, and occupy the works below with a battalion in each of Martin’s or a Union City regiment. Give me the force as early as possible. I have the Cheeny in possession; she was captured and brought down last night by four gentlemen from Mobile.

Hardee says in his dispatch that McCulloch was about to advance on Springfield. I have sent back nearly all my transports. The new Falls City, the Winson, the Simons, and others, are below.

Please advise me as early as possible what you determine upon.

Your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY LIBERATION August 2, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

I wrote you this morning. I now write you for the purpose of saying that it is impossible to organize a company of artillery here capable of {p.628} manning the guns of the battery, and to request you to send Capt. A. Jackson’s company to Fort Pillow to relieve Captain Hamilton’s company and to order Captain Hamilton’s company here.

Let him come forward as early as possible. If the regiments of Neely and Walker are ordered up and my transportation from Memphis is pushed up, I will throw forward my advance brigade on Wednesday next to Sikeston and follow the movements next day. Give me the additional force and I will make a stout and vigorous campaign. I sent up a force last night to destroy the railroad communication from Bird’s Point to the interior, to protect the interior from the enemy’s predatorial parties and confine him [to] the river strip.

Please push up my quartermaster’s operations; I will need from Memphis 250 wagons, &c.

With great respect,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Bloomfield, Mo., August 3, 1861.

Brigadier-General HARDEE, Commanding Confederate Forces:

SIR: Your letter of yesterday, to General Thompson, was received to-day at 12 noon.* General Thompson left yesterday morning for New Madrid, and will not probably return until noon to-morrow. Having been left temporarily in command of the forces here, and knowing the character of the business which called him to New Madrid, it would not be prudent, under the circumstances, for me to move these forces, as requested in your letter. I believe that General Thompson will take pleasure in co-operating with you, and that he will avail himself of your invitation for a personal conference at an early day.

I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. TIPPEN.

* Not found.

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NEW MADRID, MO., August 3, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

The bearer of this, Mr. Townsend, is just from our friends in Saint Louis. He will explain to you fully his mission and will give you information which it is proper you should have in regard to the strength and purposes of the enemy. I will be prepared to throw forward my advance column on Wednesday and to follow up the movement with the entire force at my disposal as rapidly as it can be advanced. My march to Cape Girardeau will be through the river bottom all the way, and there is very serious trouble about getting water for my men and animals. I cannot move with safety to my force and in strength enough to do the work before me without the additional force asked for. It is probable that I will before reaching Cape Girardeau cut the enemy’s line of water communication between the cape and Cairo by seizing Commerce and planting a battery there, and holding that place until I can cut up the force at the Cape. This I will do if I find the enemy have not concentrated before I reach Benton, provided I have force enough to detach a regiment and battery.

The views I expressed, and the necessity which prompted my last dispatch, are greatly strengthened by the information Mr. Townsend brings. He left Saint Louis the day before yesterday morning. My {p.629} force ordered to destroy the railroad above have returned, and report that they destroyed one-quarter of a mile, and did it well, by burning up everything. I have made arrangements with Mr. Townsend to return to Saint Louis and with his secret society to destroy large portions of the Iron Mountain Road. This is essential to be done, and, to be done as quickly as possible, as a means of crippling the enemy in the future movements looking to a concentration of forces to meet us. I wish you to advise me as early as possible if you will order up the regiments asked for with Hamilton’s company to work this battery.

Your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Greenville, Mo., August 4, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: Learning that the enemy, numbering from 800 to 1,500 men, had left Ironton for this place, I immediately advanced with 1,000 infantry, 259 cavalry, and a battery of artillery to meet him. Hearing of our approach, he packed up and retired towards Ironton.

I have sent a party of Missourians to burn the bridges and tear up the railroad between Ironton and Saint Louis. If accomplished, I shall not hesitate to advance upon Ironton. The enemy does not number more than 3,000, and although I have but 1,250, I can have, if I need them, the active co-operation of 1,000 to 1,500 Missourians. The great point is to cut them off from re-enforcements or from communication with Saint Louis. In any event I shall not send this command back to Pitman’s Ferry. I am anxious to unite with General Pillow in any movement that will free Missouri. He ought to have 10,000 men in his column; 6,000 at least. I shall not be able to advance with more than 4,000. With 10,000 or 14,000 men we ought to move to the attack of any force in Missouri. I would recommend you to look out against an advance into Tennessee. It would strengthen the Federals to make a successful move anywhere at this time, particularly to take a place of such strategic and commercial importance as Memphis. I judge that a brave movement into Missouri would do much to prevent an offensive movement of the enemy into Tennessee. I should be pleased to have your views at all times.

Be pleased to see that my requisition for 90 days’ provisions for 7,000 men are filled; if not sent, my men will be in a starving condition; also that all my requisitions for quartermaster and medical stores are sent without delay.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

I have just received a dispatch from General Jeff. Thompson’s camp, informing me that the general is absent at New Madrid, and the officer second in command declines to move without the orders of the general. It was from this force that I expected assistance.

I desire you will send me without delay 400 flour sacks and 50 wagon covers. My quartermaster is not with me, or I would have him make out a regular requisition.

{p.630}

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, Mo., August 5, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

Your dispatch of the 30th ultimo is acknowledged. From its contents I infer that you are of the opinion that any movement into the interior should be suspended. If such is your opinion, it occurs to me that it should never have been made. I have never been in favor of occupying this place, except as a base of operations for movements into the interior, looking to substantial relief to Missouri.

As a strategical point, this is not a strong position. If the enemy contemplate an early movement down the river, our position here is not favorable for arresting it. It would have been better, in this view of the case, to have occupied the positions indicated before at Randolph and Fort Pillow, and not have extended our line of posts so far forward. As we extend our line of posts forward we necessarily weaken our means of protecting them. I would never have consented to occupy and garrison this place. Indeed, I did not understand you as wishing or expecting it. I do not know the information you have from General Hardee, but my information here is, that General Hardee has already advanced with 3,000 men to Greenville, and that he was moving upon Ironton. I do not think there is a doubt about his being there now.

I am satisfied the enemy are not now in condition to advance, neither do I think he will attempt to do so before fall. He is hard at work fortifying his position at Bird’s Point, and alarmed at the prospect of an early attack. I am in receipt of news from his positions almost every day. If we are to move at all, we should do so promptly. If we are to await his pleasure and the accumulation of his forces, then this is not the proper place to meet him. If I am to move forward, my force must be strengthened. If I am not to go forward, it is certainly a very unfortunate movement. If the enemy should determine to make a move down the river in strength, the force here has no advantage of position, whereas at Fort Pillow and Randolph they could repel three times their number. With additional force and united with Hardee’s command, we could cut our way anywhere; we could certainly expel the enemy from the interior even if we left the river infested with their forces. Destroy the railroad running into the interior, and you at once cripple the enemy’s movements to such an extent that the country could organize and protect itself. I am clearly of the opinion that we should advance promptly or abandon this place.

There is no room here for troops, and miserable water where we are forced to encamp. There is no alternative but to go forward or fall back. If I am to be held in command of this position or to go forward abandoning my base of operations, I would prefer the latter course, though such a measure would be fraught with peril. If this place is to be held, there should be not less than 10,000 men here; our present force held here would invite attack. A small force would be much safer in the interior than it is here. The river furnishes such means of approach, that they can throw upon this place in three hours any amount of force at their disposal, whereas in the interior they would be obliged to resort to our mode of transportation. You promised me the co-operation of Hardee’s force. He is clear out of reach. My views are fully before you, and I shall await your decision.

Your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

{p.631}

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Bloomfield, Mo., August 5, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Commanding Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: I reached my quarters at 7 o’clock, and found positive orders from General Hardee, dated last Friday, to move to his assistance at once to Greenville or some point northward. Hardee’s command was at Greenville Saturday night, and probably at this time is at Pilot Knob or Ironton. My men made no move, as they were entirely unable to do so when I was away. I sent 250 dragoons to a point a few miles west of Lakeville at daybreak, and will send 500 infantry to support them, and then await further orders, as I have forwarded your letter, with one from myself, to General Hardee, by Colonel Hoy, with an escort of 5 men, and he will get your letter by 10 o’clock to-morrow. The news that I find from Cape Girardeau in very contradictory. Some say that all the forces have left the Cape, and others deny it. The boats certainly went below, with the men on board, but whether they returned on Saturday night, or landed at Commerce, remains to be seen. I expect reliable information in the morning, but, after this, will leave. I will be on the qui vive, although Hardee says I must immediately come to him, and, if I do not receive another dispatch to-morrow, I will go to see him to-morrow night. The position my men will have will place them towards Benton.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-Another order from General Hardee has just arrived. He commands my support, and I will march with all my support in the morning, on the line between Ironton and Cape Girardeau. I will leave a guard here to bring up my cannon.

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NEW MADRID, August 6, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: Governor Jackson returns to Memphis to see you. Hardee is in Greenville with 3,000 men; he has ordered Thompson from Bloomfield to his support, and he has gone. These facts we learn from a dispatch just received from General Thompson. This leaves me here in an exposed position, without any support from any quarter. There is intelligence from above of the movements of the enemy which we do not understand. If our information is reliable as to his movements (and they came through different channels), it would seem that a movement on this place, in two columns of about 4,000 each by land and a movement by the river, assailing my position in front and rear, are within his plans. My position in the rear does not admit of any defense in the rear, the whole country being an open plain. You must either support me and promptly, or you must order me back. The true policy is to give me the necessary support. While I am supported here the enemy cannot pass down the river. He will not attempt a movement down the river below your batteries without a stronger force than he has, but he can reach my position here in a few hours. If you think, however, that he may make the move down the river, it only increases the necessity of your giving such force here as will enable [me] to meet him at this place or to promptly order the force back; otherwise it would appear that my {p.632} force is purposely exposed. I could go forward now with more safety than I can stay here. Remaining here with my present force but exposes the force without the promise of any result.

Your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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NEW MADRID, MO., August 6, 1861.

General R. V. RICHARDSON, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: You will, as soon as possible, place the artillery which is in this district, belonging to the State of Missouri, or private property, upon an efficient footing and in good repair; and, as each piece is ready for the field, you will enlist, or I will detail, a sufficient number of men to manage it and put it in service. The State of Missouri is much in need of the guns. You will therefore take the authority that may be necessary to accomplish the object of the foregoing paragraph, and when the organization reaches a sufficient number (as contemplated by the law regulating our army), the men then can hold their elections. You may select such subordinates as will be necessary (until the election above referred to), subject to the approval of the general commanding or the governor. General Pillow will furnish the necessary ammunition and you can have cannon wagons fitted instead of caissons. Time is the most important item now in this war, and you will therefore act as promptly and speedily as possible. Your quartermaster will (under the division quartermaster) purchase or procure the necessary transportation, for teams, outfit, and subsistence. The expense you have therefore been at or incurred will be embodied in a report to the quartermaster up to August 1, and I will have arrangements made for systematic reports hereafter.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Buchanan; , August 7, 1861-11.30 p. m.

Brig. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, Greenville, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I had perfected my plans, and would have marched in the morning to accomplish the commission intrusted to me, but I have this moment received an order from my commander-in-chief, Governor C. F. Jackson, to march with my whole force to the support of General Pillow, who is threatened, as I informed you to-day, by General Frémont. I will have to march to Sikeston as fast as possible, and unless the demonstration which I made yesterday on Cape Girardeau with my dragoons may have answered the purpose, and I may meet another order leaving me again to carry out your plans, they will have to be suspended a little while. I have sent couriers after the persons whom I had sent to prepare the way for me to carry out the object by private enterprise, if possible, and report to you immediately if successful. The governor’s dispatch peremptorily orders, so I must obey. Communication to Bloomfield will meet with dispatch.

Yours, truly,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.633}

P. S.-I was requested to immediately notify you of this order, which may have some effect on your plans. I send you Reynolds’ letter,* which you can return to me.

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HEADQUARTERS. Greenville, Mo., August 7, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I have received your communication of the 30th ultimo.* I have already informed you of my movement on this place and its object.

I inclose a copy of my communication to General Pillow on the subject of meeting with him at Benton, Mo. It contains fully my views on the subject of the military operations in Missouri. It will serve as a reply to that part of your letter relating to the same subject. I believe General Pillow ought not to attack Bird’s Point or Cape Girardeau. I do not believe any object can be attained by it commensurate with the inevitable loss. The enemy, according to General Pillow’s own account, can bring 10,000 men at either point to oppose him, intrenched, I suppose.

I have been waiting further information from Ironton. The order I gave for burning the bridges and tearing up the railroad track has not been executed. I have had no information from Ironton for several days, though I have sought information from every source within my reach.

I inclose also copy of a letter to General Cooper** on the subject of the Arkansas troops which were accepted by Mr. G. P. Johnson on the part of the Confederate States, but which I declined, for reasons stated in that communication, to receive.

I inclose requisition for quartermaster stores, which you will please have forwarded without delay. I mentioned in a previous letter that I had made a requisition on you for 90 days’ provisions for 7,000 men. I mention it again, but hope it has been filled long ago. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

** Inclosure No. 1, Hardee to Rector, August 5, p. 637.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS, Greenville, Mo., August 7, 1861.

Major-General PILLOW, Commanding, New Madrid:

GENERAL: I have received your dispatch of the 5th instant,* and have given it most careful consideration. I agree in all you say respecting the necessity of uniting our forces. This has been my expectation from the beginning, and I thought it probable that we would unite at or near this point. This was the understanding when I last heard from you. It is impossible, for many reasons, to unite with you at Benton. I have, as I stated in a previous dispatch, only a small portion of my force with me. The remainder is at Pitman’s Ferry. I could not, if I would, meet you at the time proposed; it is impossible. Besides, if I had my entire force here, it is doubtful if I would be justified in exposing {p.634} my communications by moving in the direction proposed. My base is at Pitman’s Ferry, which I think should be yours. If you base yourself on the Mississippi anywhere between New Madrid and Cape Girardeau, even if successful in your operations against Bird’s Point and Cape Girardeau, your communications would be liable to constant interruptions.

I am reasoning on the supposition that you do not intend at present to cut loose entirely from your sources of supply. Without presuming to enlighten you on your course, I desire you to consider what you will gain by attacking either Cape Girardeau or Bird’s Point. To whip the enemy is certainly important at all times, but one ought always to fight with an object. What do you propose to accomplish by dislodging the enemy from these points? You can pass both places, in my opinion, without molestation. If they follow you, however, you can fight them greatly to your advantage in the field. If you take both places, they can occupy other points on the Mississippi, and your communications would still be open to attack. Your true policy is to unite with me here, take Ironton, march on Rolla; then abandon our base of operations, cut off Lyon from his communications, attack and rout him; then march with all our forces combined (yours, McCulloch’s, Jackson’s, and mine) on Saint Louis. With Saint Louis in our possession, the points you are going to attack would be turned, and must fall as a necessary consequence.

The occupation of New Madrid is important. It ought to be held with a strong force. It checks the enemy from entering Arkansas either by Chalk Bluff or Pocahontas.

I am waiting for news from the party sent to burn the bridges between Ironton and Saint Louis.

Very respectfully,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, Mo., August 7, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

I received a dispatch at 3 o’clock this morning. General Hardee is at Greenville. Thompson was ordered back to be within supporting distance of my position, but I doubt if he will return. If the enemy should send down a large force against me I must fight it in the open field, and if surrounded, which can easily be done, you will perceive that my whole force will be in great danger.

If you hold this place, it is certain the enemy can get no lower down the river. If this force should not be able to hold its position, there is no reason for keeping it here when its power for defense would be more than doubled elsewhere. If not supported by a force adequate to the work and the exposed position nor withdrawn, I shall have no alternative left me but to abandon this place and go into the interior, where the force will be less exposed. Your course leaves me no other alternative.

My duty to the troops under my command requires me to adopt all possible expedients to avoid its sacrifice, and in my present position I see no other. If you cannot supply additional force and if you are apprehensive of an attempt to descend the river, why not place this force where its power would make the works at Forts Pillow and Randolph impregnable? I am satisfied the enemy will not attempt a descent so {p.635} low down as these works without large force, but he will certainly have a force in hand in a very short time to attack this place, and with my small force will crush me and take the work, and then, if he should go on down, with the small force left to defend the works at Pillow and Randolph, I see no reason why he could not take them also, but if there were troops enough here to protect this place he could not go below. If, however, this force should be cut up, and your whole force thus taken in detail, he will make a success of what otherwise could be successfully resisted. Before I agreed to come on this duty you assured me I should have the support of Hardee’s and Thompson’s forces, and you said you would give me a carte blanche. In all these assurances I am disappointed. It is painful to be under the necessity of thus complaining, but I am left without support, in an exposed condition, and with an inadequate supporting force, and though I have in three several dispatches explained everything to you, you fail to support me and place your disposable force below here, though you are fully advised of the danger of the position of this force, and you must know that if I am sacrificed here the forces below will also be sacrificed and the works all taken, whereas if this force was sustained or withdrawn to the strong position below, the country below would be safe.

I know what I have to do and am fully prepared to make any personal sacrifice, but I owe it to my command to avoid, if possible, so great a disaster to the country as their sacrifice would be. Controlled by these circumstances, my convictions of duty compel me to inform you that, unless assured of support, I shall take my whole force, abandon this place, and strike into the interior as the only course left. If the result should prove disastrous to my command or the country below, the responsibility will not rest on me.

I am, general, with respect, &c.,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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AUGUST 8, 1861.

[General PILLOW]:

MY DEAR GENERAL: The news last night from Ironton is that the enemy is concentrating a large force at that point, and as my orders for burning the bridges on railroad, &c., has not been executed, he can still farther re-enforce it from Saint Louis. I have slept on my letter to you of yesterday, and I am more and more convinced of the correctness of the views therein expressed. I write in haste. Send this by Colonel Johnson to General Polk. If we are to do anything in Missouri, we must have a large column.

Respectfully,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, August 8, 1861.

His Excellency Governor RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

SIR: This department has received a copy of the “Terms and stipulations” agreed upon between the military board of the State of Arkansas, on the one part, and Brig. Gen. W. J. Hardee, of the C. S. Army, on the other part, in regard to the “use and control of the forces, arms, {p.636} munitions, and supplies now (then) in the service of the State of Arkansas.”

This contract has been examined,* and is approved by this Department.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

* See Hardee to Cooper, July 17, p. 609; and Hardee to Rector, August 8, p. 636.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS, Greenville, Mo., August 8, 1861.

General POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: When I made out my last requisition for quartermaster stores, I had not with me a copy of the requisition previously made for similar articles. If in that first requisition I called for articles required in the second, you will oblige me by not having them sent. I allude now to hatchets, pickaxes, spades, shovels, and tents. I succeeded, after several days’ delay, in securing the co-operation of General Jeff. Thompson, commanding the Missouri forces, in a movement on Ironton. He left me yesterday to perform his part of the enterprise, but last night received a dispatch from him stating that he had received a peremptory order from Governor Jackson to repair forthwith to New Madrid, to assist General Pillow, who was anticipating an attack from General Frémont. The railroad communication between Ironton and Saint Louis being still open, I do not feel authorized, with the small force under my command, to advance any farther. My cavalry are within 20 miles of Ironton, perhaps nearer. I shall fall back with the main force to a point about midway between this place and Pitman’s Ferry. My advance will remain at this point.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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GREENVILLE, MO., August 8, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

MY DEAR GENERAL: I desire to say that I should be glad to have the Arkansas troops, if I had authority to receive them, for twelve months; and if they were armed, I should be too happy to have you receive them, if you feel authorized to act, and turn them over to me. One regiment (Patterson’s) is now at or near Pocahontas, with orders to report to me. Under no circumstances ought this regiment to be taken from that point. Colonel Johnson mentioned to me your telegraph to the military board asking for troops. You are vested with greater powers than I am and [can] act, which I hope you will do.

If we are to reinstate Missouri, we must have more troops, and move in large columns against the enemy.

Very truly, your friend,

W. J. HARDEE.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS, Greenville, Mo., August 8, 1861.

Hon. H. M. RECTOR, President Military Board:

SIR: I inclose herewith a copy of a letter from me to the Adjutant-General C. S. Army, declining to receive the troops now in the service {p.637} of Arkansas, and which you authorized Mr. G. P. Johnson to turn over to me.

I also inclose a copy of my instructions to Col, T. C. Hindman, who is directed to proceed to the brigade of General Pearce, and receive from your agent, General Burrow, the troops under the command of General Pearce, in the service of the State of Arkansas. I regret I could not receive these troops sooner, but I have already informed you of my reasons for declining to do so.

If General McCulloch intends attacking Springfield, he has already done so.

I regret that I felt constrained to decline to accept the troops you kindly tendered to me. I want these regiments. My force is too small for offensive operations, but I did not have authority to do so.

I came here with about 1,200 men, to punish a party of the enemy numbering, it was estimated, from 800 to 1,500 men, who came from Ironton, it would seem, to plunder. Hearing of our approach, they left for Ironton. My advance is within about 18 or 20 miles of that place.

I have endeavored to interrupt communication between Ironton and Saint Louis by tearing up the railroad and burning the bridges, but my efforts thus far have been unsuccessful.

I came here expecting the co-operation of 2,000 Missourians, under General Thompson. I placed myself yesterday (after several days’ delay) in communication with that officer, who promised to unite with me in an attack on Ironton. He parted with me anxious to perform his part of the expedition, but last night he sent me a dispatch stating that he had received peremptory orders from Governor Jackson to repair forthwith to New Madrid to assist General Pillow who was anticipating an attack by General Frémont.

My force is at present too weak to advance on Ironton without his cooperation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

Much in want of clothing of every description. Shoes furnished from New Orleans not arrived.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HEADQUARTERS, Greenville, Mo., August 7, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I received to-day by the hands of Mr. G. P. Johnson an agreement made by him with the military board of Arkansas, by which the military board has transferred to the Confederate States the troops recently called into the service of the State of Arkansas by proclamation of the governor. These troops Mr. Johnson expected me to receive, but I have declined to accept for the following reasons: From the letter of instructions given him by the Hon, L. P. Walker, Secretary of War, I do not believe he had authority to receive those regiments; on the contrary, his authority extended only to receiving the troops and munitions of war tendered to the Confederate States by the Convention. Again, I am satisfied that the Confederate States do not contemplate receiving troops without arms, and I am fully convinced that these regiments are only in part armed, and most of the arms they have unserviceable. I judge this from the domestic arms I have seen {p.638} in the hands of the Arkansas troops now in service. Moreover, I do not believe it is the practice or the policy of the Confederate Government to receive fresh troops from any of the States for a less period than three years or the war. The troops in the condition I should receive them would be useless to me, and although Mr. Johnson thinks it was the intention of the Department that he should accept and that I should receive them, I have felt constrained to decline doing so without instructions.

If the Department will arm the troops and they will agree to serve for three years or the war, I should be happy to have them. My force is now too small for offensive operations.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

(Copy to General Polk.)

[Inclosure No. 2.]

GREENVILLE, MO., August 8, 1861.

Col, T. C. HINDMAN, C. S. A.:

COLONEL: You will proceed to the brigade of Arkansas troops commanded by Brigadier-General Pearce, and, in accordance with the agreement made by the military board and the undersigned, you will muster them into the service of the Confederate States and take command of them.

General Burrow has been appointed by the military board to turn these troops over to the Confederate States, and from him you will receive them. You will receive three regiments only, and no general or staff officers will be received, except one surgeon and one assistant surgeon to each regiment. By law, the Confederate Government appoints all staff officers, including surgeons and assistant surgeons, but as these cannot be dispensed with, you will muster them into the service, to await the approval of the Secretary of War.

You will receive all public property in the hands of said troops and receipt for the same, consisting of quartermaster, commissary, medical ordnance stores, and ordnance. Invoices will be given you by General Burrow, and when found correct by personal examination you will pass receipts for the same.

To expedite matters, colonels of regiments, or other officers commanding a separate body of troops, should furnish invoices of the public property in their possession.

After receiving the troops herein named you will march them by the shortest route to Pitman’s Ferry, except the cavalry, which you will station at such points on the western frontier of Arkansas as will best give protection to that portion of the State, and where they can be supplied with forage.

Make arrangements, also, by which they can be supplied with subsistence.

You will give Colonel Carroll, of that regiment, such written instructions for his guidance as the nature of the service may demand.

If the squadron of cavalry, under Captain Scott, stationed at or near Fayetteville, is not marching in this direction to join Colonel Borland, you will muster this force also into the service.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

P. S.-Station the cavalry under Captain Scott at such point on your route as will best protect the frontier.

{p.639}

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MEMPHIS, TENN., August 8, 1861.

Hon. E. C. CABELL:

DEAR SIR: Your dispatch communicating the welcome intelligence that the Confederate Congress had appropriated $1,000,000 for the defense of Missouri has been received. I hope to hear from you by letter to-day in detail in relation to it, and trust that arrangements will speedily be made by which it will be made available. I desire you to impress upon President Davis and his Cabinet the fact that the present military division of the territory contiguous to Missouri, south and west, is not such as to insure concert of action, nor calculated to fully meet the exigencies that may arise in conducting the campaign in Missouri. General Hardee and General McCulloch have each separate and distinct districts and commands, and Major-General Price has command of the Missouri forces. In carrying out the instructions of the President it may be proper, and indeed we expect and desire, the Confederate generals on our border to come into the State. Circumstances may require that these three distinct commands should be united, or that they should act in concert, though separately, for the accomplishment of a common object. As affairs now stand, though I do not specially apprehend it, it is possible there may be some distraction in counsel, jealousy of command, and consequent inefficiency and inaction. It has occurred to me that if President Davis would appoint a major-general for all that district of country lying west of General Polk’s district, and if he could go into Missouri accompanied by me, I could require and compel by my orders as complete co-operation on the part of the State troops as if they had been transferred to the Confederate service and were under his command. Thus all military operations would be completely under the control of one head.

I issued on the 5th day of August a declaration of independence, a copy of which I inclose.

I trust and feel that you will, as heretofore, use every endeavor for such action on the part of the Confederate States as will render our independence permanent.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. F. JACKSON.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Little Rock, Ark., August 9, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: In accordance with your requisition of June 30, I have issued a proclamation for 3,000 men-infantry. The two companies of cavalry are in camp here, and, as per telegram received to-day, they will report themselves to General Hardee at once.

Respectfully,

H. M. RECTOR, Governor of Arkansas.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 9, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: Colonel Johnson, the authorized agent of the Confederate States Government, has received of the military authorities of Arkansas eight or ten regiments of troops. I understand from Colonel Johnson {p.640} that General Hardee does not feel authorized to receive them. I have said to him that I needed and would receive them. I cannot, as you are aware, move without additional force. Hardee himself says that I ought not to attempt an advance with less than 10,000 men. I would be glad to have you at once and promptly order up the Arkansas troops. The position I occupy here protects Arkansas from invasion by the river and through Chalk Bluff. It is therefore but right and proper that those forces should be sent here. The authority of the Confederate Government to Colonel Johnson to receive these troops is full and complete, and being under the absolute necessity of having additional forces for the work before me, I have told Johnson to refer the case to you, and hope you will as promptly as possible order them up.

The Missouri forces are in the most inefficient possible condition. The authorities of the State have no funds, no means of subsisting the forces of the State; they have no regular organization of staff officers; they have no means of subsistence except such as is taken by them from the inhabitants of the country. There is no one authorized to give certificates for these seizures, and if this system of illegal seizures should be kept up, it will turn the feelings of the best friends of the South in the country against our cause. But, independent of this, it will be impossible to keep the Missouri forces in the field; they will disband, and in their present condition I would not blame them for doing so.

To obviate this difficulty, I have determined to accept any of these troops who will accept service in the Confederate Army for and during the war.

I do not believe the information you received from Columbus is correct, and I have sent up by the river an armed steamer to report me the truth. I saw a man this morning from Wolf Island, which is in sight of Columbus, who says the report is incorrect. The enemy have thrown out a large force to the neighborhood of Charleston, and are repairing my burnt road; they have several thousand men out there, and about 1,500 men at York, 6 miles down the river from Cairo.

I have addressed you several dispatches, to which I invite your attention, so that I may know how to shape my course. If there is no prospect of my going forward I should know it, and cease my efforts to get transportation, and save the expense of subsisting so large a number of animals. This is a very heavy item of expense. I retain the Ingomar here for the present to bring across and up to this place Colonel Smith’s battery, which you advised me you had ordered up here.

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

P. S.-Since writing the above, I have seen a gentleman that left Columbus yesterday, and says there are no troops there and everything is quiet.

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LITTLE ROCK, August 10, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

We have seven regiments completely organized. They are supplied with the domestic rifle, some of them sufficiently improved to be highly efficient. They are at the following places: Arkadelphia, 250 miles of Pocahontas; Benton, 200 miles of Pocahontas; Pine Bluff, 200 miles of Pocahontas; Springfield, 140 miles of Pocahontas; Yellville, 120 miles of Pocahontas; Jacksonport, 40 miles of Pocahontas.

The one at Yellville is a local defense, and probably ought not to be moved. To the rest of them we will issue such orders as you suggest. {p.641} To-night three of the regiments are south of the Arkansas River, and can be transported by water if the exigency requires it.

Indicate to us whether the necessity demands such prompt transportation. It is our desire to facilitate every movement.

H. M. RECTOR, President Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Sikeston, Mo., August 10, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Yours of this morning, ordering me to retreat or fall back to Moore’s, has been received, but I have sent to the country for meal, flour, &c., and have the party, mentioned in mine of 11.30 o’clock, and another, which is just starting, to strengthen a picket on the road to Benton to cover some wagons I have there, and watch a force of 500 men, who reached Benton this morning. Therefore I will be in no condition to fall back until morning, and will endeavor to hold my position until then, unless you positively request that I fall back to-night, which I can well do after dark, if necessary. If you will allow me I would suggest that I think it proper, if possible, to hold this point as the key to Bird’s Point and Cape Girardeau, and, from the strength of picket, the enemy will believe that I have a large force here, and will not dare advance through the swamp, where I can whip him two to one, until convinced of my weakness, by which time you can strengthen me, and I will have 1,000 men more of my own. They are just learning that it is me that is here, as they have believed me at Greenville, and I am perfectly willing to risk holding this point with the two companies of cavalry you have sent me, if you will allow me to. Answer as soon as possible.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-If I can stay here, please send the baggage of the cavalry companies on up; if not, we will all fall back to-night after supper. I prefer remaining.

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CAMP WHITEWATER, MO., August 10, 1861-10 p. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., Commanding Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: I am here according to promise, and will be to-morrow by noon several miles east of here, in township 27, range 14. I will expect orders every moment from you. I would go at once to Sikeston, but have not heard from that side of the river for two days. I am going to Horse Mill to have meal ground. I have 400 dragoons and 900 infantry.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS, Greenville, Mo., August 11, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding, Memphis:

GENERAL: I had placed myself in communication with General Jeff. Thompson, and had planned with him an attack on Ironton. He left me {p.642} fully intending to co-operate cordially in my operations and to carry out his part of the programme. The same night he received a peremptory order from Governor Jackson to repair forthwith to New Madrid to assist General Pillow in his operations against General Frémont. As the general felt compelled to obey, and being too weak without his assistance to make the attack, I have been compelled to defer making an advance until I get re-enforcements from below or General Pillow joins me. I have had no information from that officer for several days. I feel anxious to know what is going on at New Madrid, and what are his plans. I have ordered the occupation of Fredericktown, 40 miles in advance of this place, with 600 Missourians, under Colonel Lowe, and 250 mounted Arkansians, the whole under command of Colonel Borland. I have directed this officer to seize all the lead at mine a la Matte, to send it to this place for transportation to Pitman’s Ferry. I have also directed the same officer to send out a party of mounted men, and at all hazards to cut the communication between Ironton and Saint Louis. I shall leave to-day for Pitman’s Ferry, via Pocahontas, to look after the troops and supplies in that direction. I am much embarrassed for want of transportation for my command. I hope you are affording Colonel Cross every facility in obtaining the 50 teams I sent him for. As I do not wish to send more letters than absolutely necessary by my courier, I will thank you to send this letter or a copy of it to General S. Cooper, adjutant-general.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 11, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: I write on board the steamer Kennett, returning to Madrid, under your orders received last night. I had embarked my whole force and had started down all my boats but three before the dispatch was received. Upon its reception I dropped down to Point Pleasant, and sent down the Mohawk to overtake and order back all my transports; three of my boats were overhauled and are now [on] the return with me; the others were far ahead and may not return before to-morrow.

My object in going to Point Pleasant was to inform myself thoroughly of the condition of that road, and to take my departure as early as possible upon the visit indicated in your dispatch. The road has 6 miles of trestle bridge. The sills are rotten, the plank broken and full of holes, and so rotten that it is impossible to move my trains of wagons and artillery over it. This information I obtained from Colonel Walker, who commands a regiment of Missouri troops, and lay out at the west end of that road three months of the summer. I am satisfied that I cannot pass over that road, and I am also satisfied I can pass Cape Girardeau on my right, and unite my force with Hardee and Thompson by a fine road, affording plenty of well water and of forage for my animals.

Your dispatch directs me to abandon this place as a base and unite with Hardee. That I will do, and avoid the enemy in force on my right. In this I understand myself as complying with your instructions. I want my transports, of which you speak, and my subsistence to come forward to this place. The positions of Pocahontas and Gutman’s [Pitman’s?] Ferry are too far south for me to reach them with the transportation of {p.643} which you speak, viz, 200 covered wagons. I can go forward without difficulty. I am in possession of information that Frémont is much perplexed to know what to do. My position threatens him on the south and on the river, while the advance of McCulloch and Hardee threaten Saint Louis, and he is running his troops up and down the river. He does not know what to do or which way to turn. Your order to fall back casts a deep gloom over this army, and caused me the most anxious and painful day I ever experienced, but still I promptly complied with it, as you have seen from my movements. I send down Capt. W. H. Jackson, who is a most accomplished officer and full of energy, and wish you to let him bring forward to me as promptly as possible the field battery at Randolph, with the rifled cannon. It is not needed there; and the company you will send, from the inclosed dispatch from Major Stewart, is without officers. If you could, in addition, spare me one other regiment, Walker’s or Neely’s-the latter preferred, because it is entirely composed of Americans, the former by Irish-I will give you a good account of the campaign. Do let me have Neely’s. The enemy above will have neither time nor force to think of a descent on the river. We will expel him from and he will contend hard for the prize. If I were not perfectly satisfied you were all safe down south, I could not be induced to ask any force to [be] brought away, for my large interest is all below, as you know. Let me have the regiment, and if I fail anywhere all the responsibility shall rest on myself. I want more ammunition for my 6-pounder guns and the metallic fuse for my 8-inch howitzer. Please have them moved up. I send down six of my 30-pounder guns to Fort Pillow, as you direct. I will write you again in a few days.

Yours, truly,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Whitewater, Mo., August 11, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid Mo.:

DEAR SIR: The communication from Governor Jackson, dated the 8th, informing me of your order, was received a few moments ago; also a letter from Governor Reynolds, of yesterday, ordering me to report to General Hardee. I cannot move until to-morrow, and will then depend upon the letter I get from you. If Capt. Luke Byrne reaches you with this, you can send me a message with the most perfect confidence. I cannot write more, as I distinctly hear the report of the large guns. Had I not received the letter this morning, I would cross the river at once and go to the fight, wherever it is.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP WHITEWATER, MO., August 11, 1861.

Col. JAMES A. WALKER, 1st Regt., 1st Dist., Mo. S. G., New Madrid, Mo.:

SIR: I hear you have been ordered by the governor to retreat across the plank road and join Hardee. Report to me as soon as you cross the road and are safe from pursuit and await my orders, as I will either {p.644} go down to that route or you will come up to mine. We can hear the guns at New Madrid.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, August 12, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I received your dispatch to-day of the 8th while on my way to this place. I immediately sent an express back to Greenville, informing the commanding officer of the change of programme, enjoined renewed vigilance, but expressed a determination to hold on to what we had until driven back. This evening I was rejoiced to get your dispatch of the 9th, in which you inform me that you have directed General Pillow to abandon New Madrid and to march out and join me. Our united forces offer hopes of accomplishing results of which you may be proud. I shall send forward the remainder of my force with all possible haste. I need the wagons which I am happy to hear that Colonel Cross is bringing forward. I cannot count on more than 4,000 effective men. Do urge the President to send some arms for the new levies in Arkansas. We need reserves here to fall back upon in case of disaster, and particularly to supply the casualties incident to war. I have not yet received any of my supplies. I inclose copy of my letter sent to you yesterday by express to New Madrid, but which you may not receive. My advance, you will perceive, is 90 miles in advance of this place.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY, New Madrid, August 12, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: My forces are organized for the advance, and I am only detained for want of transportation. Thompson, under my orders, has crossed the country, and to-day reached Sikeston, and I have ordered up to his position and support Colonel Walker’s regiment and Missouri cavalry, and probably a portion of my own cavalry will go up to-morrow. Colonel McCown is placed in command of one of my brigades, and I cannot let him go back. You remember that the want of a competent brigade commander was one of my troubles in accepting the service upon which I am now ordered, and was explained to you as a serious embarrassment; and the matter was settled by the appointment or order to place McCown in the command of one brigade. This is an order that you must not insist upon; it will break up my organization and cripple me so that I could not go forward at all.

If Bowen’s regiment is not armed it will do me no good, as I am unable to arm it. You ought to give me the strength necessary to make my movement a brilliant success. A vigorous blow now will relieve Missouri and add greatly to the prestige of Southern arms already established.

{p.645}

You know I understand the work before me; my prompt obedience to your order to evacuate was the proof of my submission to orders as a soldier, and my embarkation and equally prompt return leaves you no room to doubt my readiness under all circumstances to comply with your orders. Sustain me, and I will keep Frémont so busy that he will never think for a moment of attempting a descent. A movement down the river with less than 40,000 men will never be attempted.

My boats are all gone below. I do my work so promptly that your orders do not reach me in time. I discharged all my boats last night and early this morning send up Bowen at once. I will leave the moment my transportation reaches me. Thompson had a brush with the Dutch at Hamburg to-day, and cut them up and dispersed them, killing 1, wounding mortally 5 others, taking 25 horses and 5 guns.

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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NEW MADRID, August 12, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: My forces have all returned except the Howard. She will probably be up to-day. One man fell overboard last night and was lost; this is the only accident or loss of any kind incident to the embarkation and return here under the order for evacuation. I have this morning sent my chief of engineers down to the plank road to make a careful examination of the bridges on it, so that I may know its character. It is 132 miles on that route and 70 miles on the route by Benton to Jackson, that being the point of junction with Hardee. On the latter road I can pass Girardeau and all the enemy’s positions, and unite with Hardee. It is important that I have my transports hurried up as rapidly as possible, that I may have the train properly organized for the forward movement. I wish to be ready to move by Saturday. I have to-day forwarded a dispatch to Hardee, for the purpose of fixing place and time of union of our forces. If there are any shoes or clothing in Memphis ready, please have them sent forward. I am much in need of two or three traveling forges and horseshoe iron and large quantity of horseshoe nails. Please order me forward a supply at once. I need Pitts and Flackler with me, and Dr. Newnon, very much. Let them join me. I need one more regiment of infantry very much, and ought to have it. I have so many men sick with measles and other diseases, that when they are all sent back my force is very small for the work to be done. You might bring regiment from Union City to supply place of Neely’s. I could arm a good company of infantry if I had it here. You might send me an unarmed company of Bowen’s regiment and I could arm it, and when the campaign is through I could restore it. I was anxious to have had with me Captain Bethell’s company of Freeman’s regiment. He is my brother’s son-in-law, raised his company to be with me, and at my request, and is very anxious to join me temporarily. I will keep you advised of everything until I leave. I shall keep the Grampus here until I leave for duty above, &c.

Your friend,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

I of course accept and am on duty under the commission by Confederate Government, but I have not done so formally.

{p.646}

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NEW MADRID, MO., August 12, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

I am very much annoyed by visitors to the army from Memphis. I will take it as a favor if you will grant such no more permits to come up the river. All civilians who attempt to accompany the army will be made to go into the ranks; the ladies will be returned to Memphis. Let this be understood by those desiring to come up. I would be glad to have any of the companies belonging to the Memphis Legion that are thoroughly equipped. Captain King’s company of Colonel Pickett’s regiment, at Union City, can get a fine supply of improved arms in Kentucky, provided they will come into this service. Dispatch him to join me with those arms. I wish very much the flying battery at Randolph; if you send it, also send me all the canister you have in Memphis. I wish very much some 8-inch grape and all the large spherical case and shells for my 8-inch howitzer you have. Please have them sent me by the return trip of K-g.

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 13, 1861.

His Excellency C. F. JACKSON, Governor of Missouri:

SIR: The Congress have appropriated $1,000,000 to provide arms and ammunition and subsistence and transportation for the troops of Missouri co-operating with those of Arkansas, and Mr. Broadwell has been appointed brigade quartermaster to perform commissary duties to carry into effect the appropriation thus made, and to supervise and direct the expenditures under the different heads mentioned, and hence he has been charged to deliver this letter to you in person.

I have the honor to be, with sentiments of high regard,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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MEMPHIS, TENN., August 13, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK:

SIR: This is to certify that the bearer, General James Harding, quartermaster-general of the State of Missouri, is hereby authorized and empowered to make requisitions for all army stores for the Missouri State Guard, and for me, and in my name, to receive and receipt for the same; and he is further authorized to receive and receipt for such sums of money or bonds as may be furnished by the Confederate States as may, on official statement, be shown to be necessary for the indispensable wants of the Missouri State Guard.

C. F. JACKSON, Governor, and Commander-in– Chief of Mo. S. G.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 13, 1861-6 a. m.

Brig. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, C. S. A., Greenville, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: The order to General Pillow to evacuate New Madrid was countermanded after he had gone some distance down the {p.647} river, and he immediately returned, and will advance without delay. I reached here last evening, and have commenced destroying the railroad. I inclose you a letter from General Pillow. I hope we can soon advance far enough to act in conjunction.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Commanding the Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Yours of last evening and note of this morning are at hand. I have sent 150 picked infantry and 100 picked dragoons to drive away the guard and workmen who are repairing the railroad, and, if possible, to destroy the road up to Bird’s Point itself. The infantry are Mississippi County men, and know every path to return by if defeated. The dragoons are all swamp men. I expect them to accomplish something important. You ask me to let you know our condition and wants. The fact is that, although my men are in fine spirits, yet we want everything to make them efficient, shoes especially, tin cups, and canteens. I am short several hundred guns, and any you have to spare, never mind how few or many, would be acceptable. If your quartermaster could let me have an assortment of blank books, they would assist me much. Price’s dragoons have arrived. I have a number of prisoners (some 20), who should be held as hostages, if for no other purpose. Shall I send them to New Madrid where they can be used, or to Bloomfield, to the jail?

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: We succeeded in entirely destroying the long trestle and pile bridges, 7 miles east of here, last night. We cut the ties, threw off the rails,, and fired the whole concern, which is still burning, with a picket stationed to keep it burning. I have a hand car here, and therefore have the use of the 7 miles of road. If I had reached here a few hours earlier yesterday, I would have sent my men beyond Charleston to destroy the piling destroyed by your men, which is now nearly repaired. I will reconnoiter that far to-day, and if anything can be done I will have it done. Please appoint a parole system of passes, or something of the kind, for the use of our joint forces. Any communications sent to Mr. Harper can be sent me each hour.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.648}

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 13, 1861.

Maj. A. WAUGH, Commanding Scott County Battalion, Present:

DEAR SIR: You will take 50 picked men from your battalion, and go as far northward of this point as may be safe and necessary to guard against the approach of the enemy in that direction. It is reported that 500 men are at Benton. Watch them closely, that they do not cut off your communication and retreat towards me. Your infantry should go about 5 or 6 miles north of this place, but I will send you 50 dragoons, to advance as vedettes and pickets, under your direction, to effectually guard against danger from that direction. Rations will be forwarded to you or can be procured there, as you see fit. Should I not send you a courier or messenger, return to-morrow after sunrise; and should you hear three guns from this point at any time, fall back immediately. I have cautioned the picket towards Bird’s Point that if they hear three guns to fall back, unless fighting themselves, when the signal will be for you to come to their assistance. If you are fighting, the signal will be for them to come to your assistance. Six guns will mean come anyhow. I leave the details of your movement, after you start, to yourself.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 14, 1861-6.30 a. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Last night, about 11.30 o’clock, a courier came in from towards Benton, and also from Charleston, reporting both parties approaching the enemy, and the courier from towards Benton reports him advancing. I immediately sent you two cavalry companies, a company of dragoons, and one of infantry, to support the party towards Benton, and the party at Charleston to obey their original orders, as I have no one to send to their support. I have not much faith in the reported advance from Benton, but provided against it anyhow. If Walker’s regiment had been here I would have sent them to Charleston, and held that place against the enemy until you came to my help, as there is a rich neighborhood there, which could furnish us much transportation and provender. No couriers have come in since the hour named. I will write constantly as news arrives. I ordered Walker up last night, and expect him in a few hours. I send a requisition for ammunition; please let me have some.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 14, 1861-7.30 p. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: The party sent to Charleston has returned, and of course tell many remarkable stories about their adventures. They brought in 2 prisoners, who were privates in the dragoons (who charged through the town this morning, and were thrown from their horses), and they both agree in saying that all of Frémont’s force is at Bird’s Point, and numbers about 13,000. One says he had been sent on picket {p.649} on Sunday, and had not been in since. The other says he left yesterday. Our men agree in saying that several thousand were advancing on Charleston, but a neighbor, who left an hour or more after them, says but 700 had arrived in the town when he left. Captain White had sent to you for re-enforcements, but, as we cannot second any attack from this point, they had better not advance. I will try to hear definitely and truthfully from Bird’s Point to-morrow. A spy, just in from Scott County, reports that at noon there were no men in Commerce, but 300 in Hamburg-and 300 in Benton. They have six guns with them. If you would allow me to suggest, I would say that this is not the point for a depot until after Commerce or Cape Girardeau is taken. I shall have sufficient store room for you. Tippen’s regiment and two companies of Mississippians are at Jones’ Ferry, and I have only 20 men towards Charleston. To-morrow I hope there will be one of your officers here to act in conjunction with me, and that the horses of your cavalry will be sufficiently rested to take their turn at picket duty. If the force represented be at Bird’s Point we cannot be too vigilant. I have requested the Tennessee cavalry to start at daybreak towards Charleston, to cover us in that direction.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 14, 1861-10.30 o’clock.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Yours of this morning is at hand. I will have a ware-room prepared. I had taken the depot myself, but you shall have the largest to be had in the village. I had sent the Mississippi cavalry and Colonel Tippen’s regiment to the point you indicated in your letter before I heard from you. Waugh, with his men and the Tennessee cavalry, has returned. The shots were exchanged by the cavalry pickets, and both parties ran. I will give my men a good lecture. My men are doing finely at Charleston, as you will see by the inclosed note. I am not strong enough to hold Charleston, and therefore will let my men fall back., according to written instructions. If the horses of the Tennesseeans were not tired, I would send over and drive the enemy into Bird’s Point, which we could easily do, as we have them frightened. I will send over some men to cover the retreat.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-If you will let me, I will try to take Commerce to-morrow. It is a strong point, and will cut off communication as effectually as Cape Girardeau.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 14, 1861-11 p. m.

Maj. J. H. MILLER, Commanding Mississippi Cavalry, Jones’ Ford, Mo.:

DEAR MAJOR: Yours of to-night is at hand. I agree with you that the bait is very tempting, and that time is a great object in our movements against Hamburg and Commerce; but we are entirely too weak to hold these positions, if we took them, until to-morrow night, and {p.650} therefore there would be no object accomplished by a fight in that direction. The party from Charleston has returned, and reports 13,000 men at Bird’s Point, getting ready to move here, to cut us off from an approach to the Mississippi River north of them, and they will probably make the attempt within 48 hours. If they do, we will need all our force east of here; but, should enough troops reach here to-morrow to hold Bird’s Point in check, I will send all my dragoons to aid you in taking the points named above. I will send you a 12-pounder early in the morning. If your pickets want to smell powder, let them have a chance. Lieutenant-Colonel Akers will accede to any of your suggestions.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 14, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: The enemy, before retiring into Benton, burned Parrott’s Mill, which has been our main reliance, and there is no mill of consequence now in Scott County, except a splendid mill in Commerce. There are high bluffs at Commerce, the river is narrow, and the channel runs near our shore. If we had only guns sufficient to hold it, it should be taken, by all means, before the enemy estimates its value or prepares to hold it. Cape Girardeau will then rely only on Saint Louis for support, and probably can also be taken before Saturday night. The enemy has no idea of our strength, and we should act while he is in doubt. They knew not what re-enforcements you brought back with you or how many men I have; so, if the men’s legs will only carry them fast enough and far enough, we can take everything by storm. I must either threaten the Cape or send a battalion to guard the road from there to Bloomfield.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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STEAMER MOHAWK, Mississippi River, August 15, 1861.

General PILLOW:

GENERAL: I have been informed since I left New Madrid that it is the purpose of the enemy to send down to attack your position 10,000 men, of which 5,000 came to-day and 5,000 are to come to-morrow. The 5000 of to-day will probably stop at Island No. 10, with the view of seizing and occupying it, and making it a base of operations for the whole 10,000 when concentrated. This I think more than probable. In that case I am clearly of the opinion that your duty is to cross the river into Tennessee with your whole command at once. To enable you to do this I send you three steamers, the Falls City, the Kentucky, and the Cheeny, which, together with the Grampus and Equality, should enable you to cross promptly. By this movement you may send forward McCown’s brigade to attack the enemy on the island from the Tennessee side, and if the movement is prompt, he may cut off the retreat [to] his boats, and you will at all events be able to fight him as well from the Tennessee as {p.651} from the Missouri shore. In case you should not be able to check his descent of the river and he should pass you, you will then have an open way to Union City, where, by sending a messenger forward and ordering up transportation, you can take the cars and proceed either to my support at Forts Pillow and Randolph, or you may fall back on Memphis for its defense. If on the other hand you remain where you are to await him there and a reverse should befall you, you will have no base to fall back upon, and you will [be] deprived of the ability to aid me either at the forts below or at Memphis.

My opinion therefore is, I repeat, that you cross the river forthwith and make Union City your base.

It has just occurred to me that you might also use the large wharf boat as a transport, having it towed, and it will hold at least 1,000 men. My opinion is that the men, ammunition, and arms should be transported first.

In case the enemy should (which I by no means anticipate) have disappeared in the morning, my counsel is nevertheless the same. And I hope you will in that case certainly send Colonel McCown’s brigade to occupy and fortify the island and the shore on the Tennessee side as I have indicated. Captain Gray is sent with this dispatch and is charged with the selection and supervision, of the points to be occupied. You should send an express to General Clark, and let me hear from you as promptly and as often as possible.

Very respectfully,

L. POLK, Major-General.

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C. S. STEAMER MOHAWK, New Madrid Bend, August 15, 1861.

The following are the views of-Captain Gray of his examination of Island No. 10 Bend, made August 14, 1861:

That it is a strong position naturally for erecting works to defend the passage of the Mississippi River; that a series of earthworks would be necessary, and all the material required would be convenient and made available without delay; that there should be a bastion earthwork upon the mainland, and upon Island No. 10 a redoubt inclosed to hold 1,000 men; that at a point say three-quarters of a mile above the mainland work, and on the same side of the river, a redan earthwork should be thrown up immediately, and a couple of 12-pounders or two 32-pounders, if at hand, placed in position; also a battery of horse artillery, with a regiment or troop (part horse and part infantry) encamped at the redan fort; the artillery to be placed in position to operate with the heavier pieces in defending the landing or to be moved along the bank of the river, as might be required. The redan can be thrown up of earth and the guns mounted en barbette in a very little while. This battery would effectually prevent the landing of troops and artillery of the enemy, should they attempt to take possession of the neck of land for the purpose of cutting off communication with New Madrid by water, and also the communication by road to Union City.

An accurate survey should be at once made of Island No. 10 and the mainland on the left bank on Tennessee side, for the purpose of erecting the earthworks referred to.

With these three batteries a most powerful, concentrated, raking as well as plunging fire could be kept up upon boats of any character coming down the river, and at a distance from each battery ranging from {p.652} 500 yards to several miles, if desired. Every portion of a boat attempting to pass would be exposed, even to the rudder, the covering of the deck, broadsides, and stern at the same instant.

The position of these batteries, to be taken by a flank movement, is as strong in favor of the forts as they would be against an enemy on the water, if properly constructed. That with a cordon of stations on the route from the river to Union City from 25 to 35 miles in length, the whole of Northwestern Tennessee could be easily defended; and no more favorable line could be found to resist the enemy, while being ready at any moment to concentrate rapidly a strong force (without weakening the main defenses) for the purpose of offensive movements northward upon our foes.

If New Madrid was threatened by a land attack, the garrison of New Madrid could be re-enforced from the neck in a few hours. With the forts above placed, one large steamer at least might always be kept in readiness at New Madrid to transport troops either side, as the emergency required.

The situation of Island No. 10, in connection with the mainland defenses, for the purpose of repelling the enemy from the New Madrid side as well as the Tennessee side, and for a protection to the valley of the Mississippi and a magnificent section of the State of Tennessee, has no superior, in my judgment, above Memphis.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 16, 1861.

Major GORGAS, Chief of Ordnance:

SIR: In a letter from Brig. Gen. Ben. McCulloch, dated Camp near Cassville, Mo., July 30, occurs the following paragraph:

I have been compelled to furnish other commands with so much of my ammunition that my supply is now very limited, and if the enemy are re-enforced it may be necessary to have a large supply [here to carry on the war. In any event it is necessary to have a supply] sent to Fort Smith for the use of my command, and I hope you will see the necessity of at once sending me a large amount of flint-lock musket cartridges and percussion musket cartridges for percussion and minie muskets, and caps, and such cannon ammunition for field pieces as can be spared. We are very much in need of caps, both for the musket and the ordinary rifle. I am in hopes that you have sent me the cavalry arms that I have applied for in former communications. Major Clark has notified me that ammunition lately sent for the use of the brigade (70 boxes of musket cartridges and a quantity of accouterments) were lost with the steamboat William Henry on the Arkansas River.

Your attention is respectfully directed to the importance of this subject; especially in view of the active operations now commenced in Missouri, and you are instructed to supply Brigadier-General McCulloch’s wants to the extent of your power.

Respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, August 16, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a letter from Governor Jackson, of Missouri, in which he suggests the importance of all military operations in Missouri being under one head.* I have also a letter from Lieutenant-Governor {p.653} Reynolds from New Madrid, in which he requests me to say to you, “We need here an able general in the field and commanding the whole valley of the Mississippi.”

It is the wish of Governor Jackson that operations in Missouri should be under control of an experienced or skillful general of the Confederate States, and he will take care that there shall be no conflict between the State and Confederate commanding officers. I am also authorized to say that Major-General Price desires to co-operate with the Confederate Army, and will allow no question of rank to interfere with the control of military movements in Missouri by the general of the Confederate Army whom you may send into the State.

Respectfully submitting this subject to your consideration, I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant,

E. C. CABELL.

* Sec Jackson to Cabell, August 8, p. 639.

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HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Camp at Pond Springs, Mo., August 16, 1861.

Soldiers of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas:

The reputation of the States that sent you here is now in your hands. If wrong is done, blame will attach to all. Then let it be the duty of all to restrain the vicious. Let not the laurels so nobly won on the 10th instant at the battle of the Oak Hills be tarnished by a single trespass upon the property of the citizens of Missouri.

The quartermasters of regiments will purchase all that can be had in the country for your use.

Let it not be said of us that we are not gentlemen as well as soldiers.

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier. General, Commanding.

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FORT PILLOW, August 16, 1861.

General PILLOW:

GENERAL: You have passed the night, I hope, without an attack, and as the movements of the enemy are not very clear or his purposes plain, I cannot but also hope he may have determined not to occupy the island, and so have left you alone. His movement down to that island last night, and the facility with which he might manifestly take possession of and occupy it, very much strengthens the conclusion I arrived at before leaving Memphis for your camp, and which, as I remarked in the council held at my quarters yesterday, it was the principal object of my visit to state to you, to wit, the paramount importance of our holding it ourselves, and that, too, by a portion of the force under your command. I have to repeat, therefore, the instructions given you last night in the dispatch sent you by the hands of Captain Gray, that you order Colonel McCown’s brigade to advance to Island No. 10 and occupy and fortify it, as well as the main shore on the Tennessee side. I have placed the reconnaissance of the ground for this work, and the construction of the batteries, under my engineer, Captain Gray, who has already, under my instructions, given attention to that subject.

The propriety of further delay in any movement contemplated by you in Missouri, by which you would be removed from Tennessee, is more urgently demanded by the fact that I have this moment received a dispatch from Richmond ordering the immediate removal of the two {p.654} Mississippi regiments, now at Union City, forward to Knoxville to General Zollicoffer, whose command is seriously threatened at that place. If the command of Colonel McCown should be threatened, I shall of course expect you to proceed to his support, with all your forces, if circumstances should require it.

In my dispatch of last night, already alluded to, I expressed the opinion that if the enemy was coming down in the force reported to me it would be expedient for you to cross the river with the whole of your command into Tennessee.

In regard to compliance with this order, you are left to conform your action to the exigencies of the case. I have to repeat that, so soon as the condition of the force in my hands shall be strong enough, I shall with pleasure furnish you the troops necessary to proceed with your movement on Missouri. In the mean season I suggest whether it might not be well to take measures for having the plank road out from Point Pleasant put into passable condition. In the condition of uncertainty resting on affairs above, I have stopped the Hill at this place and caused her to discharge a lot of mules and other things she had for you, she being wanted for service in another direction. These things shall be sent forward so soon as you will say you desire them.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding P. A. C. S.

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NEW MADRID, August 16, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: We had no attack last night and nothing occurred after you left. There were two gunboats (nothing else) in the chase of last night; they stopped and lay up against the bank below Island No. 10 until about 11 o’clock, and them returned. They had no troops except those necessary to man their guns, and it was simply a chase after the Grampus; failing in overhauling her, they returned. At 2 o’clock last night I received the inclosed communication from Thompson, which explains itself; also the inclosed Extra Republican, from which it is now certain that a battle, and bloody one, has been fought between McCulloch’s and Lyon’s forces, in which the latter was defeated and Lyon killed. The reports of this battle before were premature (but like Manassas, which was preceded by similar reports), but now it is certain. You will perceive from the Republican that it has thrown everything into commotion. These things explain the statement made by the captain of the captured steamer last night, viz, that the Uncle Sam moved off with a boat load of troops up the river yesterday morning, and that the forces at Norfolk (6 miles below Cairo) were all removed night before last; it explains and confirms the report of Mr. Chew, as given me by General Thompson in his dispatch. In fine, it explains everything, and the various reports through different channels all agree and corroborate and confirm the statements in the Saint Louis Republican. The Grampus went above, saw the gunboats last night, lay up and watched them, and has now gone up to Hickman. I now therefore comprehend all the enemy’s movements. His whole force (except 2,000 at Bird’s Point) is drawn up to Saint Louis, to save that city and protect his retreating force, crippled and cut to pieces. You will hence perceive the importance of now pressing him from all points by urging our forces forward. The Island No. 10 will do the enemy no good without {p.655} troops. The great city of Saint Louis, with its capital, shops, and bank capital, the point from which all his operations must be directed, is in imminent danger, and will fall if we push up our operations, and then he will have received a blow paralyzing him more than if Washington was captured.

If you will only order me up one more regiment, and push up my transportation, and let Capt. W. H. Jackson come forward with my battery and the additional ordnance and subsistence stores on board the Hill, I will drive everything out of my way, join Hardee in five days, and push on to Saint Louis, destroying the railroad; but for God’s sake don’t hold me back or cripple me for a want which will wait on you until the work of emancipating Missouri is completed.

Your dispatch of last night is received and contents carefully read. You will perceive that the steps ordered by you, and based entirely on impressions and information of last night, would be modified by the new light we now have. All of our impressions from then existing lights are totally changed by the developments since you left, showing that the enemy at that very moment was hurrying his forces from our front to Saint Louis, and that the movement involved the fall of his cause in the West. Under all these circumstances I will suspend any action in regard to the island movement until I can hear from you. Captain Gray will remain here until we get your answer. I cannot doubt if you were here now your views would correspond with mine as to the eminent importance of pressing forward. I can push forward in two days after you return the Hill.

Don’t lose a moment’s time in answering.

Your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 16, 1861.

Capt. CHARLES PRICE, Commanding Dragoons, Present:

DEAR SIR: You will proceed on your march, as ordered last night, although the Tennesseeans have returned; join Lieutenant Dunson, and go as near Bird’s Point as possible, to obtain information of what is going on there. I understand the enemy has called in all his workmen and guards. Be very vigilant, keeping out flankers, so that you may not be cut off. He has two companies of dragoons, but they are not your equal in prowess, if you are not surprised. If you find these reports are true, you must send us some more goods and transportation from the neighborhood of Charleston and the country stores around that point of country. We need clothes, boots, shoes, candles, soap, and many other articles, which your judgment will prompt. Prevent private stealing and personal revenge, but remember we are at war, and must be provided with certain necessaries. Send me a courier each two hours, after you reach Charleston. You will remain until relieved.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 16, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR I have ordered the Mississippians, two companies of my dragoons, and my Third Regiment to advance on Benton and Hamburg, {p.656} to feel the strength of the enemy. I believe he will retire at once, in which case I will drive him out of Scott County. I have sent my First Regiment up to Jones’ Ford, to relieve the Third. I have sent 80 of my dragoons to Hickory Ridge, to watch Cape Girardeau, and two companies of dragoons to the neighborhood of Bird’s Point. Some strange commotion is evidently going on among the enemy, and strong vedettes will make him more cautious, if he has any design upon us. If he is going to Saint Louis (which I believe), the sooner we get a point on the river between Cairo and Saint Louis the better. Captain Neely says the enemy is confined to the limits of his works at Bird’s Point, last night having called in all his workmen and guards from the railroad. I send a requisition for some strapped shot, which you will please send me as speedily as possible.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 16, 1861-4 o’clock.

Brig. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, C. S. A., Greenville, or en route:

DEAR GENERAL: I inclose you another dispatch* from General Pillow. While we are resting on our oars, except the demonstrations I will make at Bird’s Point, and other points around me, our enemy is in the greatest commotion. All the troops at Bird’s Point went up the river yesterday, but how far I have not yet learned. Four gunboats ran down to New Madrid, to keep General Pillow there, but I am satisfied that they had no troops aboard, and only intended to cover some other movement. The enemy will either land in force at Cape Girardeau or concentrate their whole force at Saint Louis, to make a demonstration at you or to cover the retreat of Lyon’s troops, whom I am satisfied have been totally routed, although they are reported as retreating in order by the Saint Louis Democrat. I send 80 dragoons to watch Cape Girardeau, and one of them will bear this to you, and can tell you whether the Cape is the point or not. I have heard that the Iron Mountain Railroad has been crippled. I hope the time to narrow the circle around Saint Louis has come, and that our coils are strong enough to crush the enemy at once.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 16, 1861-8 p. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I send you a dispatch from Cleburne and a courier from Hardee.* My men from Charleston report still no more men outside of Bird’s Point. My expedition into Scott County has not sent me a single messenger, and I believe they are clearing out the whole county, and prefer the credit of doing the whole job alone. I would like very much to have your permission to advance, as I am sure that I can take {p.657} Cape Girardeau without firing a gun by marching these moonlight nights and taking them by surprise. Every one gives me the credit of having at least 7,000 men, and I have them frightened nearly to death. If you will allow the move, let me know it by one of my couriers tonight, so that I can make my first march in the morning, and appear before the Cape at daybreak on Sunday. If I cannot make them capitulate I will retire to Jackson, where the troops at Fredericktown will be a reserve for me.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* No inclosures found.

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FORT PILLOW, August 17, 1861.

[General PILLOW:]

GENERAL: In my dispatch of yesterday I gave you instructions to order Colonel McCown’s brigade forward to occupy and fortify Island No. 10 and the main shore on the Tennessee side; and informed you that I had ordered the reconnaissance to be made by Captain Gray, under whose supervision the works would be constructed. The order I hope you executed promptly; if so, they will be prepared for the relief I am now sending them, and the work of seizure which I have deemed of such great importance to the security of my Department will have been effected, and the armament be more or less in place by the time this reaches you. I have ordered Walker’s regiment forward to their post, and shall to-day send forward Neely’s regiment, with the three artillery companies from Randolph, under Major Stewart, to relieve Colonel McCown at Island No. 10. Colonel McCown, in the order given Colonel Neely to relieve him, is ordered to report immediately to you for duty. I feel myself able to relieve Colonel McCown from the duty to which he was assigned thus early, because of intelligence I have received from headquarters at Memphis that a liberal response is being made to my call for troops from below, and this notwithstanding the withdrawal of the two Mississippi regiments for service in East Tennessee.

I have ordered Capt. Hamilton Jackson to proceed on the Alonzo Child to you with his company and to report for orders. I have also sent forward on the Child the freight brought up by the Hill, of which I wrote you yesterday. You will find 50 wagons, with mules, on the Ingomar. The wagon-master who put the mules ashore from the Hill will report what he has.

You may now proceed with your movement into Missouri as soon as you are ready, and I hope you will proceed cautiously, while you proceed firmly, in making your way out from the swamps into the open country of Missouri. I send forward all the subsistence stores that were on the Hill, which, together with the quartermaster and other stores on the Ingomar and the Child, I hope are all that you need. If you want more, let me know. As to ordnance stores, I take it for granted you have ordered what you require, and that they too may be on the boats going up or are being sent forward from Memphis.

Hoping you may have a prosperous campaign, I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Department.

P. S.-I inclose you the last dispatches* which have reached us through {p.658} the wires. We have heard also from Virginia – that Lee has met and defeated Rosecrans, and taken almost the whole of his command prisoners. It is believed to be true.

I shall, as soon as I can, concentrate a large force at No. 10, as well for the purpose of strengthening it as for the purpose of its forming a reserve for operations on Missouri, but I cannot say how soon; you shall be advised when this is done, let me hear from you often. I shall keep a small steamer to ply between the post at No. 10 and the end of the wires at Randolph, passing this post. These wires shall be extended to this post as soon as possible; also from Union City to No. 10.

* Inclosure not found.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 17, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: I send down the New Falls City to get some supplies for this army. We have only rations of bacon for two or three days. My outposts and scouts report that the enemy have drawn in all the working parties on the railroad and keep out no pickets at Bird’s Point. We have driven the enemy from Benton and Hamburg and into Cape Girardeau. I am ready to advance if I had my transportation. I telegraphed you from Hickman to-day. Let me have the Hill as early as possible. I can pass on the direct route to the Cape. [Illegible] of Frémont’s have been drawn up to Saint Louis except the garrison, as stated to you yesterday. Colonel McCown and Captain Gray are engaged in a reconnaissance of Island No. 10. Please send back the boats at once.

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Sikeston, Mo., August 17, 1861-8 a. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: I have waited anxiously for the order, but as none has arrived, I have acted upon the circumstances which surround me, and have made the following disposition for this day: My First and Third Regiments are ordered to encamp at Jones’ Ford (about 800 men); the Mississippi cavalry, Neely’s Tennesseeans, and two companies of dragoons are at Watkins’ farm (325); the Scott County Battalion are ordered to occupy the church or fort at Hamburg; Brown’s battalion is ordered to Benton (250); Haywood’s rangers and Price’s dragoons (125) will vedette Bird’s Point. Hunter and Jennings, with four full companies, will remain here (300); also Burns’, Flunkies’, and Partizin’s (about 200). In all, 500. If your permission to move comes, I will move my headquarters to Benton. The Cape must be taken by surprise, to prevent the removal of the specie from the banks. If you will send me a few more companies of dragoons I will take it to-morrow, probably by capitulation, and by storm anyhow.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.659}

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 17, 1861.

Maj. J. H. MILLER, Commanding Advance, Watkins’ Farm, Mo.:

DEAR MAJOR: I have just received a dispatch from Captain Neely, informing me of the landing of steamboats at Commerce. I believe their stay will be temporary, but it will be well to watch them close, and if you can hit them a rap, to do so. Pillow’s column will probably move on Monday morning, and I am ordered to remain in statu quo until then. If the disposition of my troops beyond Jones’ Ford does not suit you, you can change them. I had intended to move forward to-night, but I have orders to await the arrival of Pillow’s column.

The distrust and bad feeling at New Madrid is distressing-General Polk either does not understand the people of Missouri or he belongs to the ox telegraph line. He has again ordered General Pillow to return to Union City, but Pillow refuses to obey. It he takes the troops away, I will call for volunteers, and fight on my own hook. I rely upon your superior judgment and discretion for the safety of my men beyond Jones’ Ford.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 17, 1861-6 o’clock.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Yours, by Captain White, was received last night.* I am astonished that rumors should have reached New Madrid that I had left your stores exposed. I have and will keep at this place, until relieved, four companies infantry (about 300 men) and about 200 dragoons. Neely’s and Haywood’s camps are still here, although they are both out on duty. I herewith send you a requisition for a tent for my own use. I have been sleeping about more like a stray dog than a general, and the State of Missouri has not a yard of material suitable for tents nor money to buy it with. I do not care about a regular marquee, unless you have a surplus, but anything that will answer the purpose. A dispatch from Major Miller this morning reports all safe in Scott County. I will move to Watkins’ farm or Benton this morning, and await your orders.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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CAMP SIKESTON, MO., August 17, 1861-8 p. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I have left my command in statu quo since I wrote to you at noon. Nothing has occurred since to change my opinion about my being able to take Cape Girardeau, but my delay has filled my hands with business nearer home. I have just received a dispatch from Captain Neely, which I inclose to you.* The mill spoken of is of {p.660} vast importance to us, and the one alluded to in one of my previous letters. I believe myself they will immediately leave. If they do not, I will take a small crack at them, to cover our movements. I continue to fire my morning and evening gun, as if the whole brigade was here. If you wish a legal excuse to advance, withdraw your control over me for a few hours, and then come to my rescue. We must not lose this moon; the weather may change and the swamp become impassable. I will, if necessary, wait patiently your order, but may move my headquarters to Watkins’ farm to-morrow.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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NEW MADRID, August 18, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: Your dispatch of yesterday is acknowledged. Your order in regard to fortifying Island No. 10 and the adjacent banks on the Tennessee side, to be constructed under directions of Captain Gray, are being carried out. Captain Gray does not want Neely’s regiment, and proposed that I should furnish him with four good companies of Americans, under command of a competent officer. I have at his request made the exchange, and placed the battalion under command of Major Hamilton, a fine officer.

I have driven the enemy from every position he occupied to Cape Girardeau, and I now occupy all those places from which he has been expelled. I advance a brigade forward to-day with field battery. I now see my way clear to Ironton, where I will unite with Hardee. We will then have a column of about 14,000 men, and well equipped in every arm.

It will be proper [for] you to advance one of the field batteries from Union City to the position occupied by Captain Gray. He will fortify the east bank first; he and McCown concur in opinion, after a thorough reconnaissance, that the battery on that bank at the present stage of water commands the entire channel and island; that order should be given for the field batteries to advance at once. Captain Gray says he will have 300 negroes at work to-morrow. I have wheelbarrows enough here, but he will need more spades; there are plenty at Randolph and Fort Pillow. Some of them should be ordered to him by [the] Fairchild, on her return.

I will render you a good account of my command. We will set Missouri upon her feet in less than sixty days.

Frémont is fortifying Saint Louis, showing he gives up the country, but wants to hold the city of mechanics, shops, and money, from which all the railroads, telegraph lines, and river communications diverge over the country. I will try to keep a line of communication by post. I send back the Fairchild for some more harness. Order them to me at once. I expect my whole column will be in motion by Wednesday morning. I need fifty more wagons badly. Peters writes me he has them. Send them with harness.

Yours, truly,

GID. J. PILLOW, Commanding General.

{p.661}

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HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE, New Madrid, Mo., August 18, 1861.

Maj. G. A. HENRY, Assistant Adjutant-General:

In accordance with instructions from General Pillow, I made a reconnaissance of Island No. 10 and the left bank of the Mississippi. I have only to reiterate what I formerly said on the subject to Governor Harris and General Pillow, viz: That Island No. 10, as the center of the line, the right at Union City and the left near Chalk Bluff; is the strongest position for the defense of the Mississippi Valley. If I had time I would demonstrate this fact.

Yours, &c.,

J. P. MCCOWN, Colonel Artillery, Commanding Brigade.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 18, 1861.

To the OFFICER IN COMMAND AT CAMP SIKESTON, MO.:

SIR: I am going to-night, with a gun, to take a position on the Mississippi River and fire into some passing steamboats, to make them believe we are cutting off Cairo. I would like a demonstration made on Bird’s Point or a rumor of one sent in. I would prefer the demonstration; that is, drive in their pickets and keep them in until the movement of General Pillow up to Sikeston or this point is completely covered. I can make no other suggestions, as I do not know who is in command by this time. If only my own men, have a consultation and show your talent.

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 18, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., New Madrid. Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I will cover your whole plan of operations to-night by making a demonstration on Commerce, and to-morrow by making one on Bird’s Point. The enemy has come to the conclusion that all of our attention has been drawn away from Bird’s Point and Cairo and is being directed upon Cape Girardeau and Saint Louis. I will go tonight with the Mississippi Cavalry and one gun to some favorable hill, near Commerce, and drop a shot into some passing steamboats, and, if you will allow a demonstration to-morrow on Bird’s Point, a new campaign will be opened or the other covered up. I will direct a part of the force I left at Sikeston to move towards Bird’s Point, and if one of your regiments would help them, you might carry the place. After this demonstration to-night, which I hope will cover our whole movement, I will remain quiet until you move up.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 18, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., Commanding Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: Yours of yesterday, containing dispatches from General Hardee, is at hand. The dispatch will be forwarded immediately. {p.662} The information contained in your note is very gratifying, and I will welcome your arrival in Benton. I will have all the wells in the neighborhood thoroughly examined and repaired, and will have schedule of all the corn, oats, and hay in the townships taken before your arrival and properly distributed and concentrated. I have 250 head of beef cattle at Bloomfield, which can be brought up at any time, and there is an abundance on the line of our march. I have no change to report since mine of the forenoon.

I hope some of the troops will be up immediately, as the chances are that Marsh may hear the truth as to the paucity of my men and attempt to give me a fight to-morrow or next day, and I am anxious to run him through a thrashing-machine.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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NEAR NEW MADRID, August 19, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

SIR: On the arrival of steamboat Hill at this point yesterday morning, I was ordered verbally by General Pillow’s officer to take my command off boat and proceed to the interior with other troops then moving. I did not do so. The officer then made one in writing. I then made my appearance at the general’s quarters, and told him I was under orders to go to Island 10. He replied he understood all, and made other arrangements with you, and issued another more peremptory order. I then reported myself to Captain Gray, your topographical engineer, named in your instructions, and he directed me to do as General Pillow ordered; that the general had furnished him all the force he wanted. I then disembarked my troops and left, getting out a few miles, where I now give the facts, hoping that you will approve of my course. Not being near enough or having the means of communicating with you, was at a loss to know what to do. Carroll’s regiment was assigned duty at No. 10, together with an artillery company or two.

Thanking you for your kindness, and hoping you may be successful in all you desire, I am, very respectfully, yours,

R. P. NEELY, Colonel, Commanding Fourth Regiment Tennessee.

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FORT PILLOW, TENN., August 19, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Commanding Army Corps, Missouri:

GENERAL: The major-general commanding has received your dispatch of yesterday in reference to the change you have thought proper to make in the destination of Colonel Neely’s Fourth Regiment and Major Stewart’s battalion of artillery. He directs me to say to you that the orders addressed to the two officers commanding these corps were directed to them personally from headquarters, and that he expected them to be complied with. The commanding general therefore directs that the original detail be at once complied with, viz, Colonel Neely, Fourth Regiment, and Major Stewart, battalion of artillery, will immediately {p.663} repair to Island No. 10, relieving any troops that are stationed there, and remain there.

[No signature.]

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Benton, Mo., August 19, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Commanding Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I would report to you that last evening, at 7 o’clock, I left this place with two companies of Major Miller’s dragoons, one platoon of Jeffries’ dragoons (Missourians), and one 6-pounder, McDowell’s battery, and went in the direction of Commerce. When we arrived within 1 mile of the place we were informed that the enemy, 700 strong, with one gunboat and one steamboat, were still at the place. To draw the fire of the guard, and startle the men, ordered the squadron and gun to go in a trot, do them what damage they could, and, if necessary, retreat. The order was executed in gallant style, but, as usual, the enemy had flown before our arrival. The whole force was then masked, and, in perfect order and quiet, remained waiting for the return of the male citizens of the place, who have been in the habit of going to Illinois to sleep and returning in the morning. About sunrise a boat, containing six men, was seen crossing above the town, directly upon an ambushed picket of mine. I ordered a squad of Mississippians up to strengthen my picket and capture them, but their spirited horses and anxious riders made too much haste, and alarmed the party in the boat before they landed, and they pulled hurriedly back to the Illinois shore, when they struck on a dry sand bar, about three-fourths of the way across the river. They were joined by four more men, and it was discovered that all were armed. They being out of reach of our small guns, and, as we had been discovered by the people on the Illinois shore, who would warn all steamboats not to come within our reach, I let my artillerist try a round shot at them, which, having fallen short, or rather having been aimed too low, the enemy taunted us, and I gave them three more rounds. The pickets were by this time firing at them, and they scampered away, firing their guns at us, but not taking time to reload. We then displayed our force on the bank of the river and retired. I had the warehouse examined, and procured some bacon, flour, corn, whisky, &c., and also some blankets from a warehouse, which have all been properly turned over to the quartermaster.

The men all behaved with exceedingly good propriety, and no house was opened, except by order of the officers, and no private residence was opened or examined, to my knowledge. I left word with the women to tell the men, on their return home, that they might return home and attend to their present business without molestation; and, as they had prepared and expected the town to be burned, I hope they will be agreeably disappointed. I should have held the place, if possible, but as my pickets will cut off communication, the enemy will not occupy it, except in large force, by which time your troops will be up, and we will run him again. I will acknowledge that I did wrong to accompany the expedition (in some respects, dignity, &c.), but I had been directing so many little forays, without going into any myself, that I was fearful I might not be appreciating the fun, and the men might get tired of it; and also I wished to make the enemy believe my whole command was in reserve, if necessary, and thus divert his attention from other points. {p.664} Major Miller stood the fatigue very well, and his officers and men are gallant gentlemen and brave soldiers. I will now try to remain perfectly quiet until re-enforced and ordered.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 19, 1861-6 p. m.

Col. MCCOWN, Commanding Brigade, Camp Sikeston, Mo.:

DEAR COLONEL: Yours, containing the welcome accounts of your advance, is at hand. Unless you really can divert, and really take Bird’s Point, which I believe can be done, please hurry on up to this point, as the enemy may find out my weakness while my men are scattered, and come out to give me a battle. I took Commerce last night, and have stopped the navigation of the Mississippi, by firing three strapped shots and one canister, from an old iron 6-pounder, over into Illinois. I left Commerce at 10 o’clock to-day, but no boats have passed since, and when you come up we will close navigation effectually. I will try to make the necessary preparations for you in the way of forage, &c. Hoping to see you shortly, I will conclude by assuring you again of a hearty welcome.

Yours, truly,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Greenville Mo., August 20, 1861.

Maj. Gen. L. POLK, Commanding, &c., Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I sent Colonel Borland to-day to confer with General Pillow respecting our future operations. In the event of disagreement, I suggested that reference should be had to you. Colonel Borland is in possession of my views and is well acquainted with the resources of this part of Missouri. I wish, indeed, that you could see him. I do not see much prospect at present for striking a blow. The Ironton Railroad is still intact and Ironton itself largely re-enforced. I apprehend that if Pillow should unite his forces with mine, that we are too weak, combined, to march on Saint Louis. I am ready and anxious to attempt anything which may afford the prospect of success. I learn that one of the boats loaded with provisions has reached Pocahontas. I desire to express my acknowledgment for the cordial assistance you have in all cases extended to my command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, New Madrid, August 20, 1861.

Major General POLK:

GENERAL: I send you inclosed a communication from Moore,* the {p.665} matter being furnished by the Cairo correspondent. One item of importance in the intelligence is the fact that a man named McGuire, a spy, has been sent to Union City and Memphis. I give you the intelligence that you may have him looked after. He might be secured and imprisoned until the end of these troubles. The captain of the Equality is just in from the works at Island No. 10, and brought me this letter. He further says that the work is progressing rapidly; that there are 150 negroes at work; that the works will soon be in condition to mount the guns; that they are now in position to be used if necessary.

The Missouri pickets are said to have had a fight at Charleston yesterday, in which they were worsted. It is said that 2 were killed and 4 or 5 taken prisoners. They were, from the facts, criminally negligent. They were acting under the orders of General Thompson.

Lieutenant-Colonel McGehee has gone on after Colonel Neely to deliver your order in person. If Neely should return under the order, which I cannot suppose you would have given had you known all the circumstances and the condition of things, it will greatly imperil the forces already 40 miles from me. It will require four days to throw forward other troops for their relief. Reciting in my order the circumstances of the case, I directed Neely to proceed on the march; but what he will do I cannot tell. I only know that I had no idea you would be offended at my agreeing to what your engineer requested. I was glad to make the exchange, as it gave me more force with which to advance upon a perilous duty. I have no motive to gratify but to serve the country; and it seems to me that you ought to be disposed to strengthen the force all you could. If I have not your confidence, and if I am to be tied down and allowed no discretion, I certainly cannot but regard it unfortunate that I yielded to your wishes and accepted a command my feelings so strongly prompted me to decline. It is to me strange that my official intercourse with you is rendered both embarrassing and unpleasant when not intended on my part. If I have fitness for command you ought not to incline to cripple my energies. If I have not, and possess not your confidence, it would be better for the interest of the service that I had not been intrusted with this important command.

I should be glad to hear from you before I leave, but I fear I cannot. If I should shrink from the responsibility of acting upon my own clear convictions in a case involving the safety of the forces under my command, even though in doing so I disobeyed your orders I would then indeed, be unworthy your confidence. If I have done right, I should be glad to know that you approve. If wrong, I do not shrink from the responsibility of action which I feel bound by every principle of duty to my command to take.

With respect,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, Mo., August 20, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

GENERAL: Your dispatch by Lieutenant-Colonel McGehee is acknowledged. Colonel Neely’s regiment marched on yesterday to support my advance now at Benton in front of the enemy, the pickets of the two forces having frequent collisions. This force is in an exposed position. Two dispatches reached me last night from Thompson and McCown, {p.666} asking me to immediately strengthen their force. Before orders could reach Neely’s regiment, I think it will have arrived at Sikeston. To order it back now would greatly endanger the force already at Benton. My transportation is so short that I cannot before to-morrow start any other force, unless I were to leave my subsistence and ordnance stores here, which I cannot do. I must therefore move these with the rear of the command. Under these circumstances, I can hardly suppose you would have ordered that regiment back, and I have declined doing so. In my former dispatch I informed you that the exchange of Neely’s regiment for the battalion under command of Major Hamilton was made at the instance and request of your engineer, Captain Gray, to whom you had intrusted the work of fortifying the island and adjacent bank of the river. This I now repeat was the case. The battalion of Major Stewart is not diverted from that work. The three companies you ordered up are all there with him, besides the battalion of infantry, and the work is progressing as you ordered it. But for the fact stated, the condition of my advance at Benton, of Neely’s position, and my shortness of transportation to push up other supporting force, I would have ordered Neely back, but as it is I cannot. To do so might and probably would cost the sacrifice of one-third the force under my command.

Respectfully,

GID. J. PILLOW, General, Commanding.

I send down the Falls City with requisition to supply the wants of the command at the island works. I do not know what they are. They have not made their wants known to me. They report the work as progressing well.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Sikeston, Mo., August 20, 1861-3 p. m.

Col. MCCOWN, Commanding Brigade, C. S. Army, Camp Watkins, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Not having heard anything more from Sikeston, I presume the alarm there this morning was false, and some of my militia ran away from a picket of the enemy. We are apparently perfectly safe here, as the navigation of the Mississippi has been effectually closed. I have a detachment now at Commerce, bringing away the balance of the corn. It will be well to leave your force at Watkins until we are prepared to advance to Abys, as there is no water between the two places sufficient for your uses. I hope you will come up to-morrow, and we can talk over the plans. The copy of instructions you alluded to I have never yet seen.

Yours, truly,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, Mo., August 21, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War of the Confederate States:

I acknowledge the reception of your dispatch of the 12th instant. In compliance with your directions I inclose a list of the officers of my personal {p.667} staff and of Brigadier-General Cheatham’s staff, and of the general staff on duty with me in this army.* I include in this list the quartermaster and commissary on depot duty at Memphis, who are still supplying my wants in their respective arms of the service. I respectfully ask their reappointment in the Confederate States service, and in the order in which their names are mentioned, the list as it is prepared giving correctly their relative rank as given by the governor of Tennessee.

An opportunity being afforded me in this reply to your dispatch, I will advise you of the strength of the forces under my command and of the different arms of the service, supposing that the President would be pleased to have this information. I have of all arms about 10,000 men. Two thousand of these are Missourians, badly armed. The balance of these are Tennesseeans, and about 600 Mississippians. The Tennesseeans and Mississippians are well armed. I have two six-gun, one four-gun, and one five-gun battery and two siege guns with me, together with a good supply of ammunition for all. I have thrown forward my advance to Benton, 40 miles from this place, and within 15 miles of Cape Girardeau, where we expect to engage the enemy. In that section of the country I expect to unite my force with Brigadier-General Hardee, who has only about 4,500 men all told. When we meet, from his rank, he will take command of the whole, unless in courtesy he allows me to command, which is not probable. I have made a great effort to get this force in the field, to arm it, and procure munitions for its use. Indeed, nearly all the arms and munitions of war held by the State were gathered together and procured by myself, at an expense of $200,000 in cash, raised on my private resources, which has not been reimbursed me by Tennessee. With the facts before you, and with my past history and services to the country, with which I presume you to be familiar, you can judge with what reluctance I yield the command to an officer who was a captain under me in the Mexican war while I was a major-general. Why is it that I have been placed in position and ranked by nearly every general officer of the Confederate Army when it is known that I ranked every officer now in that Army in my long term of service in the Mexican war, in which service General Scott’s official reports fully testified that I did my duty and sustained myself in every trial? Why this is I know not, but the facts are as I state them. I do not address you this letter in the way of complaint, but in my present position and rank it is certain that but little can be effected by me. I do not feel that I can render to the country services at all commensurate with the public expectations. I shall continue to perform my duty as best I can, whatever may be the result.

I expect to engage the enemy at Cape Girardeau. He is there in force, and is fortifying his position day and night. He has removed most of his forces from Cairo and Bird’s Point to Saint Louis and the Cape. My advance upon the Cape is difficult, on account of the forces at Cairo and the point being on my flank. I have, however, no other route upon which I can advance. I am now throwing forward my ordnance and subsistence stores, and will move the rear of the force from this place on the day after to-morrow. I would have been off some time since but for my shortness of transportation and for General Polk’s orders and varying views and countermanding orders, repeatedly made, thus crippling my operations and movements.

With respect,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Omitted.

{p.668}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Fort Pillow, August 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Commanding Army Corps, Missouri:

GENERAL: The major-general commanding has received your dispatch of yesterday, assigning to him your reasons for diverting the Fourth Regiment, not under your command, from the destination assigned it, and for declining to restore it to its assigned post. In reply thereto the general directs me to say that he disapproves entirely of the course you have thought proper to pursue in disposing of a body of troops making no part of your command, having their own special instructions in reference to a particular duty required of them, and which the correspondence of their commander with headquarters shows to have been reluctantly complied with, if not protested against.

I am further desired by the commanding general to communicate to you his surprise that a suggestion of a subordinate engineer officer, whose only office was to indicate the point to be fortified and superintend the construction of the works, should be accepted by you as an authority for superseding orders issued from headquarters.

I am directed further to say that you have so arranged matters in connection with the movement and position of this body of troops as possibly to render it by this time (as advised by your dispatch of yesterday) most important he should not disturb your combinations. The regard he entertains for the safety of your command and the advantage of the service admonish him to make no change at this late hour; but, considering you have usurped an authority not properly your own, by which you have thwarted and embarrassed his arrangements and operations for the general defense, he feels it his duty to submit to the War Department the position you have thought proper to assume.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

LEWIS G. DE RUSSY.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 21, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

GENERAL: I cannot move on the expedition ordered without more transportation. I have received only the small lot of wagons and mules that were on the Hill, 43, when you turned them back. Forty of the mules that were on the boat were never brought up at all. You wrote me just before that you would send me 100 more, and I sent a boat for them, and am just advised that there is not a wagon coming or on hand in Memphis to come. I learn, further, Peters is superseded, so that I am now powerless. I have only received in all from Memphis 103 wagons. My ordnance stores alone require 64 wagons, and allowing 2 wagons to the company to move my troops requires 170 wagons, and my subsistence stores, which I am obliged to have, require from 70 to 80, making a total needed to move as light as possible, 314. I have gathered in by seizing country wagons of the most indifferent character about 100, many without harness and all without beds or covers. Peters being superseded, I came now make no order on him, and I am powerless to provide for the case. I am sending forward detachments of troops, and then following with subsistence, turning back the trains, and then trying to get forward, but I can effect nothing in {p.669} this way, and I [incur] great risk to my supplies and men by this system of business.

My forces are now in three bodies, 20 miles apart, and my subsistence and ordnance stores divided in the same way, and you will perceive at once that my whole movement must break down. I have relied confidently upon getting the wagons from Memphis, or I would not have attempted to move at all. I send down the Cheney again to get some wagons and harness. I will be forced to fall back, or go forward and risk the loss of my stores, if I do not get transportation. My only reliance is in your having me supplied.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Benton, Mo., August 21, 1861.

Captain O’REIRDON, Commanding Artillery, Present:

SIR: I am rather astonished that you should encourage the idea that the war in which we are engaged is one to revenge private wrongs and reimburse private losses, by giving your sergeant an order for a watch, which he claims because he lost one. If I understand the purpose of the war, it is for the liberty of my State; that she may have the right to regulate her own affairs and control her own citizens and property without the interference of the abolition government of Abraham Lincoln, and not for private aggrandizement, ambition, or revenge. I hope you will impress this upon your men and caution them against violating General Orders, Nos. 17 and 23.

Yours, very respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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LITTLE ROCK, August 22, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

The Fourteenth Regiment of Arkansas is at Yellville. It is one of the regiments transferred to General Hardee by agreement with Gibson P. Johnson, as agent of the Department. We understand that General Hardee does not wish to receive it. General Polk has dispatched us, requesting the regiment included in the agreement with Mr. Johnson, but the regiment at Yellville is too distant en route to send him with any convenience. General Hardee has ordered the troops first transferred to him from the northwest of the State to headquarters. This leaves McCulloch’s command small, and but a portion of the State most liable to assault not well defended. Will you order to send this regiment to McCulloch? Reply.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor and President.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Fort Pillow, Tenn., August 23, 1861.

[General PILLOW:]

GENERAL: Your dispatch of the 21st is received. In reply I have to say that I am gratified to find you repudiating what otherwise would {p.670} seem to be the only construction to be put upon the course pursued by you in regard to Colonel Neely’s regiment, to wit, a disposition to consult your own convenience, to gratify your own wishes, and to set up your own judgment in opposition to the positive orders of the commanding general.

You spoke, nevertheless, of the inconvenience of being tied down “and allowed no discretion,” and suggest that your “energies should not be crippled.”

I am not aware of the existence of any evidence of a disposition to do anything of that kind at headquarters. On the contrary, I am conscious of the desire to give to you the largest discretion and the most efficient support inside of the sphere embraced by your command; and I may add, you will never find the exercise of your discretion curtailed, except when there seems to be a disposition manifested to exceed your lawful authority.

But your explanation is satisfactory, and I waived the transmission of the correspondence to Richmond and all further notice or recollection of the matter, and hope you may have a brilliant and successful campaign.

I send you by the Ohio Belle forty mules, the larger part of which were of the lot put on shore there, and allowed to escape on the landing of the Hill.

I send you a copy of an order sent by me to the quartermaster, Anderson, at Memphis, in regard to other transportation. Let me know if you will want what is ordered.

I desire to correct a remark of yours in your dispatch of the 21st, in reference to your lack of facilities since the superseding of Quartermaster Peters. Your facilities should be as great hereafter as they have been heretofore, and you have only to send your requisitions forward, and they shall be promptly responded to.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Department.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 23, 1861.

General POLK:

GENERAL: General Hardee has sent Colonel Borland to see me relative to the co-operation of our commands in the work before us. He tells me that Hardee thinks he cannot advance to Jackson, Cape Girardeau, or any other point. In other words, he thinks himself unable to co-operate at all, but proposes that we shall occupy our positions and await the maturity of the growing crop and the arrival of re-enforcements. This is against my judgment. My opinion is that we should move promptly on the enemy’s positions, and dislodge him before he has time to gather his forces and send them down upon us. I regard the success of everything as depending upon our immediate advance.

My present position is very unsatisfactory if I do not at once advance. I must either go forward or fall back. My force is at Sikeston, Benton, and this place. I was in the act of throwing the forces at this place forward, and would have left to-day with everything. Hardee proposes, if I do not concur in his views, that we refer the matter to you. This {p.671} is all that I can do. I can see no military purpose to be accomplished by my going forward without the co-operation of Hardee-for I could not go beyond Cape Girardeau, and that position is within the line of the enemy, and valueless without advancing farther. I have, therefore, placed the Grampus under the orders of Colonel Borland, to proceed directly to your headquarters, that our policy be at once and as promptly as possible settled by you. I must go forward or fall back. I must better concentrate my forces. In other words, I cannot hold my command in a state of transition. Is it possible for you to come up?

With respect, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

My opinion is that now to fall back is to give up the cause of Missouri and to let the enemy concentrate his forces upon McCulloch to such an extent as to endanger his position and compel him to fall back, and that it will most probably result in an invasion of Arkansas or the West.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 24, 1861.

ALBERT PIKE, Esq., Commissioner of the Confederate States among the Indian Tribes west of Arkansas:

SIR: In order that there shall be no misunderstanding with the friendly Indians west of Arkansas, this Department is anxious that the article in the treaty made by you, guaranteeing to them the right of selecting their own field officers, shall be carried out in good faith. The name of Mr. Garrett will therefore be dropped as colonel of the Creek regiment, and that regiment will proceed to elect its own officers. The regiment being formed among the Seminoles will exercise the same right. Reassure the tribes of the perfect sincerity of this Government toward them.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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CAMP NEAR SPRINGFIELD, MO., August 24, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

The Arkansas troops have all left the service. Now only 3,000 troops are here. A large force ought to be organized at once. The artillery and small-arms ought not to be moved from the West. We have arms for 3,000 men. More should be sent us, if it is possible. Men for twelve months can be raised in Arkansas. Texas offers five regiments for the same term. But little can be expected of Missouri. She has no military leader or arms. Answer. Direct to Col. J. Flournoy, Little Rock, Ark.

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

{p.672}

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HEADQUARTERS, POND SPRING, Near Springfield, August 24, 1861.

General HARDEE:

GENERAL: Yours of August 13 has just reached me. Colonel Hindman left three days since with the Arkansas State troops for Bentonville. They will all decline to enter the Confederate States service at present, but can be re-enlisted for twelve months after twenty days’ absence. It would be a suicidal policy to take any arms now in this quarter away, as it would be next to impossible to get them up Red River in the fall, even if they could be obtained in the South or East.

I am in no condition to advance, or even to meet an enemy here, having little ammunition or supplies of any kind. In fact, with the means of transportation now at my disposal I find it impossible to keep my force supplied, and will, in consequence, shorten my line, by falling back to the Arkansas line, near the Indian Territory, and there proceed to drill and organize a force to meet the enemy when they take the field again in this quarter.

We have little to hope or expect from the people of this State. The force now in the field is undisciplined and led by men who are mere politicians; not a soldier among them to control and organize this mass of humanity. The Missouri forces are in no condition to meet an organized army, nor will they ever be whilst under the present leaders. I dare not join them in my present condition, for fear of having my men completely demoralized, We lost at least 300 stand of arms in the battle of the 10th, taken by their straggling camp followers from my killed and wounded, and before the engagement they borrowed of General Pearce 600 more, none of which they would return after the fight was over. They stole the tents my men left at Cassville to facilitate their march, and brought them after us the next day on the same road. In a word, they are not making friends where they go, and from all I can see we had as well be in Boston as far as the friendly feelings of the inhabitants are concerned.

I would be much pleased to have you join me, but can’t see how you can do so if General Pillow falls back. One thing we may rely upon, and that is, in the event of the continuance of the war, for a large force to be sent in this direction this fall. All the arms, and particularly the artillery, will be needed to meet it.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-I forgot to say General Price marches on Fort Scott in a day or two, and consequently the Federal troops will be in Springfield in a few weeks unless they are pressed too much by yourself and General Pillow, who, to tell you the truth, I fear will meet with a reverse.

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JACKSON, MISS., August 24, 1861.

JEFFERSON DAVIS:

Generals Polk and Hardee ask for field artillery. Several companies have fully armed and equipped, waiting your requisition.

JOHN J. PETTUS.

{p.673}

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Park Hill, August 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Commanding C. S. Army:

SIR: We have the honor to forward you the inclosed copy of the proceedings of a general meeting of the Cherokee people, held at Tahlequah, C. N., August 21, 1861. From those proceedings you will see that the thanks of the Cherokee people are tendered to you for the respect you have shown to the neutral position they have heretofore occupied, and that we are authorized to form an alliance with the Confederate States, which we are determined to do as early as practicable. This determination may give rise to movements against the Cherokee people upon their northern border. To be prepared for any such emergency, we have deemed it prudent to proceed to organize a regiment of mounted men and tender them for service. They will be raised forthwith by Col John Drew, and if received by you will require to be armed. Having abandoned our neutrality and espoused the cause of the Confederate States, we are ready and willing to do all in our power to advance and sustain it.

We have the honor to be, sir, your obedient, humble servants,

JOHN ROSS Principal Chief. J. VANN, Assistant Chief. JAMES BROWN, JOHN DREW, WILL. P. ROSS, Executive Committee.

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[Inclosure.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT Tahlequah, August 21, 1861.

A general meeting of the Cherokee people was held at Tahlequah on Wednesday, the 21st day of August, 1861. It was called by the executive of the Cherokee Nation for the purpose of giving the Cherokee people an opportunity to express their opinions in relation to subjects of deep interest to themselves as individuals and as a nation. The number of persons in attendance, almost exclusively adult males, was about 4,000, whose deportment was characterized by good order and propriety, and the expression of whose opinions and feelings was frank, cordial, and of marked unanimity.

At the appointed time the people met around the speakers’ stand in the public square, when John Ross, principal chief, delivered the following address, which was interpreted by Mr. Alexander Foreman:

FRIENDS AND FELLOW-CITIZENS: It affords me great pleasure to see so many of you on the present occasion. The invitation to you to meet here went from the executive department, in compliance with the wishes of many citizens who desired to make stronger the cords that bind us together and to advance the common welfare. The circumstances under which you have assembled are full of import. You have precious rights at stake, and your posterity, it may be, will be affected by the sentiments you may express. You need not be told that evil times have befallen the great Government with which we have been connected. Rent by dissensions, its component parts stand in hostile array. They have marshaled powerful armies, who have already engaged in deadly conflicts. The United States claim to contend for the integrity of their Government; {p.674} the Confederates for their independence and a government of their own. Gigantic preparations are made by both sides to carry on the war. The calamities, the length, and the result of that war cannot be foretold. The Cherokees will be concerned in its issue, which in all probability, it now appears, will be the establishment of the new government. The attention of your authorities was early directed to the subject from their position and by correspondence with officers of the Confederate States, and the delicate and responsible duty devolved upon them of deciding to some extent the course to be pursued by the Cherokee Nation in the conflict between the whites, to whom she was equally bound in peace and friendship by existing treaties. Our situation is peculiar. Our political relations had long been established with the United States Government, and which embraces the seceding as well as the adhering States. Those relations still exist. The United States have not asked us to engage in the war, and we could not do so without coming into collision with our friends and neighbors, with whom we are identified, by location and similar institutions. Nor, on the other hand, had we any cause to take up arms against the United States, and prematurely and wantonly stake our lives and all our rights upon the hazards of the conflict. I felt it to be my duty, therefore, then to advise the Cherokee people to remain neutral, and issued a proclamation to that effect. I am gratified to know that this course has met the approbation of the great mass of the Cherokee people, and been respected by the officers of both Governments in a manner that commands our highest gratitude. Our soil has not been invaded, our peace has not been molested, nor our rights interfered with by either Government. On the contrary, the people have remained at home, cultivated their farms in security, and are reaping fruitful returns for their labors. But for false fabrications, we should have pursued our ordinary vocations without any excitement at home, or misrepresentations and consequent misapprehensions abroad, as to the real sentiments and purposes of the Cherokee people. Alarming reports, however, have been pertinaciously circulated at home and unjust imputations among the people of the States. The object seems to have been to create strife and conflict, instead of harmony and goodwill, among the people themselves, and to engender prejudice and distrust, instead of kindness and confidence, towards them by the officers and citizens of the Confederate States.

My fellow-citizens, you have now an opportunity to express your views in an authoritative manner upon the policy which has been pursued by your officers in the present juncture of affairs, and upon questions affecting the harmony of the people, and upon the domestic institutions of the country. The people are here. Say whether you are arrayed in classes one against the other-the full-blood against the white and mixed blood citizens; say whether you are faithful to the constitution and laws of your country-whether you abide by all the rights they guarantee, particularly including that of slavery, and whether you have any wish or purpose to abolish or interfere with it in the Cherokee Nation.

The position which I have assumed in regard to all the important questions which affect the Cherokee people has been too often proclaimed to be misunderstood, however much it may be misrepresented. The great object with me has been to have the Cherokee people harmonious and united in the full and free exercise and enjoyment of all their rights of person and property. Union is strength; dissension is weakness, misery, ruin. In time of peace, enjoy peace together; in time of war, if war must come, fight together. As brothers live, as brothers {p.675} die. While ready and willing to defend our firesides from the robber and murderer, let us not make war wantonly against the authority of the United or Confederate States, but avoid conflict with either, and remain strictly on our own soil. We have homes endeared to us by every consideration, laws adapted to our condition of our own choice, and rights and privileges of the highest character. Here they must be enjoyed or nowhere else. When your nationality ceases here, it will live nowhere else. When these homes are lost, you will find no others like them. Then, my countrymen, as you regard your own rights, as you regard the welfare of your posterity, be prudent how you act. The permanent disruption of the United States is now probable. The State on our border and the Indian nations about us have severed their connection from the United States and joined the Confederate States. Our general interests are inseparable from theirs, and it is not desirable that we should stand alone. The preservation of our rights and of our existence are above every other consideration. And in view of all the circumstances of our situation I do say to you frankly that in my opinion the time has now come when you should signify your consent for the authorities of the nation to adopt preliminary steps for an alliance with the Confederate States upon terms honorable and advantageous to the Cherokee Nation.

After the delivery of the address of the principal chief and a few pertinent and forcible remarks from Colonel Crawford, Cherokee agent, the meeting was organized by electing Joseph Vann, assistant principal chief, president, and William P. Ross, secretary. A recess was then had until after dinner, when the people again assembled together. Having been called to order, Pickens M. Benge, on behalf of the people, offered the following preamble and resolutions, which were read in the English and Cherokee languages:

Whereas we, the Cherokee people, have been invited by the executive of the Cherokee Nation, in compliance with the request of many citizens, to meet in general meeting, for the purpose of drawing more closely the bonds of friendship and sympathy which should characterize our conduct and mark our feelings towards each other in view of the difficulties and dangers which have arisen from the fearful condition of affairs among the people of the several States, and for the purpose of giving a free and frank expression of the real sentiments we cherish towards each other, and of our true position in regard to questions which affect the general welfare, and particularly on that of the subject of slavery: Therefore be it hereby

Resolved, That we fully approve the neutrality recommended by the principal chief in the war pending between the United and the Confederate States, and tender to General McCulloch our thanks for the respect he has shown to our position.

Resolved, That we renew the pledges given by the executive of this nation of the friendship of the Cherokees towards the people of all the States, and particularly towards those on our immediate border, with whom our relations have been harmonious and cordial, and from whom they should not be separated.

Resolved, That we also take occasion to renew to the Creeks, Choctaws, Seminoles, Chickasaws, and Osages, and others, assurances of continued friendship and brotherly feeling.

Resolved, That we hereby disavow any wish or purpose to create or perpetuate any distinctions between the citizens of our country as to the full and mixed blood, but regard each and all as our brothers, and {p.676} entitled to equal rights and privileges according to the constitution and laws of the nation.

Resolved, That we proclaim unwavering attachment to the constitution and laws of the Cherokee Nation, and solemnly pledge ourselves to defend and support the same, and as far as in us lies to secure to the citizens of the nation all the rights and privileges which they guarantee to them.

Resolved That among the rights guaranteed by the constitution and laws we distinctly recognize that of property in negro slaves, and hereby publicly denounce as calumniators those who represent us to be abolitionists, and as a consequence hostile to the South, which is both the land of our birth and the land of our homes.

Resolved, That the great consideration with the Cherokee people should be a united and harmonious support and defense of their common rights, and we hereby pledge ourselves to mutually sustain our nationality, and to defend our lives and the integrity of our homes and soil whenever the same shall be wantonly assailed by lawless marauders.

Resolved, That, reposing full confidence in the constituted authorities of the Cherokee Nation, we submit to their wisdom the management of all questions which affect our interests growing out of the exigencies of the relations between the United and Confederate States of America, and which may render an alliance on our part with the latter States expedient and desirable.

And which resolutions, upon the question of their passage being put, were carried by acclamation.

JOSEPH VANN, President. WM. P. ROSS, Secretary.

TAHLEQUAH, C. N., August 21, 1861.

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HEADQUARTERS, New Madrid, August 24, 1861-2 o’clock.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: I have reached this place and find matters as I left them. I am now actively engaged preparing everything to leave in the morning. I learn from a dispatch from Thompson that the enemy is increasing his forces very materially at the Cape. The information is not definite, however, and we cannot tell what his forces are. It enters into my plans, if successful in taking the Cape and I can get across the river with my force, to leave my heavy guns, with a field battery and Thompson’s force, to hold that place, to cut the river line of communication of the enemy, to cross with all the balance of the force over the bridge across the creek 7 miles beyond Cairo and attack that place in reverse, and if I take Cairo, with the guns there drive out the forces in Bird’s Point.

In anticipation of the movement being made and of success, I wish you to give orders to General Clark if I do succeed, and give him intelligence of the fact, immediately to advance all the Union City forces to my position by railroad through Columbus; and in order that water transportation be at hand I think you had better have three or four large boats within reach of this place.

This may all become impossible by obstacles in my way, but I do not now see them; but if I find the work practicable and I can get boats to {p.677} cross the river, it will be attempted, and in view of the possibility of it, I deem these steps on your part prudent and precautionary, without waiting until information could reach you and then orders be sent to Clark.

If I can take Cairo and hold it, it will put an end to the idea of a descent on the river and of course there will be no use of force at Union City.

Your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Benton, Mo., August 24, 1861-7 a. m.

Brig. Gen. B. F. CHEATHAM, C. S. A., Commanding Troops, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: Yours of yesterday was received at midnight.* I am satisfied that the information which has caused the trouble is false but I am also satisfied that if we are delayed much longer we might as well “give up the ship,” for the hordes of the North will soon be poured into Missouri, and the spirit of liberty, that has been enlivened by our successes, will be crushed out by overwhelming masses, and the morale and prestige which we now have over them will be lost. I know that the first duty of a soldier is to obey orders, but I will be very loth to turn back again, and, if we have to be deserted by our Southern friends, I will remain and fight them, if it needs be, solitary and alone. Every hour that has been lost, occasioned by the retreat ordered by General Polk, will cost us a hundred lives. I could have taken Cape Girardeau and closed the navigation of the Mississippi four days ago without losing a man. Now it is doubtful if we can take it at all, as they have found out our strength, or rather my weakness. The position I now have I cannot hold much longer. I must either make a demonstration which will make the enemy wait for me or I must get farther out of danger. I hope to hear fully from you by return courier.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF LIBERATION, New Madrid, August 25, 1861.

[General POLK:]

GENERAL: I will order Captain Stewart with his subordinates to report to you at Memphis, as directed. He is on duty with his brother, Major Stewart, at the works at Island No. 10, and not with me.

After leaving you at Fort Pillow I had much conversation with Colonel Borland in regard to Hardee’s position and ability to advance and join me. He is of opinion that Hardee cannot do so, and that the attempt to do so will endanger the command, and he says that such is Hardee’s opinion. Hardee is an old officer, of large experience, and I have thought that with this positive expression of opinion by him, knowing, as he must, his exact position and resources, it is perhaps {p.678} not prudent for us to constrain him by your decision to act against his positively expressed opinion in a matter involving the safety of the force under his command. Anxious as I have been and am still to advance, such is the conclusion at which I have arrived, after much reflection upon the subject; and on last night I followed Colonel Borland (who had left) with a dispatch to General Hardee, in which I said to him substantially the conclusion at which I had arrived, viz, that he must be the best judge of his ability to advance, and that if his opinion was clear that he could not advance with safety to his command, I was unwilling that he should do so under my advice, and that I felt satisfied you would not have him come forward at the risk of his command and in opposition to his own judgment. This much I felt upon reflection it was my duty to say, and I feel persuaded you will approve. I directed Hardee to advise me at the earliest possible moment of his conclusion. In the mean time I have suspended any advance until I can hear from Hardee, and I have ordered my advance to take position behind a strong point at the causeway across the heads of the swamp, 4 miles this side of Benton, and at Sikeston, as a matter of precaution.

On my return last night I found General Cheatham strongly opposed to moving upon the Cape, and he said the commanders of his regiments were also, believing that the position was one of too great exposure, and that the enemy could too readily throw upon us at that place an overwhelming and crushing force. During my absence down the river Cheatham had received similar letters from Colonels Smith and Wright, who were with Colonel McCown, in the advance. All these considerations induce me to hesitate and to doubt the conclusion to which I had arrived, and to submit the whole matter to you for reconsideration and for your instructions. Without the co-operation of Hardee’s force, my judgment has been all the while against the movement; and I must confess that with Hardee and Borland both expressing the opinion that he cannot advance to join me, and that in doing so he endangers the whole force to be cut up by a flank attack or an attack upon his rear while marching, I think that it is upon the whole best to let Hardee decide what he can do; and if he says he cannot advance with safety to his command, in that event the movement against the Cape had better be suspended. In that event I think his force should be brought over to the river front and occupy this place and fortify it in conjunction with your works at No. 10, while your own force could be disposed the more effectually to protect the river and interior of Tennessee, and after strongly fortifying Island No. 10 you may see the way open to fortify Columbus.

My opinion is well matured and settled in all I have said above, except that the remarks of the last paragraph are thrown out as suggestions, not as matured opinions, for your consideration.

My opinion is that Hardee will not advance, and therefore I regard this dispatch as presenting for your consideration the question as to what shall be my future position.

Borland said to me distinctly that while he believed Hardee would make the attempt under your decision, yet that he knew it was against his (H.’s) judgment, and that he did not see how he could accomplish the movement.

In regard to the appointments made by Colonel McCown, I would remark that appointments made by him under our law of organization I think are valid until the law ceases to be of force. That law is in force until the transfer is completed in all its arms. These appointments were all made before the muster up here was completed. The appointments {p.679} I thought good ones. We needed the additional lieutenants of artillery for one large artillery force, and we can get nothing from Richmond. I therefore, believing the appointments valid, approved them, and I still think we had better let them pass without question. The appointments are all as good as can be had in the Army; the appointees are young gentlemen of talent and high promise, and taken from the line of lieutenants in the Army, I believe.

I would be glad to have your conclusion and instructions in regard to this whole dispatch, the length of which I would be glad to curtail, but which, in justice to the whole subject, cannot be done.

I have just received the inclosed dispatch, a copy of which I send you. This looks as if he was going to make the attempt. He will not make the attempt, however, before he receives mine; then I shall have his reply and conclusion. Hardee has no heavy artillery, and if you think he should come over upon the river, he could fall back upon Black River and cross over to the plank road, and bring all light and with but little baggage. That road might be so repaired as to enable him to cross and reach this place. With his left resting at the head of the swamp and where they cross the ridge, where mine now is ordered, and that point fortified, his position could not be turned except by passing over the very country which he finds impracticable. His right on the river here, and that fortified; the line crossing the river at Island No. 10, with your works there; your force with its left at those works and your right on Union City. These lines sustained, hold the enemy’s only approach down the river or on either side, and for defensive purpose a line could not be chosen shorter or better capable of defense within so close proximity of the enemy’s front. The road from Benton to Bloomfield crosses the Nigger Wool Swamp, which no well-appointed army can pass over now.

I shall take no action until I hear from you, unless I get intelligence that Hardee is actually on the advance.

Respectfully, yours,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS, Greenville, August 23, 1861.

General PILLOW:

MY DEAR GENERAL: I have received another dispatch from you dated the 20th. I am anxiously awaiting the return of Colonel Borland. Whatever is determined on I shall endeavor to accomplish. I need not again repeat that I have neither transportation nor provisions to enable me to move. I will do all in my power to get up both. Some of my wagons have reached me, others are on the way, and one boat with provisions has reached Pocahontas.

I have been unwell but am better. I take it for granted that you will not now turn back, and that we will make a junction here or at Fredericktown. I have sent another party to break up the Ironton Railroad; but to make sure of it, as soon as you are safe from Cape Girardeau, I would suggest the propriety of detailing General Jeff. Thompson for that purpose.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

{p.680}

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Benton, Mo., August 25, 1861-6 a. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, Comdg. Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo., or en route:

DEAR GENERAL: I was sick in bed when your letter of yesterday* was received, but I was so encouraged by it that I am at my post, in full vigor, this morning. I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you to-night, as your presence in the front is necessary to keep your own men in spirits, as well, or more so, than mine. I will get my men in handling order to-night, so that any plan which may be determined upon can at once be carried out. I am informed that the men I had with Hardee (from twelve to fifteen hundred), when ordered to return to Greenville, left him, and are now at Dallas, on the way to join me. I will send out to them, and place them in a position to assist in the attack on the Cape, which will give the impression that Hardee’s whole force is with them.

Hoping to have the pleasure of seeing you shortly, I am, yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 25, 1861-6 a. m.

Col. ADEN LOWE, Commanding Missouri State Guard, en route:

DEAR COLONEL: I heard, from rumor, that you are on the way to join us, and that you are near Dallas. I hardly know whether to say I am glad to hear it or not, for, although I am very anxious to have you with me, yet I would not have you displease General Hardee or disobey orders. If you are near Dallas, as reported, and have not received some orders from Hardee, you must turn to the left, and go to the point called Gravel Road, or to where the gravel road crosses Whitewater, and report to me every morning after your picket comes in. My pickets are within six miles of the Cape all the time, and you can probably keep yours at Jackson. I will make a forward movement to-morrow, and will probably bring my whole force to join you, and make a demonstration from your direction. I have 4,000 Confederate troops with me, and the whole line will be up to-day or to-morrow. Be vigilant; let no man, friend or foe, pass from your lines into or from the Cape, and, when in position, let me hear from you as often as necessary.

Yours, truly,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 25, 1861-1 p. m.

Brig. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, C. S. A., Greenville, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I have taken the liberty to open the accompanying letter from General Pillow to yourself, believing it to be allowed by military courtesy. I am really grieved to know his conclusions, after {p.681} being so encouraged by his letters of last night, which assured me that he would advance this morning. I certainly do not intend to keep my men in this dangerous position any longer, when I know there is no occasion for it. We never had any business this side of the swamps, and it has only been a Memphis fear that prompted such a move. If not allowed to take Cape Girardeau, to obtain supplies, and then fall back on your line I must go to you at once, for I may be cut to pieces here any night. Your Arkansas men can live on beef alone, and then live better than they ever lived at home, the same as my Missourians; and in a war of liberty coffee, sugar, and rice are not indispensable. Excuse my speaking so bluntly. My heart is in this cause, and I know that every hour is costing lives. Governor Reynolds is with me, and, although we would not displease our Tennessee and Mississippi allies, yet will I ask him to transfer me to you again if a forward movement is not made to-morrow.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 25, 1861-2 p. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., Commanding Army of Liberation, New Madrid, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: I took the privilege of reading your letter to General Hardee, and am grieved to the heart at its contents. I must either be allowed to advance or must go away from the Mississippi River, as I feel that my men are in too great danger here, and if we should be driven away, which I expect every hour, the cause in Southeastern Missouri will be crushed to death and it will cost us a thousand lives to reinstate it.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, C. S. A., Greenville, Mo.:

DEAR GENERAL: Your flattering letter, turning over the job that must be done to me, is at hand.* Had I not been restrained by positive orders from General Pillow I would have had Cape Girardeau before now, and would have been at your service. I see that you expected General Pillow to be at this point. Instead of that he returned from Memphis yesterday, and will start in this direction from New Madrid to-day. I suppose he will be here to-night or to-morrow. Every day lost since I have been here may cost 100 lives for the enemy have found by now our numbers, whereas they would have run before without firing a shot. I have heard, by rumors, that Lowe’s command has started to join me. If so, I hope it is by your orders, as I am not disposed to encourage disobedience. If they join me I will return to you with my whole command as soon as we take the Cape, as we have no more business on the Mississippi River after establishing a permanent post between Saint Louis and Cairo. We can have daily or hourly correspondence, {p.682} if necessary, as we have friends who will furnish post horses from Dallas to Greenville.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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CAMP BENTON, MO., August 25, 1861.

Capt. BEN. TALBOT:

SIR: I am instructed by Brig. Gen. M. Jeff. Thompson to call your earnest attention to the inclosed general orders.* He has heard with much indignation that you are carrying on an indiscriminate course of impressment, and that friends suffer as often as foes by your actions. He desires me to assure you, on his word of honor, that he will hold you strictly accountable for your action in these matters; or, to use his own words, “Tell Captain Talbot, by God, I’ll hang the first man, be he private or officer, be he sworn in the service or not, who transgresses the inclosed general orders.”

JOHN M. LANGAN, Asst. Adjt. Gen., First Mil. Dist., Missouri State Guard.

* Not found.

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RICHMOND, VA., August 26, 1861.

Governor H. M. RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

If the regiment to which you refer in your dispatch of the 22d is armed and equipped it will be accepted, and is ordered to General McCulloch. Otherwise not.

L. P. WALKER.

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MEMPHIS, August 26, 1861.

Adjutant-General COOPER:

I am informed that there is a regiment from Canton, Miss., now on its way to Grand Junction to go to Virginia. If the Government means to defend the valley of the Mississippi we must have troops, and I respectfully but earnestly protest against the removal of the troops from this valley, on which we must rely for defense. May I not urge upon the Department the sending forward to Tennessee all the regiments that may be found in the States south of us to be organized into an army to meet in a few weeks hence the large army now concentrated in Missouri for a descent on this valley? If it be possible, I hope this appeal may reach the seat of chief authority immediately.

L. POLK.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Memphis, Tenn., August 26, 1861.

[General HARDEE:]

GENERAL: Your messenger, Colonel Borland, with your dispatch, was received by me at Fort Pillow, as he will ere this have informed you. {p.683} From the facts then before me I thought it best for you to move forward and join General Pillow and command at Benton. I supposed you could do so without danger to your command while in transitu, and when you had made the junction you could then judge whether it might be expedient to move still farther forward, or whether it be better for the whole command-yours and that of General Pillow-to fall back on New Madrid, and take up such positions on the river on both sides, on the line of Island No. 10, as might promise the best for defenses.

Since then I have come to the conclusion that the same object might be accomplished without any risk to your command, by your falling back from Greenville and passing to the river over the plank road to Point Pleasant.

At all events I am satisfied you should not go forward, but retire towards your base until we are all better prepared for a forward movement.

If the working of the saltpeter mines on White River was not an object of the greatest consequence to us, I should repeat the advice given in my dispatch by Colonel Borland to abandon your line altogether. I did not remember those mines when I wrote you, and do not think it would be well to open the line from the interior of Missouri upon them. They are our chief dependence for the material for making powder, and should be protected by an adequate force somewhere in the neighborhood. The object of keeping that force there may not and ought not to be known; acquainted as you are with the country you can judge of the force required for that purpose, and when that is left on that line, my opinion is that the rest of your force should be on or near the river, somewhere in the region of Chalk Bluff and New Madrid. Of this latter disposition we can speak when you are more at ease than at present.

In my last dispatch by Colonel Borland I gave my reasons for the opinion I expressed as to the expediency of your going forward. Of their weight, in view of your knowledge of the strength of your command and the difficulties before you, you were left to judge. If I had possessed the information I now have I should have advised you retiring as I have done above. I hope, therefore, this will reach you before you shall have made a forward movement, and that you will be able to fall back without inconvenience to your command.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding Second Department.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Memphis, Tenn., August 26, 1861.

[General PILLOW:]

GENERAL: Your dispatch of the 25th* has just reached me. Its contents cause me to recur to the views of mine which I submitted to you and the council of your officers at New Madrid, and from which views I with reluctance turned aside from insisting upon by the information I then received of the diminution of the enemy’s strength at Cairo, Bird’s Point, and Girardeau. Of the expediency of the movement, notwithstanding the diminution of this force and the fact that Island No. 10 had been seized and fortified, I have never been entirely satisfied. {p.684} In your dispatch you say that upon reflection, on certain considerations which you enumerated, “I am induced to hesitate and doubt the conclusion at which I had arrived (as to the expediency of a forward movement), and to submit the whole matter to you for reconsideration and for your instructions.”

My opinion is that you should abandon for the present this forward movement, and my orders are that you recall your troops as soon as you can with safety to New Madrid, and that the plan submitted by me for the present employment of these troops be carried out, to wit, that a part of the force acting with you, that of General Thompson, with his consent, be posted at the best position that can be found on the Missouri side of the river, and the rest of [the] forces be divided between the fortified position of Island No. 10 and the post at Union City. The details of this distribution will be communicated in a subsequent order.

I have dispatched to General Hardee that my opinion is he should abandon a forward movement and fall back on his base. His further movements will be matter for further consideration.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp Acock, (near Bolivar), August 26, 1861.

Brigadier-General HARRIS, Second Military District:

GENERAL: I am instructed by Major-General Price to acknowledge the receipt of your third dispatch, dated the 21st instant,* and to say that he has never received any previous communication from you. He is now marching with this army towards the Missouri River, in the direction of Lexington, near which place he proposes to concentrate as large a force as possible, with a view to future operations. He cannot, consistently with his present plans, detach any portion of his command for service beyond the river just now, and you will therefore, unless you can raise a sufficient force to maintain your position unaided, bring your troops to this side of the river, and effect a junction with this army at its proposed present destination near Lexington. An army can be organized there to operate north of the river.

General Price desires to express his appreciation of the spirited and effective manner in which you have conducted the campaign in your district.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

THOMAS L. SNEAD, Acting Adjutant-General, Missouri State Guard.

* Not found.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, August 28, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding, &c., Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: Your dispatch of 26th instant has been replied to by telegraph to-day. In addition, I am instructed by the President to state that General Hardee writes that his campaign against Ironton was {p.685} broken up by the withdrawal of the Missouri forces under the orders of Governor Jackson, and in response to an application from General Pillow they were ordered to New Madrid, since which we learn, but not officially, that General Pillow has abandoned New Madrid. The President has expected daily to receive from you, as he hopes, satisfactory information in relation to these events.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS, New Madrid, August 28, 1861.

Major-General POLK:

GENERAL: I have just received Hardee’s reply to your dispatch and mine in regard to his co-operation with me. He says that he cannot advance, and will not attempt it. That point being settled, it only remains for me, with as good grace as I can, to turn my face (now ready for the first time since I landed at this place) upon other duty, without an apparent abandonment of a forward movement. I have to-day visited the works being built above this place. To my surprise I found the battery constructed on ground subject to fully 3 feet of overflow, and about a mile above the head of the island, in a muddy, damp, and dark forest of heavy cottonwood. Opposite this battery there is a wide and flat sand bar, over which boats can float in a full river at least 1 mile, and I think 14 miles from the battery. It is built on the very brink of a soft bank already chipping off by the action of the water. The first full river will sweep away the parapet. In addition to this error in the selection of the site, the engineer is now grading down the original bank within the work fully 2 feet, so that the seep water will drive out the forces in the work before the river gets within 3 or 4 feet of high-water mark. The forest is so damp and the overflow bottom is so wet, that it is impossible for troops to live in the work. They will die like sheep of the rot.

Just at the head of the island, on the Tennessee shore, there is a good position for a battery to command the Tennessee chute, and about half way down the island, on the west side, is a very favorable position for another battery to command the western chute. The Tennessee battery can be turned and taken in reverse, and has but little advantage of position, and when taken, that channel of the river is open, and the other battery will be of no practical value. In addition to these two batteries, both of which must have a strong supporting force, you must have a strong intrenched work at this place, else that work will be liable to be cut off from its river base. My judgment therefore is, that the value of this position is greatly overrated. Less than 5,000 men could not hold this place, and an equal force on the Tennessee shore, and 1,000 on the island, which would make the position a very expensive one. Even then it will not add materially to the safety of the river. You are in possession at Fort Pillow of the only strong strategical position on the river below Columbus. My mind reaches now to that gateway into Tennessee as the only protection against an invading column into the interior as well as descent down the river. That has always been my opinion, and it was to get as far on the way to Columbus as I could go that induced me to establish the force at Union City, looking with certainty to the time that I could occupy Columbus.

{p.686}

That time, I think, has arrived. Kentucky is now a boiling caldron. Lincoln forces are organized and under arms in five counties in the State. They are rapidly aggregating into military organizations and threatening a descent upon Tennessee. General Anderson is in command or on his way to take command of these forces. Every paper we meet is full of accounts of the pouring of arms and munitions of war into the State to make war upon the patriots of that State and Tennessee. Kentucky neutrality is no longer regarded, if indeed it ever was. In addition to this, it is well known that Frémont had his boats loaded with troops to take possession of Columbus when he received the news of Lyon’s defeat.

If you do not intend to let the enemy take possession of that gateway, you must take it first. If he gets possession of it once, you can never dislodge him. Its possession is a military necessity, involving the ultimate safety of Tennessee from devastating invasion. My force here being now well organized, equipped, and in hand, give me permission and I will do the work and hold all below protected and safe. With the Union City forces added to mine, I can close the door effectually against invasion of Tennessee or descent of the Mississippi. It will not hasten matters in Kentucky. As rapidly as events can hurry on the conflict it is coming, and as soon as it is possible for Lincoln to raise forces to meet other pressing wants he will take possession of this place, and from it, as a point d’appui, he will direct his column upon Tennessee.

If you approve, send me three boats, one at a time, and make arrangements to have the Union City forces advanced when I notify the commanding officer, and authorize me to use the guns now at the works above, and to take Captain Gray with me. I will draw back my forces so gently to this place and move up there, and have everything secure before the enemy is in condition to move. If you approve, send me up the gunboats. This move will attract so much attention when made that the real abject of the move here will not be thought of. It will avoid any discussion, and if any reference is made to it, the failure of Hardee to co-operate will vindicate the movement and commend the discretion of turning the object of the campaign to so good an account. If we do not move now, we never can.

If you can come up and yourself examine the works above as they are being constructed and the site of those proposed, you will see that my judgment is correct. Since I have myself examined these positions, I beg to say that my opinion of their value as a line of defense is greatly modified. This is the only position left us, and that is a paramount military necessity, and is now clearly justified by the attitude of Kentucky and the action of the Federal Government and troops, utterly disregarding her assumed neutrality. If you leave me discretion, I will be there before the object is suspected. I am willing to be saddled with all the responsibility. If I am allowed to make the move, I will send Cheatham to take possession by Union City forces first, and fix some field pieces there before I advance with the forces by water. If you send me the gunboat I may move differently. If you will allow me to make the move, and place the Union City forces, gunboat, steamers, and forces above here at my disposal, I know how to do the work.

Let me hear from you as early as possible. If you do not approve, don’t hurry me away, as I am trying to effect a move on Cairo. I will be cautious and make no false step. I wish to aid Thompson by placing this portion of Missouri in safe position. We owe the people who have so committed themselves to our policy that much, and while we {p.687} remain here threatening an advance, we are preventing a concentration of his forces against McCulloch.

Hardee did not wait until he received my dispatch, which followed Borland, and of which I gave you the substance, before he decided. He has acted in the face of his agreement, by Borland, to abide your decision.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

P. S.-I have invited the opinion of Captain Gray on this point and its strategical importance, which you will find condensed below.

NEW MADRID, August 29, 1861.

I am fully impressed with the value of Columbus as commanding the river and as the gateway to the interior of Tennessee. From information I am satisfied that it is a very strong position. If you should be of opinion that Kentucky’s neutrality has been violated by the Federal forces and that the time has arrived for the occupation of Columbus for protection of the people of Kentucky and Tennessee, then I regard it as a military necessity to occupy and fortify that place.

A. B. GRAY, Captain, C. S. Army, Acting Topographical Engineer.

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LITTLE ROCK, August 29, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

SIR: The volunteers of Brigadier-General Pearce’s command were turned over to the Confederate States by agreement with Brigadier-General Hardee. The exigencies of the Northwest hindered these forces from being placed under the actual control of General Hardee. When now, however, that general has sent his agent to that region to take them in charge, we sent an agent on the part of the military board of Arkansas to see that they were duly turned over to General Hardee. These troops were raised for most part in the region where they now are. They were mustered at first into the service of the State, and their individual consent is necessary to perfect the transfer. This might have been readily obtained before the battle near Springfield. We are advised by our agent that it will now be next to impossible to obtain it without the condition that they have the command of General McCulloch, under whom they fought and passed from the region in which they were situated across to General Hardee, with whom they are unacquainted. We ask that the agreement with General Hardee be so far modified as to enable us to turn these forces over to General McCulloch. Without this they will probably disband. The forces with General Hardee may be immediately recruited by an Arkansas regiment, which is already organized, and is now near him. The matter is important. Reply at once.

H. M. RECTOR, President Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT NO. 2, Memphis, Tenn., August 29, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President, &c.:

I have now had ample opportunity to judge of the field you have assigned me, as well as of the fields around me, which had been assigned to other officers as theaters for defensive operations, and I am {p.688} well satisfied from the working of the existing arrangements that a change is necessary. For these operations to be directed wisely, harmoniously, and successfully they should be combined from west to east across the Mississippi Valley, and placed under the direction of one head, and that head should have large discretionary powers. Such a position is one of very great responsibility, involving and requiring large experience and extensive military knowledge, and I know of no one so well equal to that task as our friend General Albert S. Johnston. Such an appointment would cover all the commands of the generals now operating in fields nearest the enemy in the West and would give universal satisfaction. Indeed, actual experience shows that all the generals now in the Western field, having separate commands, operate to great disadvantage in consequence of the want of a single head. As I am informed our friend General Johnston is daily expected, I beg leave very respectfully but earnestly to urge upon you the expediency of this appointment. The success of our campaign in this valley may depend upon such an arrangement, and I know of no man who has the capacity to fill the position, who could be had, but General Johnston.

Hoping these views may commend themselves acceptably to your consideration, I remain, very truly, your friend,

L. POLK.

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NEW MADRID, August 29, 1861.

Capt. E. D. BLAKE, A. A. A. Gen., Dep’t No. 2, Memphis:

CAPTAIN: I came down from the Island No. 10 Bend last night at the request of General Pillow. I go up in an hour, but will go down to Memphis in the first boat after this, say to-morrow, to see the general.

I have six guns in position and an impenetrable parapet, so that the enemy cannot now trouble us while erecting the larger works at Island No. 10.

I wrote a note to General Pillow’s dispatch, at his request, and believe what I said to be the best move. I wish to communicate in person with the general himself upon all our matters here and things of importance. I wish the general commanding could let the troops remain as they are now here, until I see him in a day or two.

We are progressing as well as can be expected under the circumstances.

The Kentucky leaves in a few minutes, so pardon this hasty note.

I go up to our fort in half an hour.

I am, very respectfully, yours,

A. B. GRAY, Captain, C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 30, 1861.

His Excellency Governor RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

SIR: In the act of transfer, &c., entered into between the governor and military board of the State of Arkansas and Brigadier-General Hardee on the part of this Government, it was stipulated, as your excellency will remember, that the State of Arkansas should furnish field transportation, &c., for the troops so transferred, and that the Confederate Government should repay to the State all her outlay thus expended.

{p.689}

While this Department acknowledges fully the obligation of this stipulation, it is nevertheless of opinion that the existence of two distinct departments, both engaged in the same operations, will lead necessarily to confusion and additional expense, and thus to the injury of the service.

This Department therefore desires that the immediate agents of the Government, in its own Quartermaster Department, shall take charge of all transportation thus provided for, so that there may be henceforth but one organization engaged in this work, and that directly responsible to this Government. The Department assures your excellency of the ability and willingness of the Confederate Government to provide satisfactorily for the Arkansas troops in this respect in such manner that no loss shall accrue to them thereby.

Your excellency is therefore informed that the Quartermaster’s Department of the Confederate Government has been directed to make all necessary arrangements for the transportation of the Arkansas troops, with authority to make such purchases of means of transportation, &c., now in the possession of the State of Arkansas, as may be deemed necessary and expedient. Such expenses as have been actually incurred under the stipulation above referred to by the State of Arkansas will of course be paid for by this Government according to the terms therein agreed.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, August 31, 1861.

Gov. H. M. RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

If to prevent the disbanding of the troops it be necessary to send them to McCulloch, let them go to him.

L. P. WALKER.

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FAYETTEVILLE, ARK., August 31, (via Little Rock, September 2, 1861.)

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

The Arkansas troops are all mustered out of service. But 20 men remain. The arms and other stores ought to be turned over to me, and not taken to Pocahontas. Without these arms this country will be in a defenseless condition. Other men should be raised at once and these arms put in their hands, or we will not be ready to meet the enemy. There are 3,000 stand of small-arms and ten pieces of artillery. The Cherokees have joined the South, and offered me a regiment. They and other Indian forces need arms. My command, 3,000 strong, will soon be near the southwest corner of Missouri. An expressman awaits your reply in Little Rock.

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

{p.690}

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Abstract from return of the troops of the Upper District Arkansas, commanded by Brig. Gen. W. J. Hardee, August 31, 1861.

Abstract from monthly report of McCulloch’s brigade, Provisional Forces C. S. Army, commanded by Brig. Gen. Ben. McCulloch, for August 31, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
First Arkansas Infantry (Cleburne)24394506531
Second Arkansas Infantry (Hindman)31457680742
Battalion attached to Second Regiment19281458476
Fifth Arkansas Infantry (Cross)38557689722
Sixth Arkansas Infantry (Lyon)29369552604
Seventh Arkansas Infantry (Shaver)32593796905
Three companies artillery (Shoup)14217264283
Light battery (Roberts)2859297
Regiment of cavalry (Borland)31351479568
Three companies of cavalry (Phifer)13115148151
Grand total1732,65144486163024,6645,109
Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
McNair’s regiment Arkansas infantry38570693695
McRae’s battalion13150272294
Hebert’s regiment Louisiana infantry27450658847
Choctaw and Chickasaw mounted rifles449691,0391,085
McIntosh’s regiment Arkansas rifles32414620662
Churchill’s regiment Arkansas cavalry31440535768
Greer’s regiment Texas cavalry368679921,042
Grand total781,1701432,6904,8095,393

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FAYETTEVILLE, ARK., September 1, 1861.

JOHN Ross, Principal Chief, and EXECUTIVE COUNCIL of the Cherokee Nation:

SIRS: I am in receipt of your letter of August 24, also a copy of the proceedings of a mass meeting of the Cherokee people.

Permit me to congratulate you upon the course you have thought proper to pursue. The people of the Confederate States and those of the Cherokee Nation must share a common destiny. Their interest and institutions are the same. Then let us as brothers co-operate against a common enemy to us and those institutions, and drive them from our borders whenever they dare approach them. I will most gladly receive the regiment you tender the Confederate States so soon as you conclude a treaty with the same. At the same time will take this occasion to inform you of the fact of my having already authorized Col. Stand Watie to raise a force for the protection of your northern border, but at the same time not to interfere with the neutrality of the Nation by occupying a position within its limits. Your northern border shall be {p.691} protected until the proposed treaty shall be ratified between your Nation and the Confederate States. General Pike, who alone is authorized to make treaties with the several Indian nations and tribes on our borders, will meet your chiefs, and conclude a treaty, by which both parties will stand or fall in one common cause.

I shall forward copies of the documents you sent me to my Government.

Hoping a treaty will be made that shall prove advantageous to all concerned, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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FAYETTEVILLE, ARK., September 1, 1861.

Col. JOHN DREW, Cherokee Nation:

SIR: Yours of the 24th August is now before me. I am, as will be my country, pleased with the course your chiefs and people have pursued. Our interests are the same. Then let us make it a common cause by uniting our forces against a common enemy.

As soon as a treaty can be entered into between your chiefs and General Pike your regiment will be received and mustered into service.

In accordance with the wishes-of your principal chief, John Ross, I have not employed any of your people within your limits, but have required all those who wish to join me to do so outside of the Nation. I authorized Col. Stand Watie to raise a force to assist me in protecting your northern border from invasion by meeting the enemy north of your line. This he has done, and with his assistance I shall see that your frontier is well protected until the proper treaty is ratified and your regiment can take the field.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 141.}

ADJT. AND INSP. GEN.’S OFFICE, Richmond, September 2, 1861.

...

8. The department under the command of Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, Provisional Army, is extended to embrace the State of Arkansas and all military operations in the State of Missouri.

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FAYETTEVILLE, ARK., September 2, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I arrived here two days since, at which time the State troops were to be mustered into the Confederate service. They have all gone home except some 18 or 20. In a few weeks many of them can be re-enlisted. They do not like the idea of being sent to Pocahontas and leaving their own homes unprotected. The arms turned over by them {p.692} to General Hardee are at this place, near 3,000 in number. They ought by all means to be left out here, and placed at the disposal of the officers in charge of this country and the Indian Territory. There is not a single company in my command armed with the minie musket or rifle. There are among these arms 1,000 of these muskets, and other arms far superior to those in the hands of my men. The artillery ought to be placed in good condition, and also allowed to remain in this section, as we may have to meet the enemy on the prairies or plains this fall. My reason for urging the Department to let these arms remain in this section is the fact of its being impossible to get others here this fall, owing to the condition of the Arkansas River at this season of the year, whilst they can be conveyed at any time to Pocahontas. All the arms and army stores in this region ought to be under the control of the officer in command of this quarter; and at the same time it would be well to attach to his command that portion of Arkansas which includes the road from Springfield to Fort Smith, which is known as the Telegraph road. This country is too far from Pocahontas to be under the charge of the officer in command at that point, and is one of the routes the enemy will attempt to force should they ever attempt an invasion of this State.

I shall immediately have raised two companies of artillery for service during the war in addition to the one from Texas, as we will greatly need them on the prairies this fall. I hope this course will meet your approbation.

I would also ask you to keep in service such men as I have been compelled to employ and muster into the service for twelve months.

You will see by the documents inclosed that the Cherokees have at last joined the South, and offered our Government a regiment. This, no doubt, was brought about by the battle of Oak Hills. I have, previous to this time, employed some of the Cherokees, under Col. Stand Watie, to assist me in protecting the northern borders of the Cherokees from the inroads of the jayhawkers of Kansas. This they have effectually done, and at this time are on the Cherokee neutral lands in Kansas. Col. Stand Watie belongs to the true Southern party, composed mostly of mixed bloods, and opposed to John Ross, and by whose course and influence Ross was induced to join the South. I hope our Government will continue this gallant man and true friend of our country in service, and attach him and his men (some 300) to my command. It might be well to give him a battalion separate from the Cherokee regiment under Colonel Drew. Colonel Drew’s regiment will be mostly composed of full-bloods, whilst those with Col. Stand Watie will be half breeds, who are educated men, and good soldiers anywhere, in or out of the Nation. Having been left without instructions in many particulars, I have pursued the course I thought most beneficial to my country.

Hoping these acts will meet with your approval, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-Colonel Hindman informs me there are not more than 1,500 guns at this point turned over to him. Some of the men hold their arms until the State pays them for their services.

{p.693}

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Hunter, September 2, 1861.

To all whom it may concern:

Whereas Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, commanding the minions of Abraham Lincoln in the State of Missouri, has seen fit to declare martial law throughout the whole State, and has threatened to shoot any citizen soldier found in arms within certain limits; also to confiscate the property and free the negroes belonging to the members of the Missouri State Guard:

Therefore know ye that I, M. Jeff. Thompson, brigadier-general of the First Military District of Missouri, having not only the military authority of brigadier-general, but certain police powers, granted by Acting Gov. Thomas C. Reynolds, and confirmed afterwards by Governor Jackson, do most solemnly promise that for every member of the Missouri State Guard, or soldier of our allies, the armies of the Confederate States, who shall be put to death in pursuance of this said order of General Frémont, I will “hang, draw, and quarter” a minion of said Abraham Lincoln.

While I am anxious that this unfortunate war shall be conducted, if possible, upon the most liberal principles of civilized warfare, and every order that I have issued has been with that object, yet, if this rule is to be abandoned (it must first be done by our enemies), I intend to exceed General Frémont in his excesses, and will make all tories that come within my reach rue the day that a different policy was adopted by their leader.

Already mills, barns, warehouses, and other private property has been wastefully destroyed by the enemy in this district, while we have taken nothing except articles strictly contraband or absolutely necessary. Should these things be repeated, I will retaliate tenfold, so help me God!

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, September 3, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I received yesterday your letter of the 30th ultimo.* I am much pleased that my views in falling back have finally met your approval. Before your letter was received I informed General Pillow that I could not advance; that I had neither provisions nor transportation, but if both had been at command I could not, against my better judgment, have entered into the arrangement proposed. I hope before this that General Pillow has returned to New Madrid. In all the views expressed by you concerning my movements and operations, you fail, I think, to consider the orders under which I am acting. The Secretary of War, in assigning me to command in Arkansas, directed me to protect the district included in my command and the counties in Missouri contiguous thereto. I beg to call your attention to these instructions, for, with every disposition to co-operate with you, I must not lose sight of my instructions or my duty to Arkansas.

I mentioned in a former communication that I did not believe the enemy would attempt to invade Arkansas from this direction, and gave {p.694} my reasons for that opinion. I also expressed my belief that the enemy would make an attempt on Memphis, and suggested that you should get authority from the War Department to order me in that event to your assistance. I stated that I could, if that event happened, fight more effectively for Arkansas east of the Mississippi than anywhere else, for if Memphis fell the mouth of the Arkansas would also fall into the possession of the enemy, and this would be the greatest calamity which could befall the State and the army within its borders. I did not wish to convey the impression that I desired, except under the contingency mentioned, to give up this base. If I should do so, I should be forced to seek another not so good in the western part of the State.

I shall devote all my energies to putting this command in fighting order; it needs instruction, organization, and discipline. The State is making efforts to supply clothing, which is much needed.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

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HUMBOLDT, Midnight, September 3, 1861.

Captain BLAKE:

We have been here three hours. The enemy are maneuvering with gunboats and 3,000 men near Columbus, on Missouri side. We have ordered Colonel McCown, who is at Union City, to put his whole force aboard the cars and hold himself in readiness to move at a minute’s notice. We start in a few moments for Union City. We are in telegraph office, communicating with Hickman, Columbus, and Union City. Pillow’s command is fast arriving at Hickman. We have 2,500 men there now. Send every available company, with provisions, to Union City, to take the place of the force that is leaving. Send a good officer to command them. Also tell Captain Hunt to send up the rifled 32-pounder, with ammunition for it, to Union City. The enemy are reconnoitering with rockets. We will have a fight to-morrow unless they retreat.

Thrasher’s company has left here. Had you not better court-martial him, unless you ordered him to leave? The commissary and quartermaster must be ready to send supplies to Union City, or to other points via Union City, without one moment’s delay.

W. O. WILLIAMS, Lieutenant, C. S. Army, A. D. C.

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RICHMOND, September 4, 1861.

General BEN. MCCULLOCH, Little Rock, Ark.:

I have telegraphed to Governor Rector to send you all the troops at his disposal and to let you have the arms taken off by the troops mustered out of service; and you are authorized to increase your force to such extent and in such manner as you deem proper. Before your dispatch was received we were advised that the Arkansas troops would remain with you.

L. P. WALKER.

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LITTLE ROCK, September 4, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Your dispatch received dated to-day, saying Arkansas troops mustered out of service and taken with them their arms. Such, I regret, {p.695} seems to be the case. From intelligence received to-day from Fort Smith this has been induced by the advice of General N. B. Pearce, whose conduct deserves the severest reprehension. I understand he is an applicant for promotion by Confederate appointment, against which I protest solemnly, until his conduct can be investigated by the authorities here. All will be done here that is possible to take care of McCulloch. All things look portentous now.

H. M. RECTOR.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Little Rock, Ark., September 4, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: In view of the extensive preparations on foot by the Lincoln Government, I conceive it important that the 3,000 men called for from Arkansas by your requisition of June 24 should be raised and prepared for service with as little delay as possible. Considering that one-third of our men are already under arms, and that recruiting officers are being sent through the State from the respective divisions of the Army, together with the objections generally urged against enlisting for the war, I am confident that several months will elapse before the number called for will be obtained under the present plan.

I am in receipt of letters daily from parties who signify a willingness to accept the service, but there are difficulties in the way. First, it is impossible to get up a full company in any one county or locality, the men being only procurable in squads of five, ten, or twenty. After being thus obtained they require subsistence, with authority given to mustering officers to swear them in and control them until the whole can be got together. Again, after the company is organized, perhaps remote from the camp of instruction, transportation is necessary to convey them to the proper point.

All these obstacles are retarding progress in furnishing the men you desire, and I am anxious to have them obtained, if possible, that Arkansas may respond promptly to the call made upon her. We have the men, if they can be aggregated.

I beg leave to renew earnestly, therefore, the suggestions contained in the communication directed to be addressed to you from Edmund Burgevin, adjutant-general of this State, and regard the matter of so much importance to the public service as to render it proper that General Burgevin should proceed to Richmond and ask your attention to the subject at once, hoping that you will either consent to send recruiting officers with proper instructions, or that gentlemen be named in the State authorized to get up the regiments on their own account, with the promise of a command in the organization when complete. If the latter plan is adopted, and I am inclined to think it the best, I know of no man in Arkansas whose qualifications would commend him so highly as colonel of one of the regiments as the gentleman who presents this communication.

The general, until recently, has been actively engaged in State service as adjutant-general, and I hazard nothing in saying he has peculiar adaptation and qualifications for the position to which I recommend him. Besides this, in connection with my own efforts, he rendered valuable services to the Southern cause while Arkansas was wavering in the balance between the old and new Governments. Without the general’s labors and perils, coupled with my own, the forts and arsenal {p.696} in Arkansas would now, in all probability, be garrisoned, like those of Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland, with Northern soldiery. To his efforts the Southern cause is much indebted for the stand Arkansas finally assumed beside her Southern sister States. Manfully facing the political storm that raged over the country, he imperiled his life, property, and reputation in the support of Southern independence. I think such men deserve service at the hands of the Confederate Government, when their qualifications justify the bestowal of such confidence.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

H. M. RECTOR, Governor of Arkansas.

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LITTLE ROCK, ARK., September 4, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: It was my intention to have left this evening for Richmond, but the distressing intelligence of the entire disbandment of our troops on the Western frontier by General Pearce, and the dangerous predicament in which General McCulloch is placed by that most unprecedented act, have induced me to forego my intended visit.

The condition of affairs has materially changed since the writing of the inclosed letter.* Then McCulloch was at the head of a victorious army, in which the State was well represented. The intelligence of last night has changed the whole aspect of things-the Arkansas troops disbanded, McCulloch in retreat from Springfield, and our wounded at that place left to the tender care of a merciless foe. Who knows what may next occur? Arkansas may at any moment need her sons to defend her from the insults of the enemy. My services may at any moment be needed at home, and whether colonel, captain, or private, I belong to my country, body and soul.

It is certainly with great regret that I am compelled, under present circumstances, to lose the opportunity of visiting the capital, and the honor of an interview with yourself.

The subject-matter of the inclosed is left to your consideration, and in whatever manner it may be decided, it will, I assure you, be satisfactory to your most obedient servant,

EDMUND BURGEVIN.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, September 4, 1861.

Major-General POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I have received your letters of the 29th and 30th ultimo.* I have already informed you of my arrival at this place. The health of my command required that I should remove it from Greenville and place it where it could recruit. Having determined to retire, I saw no object in halting short of my base, where I could get supplies for my sick. I am now laboring to organize, equip, drill, and discipline my force, which I have been unable to do heretofore. I can hardly be spared to go to New Madrid. There is no one here of sufficient experience to command in my absence; but if you propose sending a force into {p.697} Missouri, it is all important that I should have a full understanding with you before that movement commences. As I am here instead of at Greenville, where you supposed your letters would reach me, I judge it not important that I should meet you at New Madrid. The Point Pleasant plank road can be examined by some one else as well or better than by myself. If agreeable to you, I would prefer to confer with you in Memphis, which place I can reach as expeditiously as New Madrid. If this arrangement suits you, inform me be express, and I will come over as soon as possible.

I hope you will not send any troops to this place until I see you. They can be fed more cheaply on the Mississippi, and at present I am not prepared to move. My men are much in want of clothing. I am taking all proper measures to get it, but as I can only get it by making an appeal to the patriotic citizens of Arkansas, some time must necessarily elapse before it can be procured. I am sending one or two influential men to each county where companies have been raised to induce the people to aid me in this matter. I shall send this by express from Pocahontas, and hope to hear from you by the same route in a few days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

I inclose a copy of General McCulloch’s last communication.*

* Not found.

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RICHMOND, September 5, 1861.

Col. J. FLOURNOY, Little Rock, Ark.:

Inform General McCulloch that his telegram to the President is received, and that every effort will be made to increase his force, the only limit being the number of arms.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, September 5, 1861.

His Excellency HENRY M. RECTOR, Governor of Arkansas, Little Rock, Ark.:

SIR: The following is a copy of a telegram which I sent to you yesterday, and which, in view of its importance, I here copy for fear it may not have reached you:

General McCulloch telegraphed that the Arkansas troops in his command have been mustered out of service and have taken with them their arms and batteries. Unless this is remedied disaster may befall him. All the Arkansas troops not exactly in Hardee’s command should be sent to McCulloch without delay, and the arms and batteries should be returned to him, with which to arm other troops willing to join him.

In view, furthermore, of the great importance of this crisis, I would respectfully suggest to your excellency to induce, by every means in your power, the Arkansas troops of McCulloch’s division to return at once to service under McCulloch if possible, and also to incorporate all the organized companies, regiments, or battalions now in your State, but not yet mustered into service, into McCulloch’s division as soon as {p.698} possible. I would also further suggest to your excellency to call at once, by proclamation, for as many more troops, by regiments or companies, as will suffice to insure a total of ten or twelve Arkansas regiments at least under McCulloch’s command and to muster the same as soon as possible into service, and to do all in your power to arm them speedily with the arms of the disbanded regiments, or with any other arms that may be procured. I would also request your excellency to communicate freely with the officers commanding on your frontiers, so that you may have timely knowledge of their wants, and they may know what to expect from you.

Pressing again the importance of this subject upon your excellency’s attention, and confidently relying upon your cordial co-operation for the common safety, I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, September 5, 1861.

General LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding, &c., Memphis, Tenn.:

GENERAL: I send herewith by direction of the President, a communication for General McCulloch, which you are requested to forward to his address, retaining a copy of the same, with a copy of the laws inclosed for your own government, and furnishing a copy of both to Brigadier-General Hardee also for his government.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

[Inclosure.]

RICHMOND, September 5, 1861.

Brigadier-General MCCULLOCH, Commanding, &c., Fort Smith, Ark.:

GENERAL: Herewith inclosed you will receive a copy of the laws relating to the receiving of troops from other States than those of the Confederacy and for military co-operation with the people of Missouri.

Intelligence of the separation and withdrawal of troops at this critical juncture has caused painful anxiety, but it is hoped you will be able soon to repair any losses which you have thus sustained by mustering new troops into the service.

Brigadier-General Pike, it is hoped, will be able with the Indian forces to give special aid to you, either by being present with you or by covering the Indian country and the western frontiers of Missouri, as circumstances may indicate.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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CAMP DAVIS, Columbus, Ky., September 7, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. Army:

DEAR GENERAL: I beg leave to report that I am fast recovering my strength, and consider that I am now strong enough to do duty. I {p.699} have with me 1,400 infantry, and will this evening have 500 mounted rifles and seven 6-pounder guns on the opposite bank. I would ask permission to take my infantry over there to occupy the pass from Bird’s Point southward, holding myself subject to your order.

I remain, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 19.}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT No. 2, Columbus, Ky., September 7, 1861.

In organizing the Confederate forces now at Columbus, Ky., into field brigades, the major-general orders and directs the following:

The First Brigade will be composed of the regiments of Col. P. Smith, Col, W. E. Travis, Col, T. J. Freeman, Col. Charles Carroll, and the battalion of Lieutenant-Colonel Blythe, and will be commanded by Brig. Gen. B. F. Cheatham.

The Second Brigade will be composed of the regiments of Colonels Bowen, Marks, Scott, and Neely, and will be commanded by Col. John P. McCown.

The Third Brigade, composed of the regiments of Cols. R. M. Russell, Wright, and Pickett, will be commanded by Colonel Russell.

The Fourth Brigade will be composed of the regiments of Colonels Stephens and Douglass, and will be commanded by Colonel W. H. Stephens.

The field batteries of Captains Hudson and Smith will compose a part of the First Brigade. Those officers will report accordingly.

The field batteries of Captains Bankhead and Stewart will compose a part of the Second Brigade, and those officers will report accordingly.

The field battery of Captain Jackson will compose a part of the Third Brigade. He will report accordingly.

The field battery of Captain Polk will compose a part of the Fourth Brigade, and he will report accordingly.

The battery of siege artillery of Captain Hamilton will be under the immediate orders of Brigadier-General Pillow who will command the whole column.

Major Miller’s battalion of cavalry, and the separate companies of cavalry commanded by Captains Hudson, Cole, and Klein, will be organized into one battalion, and will, in addition to its major, elect a lieutenant-colonel.

The six companies of Tennessee cavalry, commanded by Captains Logwood, White, Neely, Haywood, Hill, and Ballentine, and two companies of Alabama cavalry, commanded by Captains Bowie and Faulkner, will be organized into a battalion by the election of a major and lieutenant-colonel. The election for field officers of the Tennessee battalion having been suspended by appeal and the necessity of the public service demanding battalion organization, this organization becomes a necessity.

By command of Major-General Polk:

E. D. BLAKE, Captain, C. S. Army, Acting Asst. Adjt. Gen.

{p.700}

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PROCLAMATION.

HEADQUARTERS, Camp Jackson, Ark., September 10, 1861.

Citizens of Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana:

Every exertion is now being made on the part of our enemies of the North to retrieve their late disastrous defeats on the plains of Manassas and the late battle-field of Oak Hills. It now becomes necessary, in order to maintain the glorious achievements of our arms, that a large force should be thrown into the field on this frontier; and having received instructions from the War Department at Richmond to increase the force under my command, I will receive and muster into the service of the Confederate States five regiments of infantry from each of the above-named States, by companies, battalions, or regiments, for three years or during the war. Those from Arkansas will rendezvous at Fort Smith and Camp Jackson. I have in my possession arms sufficient to equip two regiments of Arkansas troops. The remaining three are required to equip themselves with the best they can procure. The forces from Texas will rendezvous at Sherman. Those from Louisiana will rendezvous at Little Rock. Both of the above named are expected to equip themselves with the best arms they can procure. An officer will be detailed to muster into the service the forces from each State at their respective places of rendezvous. The commanding officers of companies, battalions, and regiments, as soon as they have been mustered into service, will procure the necessary transportation for their several commands, and march them at once to Camp Jackson, unless otherwise ordered. Each man will be provided with two suits of winter clothes and two blankets, together with tents, if they can be procured. It is desirable that the forces of the several States should be in the field at as early a day as possible. I call upon you, therefore, to rally to the defense of your sister State, Missouri. Her cause is your cause, and the cause of justice and independence. Then rally, my countrymen, and assist your friends in Missouri to drive back the Republican myrmidons that still pollute her soil and threaten to invade your own country, confiscate your property, liberate your slaves, and put to the sword every true Southern man who dares to take up arms in defense of his rights.

The principles inaugurated in this war by the proclamation of Major-General Frémont should warn the South of the ultimate intentions of the North, and show them the necessity of rallying to the standard of their country (for the time specified above), prepared to fight in defense of their homes, their altars, and their firesides until our independence shall be recognized and its blessings secured to our posterity.

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 43.}

HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH’S BRIGADE, Camp Jackson, Ark., September 12, 1861.

Colonel Greer, commanding the South Kansas-Texas cavalry, will on to-morrow, the 13th instant, proceed with his command to the vicinity of Carthage. Twenty-one days’ rations will be forwarded him to-day (the 12th).

On arriving near Carthage, Colonel Greer will select an encampment {p.701} for three mounted regiments. Sufficient and ample grounds should be chosen for the camp, so as to give full and adequate room for drilling purposes. These regiments will be included under one camp guard, daily detailed from the whole, and it is required that particular attention be paid to guard duties and instructions to sentinels. Every means will be employed to keep the horses of each regiment well shod. Proper and active vigilance will ever be maintained, and the necessary means adopted to prevent an enemy surprising his camp or destroying property of neighboring citizens. Should deserted farms be found in the vicinity of his encampment, he will take charge of them for the use of his command. All the protection possible will be rendered and given to our secession friends.

Should Colonel Greer hear of any bands of jayhawkers in his vicinity, he will pursue and chastise them severely, taking precaution not to endanger his command by continuing pursuit beyond proper discretion. Scouting parties will be kept thrown out in the direction of Kansas and Fort Scott. Colonel Churchill will be ordered to report in a few days. Colonel Embry’s regiment will be ordered to stop at Neosho, to whom you will [give] necessary orders regarding camping, &c.

By order of General McCulloch:

W. R. BRADFUTE, Captain, C. S. Army, and Act. Adjt. Gen. of Brigade.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp Wallace, near Lexington, September 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. THOMAS A. HARRIS, Commanding Second Military District:

GENERAL: I am instructed by Major-General Price to direct you to move your command forward as rapidly as possible, night and day, until you reach these headquarters. To do this the more expeditiously, he instructs you to leave your heavy baggage under a small but sufficient escort, to be brought forward more slowly.

You will communicate this order to all other commanding officers of the State Guard near you, so that they may obey it; but you will not permit this to delay the movement of your division in the least.

I am, with the greatest respect, yours, very sincerely,

THOMAS L. SNEAD, Acting Adjutant-General Army in the Field.

P. S.-You will of course bring forward your artillery, if you have any, and all of your ammunition.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Belmont, Mo., September 15, 1861-3 p.m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., Columbus, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: I herewith inclose a copy of Special Orders, No. 141, from the Secretary of War of the Confederate States, sent to the governor of Missouri, informing him that Major-General Leonidas Polk has charge of all military operations in the State of Missouri,* and I have been notified that it will be my duty to report hereafter directly to {p.702} General Polk. I therefore inform you that I will hereafter, in pursuance of said notice, report to General Polk ;but at the same time allow me to hope our friendly relations and business connections will continue on as good terms as heretofore.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* See September 2, p. 691.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, September 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, &c.:

GENERAL: Your dispatches of the 14th instant came to hand within the last two hours.*

The order from the War Department to which you refer, placing the military operations in Arkansas and Missouri under your control, has not been received. I shall not, however, on that account raise any objection to your authority, but will comply cheerfully with your orders to move my command to the Mississippi River.

I have already given Colonel Cleburne orders to move with his regiment as soon as practicable and repair the Point Pleasant plank road. I agree with you that this route, if practicable, which I shall soon ascertain, is the shortest and easiest by which I can place my command in supporting distance of your force.

I am much embarrassed by the number of sick. The morning report shows 900 sick in a command of 4,529 present. This number does not include that part of my command at Pocahontas, numbering about 1,100 men. I take for granted you do not intend that I shall take my entire force from this place, but that I shall leave a force sufficient to protect my hospital and supplies.

As soon as the plank road is repaired, I shall transport my command to Point Pleasant with the least practicable delay. I will write again in time to have supplies sent to meet my command at that point.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

As your messenger was so long in coming to me, I shall send this by Pocahontas and Memphis, with the hope that it will reach you within three days.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, September 18, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding Department No. 2, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: I send herewith a copy of my communication to you last night, and sent by express from Pocahontas to Memphis. I shall send this by courier direct to Columbus, Ky.

I have nothing to add, except that I shall bring you about 4,000 men, including all arms. I have twelve pieces of artillery in tolerable condition. The greater portion of my cavalry I shall feel compelled to leave {p.703} here, and one regiment of infantry, not yet organized, for the protection of the hospital supplies and the inhabitants in this part of the State. Col. Wirt Adams, of Mississippi, wrote me that he had orders to join my command, and as I shall be deficient in cavalry, I wish you would telegraph him to bring forward his regiment without delay and re-enforce me. One of my regiments of infantry has just been organized, the others are improving in their drill, and are able even now to get from one position to another with tolerable facility.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS Pitman’s Ferry, September 18, 1861.

Maj. Gen. A. S. JOHNSTON, Commanding Department No. 2, &c.:

GENERAL: I received information to-day through the papers that you had been assigned to the command of Department No. 2, which I may be permitted to say, without disrespect to your predecessor, gave me great pleasure. I deem it proper to inform you at once, and without waiting for your order assuming command, that I received last night an order from Major-General Polk, directing me to move my command to the Mississippi River. A copy of my reply is herewith inclosed.* The route indicated to me by Major-General Polk is by the way of the Point Pleasant plank road, which is the shortest route for me to take in order to join your command in Kentucky by many miles, but at present this route is impracticable for cannon. I shall start Colonel Cleburne with his regiment in the morning to put the road in thorough repair. In the mean time I shall get my wagons repaired, my mules shod, and everything in readiness for a forward movement. After leaving a sufficient force here and at Pocahontas to guard our hospitals and supplies, I hope to be able to join you with 4,000 effective men.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* See Hardee to Polk, September 17, p. 702.

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REDAN FORT, CAMP POLK, ISLAND No. 10, Thursday, September 18, 1861.

Capt. E. D. BLAKE, A. A. A. G., Dep’t No. 2, C. S. Army, Mississippi Valley:

CAPTAIN: It becomes my duty to report to you that the progress of our work has been so retarded by circumstances over which I have no control, that in my judgment any further drawback may cause us to lose, should certain contingencies happen, one of the finest strategic positions for the defense of the Mississippi Valley. The multiplicity of matters surrounding you at Columbus has caused this point, I am afraid, to become of much less consideration than it really deserves.

I am now fully convinced that Island No. 10, with its connections properly fortified, would offer the greatest resistance to a combined water and land attack of the enemy, while at the same moment he {p.704} would receive an irreparable injury. A concentrated cross-fire from the three batteries I proposed would be irresistible by the boats of the enemy, and our intrenchments from the river to the lake could not be taken by a force five times superior in numbers. We cannot be out-flanked, owing to the proximity of the bayou and lake to the river, and it would be equally impossible to invest us. The general character of the ground is the most inviting to an attack and certain defeat of the enemy.

To an ordinary observer the absence of any impressively strong features in the topography might create an unfavorable opinion as to its strength, but I am satisfied that a close study of the ground by a military man would develop elements of power that to another might seem objects of weakness.

The work I am now constructing is the advanced position on the left bank of the river, 1 1/2 miles above the head of Island No. 10. It was necessary to occupy this site during the season of low water and until the highest spring rise, to prevent the enemy landing and flanking the island battery as well as the mainland battery. It is also our strongest point of defense should the descent of the river be attempted by the enemy in the next eight or nine months and a heavy force be landed for a flank movement. The distance from this point (the redan) to the bayou, which has 5 feet permanent water in it and increasing in depth, to the lake, 2 miles farther, is only 1,100 yards. The bayou, with comparatively little labor, can be rendered impassable to an enemy. Upon the highest rise of the river next spring or summer nature will then accomplish for us what we are artificially endeavoring to do, that of forming a barrier over which the enemy cannot pass; for the Mississippi and the lake will then be united, and if a landing is attempted, it must be within short range of our other two batteries.

“Reelsfoot Lake,” as it is called, is some 40 miles long, lying nearly north and south, and making a junction with the Mississippi at high water above us, and below us also by way of the Obion Branch, renders our position just here, with comparatively little trouble, evidently a very formidable one. The lake is in many places very deep, and the dead cypress timber scattered about it makes it difficult to navigate. Even if boats could be had and a crossing effected by an enemy, a small body of our troops could prevent a landing. It is 11 miles wide in places, and filled with very fine fish and wild game.

We have now only four 32-pounders at this post; we had six pieces in position, but you are aware that the two 24-pounder siege guns were taken to Columbus. Ten heavy pieces could be placed in position at once in the redan if we had them. The redan covers the channel of the river 500 to 1,000 yards off. It is our left flank of the line of intrenchments connecting the river Mississippi and Reelsfoot Lake, and two or three of the barbette guns can be made to rake the entire front of our line to the bayou. Our parapet in the redan is much weakened by embrasures, made necessary by the 32-pounders being mounted upon naval carriages or trucks. I would recommend mounting these guns upon siege carriages similar to the 24-pounders. The weight of the guns is about the same.

Our intrenchments are not completed at this point, and unless we have the assistance I have asked for, and which I supposed could be easily supplied from Memphis and Fort Pillow, I fear this all-important work will not be accomplished in time to be of use.

In a very short time now it will be necessary to gather in the crops, and our farmers in the Bend must need their hands. We have not had {p.705} over 80 negroes at work, and no similar force and facilities at my command could have done more than they have done; so you will readily perceive the impossibility of finishing the fortifications at an early date unless I could have for 10 or 15 days some 500 hands from Fort Pillow, where I learn some 2,000 are at work. I have no boat either, which is essential to a rapid construction of the batteries at Island No. 10. The Mohawk, placed under my orders for topographical service, has been taken off some time ago for other duty by orders from your department.

Since I have seen Columbus, I have not lessened my opinion, previously given to the commanding general, of its strong natural facilities for defense; but further examinations have strengthened my belief of the great importance of Island No. 10 in connection with a line of defense including New Madrid and Union City, as a powerful base of operations against the enemy.

I have been put to serious inconvenience by an order causing suddenly my assistant, Mr. Rowley, and my clerk, Mr. Miller, who had charge of my commissary stores and papers, to be taken away from this post. The general commanding must have been misled by a misapprehension of facts in some way. Mr. Miller was a civilian, appointed by me as clerk and to attend to my commissary matters, and he was in no way an army officer. I had attentively taught Mr. Rowley and Mr. Miller to assist me in systematically conducting the important duties confided to me, and their sudden withdrawal, without an hour’s notice, has not only inconvenienced me, but been really detrimental to the service. Lieutenant Snowdon is sick, and can not be exposed to the labors of an assistant probably for some time. He is to-day wholly disabled by fever. I feel sure that had the general known of the circumstances I have related, he would not have ordered them away at so necessary a period in the progress of this work, unless on some imperative occasion.

I will send you, captain, in a day or two, a sketch of this section of country, exhibiting the situation of our works, if I can possibly secure time from my other labors. In the mean time, if you can lay before the commanding general the necessity, in my opinion, of more speedy movement in the works here, I shall be better satisfied that we shall be altogether upon a much safer basis to meet the enemy under any circumstances that may arise. If he will give me an order for 500 negroes from Fort Pillow and send me a small steamer and authority to get the guns from Memphis, I will soon be enabled to say we are prepared.

I remain, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. B. GRAY, Captain, C. S. Army, and Topographical Engineer, Superintending Fortifications, Island No. 10.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS, Pitman’s Ferry, September 19, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding, &c., Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: I have just received your dispatch of the 17th instant.* Your previous dispatch of the 14th instant I have already answered. I have sent Colonel Cleburne with his regiment to repair the Point Pleasant plank road. This road, if practicable, is the shortest and easiest {p.706} by which I can reach the Mississippi, and place myself in supporting distance of your force. I have great fears, however, that there is a greater difficulty to overcome than the plank road, and that is the Cache bottom on the other side of the Big Black River. This part of the road is represented to me as impassable for cannon or wagons. I have sent a party, who started the day after your first dispatch was received, to examine the entire route. I shall start Lieutenant Shaaff to-morrow to examine more especially the Cache bottom. I am particularly anxious to join you, and shall do so with all possible haste. I don’t wish to be caught in a bad bottom during the equinox. I judge the route through Bloomfield to Point Pleasant the most practicable, but the farthest.

I have no wish, even if I had time and boats, to transport my command by water. I prefer it should go by land, and if no better route offers I can certainly go by Pocahontas and Gainesville. I hope you will not attempt any forward movement until my arrival.

My wagons are very indifferent, but I have wagons and teams sufficient to take me in either direction.

I am busy getting everything in readiness to move, which I shall commence as soon as the route is open. You may rest assured that I shall lose no time in joining you.

With high respect, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

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MEMPHIS, September 23, 1861.

General A. S. JOHNSTON:

SIR: Some weeks since Col. Win, M. Cooke and myself were sent by Maj. Gen. Sterling Price, who commands the Missouri Army, to communicate with the Confederate Government at Richmond, and particularly with the President, in relation to our movements, strength, and prospects in Missouri, and to solicit more aid in arms, ammunition, and forces for a full operation against the enemy, &c. We have been to Richmond, and communicated with the President and authorities.

The President assured us that you had plenary powers, and that you would respond to any request to give us strength and efficiency. Permit me to say that your appointment is hailed with unusual approbation by our entire army. The President in a letter, and since by telegraph, informs us that two batteries were ordered to Missouri under our charge, to be sent from this place. In addition to this, we obtained from the State of Virginia, upon the requisition of the Confederate Government, 2 rifle 6-pounder guns, 1 box of flints, 500 flint-lock muskets in 25 boxes, 2 6-pounder carriages, and about half enough harness for the guns.

Our army is in great extremity, and needs these guns and arms very much indeed. Colonel Cooke goes to see you with a full understanding of our wants and with full power to explain our condition and wants to you. You will please give him an early interview, and make such orders as may be necessary to enable us to reach our army in the shortest possible time with the guns and arms above specified. You may be assured that we are engaged heart and soul in the common cause, willing to shed our blood, and if necessary sacrifice our lives, to achieve our independence and to promote the interest of the Southern Confederacy, of which we hope in a few months at farthest to form a part. I am yet {p.707} laboring under the effects of a wound received at the battle of Oak Hills and I thought it best to remain here until Colonel Cooke’s return.

Colonel Cooke will also communicate to you the necessity of an order for transportation of medical stores from this place, which are much needed at our hospitals at Springfield for both Confederate and Missouri forces.

With my ardent wishes for your success in your new field of labor, and hoping to see you very soon in command in person in Missouri,

I am, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. CLARK, Brigadier-General, Missouri Army.

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HEADQUARTERS UPPER DISTRICT ARKANSAS Pitman’s Ferry, September 24, 1861.

General A. S. JOHNSTON, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: The last detachment of my command will start to-morrow for Point Pleasant, on the Mississippi River, which place, I hope, my entire command will reach in nine days from that date.

The road has been found in a desperately bad condition. Indeed Colonel Cleburne, who commands the advance, and who was sent forward with his regiment to repair the road, writes me that in wet weather the road will be found impassable. In addition to this regiment I have sent forward another party of 200 men under Lieutenant-Colonel Marmaduke.

I hope these timely precautions will enable me to work the command through even in bad weather.

When I last heard from Colonel Cleburne he had not reached the plank road; but a special courier who was sent over this road and returned yesterday says it will not be difficult to put it in traveling order. I regret our delay, but it has been unavoidable.

I shall need rations on the 1st proximo; the quantity will depend on our destination.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, (Copy to General Polk.) Brigadier-General.

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COLUMBUS, KY., September 25, 1861.

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy:

SIR: I am to-day in receipt of your orders, through Captain Buchanan, directing Lieut. I. H. Carter, C. S. Navy, to report to Flag Officer Hollins for duty at New Orleans. I desire to say that I have respectfully to request, if the interests of the service will not be compromised by it, that Lieutenant Carter be permitted to remain on duty in this department.

The gunboats the enemy have now in the Mississippi River are giving us most serious annoyance, and I find it indispensable, to check their movements and to protect our transports, to have an armed boat under my command. Without its aid our operations would be very seriously obstructed, if not to an extent paralyzed. As a necessity, therefore, I have purchased a strong river boat, which I have secured {p.708} at a low cost, and have sent it to New Orleans, under the care of Lieutenant Carter, to be cut down and prepared for an armament.

This work is now nearly completed, and as Lieutenant Carter, who has been some time past in service in this region, has a knowledge of our wants and how to meet them, I have respectfully to represent that I should be glad to have him continued under my command for the purpose of taking charge of this gunboat, and that he be relieved from the operation of the order above alluded to.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 31.}

HEADQUARTERS MO. STATE GUARD, Lexington, Mo., September 27, 1861.

1. Col, B. A. Rives, with 3,000 men, composed of details of companies, as follows: First Division, 500; Second Division, 300; Fourth Division, 500; Fifth Division, 500; Seventh Division, 1,200, will be in readiness to move early to-morrow morning. The detachment from each division, under command of the senior officer, will cross the river and report on the other side to Colonel Rives.

2. The detachment from each division will be furnished by their division commissaries with five days’ rations. No tents will be taken, and only one wagon to three companies, which will carry the provisions and cooking utensils of the three companies.

3. Colonel Rives will report in person to the major-general commanding.

By command of Maj. Gen. S. Price:

HENRY LITTLE, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., September 29, 1861.

General MCCULLOCH:

GENERAL: From the papers General Johnston has reports of the defeat of Colonel Hunter in Missouri and your call for re-enforcement from the people of the State. Upon this he has telegraphed the governor of Arkansas to push forward to you the troops (10,000) heretofore called for from that State as rapidly as they can be armed. He has not yet heard from the governor in answer to the call, and cannot advise you of the probable time at which you can count on this force or any part thereof.

In the mean time, he authorizes you to muster into service as many armed regiments of Arkansas or Missouri troops and as many armed companies from either State as may offer for twelve months or the war, reserving to the President the granting of all commissions for the field officers of all troops raised in Missouri. You will give acting appointments to field officers of the Missouri troops, to be effective until the pleasure of the President is made known; and to avoid future trouble inform those gentlemen so appointed by you that the power of appointment is the President’s alone.

The Arkansas regiments are to be mustered into service by you on their arrival, and their time of service will be reckoned on the rolls from the {p.709} date certified to you by the governor of the State as that of their presentation at the rendezvous in Arkansas.

Purchase such supplies as you may need and [can] procure in the district of your operations, and for all others call on the quartermaster, commissary, and ordnance officer at Memphis.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., September 29, 1861.

General M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Missouri Troops:

GENERAL: General Johnston wishes you to move your command to the vicinity of Farmington, on the route to Saint Louis.

The object of this movement is to relieve the pressure of the Federal forces upon General Price, and to draw attention from the movements here, and if possible to embarrass their movements by cutting their Ironton Railroad.

The positions you will occupy and the route will be such as your judgment dictates. The general desires you to remain in the field so long as you can do so in safety to your command and further these projects.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Belmont, Mo., September 29, 1861.

Col. W. G. PHEELAN, Commanding Second Regiment:

SIR: You will take from your command 120 men and proceed into the neighborhood of Harrison’s Mills, and burn, cut down, or destroy the bridge on the Cairo and Fulton Railroad at that point. You will also accept as many volunteers as may choose to go, and select such men as may be necessary for spies and guides from the commands of Colonel Brown and Captain Price. You will endeavor to find out the exact force that may be at the bridge alluded to, and also the bridge near Charleston; and if you can whip the force that may be at Harrison’s Bridge in an hour’s time, you will not hesitate to attack him. But, if the force be too strong or too well posted to whip in one hour, you had better decline a fight, as the force at Bird’s Point will be too near to waste too much time. Should you fail at Harrison’s and your men are not too much fatigued, you can approach the railroad at the most eastern point that is possible, and, after destroying the track, you can march westward, towards Charleston, and render as many points useless as possible. Much of the detail of an expedition of this kind must be left to the discretion and bravery of the officers in command, and you will therefore understand that my object in sending you is to render the Cairo and Fulton Railroad useless to our enemies; and, if you must fight to accomplish our object, you must not hesitate a moment, if there is the slightest possible hope of success.

By order of M. Jeff. Thompson, brigadier-general, commanding:

J. R. PURVIS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.710}

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Little Rock, September 30, 1861.

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR of the Confederate States:

SIR: In accordance with suggestions contained in a communication addressed to me by your predecessor, bearing date the 5th instant, I issued a proclamation calling for five regiments of men designed for General McCulloch’s command, and so informed the general, a copy of the letter addressed to him being inclosed to your Department.

On the 10th instant a proclamation was also issued by General McCulloch calling for 15,000 men from the States of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas-a printed copy herewith transmitted*-the 5,000 from Louisiana to be rendezvoused at the capital of this government, whether organized or to be assembled here as a mass of individuals I have not been apprised. The authorities of Arkansas were neither consulted as to the propriety of making this call nor advised in any manner that such was the purpose of the general.

To all demands made upon me by the Confederate Government I have heretofore and shall continue to comply with as a constitutional duty, besides the personal gratification it affords of being able to minister something to the great cause in which we are all engaged. To the gallantry and patriotism of General McCulloch none can accord higher admiration than myself; nevertheless, I esteem it to be my duty, as the executive of this State, irrespective of considerations personal to myself, to express my disapproval of the attitude assigned the authorities of this government and that assumed for Confederate officers in the proclamation alluded to. My idea of the rights relatively belonging to the states and to the Confederate Government is that those pertaining to the former were by no means abridged by the withdrawal from the old Confederacy and a union with the new Government, but that all theretofore claimed upon the most liberal construction were conceded, both upon policy and principle.

The history of the United States, I believe, furnishes no precedent for the raising of men by proclamation emanating from generals commanding nor from the President. If such had been law or precedent, the intervention of State authority would doubtless have been dispensed with by Mr. Lincoln in his demand for troops from Arkansas. Such, fortunately, was not the practice or the law; and with all deference I submit that no example by authority ought to mar the text sheet of Confederate history.

I am aware that, by an act of the Provisional Congress, approved 28th February last, the President is authorized to receive into the service of the Government such forces then in the service of the States as might be tendered, “or who may volunteer by consent of their State,” meaning its authorities; but I am unadvised if legislation has trenched so far upon State prerogative as to authorize the calling of troops by any but State authority, and shall, if such is the law, reluctantly yield my assent to so serious an innovation upon State rights.

But, apart from policy and law, the practice is attended with discordant effort, confusion, contrariety of opinion, unsatisfactory results, and great waste and improvidence in expending the resources of the country. For instance, if the men called for by General McCulloch are raised by him, those assembled by my proclamation, after great expense to the State and sacrifice to the citizen, will be useless, and have to be disbanded. Again, if General McCulloch may issue proclamation, {p.711} so may one or a dozen other officers do likewise, destroying all harmony of action, and putting aside State authority entirely. Again, an economy of men henceforth will be as important as that of money. Ill-advised calls, appealing strenuously to the people of particular sections, operate with severity upon particular localities. There are portions of this State which have sent but few men to the field; others, by applying constant stimulants, have already turned out an overdue proportion. Of these facts Confederate generals can know nothing, whilst the right and knowledge for discrimination rest exclusively with the authorities of the States, and cannot be so well lodged anywhere else.

On a former occasion, July -, General McCulloch issued a proclamation calling for the entire military force of the State, evidently with the most laudable purposes, which met with approval from the necessity of the case, not deeming it probable that an isolated act would ripen into settled practice. I thought it unnecessary to call attention to it at Richmond, unless supervenient facts determined that that call was assumed to have been made by an exercise of rightful authority, which now seems to be apparent. There are other persons and officers of the Confederate Government of lesser rank than General McCulloch who, claiming to act by direction of your Government, are issuing addresses and proclamations, calling for troops from Arkansas, all which perplex and distract the minds and loyal purposes of the people, and are highly detrimental to the public service and offensive to the rights and dignity of this Government. In view of all which, I beg leave most sincerely and respectfully to request that henceforward all demands which it may be thought proper to make upon this State for troops for Confederate service may be addressed to the proper authorities thereof and that the military officers placed upon our frontiers be advised of the propriety in future of addressing themselves to such authorities in the procurement of troops needed for the Confederate Army.

Very respectfully,

H. M. RECTOR, Governor of Arkansas.

N. B.-A copy of this communication is sent to General McCulloch.

* See p. 700.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, Camp Belmont, Mo., September 30, 1861.

Lieut. Gov, T. C. REYNOLDS, Columbus, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: As I am ordered to march upon a line where I will not be in constant and direct communication with you, and as my quartermaster’s accounts will have to be settled regularly, you will please consider the horses and transportation delivered to you by my quartermaster as under your especial charge, and you will account for the riding horses as your private property (as all the officers do), and the wagon horses and ambulances will be reported in your settlement with the military authorities of the State, as other public property is when used on detached service.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.712}

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CAMP BELMONT, MO., September 30, 1861.

Col. ADEN LOWE, Bloomfield, Mo.:

DEAR COLONEL: Since writing to you yesterday I have received orders to march immediately, and will leave this camp on to-morrow, to take my baggage to New Madrid, and, leaving all the tents and heavy baggage there, I will take my active and efficient force, and immediately march northward. I will endeavor, if I have transportation enough, to send you another lot of shoes, &c., immediately; but, if I cannot raise the wagons, I will have them for you when you join. I wish you to select from your command all who are able to stand a thirty days’ campaign and who are armed, and hold them ready to march with me. You can leave your tents, or rent houses for those who remain, and, by furnishing an abundance of hay and straw, you can probably have blankets enough for those who march with you. I propose to be at Sikeston by Wednesday at noon. I wish you to be ready to march by that time, and move up to Spring Hill. By that time I will have determined whether I will cross over and join you and march direct on Ironton, or whether we will (I on one side of the swamp and you on the other) move direct on Cape Girardeau. I will rely on you for 500 efficient men, and more, if you can have them. I propose a thirty days’ active campaign, and hope we will have effected enough in that time to retire on our laurels. Let me know at Sikeston, by special courier, the number and condition of your force, the quantity of ammunition you need, &c., so that I can send over to you all you need at Spring Hill. If we move separately, I will send you a battery of cannon. Write to me by every opportunity that is safe.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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Abstract from return, September 30, 1861, of the troops, Division No. 1, commanded by Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk.

Troops.Present for duty.Total present.Aggregate present.Total present and absent.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
Columbus, Ky.5458,788538161015511,74212,44112,93013,708
Camp Beauregard1932,6883,5033,7133,9004,127
Union city961,5631,6091,7051,6791,785
Fort Pillow388589459451,0301,087
Memphis1322,2302,2302,3622,2302,362
Trenton48916916964916964
Fort Henry48816816864816864
Grand total1,10017,839538161015521,76123,03323,50124,897

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., New Madrid, Mo., October 3, 1861-6 a. m.

General A. S. JOHNSTON, C. S. A., Columbus, Ky.:

DEAR SIR: I will be delayed forty-eight hours on my march by the want of transportation from Columbus to this place, but hope that I {p.713} have made good use of the time in perfecting my arrangements and arranging the establishment of a permanent post at this point, as a depot for my sick and recruits. My scouts report 4,000 of the enemy at Charleston. It seems that an engine was actually on the outer end of the railroad when my men destroyed the bridge, and the only delay the enemy now suffer is a march from Bird’s Point to the bridge. I do not believe there are 1,000 at Charleston, although they may be fortifying, as reported; but, at any rate, it would be well to bag them; and, as they are evidently there to prevent me from marching out, and as I am already out and behind them, if you will send over a few regiments to cut off their retreat, I will undertake to drive them into your hands. I will, as soon as I hear the truth of the report, send you a courier, and will expect co-operation.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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NEW MADRID, MO., October 3, 1861-7 a. m.

Col. ADEN LOWE, C. S. A., Spring Hill, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: Your courier reached me last night, but I have delayed him until this morning. For want of transportation from Columbus to this place I will be delayed fully forty-eight hours in all my marches. The baggage wagons that should have been here night before last have not yet arrived, but will come to-day. You will therefore remain at Spring Hill until further orders, as you may have to come to Sikeston to my assistance if the enemy is at Charleston, as reported by the scouts this morning. If the report is false, I expect to cross to Spring Hill to you, and we will all move together. I have an abundance of ammunition for muskets and plenty of powder for you, and will send you a load to-day, and we will move together. It will not, however, reach you today, as the rains have made the swamps bad. I hope you have none with you but the able-bodied and well-armed, as we have an active campaign before us, and a few well-conditioned men can do more than an army of sick. I will select a post commandant for Bloomfield and New Madrid, where heavy baggage, the sick, recruits, and convalescents will make a small army. If you have transportation enough for your active force you can carry four tents along, although I hope you will not have to pitch them. You can exercise your judgment about your prisoners. The deserters can be released if they will go along-that is, if they are well enough. Hard stories are told about the actions of some of your men on the trip to Jackson. I hope they are not true. I will try to get over to Bloomfield, to see how things are arranged, before we finally leave. Make, if possible, your monthly report.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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CAMP, NEW MADRID, MO., October 3, 1861.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. ARMY, Columbus, Ky.:

DEAR GENERAL: I send you to-day 8 more prisoners of war, whom my men captured at Jackson ten days ago. I understand the woods {p.714} opposite Columbus are filled with the enemy’s pickets, and that they are fortifying Charleston. I have written to General Johnston to send over, to drive them westward, when I will catch them, or, if he will hold the bag, I will drive.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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NEW MADRID, MO., October 3, 1861.

Col. J. J. SMITH, Second Regiment Dragoons, Camp near Sikeston, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: I place no faith in the report that as many of the enemy are at Charleston as I hear. There may be some there, and if so we must drive them in. You must keep an active lookout in that direction, and, if possible, find out the number and location of the forces. I will try to have a movement made from Columbus to cut him off, and we will attack him from our side. They have no idea that we are outside of them in force, and their movement there is the one I anticipated, and was intended to cut us off. We are out of the cage in time, and will probably put them in it. The delay in our baggage has occasioned me much trouble, and the troops of the First Regiment have this moment arrived, while their wagons (empty) are coming down by land. This will delay our march forty-eight hours, and we must be as patient as possible. You will, therefore, if you are in a comfortable place, remain there, resting as many horses as you safely can, and await orders. You will hear from me repeatedly during the day.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-As soon as you hear the truth, send a courier, with all the facts, to General Johnston.

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CAMP BROWN, MO., October 7, 1861-9 a. m.

Col. JAMES A. WALKER, Commanding at New Madrid, Mo.:

SIR: Nearly all the men you sent along have deserted, and those that are here are very much dissatisfied. It seems, from their reports, that you are furloughing all the men left with you to garrison the post of New Madrid, and it is said you have even furnished them with State transportation to go home in. This is very demoralizing, and must be peremptorily stopped; and if you have let any go home, it is in express opposition to my orders left with you. I will state here again, plainly, that no man, soldier or officer, shall be furloughed again for more than twenty-four hours, for the reason that it demoralizes the command, by producing dissatisfaction both in camp and at home. You must enforce the strictest military discipline around your post, as by this means only can you give satisfaction to any one. Catch all the deserters you can.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.715}

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CAMP POLK, ISLAND 10, October 9, 1861.

Col. L. G. DE RUSSY, Chief Engineer, &c.:

COLONEL: We are doing well on the end of the island to-day, the boat getting down in time to take our men over and to co-operate with us.

An opportunity offers for me to send up a line, and I would wish to call your attention to the matter of the negroes I have at work. Lieutenant Moses’ 500, which he was to have here positively last week from his expedition into Dyer County, only numbered some 150, and we have now only 90, as the farmers in the Bend have been obliged to take theirs home for their crops. They have been at work some weeks.

Those we have at present belong in Gibson and Dyer Counties, and if you can get such an order issued as the memorandum inclosed, we can do much. It will be a great loss to have them go off on Saturday.

I wish you could dispatch us an order of the kind desired, if not incompatible with the public good.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. B. GRAY.

The commanding officer of Redan Fort, Camp Polk, if the exigencies of the service require it, is directed to retain the negroes for ten days longer, to complete the fortifications upon Island No. 10. If they can be spared without detriment to the public interest, they may be permitted to return to their homes.

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RICHMOND, VA., October 10, 1861.

The Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

SIR: I deem it necessary, in order to a proper understanding of the facts in relation to the disorganization of the Arkansas State troops recently under my command, to make the subjoined statements:

The military board of the State of Arkansas issued an order on the 22d of July to me to transfer the troops under my command to General Hardee or his agents, and in doing this I was required to take the vote of each company on the question of willingness to transfer. If a majority of a company voted in favor of transferring them, the company was to retain its organization, and those voting against the transfer to be discharged, and the company to be filled by recruits; in fact, leaving the transfer entirely at the will of the soldier. This order was received two days after the battle of Oak Hills. General Hardee had no agent there, and after consulting with General McCulloch it was thought best that I should fall back with my command to Camp Walker, in Arkansas, report the facts to the military board, and await further instructions. I sent a messenger post haste to the board, informing them that General Hardee had sent no agent to receive the troops; that General McCulloch had declined doing so, not having any authority; also urging on the board a different policy, as I feared the course they had taken would result in the disorganization of the forces. Two days after, Colonel Hindman overtook me on the march, and reported himself as General Hardee’s agent, and it was decided that we continue on to Arkansas, and there carry out the order of the board, hoping in the mean time that we would hear from the board, and that the troops might be retained.

The board declined making any changes, and ordered me to carry {p.716} out my former instructions. This was the death-blow to my command. I got Colonel Hindman to address the troops several times, and did myself all I could by orders and appeals to induce the men to enter the Confederate service; but the course unfortunately adopted by the board placed affairs beyond my control. I should have mentioned before that all my troops were mustered into the State service, subject to be transferred to the Confederate service for the balance of their unexpired term of enlistment. The troops were all willing to be transferred, and not a dissent would have been made had the transfer been made by order, without referring it to the men. They were already virtually in the Confederate service. They had been in the Army from two to five months, and had never received any pay or clothing, and when the board said they could honorably leave the service, and left it to their choice, being naked and barefooted, the natural impulse to each individual was, “I must go home” They said to our appeals: “We are as good Southern men as any persons. We have fought the enemy and driven him away. We are needy and will go home, and when another call is made, we will have clothes and shoes, and will again do battle for the South”; and despite all persuasion and appeals, this unfortunate decision could not be overcome.

On the 2d of September the board issued an order to me to refrain. This order was received by me about the 10th, some forty days after the first order was issued. The troops had all disbanded long before.

These are the facts. I did all in my power to save the troops, but without success.

Respectfully,

N. B. PEARCE.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 10, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I feel constrained to urge upon you the necessity of at once furnishing me an officer familiar with the subject of submarine batteries and capable of a practicable application of this species of defense to the Mississippi River.

I have had some correspondence with Lieut. M. F. Maury in relation to this matter, and while it would be personally gratifying to me, I think the public good would be greatly promoted by his being ordered to report for duty to these headquarters.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 10, 1861.

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy:

Under the pressing emergencies of the service on this river I ordered the alteration and arming of a steamer that was built very staunch to serve as a gunboat. This boat, of which I have written you, is being altered and armed under the direction of Lieutenant Carter, who by your order has been allowed to remain with me and complete it. It {p.717} will be out next week and ready for its guns, and it is so necessary, that I have resolved to devote certain guns I obtained for land batteries to her use. These she will take on at Memphis, and will be ready in a few days thereafter for service. Two of the enemy’s gunboats came down to this place two days ago and opened fire on the batteries I was putting into position, shelling and throwing round shot. Their fire was returned with vigor and with such success as to cripple them both. One of them, we are informed, sank about 10 miles above this, and the other was so much injured as to be obliged to be relieved of her armament. Had the boat Lieutenant Carter is now building been on hand, we should have been able to capture or destroy them both.

The expense of the construction of Lieutenant Carter’s boat, I am informed, is moderate, and the work remarkably well done.

It will be necessary to make provision for the payment of the expenditures incurred in the construction, and I write to say that I shall be obliged by your indicating the mode in which these expenditures are to be provided for.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp on the south side of the Osage, October 10, 1861.

Brig. Gen. HARRIS, Seventh Division:

GENERAL: I am instructed by the major-general commanding to direct that you move with your command at sunrise to-morrow morning in the direction of Clintonville.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY LITTLE, Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, October 11, 1861.

General B. MCCULLOCH, Fort Smith, Ark., via Memphis and Little Rock:

The quartermaster at Fort Smith telegraphs that he can haul on his return trains 200,000 pounds lead per month from the Granby mines. You are instructed to co-operate with him in this as far as consistent with your military operations.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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CARTHAGE, MO., October 12, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President C. S. A.:

SIR: The bearer of this note, Colonel Greer, of Texas, is probably better known to you than myself, but I know him well, and can say of him that he is a gentleman and a soldier worthy of the highest confidence; that he is familiar with every movement of the Missouri troops since their entrance upon the battle-field, and will give you a faithful history of the condition of affairs in the State. On the 26th ultimo I dispatched a messenger to you (Colonel Snead), clothed with power to conclude a treaty, offensive and defensive, between the Confederate {p.718} States and Missouri, and trust ere this reaches you that the treaty has been made, and that you will feel at liberty to make an appointment at once of a general to command all the forces operating in Missouri. In this connection you will pardon me for suggesting the name of General Sterling Price as the man fit for the place, and under whose lead the troops of Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas will rally as one man. But in this matter I defer to your better judgment, and will be most happy to rally my men under any man you may see fit to appoint. In a few days I have every reason to hope the legislature will be in session, and as soon as this takes place an ordinance of secession will be passed by an almost unanimous vote, and will be overwhelmingly ratified by the people whenever they can vote upon it.

I have the honor to be, &c.,

C. F. JACKSON.

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RICHMOND, October 13, 1861.

D. W. DAVIS, Secretary Military Board, Little Bock, Ark.:

Will arm the regiments ordered out from Arkansas as rapidly as possible. The arms now in arsenal are subject to the order of General McCulloch, and he is authorized to put them in hands of such troops as he thinks best. Let the men be mustered into our service, and we will equip and supply them in camp, and furnish arms at the earliest possible moment.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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FORT SMITH, October 14, 1861 (via Little Rock, 19th).

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

I have this day shipped to Memphis 32,000 pounds of lead sent from the Granby mines, in Missouri. Will continue to forward lead, and I believe can furnish all that is wanted for the Confederate Army.

G. W. CLARK.

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CAMP JACKSON, ARK., October 14, 1861.

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

SIR: I am just in receipt of a letter from Governor Jackson, in which he informs me that his force has fallen back from Lexington to the Osage River, and that they are in great want of musket caps. I have at this time only 75,000, but will share them with him as far as would be safe for this command. He writes from Carthage, 60 miles north of this, and is on his way south with his family. Colonel Greer, whom I send as bearer of dispatches, says the governor is exceedingly anxious to march back to the Missouri River, and there go into winter quarters.

This I think, under the circumstances, to say the least, would be imprudent.

As to my own command, it is badly organized, armed, and equipped, and poorly provided with clothing and blankets for this latitude, besides being only half supplied with caps. Other kinds of ammunition we have in abundance for a campaign, though it would be impossible with my present limited means of transportation to take a sufficient supply of ammunition for the artillery. Taking all things into consideration, I {p.719} shall advise the Missouri forces to go into winter quarters on Spring River, the position now held by my mounted regiments. Then they would be in a country well supplied with grain, and mills to grind it, and could take the field in the spring in good condition, well supplied with everything that could be procured in the South during the winter. In the mean time the force under my command could be increased, so as to enable us to take the field with a respectable army when the winter breaks. At present the half of my command left me by sickness are so enfeebled as not to be able to stand the cold weather with the light clothing they have.

The sooner the Missouri forces are reorganized and mustered into the Confederate service the better, as they are at present not bound by any tie, and will remain in the field no longer than they think fit, no matter what may result from their withdrawal.

I will march with my whole force to the aid of General Price, and in the event of General Frémont pursuing, will endeavor to form a junction with the former in time to give battle to the latter at such time and place as may be thought most advisable.

In conclusion, I beg leave to suggest the propriety of destroying Kansas as far north as possible. We can never have quiet or safety among the Indians so long as Kansas remains inhabited by its present population, and although I have up to this time declined to march an Indian force into Missouri, yet I will do so in the event of the approach of a large Federal force, or it may be possible that they will be used against Kansas this fall.

Hoping this course will meet the approbation of the Department, I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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LITTLE ROCK, October 14, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

I am raising five regiments of men for General McCulloch. They need camp equipage, including tents, which can be procured in Memphis. We have nothing to buy them with except Arkansas war bonds, which are only worth seventy cents in that market. Is it not better that the Confederate Government supply that article, thus preventing so great a sacrifice of our paper? Again, it is impossible for us to arm these troops, and I have no intelligence from McCulloch as to the number of guns he can supply. The necessities of the service require an immediate answer.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor, and ex officio President Military Board.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp near Greenfield, Mo., October 16, 1861.

General A. S. JOHNSTON, Commanding Confederate Forces:

GENERAL: General Harding, quartermaster-general of the State, leaves my camp to-day for Memphis, and I have the honor to communicate to you the military movement now taking place in this portion of the State.

{p.720}

About a week after the surrender of Lexington I learned that General Frémont was concentrating at Georgetown, near the terminus of the North Branch of the Pacific Railroad, a large force, and knowing that the enemy had also some 4,000 men at Kansas City, I deemed it prudent not to risk being hemmed in, but for a time to abandon the Missouri River and fall back south. This I have done by slow and easy marches, and am now within a couple of days’ march of General McCulloch’s advance position; thus at any time enabled to form a junction with him should the movement of the enemy make it necessary.

My force now consists of from 10,000 to 12,000 men, variously armed, and tolerably well supplied with ammunition. I expect daily accessions to my force from the southwestern part of the State, which is and always has been true to the cause of the South.

General Frémont’s force at Georgetown and vicinity is variously estimated at from 13,000 to 24,000 men. His extensive preparations of land transportation evidently anticipated a move southward, and to-day I am informed that, having been joined by the troops from Kansas, General Frémont is moving south with a well-appointed army of some 24,000.

Should this report be confirmed, I will immediately form a junction with General McCulloch, when, aided by the nature of the country, so well adapted to defensive operations, I trust we will be able to drive the invader from our soil. I learn that most of the enemy’s force has been withdrawn from Saint Louis to strengthen General Frémont, which, if true, leaves that city almost defenseless, and may have an important bearing on your operations. It will afford me much pleasure to co-operate with you or receive suggestions in relation to future movements.*

I am, general, with much respect, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding Mo. S. G.

* See Johnston to Price, October 31, post.

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CAMP POLK, ISLAND No. 10, October 16, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding General Department No. 2:

GENERAL: The Mohawk goes back to Columbus to-day. We are working hard towards completing the fortifications at this point or at least putting them in such condition that any body of troops, if ordered here, can by their labor in a few days thereafter finish the works for a strong defense. The lines are laid off complete for the three batteries. One fort (the redan) is ready for its full complement of guns, nine or ten. It has four 32-pounders mounted.

The intrenchments connecting this fort are not complete to the bayou, but the troops, whenever it becomes necessary to occupy them, can finish them. Much timber had to be cleared off the ground on the island and immediately opposite. We have but 60 negroes now at work, the others having gone home. Those now here leave us on Saturday. We shall then be without laborers to put the works in the condition I have stated-that the troops could finish in a few days whenever ordered here.

I have learned from Mr. Griswold, who has been down on duty connected with our work, that they have actually more hands at Fort Pillow {p.721} than needed. He learns this from an officer stationed at Fort Pillow. They have about 2,300 now there and more coming in daily. If you could give me an order on the commanding officer at Fort Pillow for 500 hands to work at Island No. 10 for ten days, we can be ready for any number of troops and armament when it may be deemed expedient to occupy the forts.

I will now refer to another matter, general. The little boat, called the Gordon Grant, which Colonel De Russy said should be sent to us at Island No. 10, and which the quartermaster at Memphis stated was to be sent to us as soon as ready, is now at Fort Pillow. We have a boat sent us for our service at the island which is, I understand, costing $150 per day; she is unnecessarily large and expensive.

The Grant, if placed under my charge, will not cost, under any circumstances, including fuel, over $16 per day. This boat will answer all our purposes in completing the fortifications here, and also enable me to finish the topographical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River from Memphis to the Tennessee line, and also to Columbus, showing a correct view of the river, with the situation of the defenses and their approaches.

I send you, general, a rough outline of the river from actual survey made by me. It simply will show what I suppose would be so essential to your department, that of having the correct situation of the important points. This map can now be very shortly completed, and in a few weeks (say two weeks) I wish to be able to report the completion of the forts of Island No. 10, and have a complete survey and map at your headquarters of all our work. I beg you will let me have Colonel Tilghman’s map of Kentucky, to incorporate upon our general map, for a few days. General Cheatham, I learn, has also a copy.

Now, general, if you can give me the order for some hands and the order for the Gordon Grant, I can promise you much that will be done; that great expense will be saved the Government, and that I can finish up the works at this point greatly to my own satisfaction as well as to the public benefit.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

A. B. GRAY.

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HEADQUARTERS DIVISION, Pineville, Mo., October 22, 1861-12 noon.

Maj. Gen. STERLING PRICE, Commanding Missouri State Guard, Neosho, Mo.:

GENERAL: A portion of my command will be on the Springfield road to-morrow, and I shall push a portion of my cavalry well in the advance, if possible, to ascertain any movements of the enemy from that direction. I have instructed Col. Stand Watie, with one regiment of Cherokees, to move into the neutral land and Kansas, and destroy everything that might be of service to the enemy. I would suggest the propriety of your ordering a portion of your cavalry to destroy all the forage on Spring River below Carthage.

I am, general, with respect, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-If the enemy should not advance beyond Springfield, we might with our cavalry lay waste Kansas. {p.722}

HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp at Neosho, October 23, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Commanding Confederate Forces:

GENERAL: I had reliable information yesterday from scouts and travelers that General Frémont has not yet crossed the Osage. General Sigel has crossed it, and has been at Warsaw. There has been a party of several hundred Home Guards at Osceola and Bolivar, and they have as usual been engaged in a wholesale destruction of property. I place confidence in this information. I can see no reason to resist its truthfulness. I can further say that I am fully convinced that General Frémont does not intend to advance upon me here. When I receive my artillery from the South (which cannot fail to reach me, under the charge and escort of General John B. Clark, within ten days, or two weeks at furthest), it is my deliberate conviction, from a careful survey of the whole ground, that duty, as well as the best military calculation, requires me to return at once, and rapidly, to the Missouri River.

Allow me, general, to state some of these reasons. I think that Kansas’ power to depredate upon us and assist the enemy should be broken, but I would not now, in this section, destroy that which is absolutely necessary for the subsistence-I may almost say the existence-of the surrounding inhabitants. Let the policy be to commence these offensive demonstrations on the Missouri River. First, we should destroy the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad, thus crippling if not almost depriving the enemy of the ways and means of re-enforcing their allies, in that section too weak at that time to make a substantial resistance to us. Kansas’ power to injure us is located near the Missouri River. It is there that abolitionism reigns; it is there her wealth is held; it is there her fighting men are raised; in short, it is the center from which all her depredations upon Southern rights and Southern property radiate. Should we commence there, after first destroying the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad, they cannot re-enforce from the great points of their strength-I mean the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois-for all these forces must come that way, if they are designed at all to check or prevent the operations we will have in view; whereas if we commence on the southern border of Kansas these vast re-enforcements will be collected, with all the necessary machinery of war, on the Missouri River by the time we reach there, giving us much to fear, if they did not seriously jeopardize the full success of the whole movement. Pursuing the course suggested I think will certainly guarantee us the prize. Let us then move, as indicated, upon the Missouri River, where I shall have abundant supplies of every kind and any number of men and the hearty sympathy and co-operation of the people. Your march in that direction with your force would inspire confidence and arouse enthusiasm. What, then, can prevent your going to a section where the people would hail your coming with the greatest joy, and where your name and fame and that of your gallant men would bring to our standard an army of full 50,000 men, in fact all the many thousands needed for the most energetic and offensive operations, and I believe the thorough establishment of Southern independence in the Mississippi Valley, if it were not more comprehensive in its results even than that. Let us then, by all means move to the Missouri River.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding Mo. S. G.

{p.723}

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 13.}

HDQRS. FIRST DIV., WESTERN DEP’T. Columbus, Ky., October 24, 1861.

The following will hereafter, and until further orders, be the organization of this command:

The First Division will be under the command of Brigadier-General Pillow, and will be composed as follows:

The First Brigade, First Division, commanded by Col, J. K. Walker, will be composed of the regiments of Cols, J. K. Walker, C. M. Carroll, and John V. Wright. Capt. M. T. Polk’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the First Brigade, First Division.

The Second Brigade, First Division, commanded by Col. R. M. Russell, will be composed of the regiments of Cols. R. M. Russell, E. Pickett, and T. J. Freeman. Capt. W. H. Jackson’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the Second Brigade, First Division.

The Second Division will be commanded by Brig. Gen. B. F. Cheatham, and will be composed as follows:

The First Brigade, Second Division, commanded by Col. Preston Smith, will be composed of the regiment of Col. Preston Smith and the battalion of Lieutenant-Colonel Blythe. Captain Hudson’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the First Brigade, Second Division.

The Second Brigade, Second Division, commanded by Col, W. H. Stephens, will be composed of the regiments of Cols, W. H. Stephens and H. L. Douglass. Capt. M. Smith’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the Second Brigade, Second Division.

The Third Division will be commanded by Brig. Gen. J. P. McCown, and will be composed as follows:

The First Brigade, Third Division, commanded by Col, S. F. Marks, will be composed of the regiments of Col, S. F. Marks and Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy’s battalion Jackson regiment. Capt. S. P. Bankhead’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the First Brigade, Third Division.

The Second Brigade, Third Division, commanded by Col. R. P. Neely, will be composed of the regiments of Cols. H. P. Neely and T. M. Scott. Capt. R. A. Stewart’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the Second Brigade, Third Division.

The Fourth – Division, commanded Col. John S. Bowen, will be composed as follows:

The First Brigade, Fourth Division, commanded by Col. John D. Martin, will be composed of the regiments of Cols. John D. Martin and John S. Bowen. Capt. Daniel Beltzhoover’s battery of artillery will compose a part of the First Brigade, Fourth Division.

The Second Brigade, Fourth Division, commanded by Col, D. W. C. Bonham, will be composed of the regiments of Cols, D. W. C. Bonham and Thomas D. Merrick. Capt. W. O. Williams’ battery will compose a part of the Second Brigade, Fourth Division.

The siege battery of Capt. S., H. D. Hamilton is attached to the division of Brigadier-General Pillow until further orders.

Lieutenant-Colonel Logwood’s battalion of Tennessee cavalry is attached to, and will form a part of, the First Division.

Lieutenant-Colonel Miller’s battalion of Mississippi cavalry is attached to, and will form a part of, the Second Division.

Capts. Warren Cole’s, J. L. Faulkner’s, and A. W. Bowie’s companies of cavalry will form a part of the Fourth Division.

Capts. Robert Haywood’s, J. J. Neely’s, and C. S. Hudson’s companies of cavalry will form a part of the Third Division.

The regiments commanded by Colonels Travis, Tappan, and Bradley {p.724} are temporarily attached to the First Division, as the Third Brigade, and will be commanded by Col, W. E. Travis.

By command of Major-General Polk:

E. D. BLAKE, Capt., C. S. Army, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, October 24, 1861.

General JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: I have sent to McCulloch two Parrott guns and two smooth-bore iron guns. They were asked for and forwarded through Broadwell, the Missouri agent. I have also sent two Parrott guns to Zollicoffer, to be added to a battery of one brass and three iron 6-pounders which were in the Cumberland Gap in charge of Churchill’s regiment. The order to send them was accompanied with an order to send caissons also and harness for the whole battery, and to send the whole by the hands of a special agent. I think it right to say, as some of these guns have been sent also to General Buckner, that we had one of them to burst yesterday while firing, wounding slightly 1 or 2 men and so fracturing the arm of another as to make it necessary to have it amputated. I believe they were exploded by the free use of rifle powder instead of cannon. The charges put up were in powder of that description. The tests were made in Memphis and the guns seemed to stand well. I send you letters from Thompson; he seems to have had some successes, but he is reported, since these letters left him, to have had a reverse, in which he lost 800 men as prisoners and several pieces of cannon. This last intelligence was given us by the flag of truce sent me yesterday in answer to one from me some days before, proposing an exchange of prisoners. The flag was borne by Buford (N. B.), whom you recollect as my classmate at West Point from Kentucky. He is colonel of the Twenty-seventh Illinois Regiment. He was very cordial, and talked freely of the war in general. They released all they had left, having released others before receiving my proposal, and I returned him those in my camp. I do not credit the story in regard to Thompson, as I have been informed since hearing it he was advised of the approach of the force which was said to have defeated him.

I am afraid you will have to change your place of rendezvous established at Benton. It proves too wet, and I have directed Col. C. H. Williams to make an examination of the country on the railroad farther south, say in the neighborhood of Jackson, for a better place. You shall know of his report. We are occasionally getting an accession of powder to our stores.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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COLUMBUS, KY., October 25, 1861.

General A. S. JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: You will see by the inclosed the state of things with Thompson.* My reply to him is, I have no regiments to send to him for the purpose he proposes. I have my hands full with what is immediately before me and around me. My advice to him, sent forward today, {p.725} is to fall back on Pitman’s Ferry, if he thinks that the better line for the security of his command and of the interests of the campaign, and unite with the forces left there by General Hardee. If he cannot accomplish that from the point at which he is (Bloomfield), then he must pass out to the plank road, and if he is pursued and cannot make successful resistance, to cross the river and join his forces to those at Island No. 10 until we can get aid from below. That is the best disposition he can make of his force, should he be pursued by the enemy, as he may be. So long as we hold this point the enemy is powerless to do mischief by attempting to cross troops below this point without boats. I am hurrying the regiments from Arkansas now in and near Memphis to get them ready for the field, but the reparation of arms goes on slowly.

I will keep you advised of the progress of events.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* See report No. 16, operations October 12-25, about Ironton, &c., p. 225.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 25, 1861.

Col. SOLON BORLAND:

SIR: A dispatch from General Thompson of 23d informs me that the enemy in force, as he is informed, to the number of 5,000, were following him in his retreat to Pitman’s Ferry from Greenville. I inferred from his letter that he did not intend falling back on Pitman’s Ferry, but would pass across the swamp to Bloomfield, and then to the river by way of the plank road. He will no doubt have informed you of his and the enemy’s movements.

My object in this note is to say that I think you should remove the stores you have at your command down the river and beyond the reach of the enemy, as far as you have the means of doing so. The powder and other ammunition especially you will take care to have removed. My advice is that you send all not necessary for your wants and that of any command likely to operate with you there round by water to Memphis. The same with the other stores.

You have no doubt considered all the contingencies that might happen and have discussed them with General Hardee, and are prepared to make such dispositions as he may have advised and as you shall think expedient, but I have thought it best to send to you a courier stating such facts as I have mentioned above of the enemy and to advise as to the safety of the stores under your charge.

I have thought it best and safest to send two small steamers from Memphis up to you at Pitman’s Ferry for those stores, and have issued the order by telegraph to-day to start them immediately. I am informed they amount to half a million in value.

You will exercise your own judgment as to how many you think under all the circumstances it would be safe to retain in that part of the State; the rest send to Memphis. If you have boats in the river, take possession of them for the service of the Government for the purposes above stated.

I do not know the amount of force you have at your disposal or can command, but take it for granted you have not enough to enable you to resist for any long time the amount of force General Thompson says was in motion.

I am mainly concerned for the stores that are with you, and have no {p.726} idea that the enemy in that force will think of pressing far into the State.

Not doubting you will act wisely in the whole matter, I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., October 25, 1861.

Brigadier-General THOMPSON, Commanding Missouri State Troops:

SIR: I am in receipt of your letters of the 18th, 20th, 22d, and 23d.* The reports of your operations are highly interesting, and we have been pleased to know that you have so completely accomplished the main object of your expedition-that relating to the destruction of the bridges. I am glad to know that you can speak so satisfactorily of the behavior of your troops at Fredericktown, but regret to hear you should have sustained a loss of the valuable men whose names you mention. I note what you say of sending you regiments to support you from my command. I regret to say that the information we have of the position and purposes of the enemy in our immediate front makes it impossible for me to detach any portion of my force for service remote from my position. I have not the force to spare.

My opinion is that you should do one of two things, either fall back into Arkansas to Pitman’s Ferry, or fall back on to the plank road and come out at Point Pleasant. If you conclude to do the former, you can cross the river at the Ferry, and take all the boats at the western side, and make your stand on the opposite side, where you can make successful resistance.

If you conclude to take the latter course, which, considering you are at Bloomfield, I think the most probable, then you must make your way to the river by the plank road, and if you cannot maintain your position on the other side, you must cross over and take up your position on the bank at Island No. 10.

Your force can be usefully employed there until we can obtain re-enforcements from the South and be prepared to move on Southeastern Missouri. I am making that position one of strength, and it is as important to Missouri as to any other State. I shall have a boat always at Island No. 10, where you might be crossed over, or, if you think to go below, wherever you want her. I hope you will keep me well advised of your movements. I send by one of your messengers a dispatch to Colonel Borland, to advise him of the course and purposes of the enemy. You will have no doubt given him warning yourself, but I have certain suggestions to make to him which I hope will be in time.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* See reports, pp. 225-225.

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LITTLE ROCK, October 25, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

Intelligence has reached here to-day that Frémont, with a large force, is approaching the northwest border of Arkansas. Price retreating to {p.727} join McCulloch at or near Arkansas line. Nothing has been communicated by General McCulloch to the authorities upon this subject, but no doubt is entertained of the correctness of the above statement. We have four regiments partially organized, which could be put under marching orders immediately if they had arms. Is it possible to send any arms? Cannot the Arkansas regiments in or near Memphis be ordered back to our assistance? I think it important.

H. M. RECTOR, Governor, and President of Military Board.

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RICHMOND, October 26, 1861.

General ALBERT PIKE, Little Rock, Ark.:

I cannot assign to your command any Arkansas troops at this moment. Governor Rector is applying for return of the regiments in Tennessee.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, October 26, 1861.

Governor RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

I have no arms that I can possibly send you; will provide you the instant I can. Will communicate to the commander-in-chief of Department of the West your desire to have the Arkansas regiments moved to Arkansas.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp near Neosho, October 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Commanding Confederate Forces:

GENERAL: I have just received from General Frémont a proposition for a general exchange of prisoners. This clearly indicates a change of policy on the part of the Federal Government, and is a virtual recognition of our rights as belligerents. From the members of the deputation and my scouts I learn that Frémont with the advance of his army is waiting at Warsaw the arrival of the remainder of his forces, which were delayed for the want of the necessary means of transportation. His exact force I am unable to ascertain, but that it is large I entertain no doubt. He moves with much caution, but his intention is undoubtedly to follow us down here. Since my last interview with you I have received the re-enforcements I expected from Lebanon, which increase my force several thousands; and in three or four days I expect General Clark with the two new batteries, which will be a valuable addition to my artillery. I would, general, respectfully suggest that you concentrate all the force you can, and with the co-operation I hope you will afford me I feel confident that, aided by the defensive nature of the country, we will meet with success.

I send this by Colonel Wood, one of my staff, who will give you all the information you require. I also send you a late Saint Louis paper, by which you will see that the Federal authorities place great reliance {p.728} upon the success of Frémont’s army, which they think will settle matters satisfactorily in this State.

Our legislature is still in session in Neosho.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., Camp Walls, Mo., October 26, 1861-7 p. m.

Col. SOLON BORLAND, C. S. A., Pitman’s Ferry, Mo.:

DEAR SIR: We have been at this point since yesterday morning, watching the enemy’s motions, and I am satisfied that they have withdrawn their forces to Ironton and Cape Girardeau, to await the results of the contest between Frémont and Price. I will place my men as follows, to await the events: White’s battalion of dragoons at Saint Francisville, to picket the roads on the Saint Francis; Smith’s regiment of dragoons at Castorville, and Lewis’ regiment of dragoons at Spring Hill (or Piketon, as it is marked on the map). Although these dragoons amount in the aggregate to but 800 men present and fit for duty, yet they will make a complete cordon from the Saint Francis to the Whitewater. The bulk of the infantry will be posted midway between Saint Francisville and Bloomfield, and in a few days, as soon as my horses are shod, I will advance to the line between Ironton and Cape Girardeau again, to keep their forces marching on that line. Should any march be made from Ironton southward, I expect to be apprised of it; and I will either intercept or cut off the baggage from any such force as the enemy can bring into the field until after the conflict in the southwest. I regret exceedingly that I did not have your two regiments at Greenville, as I could have easily drawn the enemy away from their baggage and whipped them in detail among the hills. My men are in splendid spirits, and I hope to open another short campaign in a few days. I suppose you are aware that I have had in the field but 2,000 men, and at the fight at Fredericktown I had but 1,500 present. The enemy had 6,000 at Fredericktown, and I killed five to one. I go to New Madrid in the morning, and may probably go to Memphis before I return. I hope you will write often, as I can well move to act in conjunction with either yourself or General Pillow in forty-eight hours.

Yours, respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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COLUMBUS, October 27, 1861.

General A. S. JOHNSTON, Bowling Green, Ky.:

GENERAL: I send you by the bearer, Mr. Broadwell, the inclosed letter from General Thompson, from which you will see he has not sustained the loss reported by the flag of truce, but that he is prepared to renew his attack.* I much regret that the regiments I might send to his aid are still unarmed, and that I am not in a condition to help him. This will be done so soon as I can send them forward. I am pressing all my operations here, to enable me take advantage of the state of {p.729} things in Western Missouri. I am glad to say, too, that I am having an increase of powder and other munitions. More heavy guns are arriving also from Richmond, and I am promised yet others. I have concluded to have the quarters in the garrison made by contract, and am receiving large supplies of lumber for that purpose. I have reorganized my army, and find all of its parts very well satisfied. I think it will prove effective.

I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Major-General, Commanding.

* See report No. 16, of operations October 12-25, about Ironton, &c., p. 225.

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HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Bowling Green, Ky., October 31, 1861.

Maj. Gen. STERLING PRICE, Commanding Missouri Army:

GENERAL: I received with great satisfaction your letter of the 16th instant.

In replying I embrace the opportunity of congratulating you upon your brilliant success at Lexington, and also of expressing my admiration of the very skillful manner in which you have conducted your operations since.

Although persons professing to know much of affairs in Missouri predicted disaster to your army from Frémont, yet I could not be induced to share such an apprehension.

The course you have adopted is precisely what I expected you would. By it you may draw the enemy so far that he will be compelled to divide his force, in which event you may be able to seize any favorable opportunity of attacking him in detail.

For your offer of co-operation I am sincerely thankful, although at this moment I know of no way in which I can avail myself of it. If, however, in the course of the war I shall find an opportunity of doing so, let me assure you in advance that there is no one upon whose courage, energy, and skill I will more confidently rely.

Of my own plan of operations I can of course say nothing in a letter, for fear it may fall into improper hands.

Herewith I forward you a copy of letter to my quartermaster, giving him instructions to furnish you with artillery, &c., at the request of General Clark and Colonel Cooke. I hope you have received them.

Wishing you every success, I am, general, very respectfully, yours,

A. S. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

{p.730}

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Abstract from return of the First Division, Western Department, commanded by Maj Gen. L. Polk, C. S. Army, for month of October, 1861.

Station.Troops.Present for duty.Total present.Aggregate present.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
Columbus First (Pillow’s) Div3105,08713287273696,8627,260
Second (Cheatham’s) Div.*1492,498151474663,2463,429
Third (McCown’s) Div.1231,981918571933,0343,200
Fourth (Bowen’s) Div.1412,08161554643,1653,341
Fort HenryGarrison891,415121512,0702,179
Trentondo661,1781,3181,386
Island No. 10do4436368
Fort Pillowdo787839
Memphisdo1001,4982,0302,140
Iukado1,0061,054
Unassigned companies23230289312
Totals1,00516,039559284269223,87025,208

* The return does not name the commanders of the Second, Third, and Fourth Divisions, but the officers indicated were assigned to these commands October 24, 1861.

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Abstract from monthly returns of McCulloch’s Division, Provisional Forces, C. S. Army, commanded by Brig. Gen. Ben. McCulloch, for October, 1861.

Troops.Present for duty.Aggregate present.Aggregate present and absent.
Infantry.Cavalry.Artillery.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
Fourth Arkansas Regiment Infantry (McNair)23304397587
Fourteenth Arkansas Regiment Infantry (Mitchell)45734890938
Third Louisiana Regiment Infantry (Hebert)26444584769
McRae’s battalion11195228358
First Arkansas Mounted Rifles (Churchill)36573681880
Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles (McIntosh)37405553723
South Kansas-Texas Reg’t Cavalry (Greer)386697531,026
Second Texas Regiment Cavalry (Stone)46813869939
Whitfield’s Texas battalion15272315339
Burnett’s company Texas cavalry4727884
Hill’s and Turner’s companies8136144144
Goode’s battery (6 guns)592103109
Hart’s battery (4 guns)4707575
Provence’s battery (4 guns)3707373
Grand total1051,6771842,940122325,7437,044

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HEADQUARTERS DIVISION, Camp Harbin, Mo., November 5, 1861-8 p. m.

Maj. Gen. STERLING PRICE, Commanding Missouri State Guard, Cassville, Mo.:

GENERAL: I have just received a letter from Colonel McIntosh. Three detachments of the Texas regiments had been near Springfield; one party 3 miles northeast of town, and the other two within 1 mile of it. The following is the result of the reconnaissance, and which the officer in command considers reliable:

{p.731}

That there are 60 regiments in and around Springfield; that they have 120 pieces of artillery, many of them rifled; that they are pressing transportation and grain, and preparing for an immediate forward movement; that Frémont has probably been recalled within the last two days, and that General Hunter has assumed command of the forces; that the regiments are quite large, and Major Ross, the officer commanding the advance, thinks that there are 48,000 or 50,000 men, and others arriving.

I have ordered Colonel McIntosh to send his train to the rear and make a scout forward, and then fall back to his trains. If you have any arms that are not in use I would be glad to have them, as I have several companies mustered in and yet unarmed.

I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 76.}

HEADQUARTERS MO. STATE GUARD, Camp near Cassville, Mo., November 6, 1861.

The army will move to-morrow morning in the direction of Pineville. The following will be the order of march:

Second Division, General Harris.

Fifth Division, General Steen.

Sixth Division, General Parsons.

Eighth Division, General Rains.

Seventh Division, General McBride.

Fourth Division, General Slack.

Third Division, General Clark.

The hour for march, sunrise.

...

By order of Major-General Price:

HENRY LITTLE, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp on Indian Creek, McDonald Co., Mo., November 7, 1861.

General A. S. JOHNSTON, Commanding Confederate Forces:

GENERAL: It is with pleasure I avail myself of another opportunity presented to communicate with you in relation to military movements in this State. In my last letter I informed you that I was slowly falling back towards the Arkansas line before a large force of the enemy, under command of Major-General Frémont. Since that time Frémont has reached Springfield and halted, apparently for the purpose of resting his army after a fatiguing march, and also to await the arrival of the remainder of his forces. From the best information I can obtain the Federal force amounts to from 35,000 to 40,000 men, with more than 100 pieces of artillery. The withdrawal of this large force from Saint Louis and the Missouri River leaves the former point almost defenseless. To an officer, general, of your age, large experience, and well-known military sagacity, the bare suggestion of this fact reveals its great importance to an army with the relations and occupying the position ours does. Is it not the day and the hour to hasten a movement on Saint Louis, the possession of which is of such vast importance to the South? The distance between Rolla and Springfield, the terminus of the South Branch of the Pacific Railroad, is 127 miles, and should you inform me that you will advance on Saint Louis, {p.732} I will, in conjunction with General McCulloch, at once march on Springfield. Our combined forces amount to about 25,000 men. Your movement threatening Saint Louis will of course compel the Federal commander to hasten to that point. Should his force be too large for us to risk a general engagement, we can with our mounted men follow him, harassing him, and impeding his movement by firing the prairies and attacking him from every skirt of timber and every hill until you reach Saint Louis, when, having him between us, his capture will be certain.

I am now falling back on Pineville, where General McCulloch and myself have concluded to make a stand. Should the Federal forces advance from Springfield for the purpose of attacking us, we will act on the defensive, depending on the rugged nature of the country to compensate for any inequality in numbers. Our position will be so chosen that we will be able to make our artillery effective, while the enemy, embarrassed by the broken ground and the timber, will be unable to use this important arm with effect. Then, should we succeed in repulsing them, the nature of the country is such that a successful retreat would be next to impossible.

A report has reached here that General Frémont has been superseded by General Hunter, and I place every reliance in it. Our legislature has been in session for the last two weeks, and has passed an ordinance of secession, besides electing delegates to the Confederate Congress.

Sincerely hoping the suggestions of this letter may meet with your approval and secure your co-operation,

I am, general, with the highest respect, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding Mo. S. G.

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CAMP ON INDIAN CREEK, MCDONALD COUNTY, MO., November 7, 1861.

His Excellency HENRY M. RECTOR, Governor of Arkansas:

SIR: I have the honor of calling your attention to the late military movement in the southwestern part of this State. You are doubtless aware that the Federal army is in Springfield. Their numbers are estimated at from 35,000 to 40,000 men. Before so large an army I was compelled to act prudently, and therefore fell back with my forces, in order to form a junction with General McCulloch. That junction has been made. But even now our combined forces cannot cope with them in numbers. MEN, MEN are now what we want, and I would most respectfully suggest that you call upon the patriotic citizens of your State to rally, and at once, to the defense of their frontier.

Should your relations with the Confederate Government prevent you from receiving men into the State or Confederate service for a less period than twelve months, I have the authority of the governor of the State of Missouri for saying that they will be received into the service of this State for any period you may designate or the people themselves may desire. I need not, governor, enter upon any argument with you to convince you of the absolute necessity of hearty co-operation with us at this time. The moment is very precious; no time is to be lost, and the stake is a large one. Success with us now over the large and well-appointed army of the Federals will be to us incalculable for good. Defeat may throw us back months, at immense loss. Arkansas’ necessity for defense assuredly speaks to you itself.

In averting any disaster to our cause, whether immediately affecting {p.733} the people of Arkansas alone or whether affecting only the interests of this State, still Missourians desire to reciprocate the generous aid advanced them during the past summer, and I trust our joint efforts will enable us to drive back every invader of our soil and rights. Any troops coming as above indicated to join us will bring with them such arms as they have. I will be able to furnish some, and these arms furnished us by the people can always be turned to use.

I am, governor, with the highest respect, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding.

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CAMP BURNETT, November 7, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Commanding:

GENERAL: Judge Milligan has just come into my camp, and confirms the report I sent by Major Milburn of the advance of a column from Paducah in the direction of Columbus, or rather southeasterly from Paducah.

If deemed proper by you to order me to Columbus, I will cheerfully receive such order.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. WICKLIFFE, Colonel, Commanding Regiment.

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HEADQUARTERS, Camp Harbin, Mo., November 8, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War:

SIR: My forces are at present near the main road from Springfield to Fort Smith, the infantry and artillery in Arkansas, and three regiments of mounted men in this State. General Price has fallen back to Pineville, some 25 miles west of this, where he will await the movements of the enemy, being able from that position to co-operate with me should the enemy advance.

My scouts have been near and around Springfield for the last eight or ten days, and report the arrival of troops continually. They estimate their present strength at near 50,000, and 120 pieces of artillery. It may not be so great, but is evidently large. They speak confidently of marching into the Southern Confederacy. I have but a small force to oppose them, but hope, by resorting to the partisan mode of warfare, to make them withdraw ere they reach Fort Smith.

The Missouri force is getting weaker daily by men leaving for their homes. The time for which many of them enlisted will expire in a few days. Nothing but a battle within the next ten days will keep together over 4,000 or 5,000 out of the 13,000 they now have. This battle cannot be fought without the enemy should advance. For us to attack them in their present position would be to lose a battle. Our troops, being mostly mounted men, are unfit to attack a strong position or to be of great use in a general engagement with heavy forces.

The Missouri Army is composed of some 5,000 infantry and artillery, 8,000 horsemen, with all sorts of arms, and without discipline. This force, if possible, should be taken into the Confederate service and reorganized this winter. It is now under the control of politicians, who know not the value of discipline, and consequently can never make an {p.734} army that would be but little better than a city mob. There is excellent material out of which to make an army in Missouri. They only want a military man for a general. One should be sent that does not belong to the State, or that has not been mixed up with their quarrels and campaigns heretofore. I suggested the name of General Bragg to the governor, who seemed pleased with the idea, in the event of Missouri becoming a member of the Confederacy. General Bragg could reorganize their army, make it efficient, and at the same time would rank me, thereby making one head to both armies. As for myself, it would never do to place me in command of them. I have made myself very unpopular by speaking to them frequently about the necessity of order and discipline in their organizations. There is unfortunately but little cordiality of feeling between the two armies; hence it would not answer a good purpose to place any man now in either army in command of both. I speak plainly on this subject, so that you may fully understand the condition of things out here.

The moment I know the enemy intends seriously to advance for the purpose of invasion, I will send express to General A. S. Johnston.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH.

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FORT SMITH November 8, (via Little Rock, 11th, 1861.)

J. P. BENJAMIN:

Reliable information says that Hunter is at Springfield with 30,000; 5,000 more in his advance. Later rumors say he is at Oak Hills with 50,000. McCulloch said to be falling back to Sugar Creek, Ark. I will get about 40 miles wire. This will enable me to build 75 miles. I have written you about management of line to Fayetteville. Please consider it private.

H. A. MONTGOMERY.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp near Pineville, Mo., November 10, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States:

SIR: Surrounded by circumstances of a critical and trying character, and profoundly impressed that now is indeed a crisis in the fate of my State and the cause of our emancipation from the oppressions of an unbearable and cruel despotism, I have determined to claim a moment of your overemployed time, to the intent that you may comprehend with some degree of accuracy the actual state of things in Missouri. You will excuse, I am sure, the greatest plainness and brevity compatible with an intelligible expression of my ideas.

Missouri has been embarrassed in this struggle by almost every condition that could militate against her public weal, except only the unconquerable determination of her people to be free. To a certain extent divided in opinion; deluded and misled by a venal and treacherous public press as to the possibility of compromise and reconstruction; betrayed by a majority of the State Convention; imposed upon and deceived in every instance by the agents and officers of the Federal Government; without any military organization and but few military men; {p.735} without arms and without an army; overrun by Federal armies before a blow on our part could be stricken; pursued as fugitives from the State capital at the moment when the governor called our people to arms; fleeing with a handful of men to the extreme southwestern corner of the State before three columns of well-appointed Federal soldiers; having to fight for the arms we have and to capture nearly all the appliances of war with which we are now supplied; with a powerful foe extending his lines across the State, so as effectually to cut off our succor and recruits from the north side of the Missouri River, our metropolis all the while in the hands of the enemy, thus giving him control of the railroads and rivers as well as the banks and channels of commerce and centers of intelligence, the war being waged as well upon the people of the country and private property as upon the army, we have had to oppose our little force to the haughty oppressor, hoping almost against hope. Under all these discouraging circumstances we have won five successful engagements, and now have an army of Missouri forces of 12,000 men, all armed, and as brave a set of men as ever went to battle. These men have continued through evil and through good report; through suffering and destitution; half fed, half clothed, half supplied with the necessary means of subsistence and comfort to sustain with their labors and their lives the cause of Missouri and the cause of the Confederate States. These men have been caught up from the woods and the fields-from highways and by-ways, by night and by day-without an hour’s or a day’s preparation, and have continued many months in the field.

I beg to assure you without misgivings, without hazarding anything, speaking what I know to be true, that out of the entire male population of the State twenty to one are from principle and from unalterable conviction, for weal or woe, with life, fortune, and honor, with the South and for the South forever. Nevermore, I beg and beseech you, let a doubt of the soundness of Missouri arise to disturb your faith or embarrass the action of the Confederate States.

After the capture of Lexington I found it necessary to fall back to this point, partly to procure ammunition and supplies and partly to avail myself of the support of the Confederate forces under, General McCulloch. This movement has drawn the Federal force from Saint Louis, Jefferson City, Booneville, and other points, and we have now within two days’ march nearly 40,000 men. This leaves Saint Louis exposed to capture, which might now be taken almost without a battle. Of this I have more than once advised General Johnston. If this line of policy should be adopted, it would place the Federal force between two Confederate armies, in which case their capture would be only a question of time. Apart from this suggestion, I beg from the Confederate Government a force sufficient to enable us to cut our way to the Missouri River. If this be practicable, if this be granted, I will pledge Missouri, after sixty days on the Missouri River, to defend the northern and western lines of her territory. More than 20,000 men can be made available to our defense. I was compelled to leave from 5,000 to 10,000 recruits on and near the river, who were moving to join me, for want of time. Missouri can in general terms take care of herself, once the Confederate Government renders us such assistance as to make our force available. We can have under the authority of our Government 50,000 or 100,000 men as soon as we can be placed in such position as to make our strength available. Allow me, therefore, as one who, at the age of fifty-one years, has placed home and comfort and property and family and life on the altar of my country’s safety and well-being, to {p.736} implore that such immediate and efficient steps be taken by your Government to supply what is required for Missouri to work out, under the protection and blessing of almighty Providence, her own redemption. Missouri stretches her hands to her kindred blood of the South as an infant child turns its imploring eyes to a mother. Give us a chance to show our fidelity. I inclose some correspondence, which will inform you officially of the relations between the Federal Army and that of Missouri. Our people at their own homes and firesides are suffering all the horrors of civil war. Shall they be driven to choose between domestic dissolution and submission to the dictates of a tyrant? I submit to your excellency the wants of a suffering people with great confidence that supplies and succor will soon come.

I have the honor to be, with much respect, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosures.]

HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp near Greenfield, Dade County, Mo.

Maj. Gen. B. MCCULLOCH, Commanding Confederate Forces:

GENERAL: I have the honor to announce my arrival at this place. My march from Lexington, although looked upon in the light of a retreat, was made deliberately and with a due regard to the health and comfort of my troops. My present force consists of from 10,000 to 12,000 men, and yesterday I received an ample supply of percussion caps, so much needed, and the want of which was one of the principal causes of my falling back from the Missouri River. I shall be compelled to remain in this neighborhood for several days to await the arrival of the clothing for my almost naked men, and other supplies stored at Bentonville. I shall immediately dispatch 100 wagons to bring them up, and I hope, general, that you will render my officers charged with this duty any assistance they may require. It is reported that General Frémont is making extensive preparations at Georgetown for a movement south, and since writing I received the herein inclosed dispatch.* I am disposed to credit the report, but will make no important move until I hear further, when I will immediately inform you. At Kansas City and Wyandotte, under the command of Generals Lane and Sturgis, there were said to be some 4,000 men, and Frémont’s force is said to be (variously estimated) from 15,000 to 24,000 men. I would like much to have a personal interview, and will meet you at any point you may designate.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding Mo. S. G.

* Not found.

HEADQUARTERS, Camp Harbin, Mo., November 10, 1861.

General STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding Mo. S. G., Pineville, Mo.:

GENERAL: My scouts have just returned from Springfield, and report the enemy preparing to march southward, and will, from all they could learn, move their infantry on the 11th (to-morrow), a considerable force of cavalry already being at the battle ground. They estimate their numbers {p.737} at over 40,000 men and 120 pieces of artillery. In my opinion it will not be prudent to risk a battle with our present force, and that we had better fall back to the Boston Mountain, in the direction of Fort Smith; you on the line road by the way of Camp Walker, and I by the Fayetteville road. The roads being so crowded with travelers will compel me to move my artillery and infantry in a day or two. I shall commence to-morrow to obstruct the roads in every manner possible so as to delay them, and give Arkansas as much time as can be gained by this means and a judicious use of my mounted force, to come to our aid. If the enemy advance into Arkansas, I shall destroy all the mills and grain that I have to leave in my rear, having already done so on the roads towards Springfield, and hope you will pursue the same course. I find upon examination that my position on this road can be turned to the east, and knowing yours can be to the west, my opinion is that we had better draw the enemy farther from his resources and nigher to where we can hope for re-enforcements.

Hoping my views may meet with your approbation, and that we may be able to check the enemy and soon to regain all that we are now compelled to abandon, I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD, Camp near Pineville, November 10, 1861.

Brig. Gen. BEN. MCCULLOCH, Commanding Confederate Forces:

GENERAL: Yours of this date (the 10th) has just been received. With the most earnest desire on my part to co-operate with you and the Confederate forces under your command to subserve the great cause in which we have a common interest, I am constrained to differ from the line of action indicated in your letter. We have already fallen back to the extreme boundary of the State, for the sake of getting such a position and such assistance as would enable us to meet and vanquish the oppressor. Combining our forces and choosing our ground for the conflict, I have an abiding confidence that we can meet the enemy and end the strife with one glorious and decisive victory. The south part of our State is exhausted with the presence and subsistence of friendly and hostile armaments. At every hazard I think we should give battle, and if compelled to fall back still farther, let us have a reason with which to satisfy our country that it was a necessity. Above all allow me to suggest that burning the mills and laying waste the country is an infliction as grievous as any that could be inflicted by the enemy, and our people could have little choice between being shot and starved to death, involving men, women, and children. If, as our gallant ally, upon more mature reflection you should determine to aid me with your brave troops, we will adopt such line of action as will compel the enemy to attack us in a short time. We can in that event, with the success I confidently anticipate, have all the troops in Missouri required for our defense.

May I beg the pleasure of a conference with you on the premises? Our men are all having their homes exposed to the desolating hand of the destroyer, and it will require something more than ordinary courage and self-sacrifice on their part to carry them willingly out of the State under these circumstances. All they have to fight for is at stake, and they would prefer the risk of death on the battle-field to abandoning {p.738} their families, property, homes, and country in a continued flight before their oppressors.

Sincerely hoping, general, that you may generously accord with these matured suggestions of mine, I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

STERLING PRICE, Major-General, Commanding Mo., S. G.

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ON BENTONVILLE ROAD, November 11, 1861.

Maj. Gen. STERLING PRICE, Commanding Missouri State Guard, Pineville, Mo.:

GENERAL: Yours of yesterday is before me. I am to-day obstructing the road, and will cripple the enemy badly should he attack my position. This I proposed doing before falling back; yet I am still of the opinion that it would have been better for us to have drawn the enemy to a point where defeat would have been total ruin and destruction to his whole force. If we drive him back, in the event of an attack, he will withdraw to Springfield without the loss of a single piece of artillery, and in such condition as not to allow us to follow him. Such success (as far as Missouri is concerned) would be but little better than defeat.

As for starving people by destroying the mills and grain that would be used by the enemy, I have to say, as far as your State is concerned, that I deplore much, very much, the necessity for pursuing such a course, but can think there is little danger of any one starving in a country where full crops have been made and only have the population left to consume it. As for Arkansas, every man who is a patriot and sound Southern man will be the first to put the torch to his own grain or mill rather than have them left to aid the enemy. If he is not a true Southern man, it will only be treating him right to destroy that which he would rather let the enemy have than ourselves.

I am exceedingly busy in preparing for an attack, which may never be made only by turning my flank, but will be pleased to meet you on the Bentonville road, some 10 to 12 miles from Pineville, at 12 o’clock to-morrow.

I have the honor to be, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

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LITTLE ROCK, November 12, 1861.

SECRETARY OF WAR:

The following is a copy of a resolution this day adopted by the senate of Arkansas:

Resolved, That the secretary shall officially be requested forthwith to dispatch to the Secretary of War at Richmond that General Johnston has ordered the disbandment of the volunteers in this State; that the State is menaced in two quarters by our enemies, and that he be requested to withdraw or modify the order for disbandment as aforesaid.

JNO. D. KIMBALL, Secretary Senate.

{p.739}

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RICHMOND, November 13, 1861.

JOHN D. KIMBALL, Secretary Senate, Little Rock, Ark.:

Your dispatch received. I understand that General Johnston has only disbanded unarmed troops that have not enlisted for the war. The Government cannot give arms to volunteers for twelve months as long as it has troops offered for the war to a number greater than can now be armed. If Arkansas will imitate her sister States in tendering volunteers for the war, this Government will supply them with arms in equal proportion with the other States.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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COLUMBUS KY., November 13, 1861.

President DAVIS:

Since the battle of Belmont and the inglorious defeat of the enemy’s picked troops he seems to be driven almost to madness. He is now making preparations upon a gigantic scale to invest this place. He is drawing his forces from every available point of the Northwest, and will be able to bring a force of 30,000 men to invest. Our great want is armed boats. With these to meet and hold in check the enemy’s gunboats, we can successfully meet his forces. The attack, we are assured, will be made in the course of eight days. If it be possible, let us have the New Orleans fleet of armed vessels. The battle of Belmont was a hard-fought conflict of four hours. Twenty-five hundred men fought 7,500. When our ammunition was exhausted we drove his line back in three different charges; but, supported by his immense reserve, we were at last forced to fall back to the bank of the river, from which place, by a rapid flank movement under the bank of the river, myself, with two fresh regiments, turned his left and attacked him in the rear. The victory was complete. Our total loss was 632; theirs about 2,000. Please answer about fleet. General Polk’s injuries were more serious than was at first supposed. He found it necessary to turn over the command for the present to,

Respectfully,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., New Madrid, Mo., November 14, 1861.

Col. W. G. PHEELAN, Second Regiment Infantry, Missouri State Guard:

DEAR COLONEL: Yours of the 12th instant (8 p. m.) was received last night.* You will find that the object you desire to accomplish can be done by holding the infantry in a safe place and using our flankers and partisans (dragoons) to protect the county. I think that Kitchen, Hale, and Hunter will strike more terror into the marauders than 5,000 infantry. Your trip to Skinner’s Ridge will not pay. There is now being collected an immense army, to march down the Mississippi Valley, and probably the whole force that has been after Price will be joined to it; therefore a large or permanent force on the Stoddard Ridge would but {p.740} draw a column down that way. The wise person who divined that I would fortify New Madrid sees further into the future than I do. My desires are to have no permanent quarters, but to keep 10,000 men wandering and watching for my whereabouts. I will use every effort to get shoes and blankets.

Yours, &c.,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* found.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 84.}

HDQRS. MISSOURI STATE GUARD, November 15, 1861.

The army will move at sunrise in the direction of Newtonia in the following order, viz:

Fifth Division, General Steen.

Eighth Division, General Rains.

...

By order of Major-General Price:

W. H. BRAND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Columbus, Ky., November 16, 1861.

Brig. Gen. M. JEFF. THOMPSON, New Madrid, Mo.:

GENERAL: Your dispatch acknowledged. Its contents carefully noticed. We are using every possible effort to prepare for the enemy. In the event of an advance on your position (which I anticipate with a certainty) you should be prepared to throw your force across the river. Four gunboats and three floating batteries from New Orleans will be up next week. I will stop one of the floating batteries opposite New Madrid, for its protection and to support your position. I deem it of the highest importance that you finish the works commenced at New Madrid. You can easily close the south front of the work by a line of stout stockading, which you can place in position. In this work your infantry and my floating battery can hold that place against any force they can spare to go against it. Keep me advised of everything occurring below. If you will hold your position I will whip the enemy here, with God’s help, of which, with proper efforts, I feel sure.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brig. Gen., C. S. Army, Commanding.

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NEW MADRID, MO., November 16, 1861-7 a. m.

Brig. Gen. GIDEON J. PILLOW, C. S. A., Columbus, Ky.:

DEAR GENERAL: I cannot agree with you on the policy of fortifying this place, for its defense, unless the works are to be made very extensive, and by a continuous breastwork or a complete system of redans and redoubts, the whole town can be encompassed. Upon a plain like this works are so easily turned or besieged, that labor is often thrown away. I will, however, commence on Monday morning to complete the redoubt you have worked upon and use it as sort of citadel; but I have {p.741} little faith in little forts. I will be obliged to have the work done by negroes, as it will be impossible to make my men work, and would be impolitic, if I could, as the time of their enlistments is nearly expired, and it is important that they should be induced to re-enlist. I will send up to-morrow for tools, if you can let me have them, and if you have the original plan please send it to me.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST MILITARY DISTRICT, MO. S. G., New Madrid, Mo., November 16, 1861.

Maj. Gen. STERLING PRICE, MO. S. G., Commanding in the Field:

RESPECTED SIR: As the period at which the term of service expires, under the old law, for those of the Missouri State Guard who entered the field at the call of the governor is approaching, and as a new law will probably be in force or a transfer made to the Southern Confederacy, I am very anxious to receive the proper instruction for mustering my men out of the old service into the new. I have made every effort to keep my quartermaster and commissary reports in such a condition that there will be no confusion and difficulty in making the settlement; and I flatter myself that you will be pleased with the system I have adopted and followed, although it has not been strictly in accordance with the law. I am sorry to state that my command is in a rather demoralized state, and I cannot rely upon them now for the cheerful service they rendered during the fall. I will probably be able to re-enlist 2,000 men for the war, and I will be able to arm and equip that number with the remnants of stores in good order, and, if necessary, keep them in the field all winter. Please let me know if it has been decided if the present service terminates at six months from the governor’s call, at six months from the time each individual entered the field, or whether there is any termination at all? I have been notified, unofficially, that the Confederate States pay all expenses after November 1, and I will have my pay-rolls made up to that time. I have been keeping up my monthly reports of property, &c., and will be prepared for inspection at the shortest notice.

Hoping to hear from you by the return of my courier, and to receive such definite instructions as the distances will permit you to give, I remain, yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, November 18, 1861.

[SECRETARY OF WAR:]

Agreeably to instructions, I have been to the West to place into effect an act of Congress appropriating $1,000,000 for the benefit of the Missouri troops. In the month of August I met at Memphis two officers of Governor Jackson, whose requisitions for supplies were met in sufficient quantity to render comfortable about 10,000 men. Transportation was also provided and 850,000 in money. Subsequently, in pursuance of instructions from the War Department, I made report to Governor Jackson, {p.742} at Lexington, Mo., who made known to some extent the wants of the army, but referred me for more precise information to General Price, the chief officer in command. The latter gentleman represented his army numbering more than 20,000, composed of the best men in the State, and rapidly increasing. The country furnished an abundance of provisions, but they were in pressing want of clothing, blankets, shoes, camp and garrison equipage and some descriptions of ammunition, particularly caps. Through the liberality of General Polk a good supply of ammunition was promptly furnished from Memphis, as also some artillery, and a heavy requisition for other supplies was approved by General Price, which I have been endeavoring to meet by purchases in New Orleans and Memphis, and made arrangements for securing everything, but received advice from the Quartermaster-General to postpone the shipment of further supplies until the position of the army became more definite. Supplies for General Jeff. Thompson’s men have been furnished in a similar manner. A statement of my account, filed with the bills, vouchers, requisitions, and receipts, will indicate more particularly the character of this disbursement, already in excess of $300,000.

Respectfully submitted by your obedient servant,

W. A. BROADWELL.

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LITTLE ROCK, November 18, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN:

Northeastern border of Arkansas seriously threatened. Borland asks for immediate assistance. We want arms. There are few at the arsenal. Give me authority to get them from the military storekeeper.

H. M. RECTOR.

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RICHMOND, VA., November 19, 1861.

Gov. H. M. RECTOR, Little Rock, Ark.:

I cannot give a single arm to any but troops mustered into the Confederate service for the war.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS DIVISION, Springfield, Mo., November 19, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen., C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that on the night of the 15th instant I received information at my headquarters, 72 miles from here, that the Federal troops had started back toward Saint Louis from this place. On the 16th I started with all my available mounted troops, without wagons, and after a rapid march arrived near here last night. I was in hopes before arriving that I might be able to overtake some of the trains of the enemy, but on my arrival I found that they were too far to attempt even a pursuit, they being at least 100 miles ahead.

From all the information I can obtain the enemy’s strength was at least 30,000, with an abundance of artillery. There was evidently considerable disaffection in their ranks, and on leaving here Lane, with his Kansas troops, carried off 500 or 600 negroes, belonging to Union men {p.743} as well as secessionists. From what I can learn they intend to fortify Rolla, Sedalia, and Jefferson City, and to garrison each of those places.

The Union men have nearly all fled with the Federal troops, leaving this place almost deserted.

From all the information I can get of General Price’s movements he seems to be making his way in the direction of the Missouri River. An attempt of that kind, in my opinion, can only terminate as did his previous expedition to that country. Considering it inexpedient to attempt a winter campaign in this country, I shall return to the borders of Arkansas, and put my command in winter quarters by the 15th of December. As there will be much to do to make the many arrangements necessary for an early spring campaign, I respectfully request the authority of the Department for me to visit Richmond for that purpose. As soon as the troops are in winter quarters my presence here could be dispensed with for a few weeks.

Hoping my views may meet the approval of the Department, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Springfield, Mo., November 19, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: I shall return to Arkansas, put my troops in winter quarters soon, and ask permission to come immediately to Richmond, so as to give the administration correct information regarding affairs in this region before it acts on matters here.

The Federals left eight days since with 30,000 men, quarreled among themselves, and greatly injured their cause by taking negroes belonging to Union men. General Lane went to Kansas, General Hunter to Sedalia, and General Sigel to Rolla.

I have the honor to be, with respect, your obedient servant,

BEN. McCULLOCH, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, December 22, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War:

SIR: In reply to your telegraphic dispatch of November 30 I have the honor to submit the following report:

I must beg your indulgence and ask your permission to go somewhat into detail as to what occurred whilst I had any connection with the Missouri forces under General Price.

About the latter part of June General Price arrived near the southwestern corner of Missouri, with about 1,700 mounted men, a part of whom were armed. At or near the same time I reached General Pearce’s headquarters in the northwestern corner of Arkansas, my whole force being en route from Fort Smith, consisting of Churchill’s regiment, from Arkansas, and Hebert’s, from Louisiana, which did not reach that point until some days afterwards. In the mean time I learned that General Price had arrived in the neighborhood, being some 12 miles distant. I immediately rode over to see if I could serve him or Missouri. In a few {p.744} days General Pearce and myself received a letter from General Price, written by Brigadier-General Parsons, from near the Osage River, to the effect that he was trying to form a junction with the other brigadier-generals, Slack and Rains; that the governor of the State was with them; that they were endeavoring to march towards the southwest part of the State, and were pursued by General Lyon in the rear, whilst Colonel Sigel was in front. I at once rode over to General Pearce’s headquarters, and we agreed to march into Missouri, to aid the governor in cutting his way through his enemies, whilst Colonel McRae, of Arkansas, was ordered to go at once to Fayetteville, raise all the men possible in that neighborhood, and make a demonstration on Springfield by the Telegraph road. This maneuver was well executed and had the effect of causing General Sweeny, then in camp at Springfield, to recall that portion of his force on its march to join Colonel Sigel.

It would be well to mention here that the military board of Arkansas had instructed General Pearce to co-operate with the forces under my command. At this time we loaned General Price some 615 muskets, with ammunition for the same. On the next morning my mounted men, under Colonel Churchill, reached us by a forced march, and we entered the State of Missouri for the first time, and formed a junction with General Price it being the 4th of July.

My command consisted of Colonel Churchill’s regiment of mounted riflemen, and General Pearce’s of Colonel Gratiot’s regiment of infantry, Colonel Carroll’s regiment of mounted men, and a battery under the command of Captain Woodruff. We marched as rapidly as possible, expecting to attack the forces under Colonel Sigel at Neosho, but learned before reaching that point that he had marched north to meet the forces with the governor of the State, leaving over 100 men at Neosho, who were captured by the regiment under command of Colonel Churchill, aided by Captain McIntosh, my adjutant-general. That night our whole mounted force reached that point, and after halting an hour or two resumed our march, and met Governor Jackson before 12 m., at the distance of 20 miles.

After a conference, the Missouri generals concluded not to pursue the enemy, but to repair to the southwest corner of the State and organize their forces, as many of them were not formed into companies or regiments.

Having accomplished the object for which we entered Missouri-viz, to assist the governor in cutting his way through the enemy-General Pearce and myself repaired to our camps and went to work to organize and drill our forces, advising General Price to the same course. Very soon we learned that General Lyon had arrived in Springfield with some 10,000 men, and at the same time were well aware of the scarcity of supplies among the Missouri forces and of the disposition of some to leave General Price in consequence. In a word, the country he occupied was too poor to sustain him, and he was compelled to advance or disband his forces. After a conference with General Pearce, I went to General Price’s headquarters, and offered to aid him in every possible way, even to marching on Springfield, which was agreed upon.

I am particular in giving these details, hoping they will counteract the effect of the report so often circulated to my injury that I was not willing to assist Missouri.

It will be borne in mind that I was assigned to the Indian Territory, with instructions to defend it from invasion from any quarter, and up to and long after this had no other instructions. Consequently I did what was done at my own risk, not knowing that my Government would approve my conduct.

{p.745}

A part of the agreement between General Price and myself was that all his unarmed men and camp followers were to be left at his camp, and under no circumstances permitted to march with the army. When we formed a junction at Cassville, some 50 miles distant, I learned, to my great regret, that the whole crowd of camp followers had arrived also. I remonstrated with General Price on the violation of the agreement. He said they should be left where we then were, and that I might draw up the plan detailing the order of march upon Springfield, which I did, and particularly said that the unarmed men were to be left at that point. This order was submitted to Generals Price and Pearce and met their approbation, and not until my division, being the advance, had marched did I learn that General Clark, of Missouri, had refused to obey the order to leave his unarmed men. I called on him at once and urged him in vain not to set such an example, stating the scarcity of supplies and the danger of a panic as a reason why they should be left. Knowing the danger of a divided command when brought in contact with one well united, well drilled, and under one efficient leader, I considered it of vital importance to rid the army of these men until after the battle was fought, but failed to accomplish it, as they all came with General Price to where I halted, some 30 miles from Springfield, the enemy being a short distance in advance. It was at this point I first saw the total inefficiency of the Missouri mounted men under Brigadier-General Rains. A thousand, more or less, of them composed the advance guard, and whilst reconnoitering the enemy’s position, some 8 miles distant from our camp, were put to flight by a single cannon-shot, running in the greatest confusion, without the loss of a single man except one, who died of overheat or sun-stroke, and bringing no reliable information as to the position or force of the enemy; nor were they of the slightest service as scouts or spies afterwards. As evidence of this, I will mention here the fact of the enemy being allowed to leave his position, 6 miles distant from us, 20 hours before we knew it, thus causing us to make a night march to surprise an enemy who was at the time entirely out of our reach. A day or two previous to this march the generals of the Missouri forces, by common consent on their part and unasked on mine, tendered me the command of their troops, which I at first declined, saying to them it was done to throw the responsibility of ordering a retreat upon me if one had to be ordered for the want of supplies, which seemed likely to be the case, their breadstuffs giving out about this time; and, in truth, we would have been in a starving condition had it not been for the young corn, which was just in condition to be used. My troops and those under General Pearce were in a little better condition, though by no means burdened with commissary stores.

At this juncture Major Dorn, of Missouri, arrived, bringing a letter from General Polk, saying General Pillow was advancing into Missouri from New Madrid with 12,000 men. After further reflection upon our condition I consented to take the command and to march upon the enemy. Preparatory to doing so, however, I asked of the Missourians, owing to their knowledge of the country, some reliable information of the strength and position of the enemy. This they repeatedly promised, but totally failed to furnish, though to urge them to it I then and at subsequent periods declared I would order the whole army back to Cassville rather than bring on an engagement with an unknown enemy. It had no effect, as we remained 4 days within 10 miles of Springfield, and never learned whether the streets were barricaded or if any kind of works of defense had been erected by the enemy. There was left only the choice at this time of a disastrous retreat or a blind attack {p.746} upon Springfield. The latter was preferred, and orders issued on the evening of the 9th August to be ready for the march at 9 o’clock p. m., so as to bring on the attack at daylight on the 10th. At the hour named for the march there fell a little rain, with strong indications of more, which caused the order to march to be countermanded after a conference with General Price. That was thought to be prudent, as we had an average of only 25 rounds of ammunition to the man, and no more to be had short of Fort Smith or Baton Rouge. Not more than one man in four was furnished with anything better than bags made of cotton cloth in which to carry their cartridges. The slightest rain or wet would have almost disarmed us, as many of the men had nothing bur the common shot-gun and rifle of the country, without bayonets. However, the enemy unwisely concluded to attack us in our position, which was well selected for the kind of arms we had to use against their long-range rifled muskets. On the morning of the 10th information of the approach of the enemy’s advance down the creek was soon followed by a precipitate retreat of a portion of General Rains’ mounted men, mixed up with camp followers to the number of probably several thousand, and this, too, before the firing had begun. I mention these facts to show the unorganized condition of the Missouri forces, and what great risk we ran of a panic being communicated to the fighting men of the army by having such material among them. Very nearly at the same time the enemy opened upon us both above and below on the creek, the two extremes of our camp being composed of mounted men from Missouri, whose duty it was to have kept pickets on the roads, both above and below, on which the enemy advanced. I have never been able to learn who ordered these pickets to leave their posts, or if they left them without orders when the time arrived to march the night before at 9 o’clock. Be that as it may, the fault was theirs, and not mine, that the enemy was allowed to approach so near before we were notified of it. However, I never considered anything lost by their manner of attack, as we never were in a better condition to make battle, every man being ready with gun in hand to receive the enemy, when at other times thousands of our men would be miles from camp hunting something to eat for themselves and horses.

In thus going into details on this subject I wish to show how unreliable were a portion of the troops under General Price, but by no means do I wish to reflect upon the bravery of General Price himself, or his infantry and artillery, who fought heroically at the battle of Oak Hills.

The battle over, it was ascertained that the camp followers, whose presence I had so strongly objected to, had robbed our dead and wounded on the battle-field of their arms, and at the same time had taken those left by the enemy. I tried to recover the arms thus lost by my men, and also a portion of those taken from the enemy, but in vain. General Pearce made an effort to get back those muskets loaned to General Price before we entered Missouri the first time. I was informed he recovered only 10 out of the 615. I then asked that the battery be given me which was won by the Louisiana regiment at the point of the bayonet. The guns were turned over, by order of General Price, minus the horses and most of the harness. I would not have demanded these guns had General Price done the Louisiana regiment justice in his official report. The language used by him was calculated to make the impression that the battery was captured by his men instead of that regiment. My official report was written after General Price’s was printed in Springfield. Let them both be read, and let unprejudiced men say which was best calculated to keep up a feeling {p.747} of friendship between the two armies. It was with this purpose I refrained from mentioning facts in my official report which are mentioned now in this communication. I always endeavored to prevent ill-feeling between our forces, because it was to the interest of both to have them co-operate fully against a common foe.

A few days after the battle of Oak Hills General Price wrote me a note, and then called on me in person, requesting me to march with him to the Missouri River. I declined to do so, first, because my whole force fit for duty were required for the protection of the upper portion of Arkansas, and to keep the Federals in Kansas from gaining access to the Cherokee Nation, which still occupied a neutral position; secondly, because I had very little ammunition, some of my officers having informed me, when ordered to be ready to pursue the enemy on the 10th of August, that some of their men had fired their last cartridge in the battle of that date; and, thirdly, because we could expect no co-operation on the part of Colonel Hardee or General Pillow, I having just received a letter from Colonel (now General) Hardee, informing me that General Pillow had fallen back, and that in consequence he would be compelled to retire to his former position near the Arkansas line. This information I imparted to General Price in this interview.

On this day the Arkansas State troops marched for home, leaving me with about 2,500 men fit for duty, 2,000 of whom were required to defend the northwest part of Arkansas and the Indian Territory.

Whilst General Price and myself have ever been on the most friendly terms personally, yet we never could agree as to the proper time of marching to the Missouri River. Had he thought proper to listen to my suggestions on the subject he would have been advised to fortify Springfield and hold it with his infantry and artillery and post his mounted men so as to give protection against the jayhawkers from Kansas. The legislature could then have been called together by the governor at Springfield, the State have seceded from the Union, and her army been turned over to the Confederacy at the time she was admitted as a member. A commander over the State forces and those under me could have been appointed by the President, which would have secured co-operation in all their movements. Then, if possible, a considerable number of extra arms to give to those who joined us, and at the same time a force to have menaced Saint Louis from below, would have been the time to march to the Missouri River, raise the strong secession element on both sides of the river, and march down upon Saint Louis. At all events, it could have been mustered into the Confederate service and brought off to the interior of the State, and not abandoned, after being raised, to be stripped of its arms and put in such condition by the Federal Government as to be of no sort of use in the future struggles in the State for independence.

Soon after the battle was fought and won at Oak Hills the forces engaged in its glorious achievement separated-those under General Price for the Missouri River; those under General Pearce left for home, whilst those under my command moved off towards the Cherokee Nation. I immediately used every exertion to increase my force, for the purpose of attacking Forts Scott and Lincoln, in Kansas, and just at the time I was concentrating my whole force near the Kansas border General Price came down upon me, bringing the intelligence of the approach of General Frémont upon Springfield with 30,000 or 40,000 men. This forced me to abandon my contemplated campaign and repair at once to the Telegraph road which leads from Springfield to Fayetteville, in Arkansas, where most of my supplies were kept at the time, and were liable to be destroyed by a few bold horsemen.

{p.748}

Before separating from General Price I called on him twice, for the purpose of forming some plan upon which to meet the enemy. It was thought best for me to occupy some position between Pineville, which he was to fall back to if the enemy advanced, and the Telegraph road. This I did, and at the same time sent two regiments, under Colonel McIntosh, one from Texas and one from Arkansas, to a point some 30 miles in advance of my position. From these regiments scouts were thrown forward to and beyond Springfield, keeping me informed of the movements and strength of the enemy’s forces as they arrived at that point. In the mean time General Price came again into the center of my column without giving me the least notice of his intention. I rode in the direction of his headquarters and met Governor Jackson, and suggested the propriety of a conference with General Price. We met next day at a point between the two armies, where it was agreed upon by all the Missouri generals that we should await an attack from the enemy, the ground to be selected by General Price and myself. The day after I went to see General Price, and we arranged a plan to co-operate in the event either was attacked. Soon my scouts brought the information of the advance of the enemy, 12,000 strong, under General Sigel, some 10 miles on the Telegraph road. I ordered back the two regiments under Colonel McIntosh, with directions to destroy the forage near the road, having previously destroyed that around Springfield, also some mills that were useful to the enemy; in the mean time preparing to give the enemy a warm reception notwithstanding the disparity in our numbers, his being over 30,000, mine about 5,000, and General Price’s about 12,000.

At this time General Price had fallen back to Pineville, in accordance with our agreement. I wrote him, proposing to draw the enemy, if he did advance and follow us, into Arkansas, to what is called the Boston Mountain. If we could have effected this it would have doubled my force, by calling in my two regiments from Texas, then in the Indian Nation, and the Indian regiments also. This he objected to, saying his men would not consent to go out of the State of Missouri, at the same time expressing a desire to See me. I again met him, and told him if we fought the enemy where we were it would amount to nothing but a repulse of his infantry, as he would never bring his baggage wagons and artillery into so rough a country; whereas if he could be got down to the Boston Mountain, some 60 miles, we would get all his cannon, 120, and most of his army, with their arms. He said again his men would not leave the State; whereupon I agreed to fight them in our present position, though I believed it would result in little good to Missouri.

In a day or two my scouts brought me the news of the retreat of the enemy from Springfield; General Hunter towards Sedalia, with over 15,000 men; General Lane towards Kansas, with 4,000 men; and General Sigel towards Rolla, with 12,000 men. Whilst I was making ready to make a forced march with my best-shod horses to overtake the rear of General Sigel’s column, who was three days behind the others in leaving Springfield, a note was handed me from General Price, asking me to join him in pursuing General Lane, who had carried off some 600 negroes belonging to the people of Missouri. I declined to join in the pursuit, on the ground that he could not be overtaken, he having some seven days and 100 miles the start of us. I informed General Price of my intention to make a forced march after General Sigel, but received no reply, nor did I hear anything more of his movements, except such as was brought by travelers, who are seldom to be relied upon. It has {p.749} been asked why I did not pursue the enemy. In answering this question I will merely state facts, and let my superiors say if it would have been advisable to advance under the circumstances.

In the first place, my force was entirely inadequate for such an enterprise, it being about 5,000 men, including fourteen pieces of artillery. Five hundred of these men had been too much enfeebled by sickness to be able to take the field, though they would have fought the enemy had he marched upon us. This would have reduced my force to 4,500; 2,000 of which it would have been indispensably necessary, as recent events have shown, to have left for the protection of that portion of Arkansas and the Indian Territory. This would have further reduced my command to the small number of 2,500. Would it have been prudent, with this force, to follow General Sigel, who had 12,000 men, to Rolla, where General Phelps was already with 2,000 more, or would it have been better to follow General Hunter to Sedalia, who had over 15,000 men? At the same time it will be remembered that both Rolla and Sedalia are the termini of railroads leading from Saint Louis; that supplies without limit could be had, and any number of men thrown to these points long before I could have reached them; and this, too, when I had made half the distance before they knew of my approach. Again, it will be remembered that these points-Rolla and Sedalia-are about the distance of 200 miles from the position held by me at the time the enemy retreated from Springfield. I had not exceeding three days’ rations for my men to start with, and not a single extra mule or horse shoe to replace those lost on the march, and this, too, at the season of the year when the ground, being frozen, would render it impossible for our mules or horses to travel without being shod.

It may be asked also why I did not join my forces to those under General Price. In answer to this question it will only be necessary to say that it was impossible for us to march together, owing to the great number of animals in our commands, being not much short of 15,000, all of which had to be fed, as well as our men, on what could be gathered on the march through a country already laid waste by the armies of both sides having repeatedly passed over it. Besides, it was always clear to my mind that we could never maintain a position on the Missouri River for any length of time, owing to the great distance we would be from our resources and the close proximity of those of the enemy, we having to haul in wagons 300 or 400 miles supplies which he could obtain by railroads or steamboats in a few hours; thus putting it in the power of the enemy to do as much in twenty-four hours as we could in as many days to supply a want of men or means to make war.

It has been said, both by individuals and newspapers, that I was unwilling to assist Missouri. Do the many efforts on my part recited above to aid her go to prove it I or can the accusation be proved by the fact of my having called on her general-in-chief three times at his headquarters and met him at two other points for the purpose of bringing about concert of action against the large force under General Frémont? Truth constrains me to say that neither he nor any officer under him ever visited my camp, though some of his generals were known to have passed in a few yards of my headquarters at the time.

In conclusion, permit me to say I have endeavored to give a plain statement of matters and things as they occurred. The dates and precise language of the notes and letters referred to cannot now be given, as they are at this time at my headquarters.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

BEN. MCCULLOCH, Brigadier-General.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6