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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 2, Ch. IX–Union Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER IX.
OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA.*
April 16-July 31, 1861.
(Bull Run / Manassas)
–––
UNION CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.577}

P., W. AND B. R. R. Co., Philadelphia, April 16, 1861.

SIMON CAMERON:

DEAR SIR: I have received from our agent at Baltimore the following:

BALTIMORE, April 16, 1861.

Mr. Wm. CRAWFORD:

DEAR SIR: Is it true as stated that an attempt will be made to pass the volunteers from New York intended to war upon the South over your road today? It is important that we have an explicit understanding on the subject.

Your friend,

GEO. P. KANE.

APRIL 16, 1861.

S. M. FELTON, Esq.:

DEAR SIR: The above is from our marshal of police. I have replied that I have no knowledge of anything of the kind. It is rumored that the marshal has issued orders to his force not to permit any forces to pass through the city.

Yours, truly,

WM. CRAWFORD.

I send you the foregoing, thinking it important you should know of the communication, in order that you may ascertain the facts.

Yours, truly,

S. M. FELTON.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 18, 1861.

To his Excellency THOS. H. HICKS, Governor of Maryland:

SIR: The President is informed that threats are made, and measures taken, by unlawful combinations of misguided citizens of Maryland to prevent by force the transit of United States troops across Maryland, on their way, pursuant to orders, to the defense of this capital. The information is from such sources and in such shape that the President thinks it his duty to make it known to you, so that all loyal and patriotic citizens of your State may be warned in time, and that you may be prepared to take immediate and effective measures against it.

Such an attempt could have only the most deplorable consequences; and it would be as agreeable to the President as it would be to yourself that it should be prevented or overcome by the loyal authorities and citizens of Maryland, rather than averted by any other means.

I am, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War. {p.578}

APRIL 18, 1861.

Major CLARK, Quartermaster, U. S. Army, Baltimore :

Two or three. Massachusetts regiments may reach Baltimore in the next three days, and one New York regiment. Hasten the latter to this place. One of the Massachusetts regiments must be turned off to Harper’s Ferry, unless it be known that the establishment has been captured. If a fourth Massachusetts regiment by mistake arrive at Baltimore by rail instead of Fort Monroe by sea, send it down the bay to that fort.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

COLUMBUS, OHIO, April 18, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

We had made arrangements with, the Baltimore and Ohio Road to transport troops, and Mr. Garrett was anxious to take them until late last night, when he declined, on the alleged ground that the Washington Branch will employ all his empty cars in transportation of troops.

This looks ominous. We hope Harper’s Ferry is safe.

W. DENNISON, Governor of Ohio.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 19, 1861.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

We are informed here that the troops sent last night have been stopped at Baltimore, and that it is impracticable to send more through that city. Shall we send them by steamer to Annapolis?

J. EDGAR THOMSON. S. M. FELTON.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, PA., April 19, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: Having arrived at Philadelphia, we are informed by the Baltimore road that Governor Hicks states that no troops can pass through Baltimore City; in fact, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad refuse to transfer. We will wait for instructions.

J. EDGAR THOMSON. S. M. FELTON.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 19, 1861.

To S. M. FELTON:

Governor Hicks has neither right nor authority to stop troops coming to Washington.

Send them on prepared to fight their way through, if necessary.

By order of the Secretary of War:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

{p.579}

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 3.}

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, April 19, 1861.

The Military Department of Washington is extended so as to include, in addition to the District of Columbia and Maryland, the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania, and will be commanded by Major-General Patterson, belonging to the volunteers of the latter State.

The major-general will, as fast as they are mastered into service, post the volunteers of Pennsylvania all along the road from Wilmington, Del., to Washington City, in sufficient numbers and in such proximity as may give a reasonable protection to the lines of parallel wires, to the road, its rails, bridges, cars, and stations.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 19, 1861-7.30 p. m.

General R. PATTERSON, Philadelphia:

Have you received General Orders, No. 3, sent by telegraph this afternoon? Major Porter, A. A. G., started this morning, with order for issue of 5,000 arms to troops near Harrisburg, and to secure line of communications from. Pennsylvania line to Baltimore, along route from Harrisburg to Baltimore. Answer by telegraph.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 19, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Commanding U. S. Army:

My DEAR GENERAL: I have orders to march and am intensely anxious to be with and support you, but a very large proportion of my men are without muskets, all are without ammunition, service clothing, greatcoats, blankets, knapsacks, haversacks, canteens, &c., and it is impossible to get them except from the Frankford and Gray’s Ferry Arsenals, where there is abundance of everything. Mr. Dayton, of New Jersey, has telegraphed General Cameron to supply these things. I implore you to go to the Secretary and have an order sent for a full supply. If you cannot get for ten thousand, get for five thousand men. It seems very strange that the people of the South seize the Government property to carry on rebellion, and the men of the North cannot get it to defend the flag of the Union. The law of necessity overrides all laws; we must have arms, ammunition, clothing, and equipments. The State authorities say that if the Government requires it, the State will pay for the clothing at cost price, and the stock can be replenished. Please attend to this at once, and I can have 5,000 men in Washington in five days. General Cadwalader is as decided as I am that our men shall not be made inmates of hospitals for want of comfortable garments, which the Government has at our doors, and which may be taken by others. Say to my good friend the Secretary I entreat him not to hesitate. The moment, the peril of the capital, and the necessities of the case fully justify him in making the order.

Faithfully, yours,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.580}

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 11.}

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 19, 1861.

Maj. J. C. Pemberton, Fourth Artillery, will, with his company, immediately proceed to the steamboat landing, seize and hold possession, in the name of the President of the United States, until further orders, of all the steamers plying between Washington City and Aquia Creek that are now lying at the company’s wharves, or that may arrive during the next twenty-four hours.

By order of Colonel Smith:

THEO. TALBOT, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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BALTIMORE, MD., April 19, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

I implore you not to send volunteer troops through our city. The rails will be destroyed. Immense excitement.

JOHN S. GITTINGS.

–––

BALTIMORE, MD., April 19, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War

Mob violence began. Attempts made to obstruct railroad in streets. Governor and mayor in consultation.

Will skeleton companies be received to be subsequently filled, and the pay of the men begin from date of their reception? If so, a large number ready at once. Answer.

L. A. WHITELEY.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 20, 1861-12.30 p. m.

Major-General PATTERSON, Philadelphia:

Have you received the arms from Frankford? Will it save time to march out the troops to the arms?

I suppose six thousand or eight thousand troops necessary to hold the roads from Harrisburg to Baltimore and from Wilmington to Washington. If the Pennsylvania quota be not enough, the deficiency shall be supplied from the New Jersey and New York quotas. Answer.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 20, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Washington:

Arms not received; hope to have them to-day. Quota not sufficient for the purposes indicated.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.581}

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STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 20, 1861.

Hon. S. CAMERON:

SIR: Since I saw you in Washington last I have been in Baltimore City laboring, in conjunction with the mayor of that city, to preserve peace and order, but I regret to say with little success. Up to yesterday there appeared promise, but the outbreak came; the turbulent passions of the riotous element prevailed; fear for safety became reality; what they had endeavored to conceal, but what was known to us, was no longer concealed, but made manifest; the rebellious element had the control of things. We were arranging and organizing forces to protect the city and preserve order, but want of organization and of arms prevented success. They had arms; they had the principal part of the organized military forces with them, and for us to have made the effort, under the circumstances, would have had the effect to aid the disorderly element. They took possession of the armories, have the arms and ammunition, and I therefore think it prudent to decline (for the present) responding affirmatively to the requisition made by President Lincoln for four regiments of infantry.

With great respect, I am, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 20, 1861.

Governor HICKS:

I desire to consult with you and the mayor of Baltimore relative to preserving the peace of Maryland. Please come immediately by special train, which you can take at Baltimore; or, if necessary, one can be sent from hence. Answer forthwith.

LINCOLN.

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BALTIMORE, April 20, 1861.

To Governor HICKS:

Letter from President and General Scott. No troops to pass through Baltimore, if, as a military force, they can march around. I will answer that every effort will be made to prevent parties leaving the city to molest them, but cannot guarantee against acts of individuals not organized. Do you approve?

GEO. WM. BROWN.

–––

ANNAPOLIS, April 20, 1861.

To the MAYOR OF BALTIMORE:

Your dispatch received. I hoped they would send no more troops through Maryland, but as we have no right to demand that, I am glad no more are to be sent through Baltimore. I know you will do all in your power to preserve the peace.

THOS. H. HICKS.

–––

BALTIMORE, MD., April 20, 1861.

To President LINCOLN:

Every effort will be made to prevent parties leaving the city to molest {p.582} troops marching to Washington. Baltimore seeks only to protect herself. Governor Hicks has gone to Annapolis, but I have telegraphed to him.

GEO. WM. BROWN, Major of Baltimore.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, PA., April 20, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

Will you give order to dispatch troops via Annapolis to-day from here to Havre de Grace by rail, thence by large iron ferry-boat? The Baltimore and Ohio Road decline to transport any more troops from the North. We think this decidedly best, and are joined in this opinion by General Patterson, General Cadwalader, and Governor Curtin.

M. LEFFERTS, Colonel Seventh N. Y. S. M.

–––

FORT MCHENRY, April 20, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army:

I shall probably be attacked to-night, but believe I can hold the post.

JNO. C. ROBINSON, Captain, Fifth Infantry.

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BALTIMORE, Saturday, April 20, 1861-10 o’clock.

[General SCOTT:]

My DEAR GENERAL: There has been no arrival from the North. Some one or more bridges have been destroyed; where it is not known; telegraph interrupted. Warford has sent by horses along the road to find where the trouble is; will send me and General Keim with his staff through by an express train, if locomotives are on the north side of the track.

This road must be under military control at once, and in charge of the Government. So must the road between here and Washington. This is absolutely indispensable. Our rapid communication with the North is otherwise cut off. Troops coming on your road could leave it about three miles from Baltimore, and by a march of five miles reach the Washington road some two and a half miles from the city on the Washington road. This would avoid the city. But the city must be under the Government control. You should not rely upon any sending dispatches. Trusty agents should keep you informed, and carry your directions. Depend upon it, a vigorous and efficient plan of action must be decided on and carried out, or we will have to give up the capital.

The communication with the South is perfect both by railroad and telegraph, and we must have the same, or we are gone. No arrivals from Philadelphia or Now York, and no information. Rumor says the bridge across the Gunpowder is destroyed, and also a bridge some six or eight miles out of the city. The Northern Central should be the base of operations, and the communications by water be kept open. Havre {p.583} de Grace, it seems to me, is a point at which our Pennsylvania troops might concentrate with advantage, as from there they could reach here by waiter or Annapolis by rail. We could keep the railroad open easy from the east bank of the Susquehanna.

Let there be prompt action. Let the Government as soon as possible take possession of the railroad necessary to keep open communication with Washington. Take, if necessary, tow steamers here for transporting troops by water. A few thousand men with artillery on the high grounds about this city would secure it to us.

Yours, truly,

D. WILMOT.

–––

SATURDAY, April 20, 1861-11 o’clock.

Have just heard that the bridges between Ashland and Cockeysville and two or three nearer towns are burned. Will advise the forces in Philadelphia and such as may be at Harrisburg to come, upon this road as far as they can and protect the balance of the road, and protect while temporarily repairing the bridges, or so much as is necessary-the balance to come in force and well armed to within three miles of Baltimore and cross over to Washington, and if in our possession, as it should be, to proceed by rail to Washington; if not, to march by forced marches to Washington. Am about starting in carriages, and, hope to get through without interruption to York, and there take express train to Harrisburg.

Yours,

D. WILMOT.

–––

NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 20, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR : I respectfully suggest that a military force be established at Annapolis to protect the frigate Constitution and Government property there which is now much exposed. Could not a portion of one of the regiments expected to land there to-day be detailed for that duty? The withdrawal of a considerable portion of the marines from this station for other duty leaves the navy-yard and Government property much exposed. I would therefore respectfully request that a military force be detailed to aid in guarding that point.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant

GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.

–––

ADJUTANT-GENERAL’s OFFICE, Washington, April 20, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, Philadelphia:

Send the troops now en route to this city by rail to Havre de Grace; thence by iron ferry-boat to Annapolis, as suggested by Colonel Lefferts. Report the time the troops may be expected at Annapolis. They should be prepared to march if cars cannot be provided.

Carry out vigorously the orders of the General-in-Chief to occupy the road to Baltimore,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

{p.584}

–––

To the OFFICER [in command]:

WAR DEPARTMENT, April 21, 1861.

The President, with a desire, to gratify the mayor of Baltimore, who fears that bloodshed would unnecessarily result from the passage through that city of the troops from Pennsylvania at this moment on the way, directs that they shall return to York, in Pennsylvania. This order refers to the troops now said to be at Cockeysville, Md., en route for this city. It will be obeyed by the officer in command, who will take care to leave force sufficient along the road to keep it safe from depredation of every kind and within his entire control.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

–––

ORDERS:]

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, April 21, 1861.

It is understood that a body of volunteers approaching this city has reached Cockeysville or other points within seventeen or twenty miles by rail of Baltimore.

The obstructions in the railroad within Baltimore and its neighborhood, and still more the unhappy excitement temporarily existing in that city, have induced the President to direct that those volunteers return to Harrisburg, and take the route via Philadelphia and Wilmington to Perryville, on the Susquehanna: thence to embark in steamers for Annapolis, or to proceed down the Delaware and through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal in sufficient tugs or other crafts to Annapolis. Major-General Patterson may direct.

Major Belger, assistant quartermaster, will convey this written order to the commanders of the volunteers in question, and, if necessary, accompany them to Philadelphia and beyond, in order to facilitate the movement. He will also leave directions at Harrisburg to prevent other volunteers from approaching Washington through Baltimore until further orders.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 21, 1861.

Maj. J. A. HASKIN, First Artillery, Commanding Fort Washington, Md.:

SIR: The steamer Monticello, from New York, is expected soon to arrive in the river, perhaps some time to-day, having supplies for this place, which will undoubtedly be seized if the boat is allowed to go to Alexandria. The General-in-Chief directs that you bring her to and keep her under the protection of the guns of your fort until a safe convoy can be provided.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 21, 1861.

Maj. J. A. HASKIN, First Artillery, Commanding Fort Washington, Md.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs that you bring to all vessels passing Fort Washington, and search them, to ascertain whether they have {p.585} on board men, munitions of war, or supplies of provisions; and, if so, keep them under the guns of your fort and prevent their proceeding until further orders. This of course does not apply to the troops or supplies of the United States, but does to steamer Monticello, as before ordered.

I am, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 21, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. PATTERSON:

SIR: The direct communication by rail and telegraph between us is interrupted by many breaks between the Susquehanna and the Relay House, this side of Baltimore. For the present Northern re-enforcements can only reach us by, 1st, the ocean and the Potomac; 2d, by the Susquehanna steamboats and Annapolis; and 3d, by Harrisburg, York, and a point on that railroad nearest to the Relay House, some six miles to be Marched over.

Please give your attention to the road up to the Susquehanna, and station a strong force at a point for the protection of transport steamers, if any besides the Maryland, and the embarkations. It was reported yesterday that this steamer had taken on board at that point two regiments of volunteers-the Seventh, of New York, and another, of Massachusetts-and I immediately dispatched a quartermaster to receive and assist them in reaching Washington. We have not heard of their arrival at Annapolis. But the route via Harrisburg is to us, perhaps, still more important.

Major Porter, assistant adjutant-general, was sent several days ago to Governor Curtin to muster in volunteers, and to string them along the railroad in Maryland, leading from Harrisburg toward Baltimore. Please give your attention in part to this line of communication. Communicate frequently the arrival and departure of troops, numbers, and the routes. Employ express when necessary.

I do not know that we can hire a steamer at Baltimore for Annapolis in addition to the Maryland, and perhaps a war steamer may be necessary to escort transports from the Susquehanna to Annapolis.

With the greatest respect, yours, truly,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

HEADQUARTERS PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, Philadelphia, April 21, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, Washington:

COLONEL: As I fear my letters and dispatches have not reached you, I therefore, by aid of a friend, send a special messenger. On receipt of Your telegram of yesterday I went to the transportation office and saw John Edgar Thomson and S. M. Felton, esqs., presidents of the Pennsylvania Central and the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroads, and gave directions for the Eighth Massachusetts and Seventh New York to go via Annapolis to Washington. I could not find Colonel Lefferts, but saw General Butler, gave him the instructions, and desired him to communicate them to Colonel Lefferts. I requested General Butler to halt one {p.586} regiment at Annapolis and the others at the junction; to hold both positions, guard the road, and report to Lieutenant-General Scott for instructions.

I venture respectfully to suggest, for the consideration of the General-in-Chief, that inasmuch as the force at my disposal is entirely inadequate to, open the way and guard the railroad from Gunpowder to Baltimore and as I learn that all the regiments from the North and East are going by sea from Eastern ports I can hope for no substantial re-enforcements from that quarter-it will be best to adopt as our line of communication the Baltimore Railroad from here to Havre de Grace, the new boat of the rail company, with propellers and Government steamers, wen armed, to serve as escorts from here to Annapolis. The road from Annapolis to Washington can be protected without great difficulty, as there are no bridges, and a few small war steamers can keep the Susquehanna and Chesapeake, clear, and, if need be, aid Fort McHenry and threaten Baltimore, also blockade it; the road from here to Havre de Grace occupied and protected; a battery erected or war vessel (steamer, if it can be spared) to command the Susquehanna and cover Cecil and Havre de Grace. All available steam vessels and other craft to be concentrated at Cecil or Perryville, the railroad termini-is at the Susquehanna.

The garrison at Fort McHenry should prevent any steamboat, steam vessel, or any other craft hostile (or that the commander has reason to suppose hostile), from leaving Baltimore.

The Government forthwith to take possession of the railway line from Washington to Annapolis.

When we have sufficient troops and provisions, they shall be concentrated at Washington by means of the Annapolis route. The Government can take possession of the Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the railway lines from Baltimore to Harrisburg, and thereby secure a safe and speedy means of communicating with Washington.

These suggestions are with diffidence submitted to the better judgment of the General-in-Chief, who will at once see whether they are judicious or otherwise.

I have also to suggest that in my opinion it is expedient to declare or put the entire line, and ten, twenty, or thirty miles on each side, or the entire department under my command, under martial law; and if the General concurs, I ask his approval, or rather that he will give the order. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General.

–––

BALTIMORE, MD., April 21, 1861.

Mr. TALCOTT, Manager, Washington Office:

The authorities have possession of office.

IKE.

Of course this stops all.

TALCOTT.

–––

STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 21, 1861.

To the Commander of the Volunteer Troops on board the steamer:

SIR: I would most earnestly advise that you do not land your men at Annapolis. The excitement here is very great, and I think that you {p.587} should take your men elsewhere. I have telegraphed to the Secretary of War, advising against your landing your men here.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS, Governor of Maryland.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 22, 1861.

Major General PATTERSON, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: Your letter to the Adjutant-General of yesterday, brought by Mr. Hill, came to me this night.

In my letter to you yesterday I intended that the railroad via Harrisburg and York towards Baltimore was more important, perhaps, for re-enforcing Washington than that from Philadelphia to Perryville, &c. That supposition was founded on the Secretary’s belief that the distance from a certain point on the Harrisburg Railroad to the Relay House, eight miles this side of Baltimore, was but some seven miles by a good wagon road, whereas there is no good common road between the two railroads of less than thirty miles. This fact renders the railroad from Harrisburg to Baltimore of no value to us here without a force of perhaps, ten thousand men to hold Baltimore-to protect the rails and bridges near it. This shall be done as soon as we shall have a surplus force over and above what is necessary for the security of Washington. With this information the line for troops coming from the North to this place via Perryville, thence by steamboats to Annapolis, and wagon roads, seems greatly preferable; but, besides the want of railroad transportation this side of Annapolis, we have no war steamer, and may not have one in ten days to convoy the transports from Perryville to Annapolis. The embarkations at Perryville you may be able to protect by a strong guard at that place.

The Massachusetts and New York volunteers which arrived at Annapolis yesterday debarked, it is believed, to-day, and have commenced their march upon this place. Up to this moment we do not know that the march has commenced. The difficulty is probably the want of cars or common wagons, leaving perhaps a guard of some three companies at the Naval School, Annapolis. The route for Northern troops coining here from Gettysburg by common roads to Frederick, Md., may be worth attention. Besides the troops supposed to have landed at Annapolis, we greatly need ten or twelve additional regiments for this place, now partially besieged, threatened, and in danger of being attacked on all sides in a day or two or three.

With the greatest respect, yours, truly,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

P. S.-Camp equipage is much wanted here, the preparation of which is Pushed at Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. The same remark is applicable to accouterments.

The public buildings here have already as many troops as they can receive.

Communicate often by express, if necessary.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 22, 1861.

Major G. H. THOMAS, Second Cavalry, Carlisle Barracks:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs that the four companies of cavalry under your command be sent here as fast as they are mounted (which {p.588} must be done with all possible dispatch), and by the route which will insure their arrival at the earliest moment practicable. From your position you can judge better of the route than we. The men must be prepared to encounter opposition and to overcome it.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 22, 1861.

Col. C. F. SMITH, Commanding Department of Washington, &c.:

COLONEL: I respectfully suggest that two companies of infantry and one field piece be immediately dispatched to the High Bridge over the Potomac, to establish themselves at the Maryland end of the bridge, with directions to hold it against any assault to the last extremity.

I also recommend that two companies of infantry and one field piece be established at once at the Georgetown end of the Aqueduct, to hold it as above.

Vedettes should be, thrown out from there just as far as practicable on the Virginia side.

As soon as practicable I will send an Engineer officer to make defensive arrangements at these two places.

I have not been informed what arrangements are in effect to watch the Potomac, but think that armed steamers should be kept in motion, and that to one should be assigned the especial duty of watching the movements on the river between here and Alexandria.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. BARNARD, Major of Engineers.

P. S.-The planks of the High Bridge should be ripped up for a distance of one hundred feet at some point of the length near the Maryland end.

–––

Memorandum for Colonel Smith..

MONDAY, April 22-11 a. m.

Lieutenant Prime, Engineer, is examining the lunatic asylum on the heights opposite the navy-yard and arsenal, with a view of deciding whether it should be occupied. In the mean time I cannot too urgently recommend that a close watch be kept on that shore, and that troops be held in readiness to repel any attempt to seize these buildings.

J. G. BARNARD, Major Engineers.

–––

STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 22, 1861.

To his Excellency A. LINCOLN, President of the United States:

SIR: I feel it my duty most respectfully to advise you that no more troops be ordered or allowed to pass through Maryland, and that the troops now off Annapolis be sent elsewhere, and I most respectfully urge that a truce be offered by you, so that the effusion of blood may be {p.589} prevented. I respectfully suggest that Lord Lyons be requested to act as mediator between the contending parties of our country.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS.

–––

HAGERSTOWN, April 22, 1861.

Gov. T. H. HICKS, Annapolis :

Virginia troops searching houses in Maryland on Saturday near Harper’s Ferry for arms. I appealed to General Harper, commander, to recall them, which he promised, if Northern troops are forbidden. What is to be done with Southern? What steps shall I take?

EDWARD M. MOBLEY, Sheriff of Washington County.

–––

OFF ANNAPOLIS, April 22, 1861.

His Excellency THOS. H. HICKS, Governor of Maryland:

In reply to the communication from you on the 21st I had the honor to inform you of the necessities of my command which drew me into the harbor of Annapolis.* My circumstances have, not changed. To that communication I have received no reply. I cannot return, if I desire so to do, without being furnished with some necessary supplies, for all which the money will be paid. I desire of your excellency an immediate reply whether I have the permission of the State authorities of Maryland to land the men under my command, and of passing quickly through the State on my way to Washington, respecting private property, and paying for what I receive, and outraging the rights of none-a duty which I am bound to do in obedience to the requisitions of the President of the United States.

I have received some copies of an informal correspondence between the mayor of Baltimore and the president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and a copy of a note from your excellency, inclosing the same to Captain Blake, commandant of the Naval School.

These purport to show that instructions have been issued by the War Department as to the disposition of the U. S. militia, differing from what I had supposed to be my duty. If these instructions have been in fact issued, it would give me great pleasure to obey them. Have I Your excellency’s permission, in consideration of these exigencies of the case, to land my men, to supply their wants, and to relieve them from the extreme and unhealthy confinement of a transport vessel not fitted to receive them? To convince your excellency of the good faith towards the authorities of the State of Maryland with which I am acting-and I am armed only against the disturbers of her peace and of the United States--I inclose a copy of an order issued to my command before I had the honor of receiving the copy of your communication through Captain Blake.

I trust your excellency will appreciate the necessities of my position, and give me an immediate reply, which I await with anxiety.

I would do myself the honor to have a personal interview with your excellency if you so desire.

I beg leave to call your excellency’s attention to what I hope I may {p.590} be pardoned for deeming an ill-advised designation of the men under my command. They are not Northern troops; they are apart of the whole militia of the United States, obeying the call of the President.

I have the honor of being your excellency’s obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Brigadier-General in the Militia of the United States.

P. S.-It occurs to me, that our landing on the grounds at the Naval Academy would be entirely proper and in accordance with your excellency’s wishes,

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

SPECIAL BRIGADE ORDER, No. 37.

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEER MILITIA, On board steamer Maryland., off Annapolis, April 22, 1861.

Colonel Munroe is charged with the execution of the following order:

At 5 o’clock a. m. the troops will be paraded by company and be drilled in the manual of arms, especially in loading at will, firing by file, and in the use of the bayonet, and these specialties will be observed in all subsequent drills in the manual; such drill to continue until 7 o’clock, when all the arms will be stacked upon the upper deck, great care being taken to instruct the men as to the mode of stacking their arms, so that a firm stack, not easily overturned shall be made. Being obliged to drill at times with the weapons loaded, great damage may be done by the overturning of the stack and the discharge of the piece. This is important. Indeed, an accident has already occurred in the regiment from this cause, and although slight in its consequence, yet it warns us to increased diligence in this regard.

The purpose which could only be hinted at in the orders of yesterday has been accomplished. The frigate Constitution has lain for a long time at this port substantially at the mercy of the armed mob which sometimes paralyzes the otherwise loyal State of Maryland. Deeds of daring, successful contests, and glorious victories had rendered “Old Ironsides” so conspicuous in the naval history of the country that she was fitly chosen as the school-ship in which to train the future officers of the Navy to like heroic acts. It was given to Massachusetts and Essex County first to man her; it was reserved for Massachusetts to have the honor to retain her for the service of the Union and the laws.

This is a sufficient triumph of right and a sufficient triumph for us. By this the blood of our friends shed by the Baltimore mob is in so far avenged. The Eighth Regiment may hereafter cheer lustily on all proper occasions, but never without orders. The old Constitution, by their efforts, aided untiringly by the U. S. officers having her in charge, is now safely “possessed, occupied, and enjoyed” by the Government of the United States, and is safe from all her foes.

We have been joined by the Seventh Regiment of New York, and together we propose peaceably, quickly, and civilly, unless opposed by some mob or other disorderly persons, to march to Washington, in obedience to the requisition of the President of the United States. If opposed, we shall march steadily forward.

My next order I hardly know how to express. I cannot assume that any of the citizen soldiery of Massachusetts or New York could under any circumstances whatever commit any outrages upon private property in a loyal and friendly State. But fearing that some improper person may have by stealth introduced himself among us, I deem it proper to state that any unauthorized interference with private property will be {p.591} most signally punished, and full reparation therefor made to the injured party to the full extent of my power and ability. In so doing, I but carry out the orders of the War Department. I should have so done without those orders.

Colonel Munroe will cause these orders to be read at the head of each company before we march.

Colonel Lefferts’ command not having been originally included in this order, he will be furnished with a copy for his instruction.

By order of B. F. Butler, brigadier-general:

WILLIAM H. CLEMENS, Brigade Major.

–––

STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 22, 1861.

To Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER:

SIR: I am in receipt of your two* communications of this date, informing me of your intention to land the men under your command at Annapolis, for the purpose of marching thence to the city of Washington. I content myself with protesting against this movement, which, in view of the excited condition of the people of this State, I cannot but consider an unwise step on the part of the Government. But I most earnestly urge upon you that there shall be no halt made by the troops in this city.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS.

* Only one found.

–––

FORT MCHENRY, MD., April 22, 1861.

Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.:

DEAR SIR: Please inform the War Department that I sent a detachment from my command, with two pieces of artillery, to take possession of Fort Carroll last evening. They were sent by the U. S. surveying schooner Howell Cobb, which happened to be lying at the dock of this Post. I also wrote by her to the commissary of subsistence in New York to send me three months’ additional supplies.

I send this under cover to Mr. Ruger, as I am afraid to communicate this intelligence through the regular channel, on account of the sudden and unaccountable change of sentiment in the city of Baltimore.

The Department has been informed of the resources of this place, and must act on what they already know of my condition.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,

JNO. C. ROBINSON, Captain, Fifth Infantry, Commanding.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 22, 1861.

Capt. MORRIS S. MILLER, Assistant Quartermaster U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

CAPTAIN : You will proceed rapidly to Annapolis, to afford all facilities in your power to volunteers from Massachusetts and New York, or {p.592} other States there en route to this city. If cars can be obtained from the Baltimore and Washington Railroad, you will obtain as many as practicable for the transportation of those troops hither in one or more trips. Consult the naval commander at Annapolis whether he deems a detachment of troops necessary to defend the Naval School, the fort, and any U. S. vessels which may be there. You will next see the commanders of the regiments of volunteers, and request that one, or both of them together, leave the number of companies that may be needed by Commodore Make for those defensive purposes. On the arrival of a sufficient naval force at Annapolis for its defense, any detachment left behind will be ordered to join its regiment or regiments. You will remain with the volunteers as long as you can be useful, hiring wagons, &c.

I write by command of Lieutenant-General Scott.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-As it is feared that Baltimore cars cannot be obtained to go to Annapolis for the troops, the cars belonging to the Annapolis road may, in many trips, be able to bring the troops to the junction house, and thence probably the Baltimore cars may bring the troops to Washington. Or in the worst case that may be apprehended, the necessity of marching the whole distance from Annapolis to Washington, you win hire wagons, and make all purchases necessary to their wants.

Take care to admonish the troops to be prepared, in landing, to repel force by force, as in war.

[Unsigned indorsement.]

Captain Blake and the governor both say that the occupancy of any position at Annapolis by volunteers will be prejudicial instead of beneficial.

–––

ADJUTANT-GENERAL’s OFFICE, Washington, D. C., April 23, 1861.

COMMANDING OFFICER, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.:

SIR: The Secretary of War directs that you at once order to this city and put en route the four companies of the Second Cavalry now at Carlisle Barracks. You will see that the companies are mounted and filled to the maximum standard, and fully armed, and equipped for service. They will march from Carlisle to Gettysburg, and thence to this city, by the best route, avoiding as far as practicable the large towns, such as Frederick City. If possible, send not less than two officers with each company, Lieutenant (now Captain) Roger Jones being one of the officers so sent. You are directed to make all needful arrangements to render this movement prompt and successful.

I am, sir, &c.,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

–––

STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 23, 1861.

To Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER:

SIR: Having, in pursuance of the powers vested in me by the constitution of Maryland, summoned the legislature of the State to assemble {p.593} on Friday, the 26th instant, and Annapolis being the place in which, according to law, it must assemble, and having been credibly informed that you have taken military possession of the Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, I deem it my duty to protest against this step, because, without at present assigning any other reason, I am informed that such occupancy of said road will prevent the members of the legislature from reaching this city.

Very respectfully, yours,

THOS. H. HICKS.

–––

HDQRS. THIRD BRIGADE MASS. VOL. MILITIA, Annapolis, Md., April 23, 1861.

To his Excellency THOS. H. HICKS, Governor of the State of Maryland:

I did myself the honor, in my communication of yesterday, wherein I asked permission to land the portion of the militia of the United States under my command, to state that they were armed only against the disturbers of the peace of the State of Maryland and, of the United States.

I have understood, within the last hour, that some apprehensions were entertained of an insurrection of the negro population of this neighborhood. I am anxious to convince all classes of persons that the forces under my command are not here in any way to interfere with, or countenance any interference with, the laws of the State. I am therefore ready to co-operate with your excellency in suppressing, most promptly and effectively, any insurrection against the laws of Maryland.

I beg, therefore, that you announce publicly that any portion of the forces under my command is at your excellency’s disposal to act immediately for the preservation and quietness of the peace of this community.

And I have the honor to be, your excellency’s obedient servant,

B. F. BUTLER, General of the Third Brigade.

–––

THIRD BRIGADE U. S. MILITIA, Annapolis, Md., April 23, 1861.

To his Excellency THOS. H. HICKS, Governor of Maryland:

You are credibly informed that I have taken possession of the Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad. It might have escaped your notice, but at the official meeting between your excellency and the mayor of Annapolis and the authorities of the Government and myself it was expressly stated as the reason why I should not land that my troops could not pass the railroad because the company had taken up the rails, and they were private property. It is difficult to see how it could be that if my troops could not pass over the railroad one way, the members of the legislature could pass the other way. I have taken possession for the purpose of preventing the carrying out of the threats of the mob, as officially represented to me by the master of transportation of this city, “that if my troops passed over the railroad the railroad should be destroyed.”

If the government of the State had taken possession of the railroad in any emergency, I should have long waited before I entered upon it. {p.594} But, as I had the honor to inform your excellency in regard to the insurrection against the laws of Maryland, I am here armed to maintain those laws, if your excellency desires, and the peace of the United States, against all disorderly persons whatever. I am endeavoring to save, and not to destroy; to obtain means of transportation, so I can vacate the capital prior to the sitting of the legislature, and not be under the painful necessity of occupying your beautiful city while the legislature is in session.

I have the honor to be, your excellency’s obedient servant,

B. F. BUTLER, Brigadier-General.

–––

STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 23, 1861.

To Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this morning, tendering the force under your command to aid in suppressing a rumored insurrection of the slaves in this county.

I thank you most sincerely for the tender of your men, but I had, before the receipt of your letter, directed the sheriff of the county to act in the matter, and am confident that the citizens of the county are fully able to suppress any insurrection of our slave population.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS.

–––

HDQRS. MILITARY DEPARTMENT WASHINGTON, Philadelphia, April 23, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 21st instant,* and to thank you for the suggestions, which have had my most cordial consideration. I adhere, however, to the opinion, heretofore expressed to the General-in-Chief, as to the line which could be most readily kept open with our present force, and hope that the Government has seized the railway between Annapolis and Washington, with its rolling-stock.

I trust that there are small war steamers in, the Chesapeake in sufficient numbers to protect our transports and capture or destroy all armed vessels of the insurgents. Information has reached me from a source which, though not entirely reliable, entitles it to consideration, that they have a steam-tug in the Chesapeake, armed with a single rifled cannon, for the purpose of sinking our transports. She should be overhauled if possible, and no vessel should be permitted to enter or leave the harbor of Baltimore while the people of that city continue to defy the authority of the General Government.

I have furnished four hundred muskets to the mayor of Wilmington, eighty of which have been used to arm Du Pont’s workmen, embodied for the defense of the mills, and the residue appropriated to the organized volunteers of the city, whose loyalty is vouched for by the mayor.

The inclosed statement is obtained from a refugee from Norfolk, whose face and conduct indicate integrity of purpose, and who is evidently familiar with all the localities. I venture to suggest that you bring the {p.595} subject to the notice of the honorable Secretary of the Navy, who has the means of seizing vessels and owners, and preventing further mischief.

With much respect,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

Captain Russell, of the steamer Louisiana, carried fifteen barrels of gunpowder, stolen from the powder-magazine at Norfolk, to General Steuart, Baltimore. Powder seized by police for the use of the mob. The Louisiana returned within an hour with cannon for the use of the rebels at Norfolk.

The Georgianna, Captain Smith is carrying contraband articles for the use of the rebels. William Selden (James River boat) is employed in same way.

Capt. Arthur Sinclair, late of the Navy, has a steamboat called Reany, armed with a 6-pounder rifled can-non, cruising off Cape Henry, to sink transports. Steam-tug Star cruising in the bay plundering. Four rifled cannon (6-pounders) in the possession of the secessionists at Norfolk.

Captain Baker, owner of the Star and Reany, lives in Norfolk, and should be captured.

Lieutenants Pegram and Page, late of the U. S. Navy, are connected with the secession movement.

Norfolk could be held by fifteen hundred men if the railroad bridges are destroyed.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 23, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the letter of the General-in-Chief, dated 21st instant, per special messenger, W. J. Palmer. All my efforts have been directed to open the line to Washington by rail from here to the Susquehanna River, thence by Annapolis, and from there by rail, believing this to be the only line which could be maintained with the force at my disposal. I hope that more than one war steamer has been put on the water part of the route to protect the transports and sink or capture armed vessels of the enemy.

Two regiments will be embarked immediately for Annapolis, but they are deficient in equipments and their ammunition is unsuitable, cartridges not fitting the muskets in many cases. Great efforts have been made to supply this deficiency, and I hope that it will soon cease to exist.

I have reliable information that 8,000 men are now on their way from New York to Annapolis. Major Sherman arrived last night with his battery, and has been directed to take post for the present at Elkton, Md., supported by 100 infantry. I have no other battery on this side of the river, where one is much needed.

The medical officers appointed to the volunteer regiments are, so far as I am aware, good selections, but, of necessity, without experience in the field, except in rare instances.

It is of great importance that the medical staff should be promptly organized under the direction of an experienced surgeon. I have therefore earnestly to request the General-in-Chief to assign an Army surgeon to my command for service as medical director.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General.

{p.596}

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 23, 1861.

General SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

DEAR SIR: The Suspension of intercourse between this place and Washington has caused an intense feeling here in relation to the safety of the capital, and there is great eagerness to rush to its assistance. This anxiety, however, has not been participated in by the military authorities, and as yet there have been but few troops passed through to Havre de Grace. The people of Philadelphia exhibit some mortification that the Bostonians should have got nearly a week ahead of their troops, notwithstanding their greater distance from the scene of action.

After our communication with Washington was cut off via Baltimore in consequence of Mr. Garrett changing his plan of conveying troops through that city from a steam ferry-boat between Canton and Locust Point to the railroad through the streets, I immediately arranged transportation between Havre de Grace and Annapolis for five regiments per day. It seems, however, that the remaining New England and New York troops have for some reason taken the ocean route, and but few Pennsylvania troops are prepared to move. If the route from Annapolis to Washington City is open, we have transportation facilities now on the Chesapeake equal to the movement of fifteen thousand troops per day to your city, together with any amount of provisions, &c., for their support.

Sherman’s battery arrived here last night, And could have been in Annapolis to-day. It is understood, however, that it will not leave until to-morrow morning, and then stop at Elkton. We infer from this that you must feel entirely safe at Annapolis and at Washington. Mr. Palmer informs me that you have not taken military possession of the Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company and the Annapolis Road. If you have no superintendent fit to control such an enterprise, I would mention Joseph D. Potts, now in Baltimore, at the Northern Central Railroad Office, and T. H. Duprey, here. Colonel Small smuggled himself off without arms Against my earnest protest and refusal to send him without them. He, however, got his force back without much damage to it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. EDGAR THOMSON.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 23, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War :

DEAR SIR: Since I wrote my last of this date I have been informed that the Baltimoreans and Marylanders have destroyed the whole of the bridges on the Northern Central. This seems to have been a mere spite action and must convince the Government that those loyal to the Government in Maryland are in a vast minority. As soon as the capital is safe from attack, it seems to me that the Government should at once turn on Baltimore and place it under martial law, and require that it should pay all damages to the railroads it has destroyed, and-to their business.

There seems to be very little vigor in the organizing and dispatching of troops from this place. Who is to blame time must show. There is evidently a great deal of red tape to retard matters. Sherman’s battery, which could as well have been in Annapolis to-day, is still here. I hope you will give them a stirring up. I have provided ample means {p.597} of transit for everything that could be offered. The War Department should at once destroy, if it has not already done so, the bridges on the main stem of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad as high up as Harper’s Ferry.

There is now a large field for vigorous operations in the vicinity of Washington, without troubling Charleston until frost. Maryland should feel the power of the General Government in a manner that will hereafter keep her quiet, if it does not make her loyal.

After the excitement in Baltimore on Friday last, I saw at once that the only inland route to Washington was via Annapolis or some point below that place as near to Washington, and did not hesitate to make every preparation to send all the Pennsylvania troops and those from the East over it. The movement down the Northern Central, it seemed to me, could not be more easily effected than through Baltimore, via Havre de Grace. To complete the route, military possession of the Annapolis road, should be taken at once. There must be ample force at Annapolis by this time for this object, supported by a respectable artillery force.

If you are in want of railway men to control the road, or locomotives or cars to work it, they can immediately be sent down from here, with competent and loyal engine men. We are in for a fight now, and what we do should be done so as to make an impression over the whole country, striking terror into the malcontents.

Yours, truly,

J. EDGAR THOMSON, President Pennsylvania Central Railroad.

–––

NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 23, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: On a verbal requisition of Commodore John A. Dahlgren, I would respectfully request that at least a battalion of reliable troops be ordered at once for the protection of the navy-yard.

Commodore Dahlgren deems this precaution absolutely necessary for the preservation of the Government property, and I would express my urgent concurrence, and that there should be no delay.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.

[Indorsements.]

APRIL 23, 1861-10.30 p. m.

The request of the Secretary of the Navy is respectfully referred to Lieutenant-General Scott.

SIMON CAMERON Secretary of War.

APRIL 23, 1861-11 p. m.

Colonel Stone directed to send two companies to the navy-yard.

T. TALBOT, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.598}

–––

WASHINGTON, April 24, 1861.

General PATTERSON, &c.:

DEAR GENERAL: I have only a moment to say the troops have not got round from Annapolis. Butler says he will be here to-day. The New York Seventh decline coming on some punctilio, as I am informed.

There must be no delay in sending the Philadelphia troops by that route, so as to command the road at once. Those coming from the West should, in my opinion, be concentrated on the Northern Central Railroad near Baltimore, so as to force our way through the city if they continue to harass our troops coming round it. The fine counties of York, Lancaster, &c., will furnish supplies, and the march across to the waters of the Potomac is good. These are at present only suggestions, but I beg for them your examination and reflection.

Very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

–––

P., W. & B. R. R. Co., Philadelphia, April 24, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON:

DEAR SIR: Mr. Thomson, Mr. Sanford, and myself organized a plan to supply Washington with troops and provisions, &c., by way of Annapolis. A part of this plan was for Fort McHenry to allow no hostile force to leave Baltimore to seize transports. This we have not effected, of course, as we had no means to do it. We want command of the railroad from Washington to Annapolis and of the telegraph. This, of course, the Government must effect. The rest we can do, and are doing as rapidly as we can. We have assumed great responsibility, both pecuniarily and otherwise, but no good man ought in these times to shrink from any amount of responsibility within his reach. It is a question between government or anarchy, and who can hesitate?

Yours, truly,

S. M. FELTON.

–––

STATE OF MARYLAND, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Annapolis, April 24, 1861.

To Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER:

SIR: A dispatch signed by you, addressed to Gov. A. [G.] Curtin [following], has been received by me, with a verbal request that I countersign it and have it forwarded to its address.

In reference to the arsenal at Pikesville, I have no official information. I do not know who is now in possession of it. I am cut off from all communication with other parts of the State, and have no means to forward your dispatch if I were willing to countersign it.

I am compelled, therefore, to decline to accede to your request.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS.

{p.599}

–––

ANNAPOLIS, April 24, 1861.

To his Excellency ANDREW [G.] CURTIN, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces of Pennsylvania:

SIR: Should this dispatch be forwarded to you, countersigned by his excellency Thomas H. Hicks, governor of Maryland, you will please to understand that the insurgents have surrendered Pikesville Arsenal, and that it therefore will not be necessary to advance your troops, as you were yesterday requested by me.

B. F. BUTLER, Brigadier-General.

–––

PHILADELPHIA, April 24, 1861.

Col. LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army:

COLONEL: The orders of the Lieutenant-General Commanding to secure the forts on the Delaware have been anticipated. Captain Gibson reported last week that he was able to hold Fort Delaware, but requested that the remainder of his company be directed to join him. I have detailed one hundred men (raw volunteers) to be placed under his command.

Fort Mifflin is held by a detachment of volunteers. I inclose herewith a memorandum from a source believed to be reliable. I also inclose copy of a letter to Captain Rodgers, of the Navy. Major Thomas, Second Cavalry, has telegraphed the orders received from headquarters; Orders have been given to purchase horses, and I have directed the ordnance officers at Allegheny and Frankford to report as to the ammunition and equipments.

I have respectfully to request that a commissary be sent here without delay, furnished with funds to purchase rations and supply the troops when mustered into service. Three regiments from this State have been sent forward, and the residue of the quota only awaits organization.

Maj. F. J. Porter, who has carefully examined the ground, concurs with me in the opinion that it is impracticable at present to throw re-enforcements into Washington by the interior of Pennsylvania, and all my efforts shall be directed to the route via Annapolis.

I have directed Colonel Thomas to be ready to organize a wagon train.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General.

[Inclosure.]

HDQRS MILITARY DEP’T OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, April 24, 1861.

Captain RODGERS, Frigate Constitution:

CAPTAIN: Major-General Patterson learns through S. M. Felton, esq., that you informed him that there is a small fort situate at the entrance of Annapolis Harbor, which it is highly desirable should be taken possession of armed, and occupied. If you can supply ten guns for the purpose, or a sufficient number to hold it, you are hereby authorized to Make a requisition upon the colonel of any regiment on the route to Washington for a detachment of a hundred men to garrison it.

As the troops on the route have little knowledge of guns, you will Please detail one or more instructors.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CRAIG BIDDLE, A. D. C.

{p.600}

–––

Colonel STONE: WASHINGTON, April 25, 1861.

This will be handed to you by Thomas A. Scott, who will take charge of the operations of railroad and telegraphs between Washington City and Annapolis in a few days. Please give him all the information you can in relation to roads, cars, locomotives, &c. Until Mr. Scott takes direct charge, act with him in this movement.

Yours, respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Massachusetts Volunteers:

SIR: If this letter should find you not too far this side of Annapolis, I will ask you to consider yourself, for a time, as the commander of that city and retain a competent force to hold it. Next, I wish you to select a regiment (the one of your brigade or any other), and string it at convenient distances all along the railroad, by the junction and towards this city, as far as its numbers may suffice, to protect the road, its rails, bridges, and cars, so as to keep the communication open for troops and travelers between Annapolis and Washington by rail.

The principal points in the road to be occupied are: the junction, Beltsville, the bridges, cross-roads, and a few of the other stations. Some of the intermediate stations may also require smaller detachments, and every post ought to be instructed to throw out scouts to the right and left frequently during the night and day. If the regiment takes, in the first instance, cooked provisions for a few days, the posts may afterwards be supplied by the trains which will be passing daily. Tents and cooking utensils will, perhaps, be needed at some of the posts or detachments.

Send to this place all the spare troops from Annapolis as fast as you may find means of transportation, and report often.

Very respectfully,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Albany, N. Y., April 25, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: The news just at hand of the arrival in Washington of the Sixth, Twelfth, and Seventy-first Regiments has awakened emotions hardly to be described. Our information one hour before was of the most painful character. The greatest possible efforts are being made to furnish everything needed by the troops sent, and none will follow till they are properly uniformed, equipped, and provisioned. All the troops sent via the Potomac had thirty days’ supply of provisions. Open the way through Baltimore, cost what it may. I write earnestly, but feelingly.

Faithfully, yours,

E. D. MORGAN.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 25, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, &c., &c., &c.:

SIR: We have found it difficult to communicate with Annapolis, from which place to the junction the railroad has, been broken up in several {p.601} places, but now repaired. The New York Seventh Regiment got over it yesterday, and is here to-day. The people all along the route are quite hostile, and the road is in danger of being broken up everywhere and at any moment.

I have just instructed Brigadier-General Butler to hold the command of Annapolis, and to string one of the regiments along the railroad from that city towards Washington for its protection. Road wagons cannot be hired or impressed for the transportation of baggage for any part of the route. Instructions have been given for making camp equipage and accouterments as fast as possible in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. We are destitute of those supplies here, but have arms.

I wish no troops to be sent hither deficient in essential equipments.

Sherman’s battery, and a company of foot artillery with it, are needed here. If they can be spared from Perryville (and I think they may), send them to me. I wish Maj. W. W. Morris to take command of Fort McHenry. Perhaps he can only reach the fort by water.

Surgeon Tripler, from Newport, Ky., has been ordered to join you.

Assume command of Maj. F. J. Porter, assistant adjutant-general, sent hence to Harrisburg on duty, as you were informed at the time.

Yours, very respectfully,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

OFFICE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY, Philadelphia, April 25, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, United States:

DEAR SIR: Matters are progressing here satisfactorily. We have ample provisions to transport ten thousand men daily from here to Annapolis, and I would recommend that no more be sent from New York or the East via the ocean.

Any amount of provisions can be placed in Annapolis at very short notice as soon as you direct that it shall be done. Having taken the responsibility of establishing the route via Annapolis, and placing upon it the necessary transports, I should be glad if you would, to enable me to have all the accounts properly presented in accordance with the customs of your Department, send to my agent, R. F. Loper, esq., a commission to act as United States transport agent between Philadelphia and Annapolis, the commission to date from April 18, 1861. Captain Loper acted in this capacity during the Mexican war, and understands all the routine that the Government requires in such service.

The Philadelphia regiments have not yet gone forward, but I am glad to say that General Patterson is using his best exertions to have them properly equipped, and will dispatch them as speedily as he can. It seems that we have been wofully deficient in arms and ammunition in this city. I trust the difficulty will be remedied before it is too late for our city troops to assist in the defense of the capital.

Yours, very truly,

J. EDGAR THOMSON.

–––

WASHINGTON, April 26, 1861.

[Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER:]

The undersigned, General-in-Chief of the Army, has received from the President of the United States the following instructions respecting the legislature of Maryland, now about to assemble at Annapolis, viz:

{p.602}

It is “left to the commanding general to watch and await their action, which, if it shall be to arm their people against the United States to adopt the most prompt and efficient means to counteract, even if necessary to the bombardment of their cities, and in the extremest necessity suspension of the writ of habeas corpus.”

In the absence of the undersigned, the foregoing instructions are turned over to Brig. Gen. B. F. Butler, of the Massachusetts Volunteers, or other officer commanding at Annapolis, who will carry them out in a right spirit; that is, with moderation and firmness. In the case of arrested individuals notorious for their hostility to the United States, the prisoners will be safely kept and duly cared for, but not surrendered except on the order of the commander aforesaid.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 4.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, April 26, 1861.

I. From the known assemblage near this city of numerous hostile bodies of troops it is evident that an attack upon it may be expected at any moment. In such an event, to meet and overwhelm the enemy, it is necessary that some plan of harmonious co-operation should be adopted on the part of all the forces, regular and volunteer, present for the defense of the capital-that is, for the defense of the Government, the peaceable inhabitants of the city, their property, the public buildings, and public archives.

II. At the first moment of an attack every regiment, battalion, squadron, and independent company will promptly assemble at its established rendezvous (in or out of the public buildings), ready for battle, and wait for orders.

III. The pickets (or advance-guards) will stand fast till driven in by overwhelming force; but it is expected that those stationed to defend bridges-having every advantage of position-win not give way till actually pushed by the bayonet. Such obstinacy on the part of pickets so stationed is absolutely necessary to give time for the troops in the rear to reach their places of rendezvous.

IV. All advance guards and pickets driven in will fall back slowly and delay the advance of the enemy as much as possible before repairing to their proper rendezvous.

V. On the happening of an attack the troops lodged in the public buildings and in the navy-yard will remain for their defense, respectively, unless specially ordered elsewhere, with the exceptions that the Seventh New York Regiment and the Massachusetts regiment will march rapidly towards the President’s square for its defense, and the Rhode Island regiment (in the Department of the Interior) will make a diversion or detachment to assist in the defense of the General Post Office building, if it be necessary.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

By command:

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

Informal assignments.

The following assignment was informally made before the arrival of any volunteer regiments from the North. The officers passed the night {p.603} at their posts during the time of greatest danger. Since a sufficient force has been each night stationed in the public buildings, it is believed the officers generally hold themselves ready, in case of an alarm, to repair at once to their posts to give such advice and aid as they can. Since the assignment was made other officers have arrived, and some have left the city, which should perhaps cause a new arrangement to be made:

The staff of the General-in-Chief, General Totten and Captain Fry, to repair to headquarters on an alarm. Gen. L. Thomas to command in Georgetown. Major McDowell, assisted by Capt. J. N. Macomb and Lieutenant Woodruff, Topographical Engineers, assigned to Capitol Hill. Captain Meigs is now here, and should be the engineer of the Capitol building. Captain Garesche to repair to the General Post-Office. Capt. W. F. Raynolds, Topographical Engineers, to the Patent Office. Captain Shiras to Corcoran’s building, corner of Fifteenth and F streets, where there are public offices. Colonel Larned to repair to Winder’s building. Major Hunter, paymaster, to the President’s mansion. Colonel Stone to command of Executive square, assisted by Captain Wright, as engineer. Capt. W. R. Palmer, Topographical Engineers, to the Coast Survey., Capt. A. A. Humphreys to the Smithsonian Institution. Maj. H. Bache, Department of State. [Great seal.] Captain Franklin, Topographical Engineers, Treasury building and in charge of a depot of ammunition placed there for use in case of attack.

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WASHINGTON, April 26, 1861.

Lieut. Col. A. PORTER, U. S. A., Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs that you proceed to the State of Pennsylvania, to take charge of the arrangements for conducting to this city the quota of troops called for from that State and other troops en route hither. You will give particular attention to keeping open the railroad from Harrisburg to Baltimore, for the purpose of securing a free communication with the capital of the United States.

In pursuit of this object you will receive from his excellency the governor such aid as he may be pleased to give; and, having accomplished it, you will return to this city and report.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, April 27, 1861.

To whom it may concern:

Thomas A. Scott has been appointed to take charge of the railways and telegraphs between Washington City and Annapolis. Parties in charge thereof will place Mr. Scott in possession, and in future conform to his instructions in all matters pertaining to their management.

Yours, respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, April 27, 1861.

J. EDGAR THOMSON, Philadelphia, Pa.:

DEAR SIR: Yours of the 24th [23d] inst. is here. I am really gratified to hear from you that our military friends in Philadelphia have opened {p.604} their eyes to the existing state of affairs in the country. We have been without any response, except request for small matters of detail, while all my orders and wishes of the last week have been neglected until the day before yesterday we had not 2,500 men here under arms. Now we shall have enough in a day or two.

The railway from Annapolis to this place, under the direction of Scott, will be open by Monday for the whole amount of business of which it is capable. We shall want very few more troops by that route, but provisions, clothing, and munitions should be hurried here by it.

I have sent an engineer to reopen the Northern Central, and have ordered an able officer of this Department to take charge of the troops that may assemble at, Harrisburg, and bring them in immediate connection with Baltimore, to be concentrated where the city can be reached. We must occupy it without delay. I will never consent, if the whole power of this Department can prevent it, that a rebel force shall prevent the passage of our fellow-citizens from coming here unmolested. The authorities of Baltimore have acted with bad faith, and one of the most painful acts I have witnessed was the order for the return of our troops from Cockeysville; but that is past, and now we will amend the error.

The President has given me full power to open this communication, and I will do it. To-day the President has ordered me to raise twenty-five regiments of regulars, and also ordered the erection of a manufactory for arms at Rock Island, Ill. This shows you that there will be no lack of energy here. If the officers now in command will not act with energy, General Scott shall be authorized to find others that will.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS ANNAPOLIS, April 27, 1861.

[General SCOTT:]

SIR: I had the honor to receive this morning your letter from headquarters, of April 25, detailing me to the command of this city. I am deeply sensible of the honor conferred, and will endeavor to hold it. I had taken the liberty to make dispositions for that purpose before I had the honor to receive your order. I had caused Professor Lockwood, a very competent person, fully acquainted with the locality, to make a survey of its environs. From that, aided by my own observations, I find a water battery, known as Fort Madison, without casemates, which commands the channel, and prepared to mount twenty-one guns, but none are mounted. Everything is ready for the reception of its armament, being left in that condition by the Engineer Department last season; but this in its turn is entirely commanded by a height, upon which there is an old redoubt known by the soubriquet of Fort Nonsense. This was built during the year 1812, and, so far as I can learn, has never been occupied since. This also commands the town and the Naval Academy, where we have established our depots. An enemy there with a gun or two properly used would render our position entirely untenable. I have therefore detailed one hundred men from Colonel Pinckney’s regiment, the New York Sixth, which was here with a force of only about five hundred, to occupy Fort Nonsense, and also a company of fifty men from the same command to occupy Fort Madison and to keep up the communication between them, the distance being a short half mile.

During the past night, as I am informed by the very accurate report of the major in command, the troops were disturbed by signal-rockets being thrown up along the line of the interior road for some miles. Impressed {p.605} with the importance of the point, I have ordered an increased force from the same regiment, so that the detachment is now two hundred men, and have furnished them with signal-rockets, so that in case of attack we can immediately re-enforce them from the academy. I have directed Lieutenant Luce, acting quartermaster here, to organize a flotilla of boats so that we can send re-enforcements at once.

We believe that we have entire command of the bay through the means of the iron steamers Maryland, mounting four 32-pounders, commanded by Captain Steadman, and the Philadelphia ice-boat, which had been put in the service of the United States, free of expense, by the city of Philadelphia, commanded by Captain Chisson [?], of the Navy, which also mounts four guns.

My attention was next drawn to the rear of the town. The conformation of the ground there is peculiar, as will be seen from an examination of the maps. A creek runs up on each side of the point of land on which the town and the academy are situated, too broad and too deep to allow the passage of any considerable force, and in the rear of the town they approach each other within the space of less than two-thirds of a mile. Nearly in the center of this space runs the high road, and a little to the right of that the railway. The land is high, and presents natural means for a defense. I have caused Professor Lockwood to mark out a line of intrenchment there, and unless I am directed to the contrary, I shall proceed to throw up a field work to protect the rear of the town. I have detailed for the permanent occupation of this place the Third Battalion of Rifles, of Massachusetts, Major Devens, 246 men; the Sixth New York Regiment, Colonel Pinckney, 500 men; the Boston Light Battery, six pieces, Major Cook, 100 men; and I propose to add to them the Thirteenth New York Regiment, Colonel Smith, about 500 men; making in all 1,300 men. I believe that I have thus stated the effective strength, and with this, unless better instructed when my intrenchments are complete, I think I shall be able to hold the city, especially as I shall be aided from time to time, by troops arriving and necessarily delaying here. There is a distance of about a mile between the present railway depot and the wharf at the Naval Academy at the deepest water. I have caused Lieutenant Hopkins, assistant professor of engineering, and well experienced in the matter of railroads, to make a survey for a line of railroad, and find it an easy and practicable route from the depot to the wharf. I have also sent to Philadelphia for rails, cars, and workmen, with which to build the roads between Annapolis and the Junction, and I doubt not, if my acts are approved at headquarters, to be able to make a railroad communication without other carriage between tidewater at Annapolis and the capital within five days.

Acting according to your letters of instruction, I have sent forward the Sixty-ninth Regiment of New York, Colonel Corcoran, with directions to occupy the railroad from a point near the depot in Annapolis to the Junction in the manner following: Three men are stationed together, each picket within sight of the other, and once in about a mile a squad Of ten men, according to the nature of the ground and the proximity of bridges, culverts, and other valuable points, on which the pickets may rely. It is believed that this regiment, being about 1,100 strong, will be able to protect the road and the telegraph lines from further depredations.

In order to the operation of the telegraph, as there is no operator here who can be trusted, I have caused my command to be examined, and I believe I shall be able to find therein a competent operator as soon as the wires are, put in order. I have also detailed Lieutenant Billings and a squad of twenty-five men to be stationed at a place called Patapsco {p.606} Ford, where I am informed the foes of law and order are making some small head. I believe these dispositions will prevent further annoyance to the railroad, and I have received from Philadelphia a coups of competent track repairers, who are now putting a destroyed bridge in order, so that I trust hereafter our communications will not be obstructed, and the regular trains will pass over the road. Acting under what I believed were the instructions from headquarters, I have pushed forward all the troops possible with more celerity than I otherwise would have dictated to Washington. I expect the arrival to-morrow or during the night of upwards of three thousand New Jersey troops, some two thousand from New York and about a thousand from Pennsylvania. These are all of which I have authentic intelligence. I do myself the honor to inclose herewith a list of the troops which have arrived and departed.

I have received what I believe to be authentic intelligence from the information of Mr. [Purnell], of Baltimore, who had the honor to receive the nomination of postmaster of that city, and who is comptroller of the State of Maryland, and whom I believe to be a loyal and true man. He states, in a personal conversation with me, that he has positive information that sea-ling ladders are being prepared, and that a force is being organized for the purpose of throwing up batteries on the heights, with the intention of making an assault upon Fort McHenry. This information, if true, as I believe it to be, is important.

The steam gunboat of three guns Monticello has just reported to me, and I shall be able to send up re-enforcements or supplies. A list of the stores on board that vessel I have the honor to inclose.

Unless otherwise directed I shall continue to forward supplies with what celerity I may, and troops more slowly and with more comfort to themselves.

Since I commenced writing this dispatch I have received notice from the roadmaster that the track is in good running order, but we are deficient in engines and cars, which I hope to receive from Philadelphia tomorrow.

I had the honor also to receive the order* as to the course to be pursued in the case of the secession of Maryland. I will endeavor to carry out the orders with firmness and moderation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. F. BUTLER.

* See General Scott’s order of April 26, 1861, p. 601.

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OFFICE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY, Philadelphia, April 27, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

Yours of the 24th is received.* Mr. Scott left Harrisburg on the 25th to go to Washington, and I presume is with you now, unless he has fallen by the way. I congratulate you upon having secured the safety of the capital, and trust that you will as soon as possible reduce Baltimore to her allegiance. This will not be a difficult matter when they know that you are strong. The Union men of that place should be courted, and made to lead in the restoration of the city to law and order.

...

This war can be brought to a close in ninety days, if pushed with the vigor that the people now seem disposed to sustain it.

In haste, yours, very truly,

J. EDGAR THOMSON.

* Not found.

{p.607}

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 12.}

WAR DEP’T, ADJT. GEN.’S OFFICE, Washington, April 27, 1861.

1. The Military Department of Washington will include the District of Columbia, according to its original boundary, Fort Washington and the country adjacent, and the State of Maryland as far as Bladensburg, inclusive. Col. J. K. F. Mansfield, inspector-general, is assigned to the command, headquarters Washington City.

2. A new military department, to be called the Department of Annapolis, headquarters at that city, will include the country for twenty miles on each side of the railroad from Annapolis to the city of Washington, as far as Bladensburg, Md. Brig. Gen. B. F. Butler, Massachusetts Volunteers, is assigned to the command.

3. A third department, called the Department of Pennsylvania, will include that State, the State of Delaware, and all of Maryland not embraced in the foregoing departments. Major-General Patterson to command, headquarters at Philadelphia, or any other point he may temporarily occupy.

4. Bvt. Col. C. F. Smith, having been relieved by Colonel Mansfield, will repair to Fort Columbus, N. Y., and assume the duties of superintendent of the recruiting service; to which he was assigned in Special Orders, No. 80, of March 15. Major Heintzelman, on being relieved at Fort Columbus, will repair to this city, and report for duty to the department commander.

5. Fort Adams, Rhode Island, is hereby placed temporarily under the control of the Secretary of the Navy, for the purposes of the Naval Academy now at Annapolis, Md.

The necessary transfer of property will be made by the departments interested.

By order:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, April 28, 1861. Major-General PATTERSON, &c., &c., &c.:

SIR: I hope in a few days to have the railroad communication between Washington and Annapolis well re-established and guarded, and in about the same time troops enough here to give reasonable security to the capital-that is, to the Government, the public buildings, and archives-with a surplus of troops for offensive operations. The next step will be by force to occupy Baltimore and reopen regular communications between Washington and Philadelphia by rail and wires. The plan that has occurred to me is, 1st, to advance a column from this place via the Relay House to the Washington depot; 2d, another column by the road from York; 3d, the same from Havre de Grace, if destruction of bridges be not an insuperable obstacle; and, 4th, to move the principal force by water from Annapolis, and to make the four attacks simultaneously.

I wish you to consider and methodize the second and third attacks, and give me your views in advance on the whole subject.

Nothing shall prevent the occupation of Baltimore by a competent force but the voluntary reopening of free communications by rail and wires through Baltimore and Maryland before our preparations are ready.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

{p.608}

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 9.}

HDQRS. DEP’T OF WASHINGTON, Washington, D. C., April 28, 1861.

Agreeably to Special Orders, No. 12, of the War Department, assigning me to the command of the Military Department of Washington, I hereby assume command of that department, and all reports and communications pertaining to my immediate command will be made to these headquarters.

JOS. K. F. MANSFIELD, Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, April 29, 1861.

Brigadier-General BUTLER, &C., &C., &C.:

SIR: I was happy to receive Colonel Butler last night, the bearer of your dispatches. The latter I have read with interest and a hearty approval.

I send herewith a copy of my letter of this date to Major-General Patterson. [Following.]

If Fort McHenry be not re-enforced, please send thither by some armed steamer from 250 to 500 men, with subsistence for at least sixty days.

I shall be glad to have your views on my proposed movement upon Baltimore, particularly on the part to be fitted out from Annapolis, and which you will probably be required to command.

Though you command a separate department and Major-General Patterson another, a free correspondence between you may be of mutual advantage.

I am sorry that the fleet of transports and provision ships sent from New York did not ascend the Potomac. Major Sibley, principal of the quartermaster’s department here, wishes some of those vessels with troops and supplies to be sent around to him, and has written accordingly. This river is yet unobstructed by hostile batteries afloat or ashore, and is likely to remain so.

A strong war vessel, to support Fort McHenry in case of an attack, is of great importance. If there be one not essential as a convoy to transports between Annapolis and the Susquehanna, send her to Fort McHenry.

If the cars promised from New York arrive, those, you have ordered from Philadelphia may be unnecessary.

Having great confidence in your zeal, intelligence, and discretion, I remain, yours, truly,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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WASHINGTON, April 29, 1861. Major-General PATTERSON, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: I wrote you by Major Porter on the 27th and also sent by him certain verbal messages in that letter* I gave, you the outline of my plan for taking and strongly occupying Baltimore, and I asked for your views on the subject. At present I suppose a column from this place of 3,000 men; another from York of 3,000; a third from Perryville or Elkton by land or water, or both, of 3,000, and a fourth from Annapolis by {p.609} water of 3,000 might suffice. But it may be, and many persons think it probable, that Baltimore, before we can get ready, will reopen the communication through that city and beyond each way for troops, army supplies, and travelers voluntarily.

When can we be ready for the movement upon Baltimore on this side? Colonel Mansfield has satisfied me that we want at least 10,000 additional troops here to give security to this capital, and as yet we have less than 10,000, including some very indifferent militia of the District, &c. With that addition we will be able, I think, to make the detachment for Baltimore.

The Secretary of War tells me that he has sent a party, not military, to repair the bridge and relay the Maryland part of the Harrisburg and Baltimore Railroad to a point near the city. This I am sure cannot be done without the protection of a military force. I wish you to look to this.

I am not sure that either you or Brigadier-General Butler has re-enforced Fort McHenry. I suppose 250 or 300 men to be wanted, if it be not already re-enforced. If with you, send Maj. W. W. Morris there to command. I shall ask General Butler to send up the men that may be yet needed.

I desire Major Porter, assistant adjutant-general, to obtain from you or the governor of Pennsylvania the means of breaking two bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, somewhere below Frederick, but pause a few days for further instructions, as we may want to use that road in taking possession of Harper’s Ferry.

We are in great want of camp equipage and accouterments at Annapolis I believe, and certainly here, and we have occupied all the shelter for troops to be found here. Therefore please send no more troops this way without camp equipage.

The Cabinet have under consideration a plan for volunteers of long period of service. Please, therefore, to withdraw your request addressed to the governor of Pennsylvania to increase his quota of three months’ men.

Tell me what you can do, and when, towards seizing and occupying Baltimore.

The quartermaster in Philadelphia has two hundred wagons, and thinks he can obtain as many more in ten or fifteen days. Four locomotives and ten passenger cars have been ordered from New York for service on this-side of Annapolis.

With respect, yours, very truly,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

P. S.-Occupy Havre de Grace at your discretion.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

(Copy to General Butler.)

* Not found; reference probably to letter of 28th, p. 607.

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P., W. AND B. R. R. Co., Philadelphia, April 29, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON:

DEAR SIR: In order that the line from here to Washington should work with the greatest efficiency, it is desirable that it should be under one head, that there may be no clashing of orders. Should the Government think it advisable that it should be so organized, I am ready to {p.610} organize and work it I refer the matter to you to do with as you think best.

Yours, truly,

S. M. FELTON.

[Indorsements.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, April 30, 1861.

I have no control over the road beyond Havre de Grace. The Annapolis road is, I understand, managed by an able and efficient engineer, placed by the honorable Secretary of War. The ability to manage the two roads of the writer is undoubted, but the propriety of placing them both under him at this point distant from Washington is doubted.

Respectfully referred to the headquarters of the Army.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

WAR DEPARTMENT, May 4, 1861.

The Secretary of Wax deems it advisable to retain the management of Government lines at Washington. Would be glad to have Mr. Felton assume the management of his own road to Perryville, and control boats for passengers and mail service to and from Annapolis while the present route is used for that service.

SIMON CAMERON.

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SIXTY-NINTH REG’T NEW YORK STATE MILITIA, Annapolis Junction, Md., April 29, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT, Commanding Army, &c.:

Not having received any positive instructions through the brigade orders of General Butler, when leaving Annapolis, I beg leave to report to headquarters:

I have performed the required duty so far, and am now in complete possession of the entire line of railroad from the point nearest Annapolis to Paint Branch Bridge, with my headquarters at this point, which I reached last evening at 5.30 o’clock. During my march here I found a small detachment of the Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia at Patuxent Forge, three miles from here, and the officer in command, who announced himself as First Lieut. K. Stark, with twenty-seven rank and file, who said he was ordered to report to me for duty and orders on my arrival. I then commanded him to maintain the position he had, describing the duty as it was detailed to me by General Butler, and told him that when I reached my assigned headquarters I should send out a force to relieve his and take him to this place.

At 10.30 o’clock I took five of my engineer corps and proceeded by a hand car to make a tour of inspection of the road, and to visit the sentinels all along the worst considered portion of the road. On my arrival at the detachment commanded by Lieutenant Duffy, of my command, and consisting of eighteen rank and file, and some distance nearer to headquarters than Lieutenant Stark’s, I was surprised to learn that he had passed that point, stating that his orders were not to remain on guard of the road after night. I inquired the direction he had taken, and had no difficulty in finding the desired information, as he told several {p.611} on the road he was going to rest with his men at a given point. I followed up, and found them at a farmer’s house at least one mile from the railroad, and found them even there without guard or order or any military precaution to prevent surprise and capture.

Under the circumstances I ordered him to proceed to my headquarters, where, on his arrival, I placed him under arrest, and his command to do duty in connection with my own, until I received further orders. I would have ordered them back to their posts and placed them under the command of some of my own officers, but not knowing what might be the probable conduct of the men under such circumstances, I adopted the one which suggested itself to me as the safest; but I must say, from my inspection of them on this morning and the conversation I had with them in relation to the affair, that they are a reliable body of men, and had no participation in the affair, except of obedience to orders of a superior.

I beg leave to transmit a report of the strength of my command as reported to me on board the steamship from New York to Annapolis, and also a report of my strength at this point.* My entire command is in a healthy condition.

Respectfully submitted.

MICHAEL CORCORAN, Colonel.

* Not found.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 23.}

HDQRS. DEP’T OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., April 29, 1861.

I. By order of the Secretary of War, the original Military Department of Washington has been broken up, and the States of Pennsylvania and Delaware and that portion of Maryland east of Bladensburg, exclusive of the country twelve miles on each side of the railroad from Annapolis to the city of Washington, formed into a new military department, called the Department of Pennsylvania, under command of Major-General Robert Patterson, headquarters Philadelphia, Pa.

...

By order of Major-General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, April 30, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, &c., &c., &c. :

SIR: In a telegram from your staff officer, Major Hamilton, it is said that no more troops would be sent from Annapolis to Washington for the present. I have suggested that I wished the regiments sent here should be provided with equipments, particularly with camp equipage-tents camp-kettles, mess-pans, &c. But we want at least eight additional regiments to give security to the capital, besides a surplus for the expedition against Baltimore. This surplus, with camp equipage, might be halted near the junction, at the Laurel factory, with a guard at the Junction. There is, however, some hope that that expedition may not be needed to open hence the direct railroad communication, through Baltimore, with the North, as Maryland may do that voluntarily for us.

With high respect, yours, truly,

[WINFIELD SCOTT.]

{p.612}

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HEADQUARTERS, April 30, 1861.

Col. J. DIMICK, U. S. A., Commanding Fort Monroe, Old Point Comfort, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 28th instant* was received this morning, and Colonel Keyes’ notes of the 22d* are also before the General, who directs me to give you a statement of the measures known to have been taken to strengthen your command. Ex-Governor Boutwell, of Massachusetts, states that the steamer Cambridge will sail this day from Boston with about 350 volunteers, to complete one of the regiments now at Fort Monroe. The same vessel will take one mouth’s rations for 4,000 men, and camp equipage for the Massachusetts troops. It is known that you have already a large amount of army subsistence stores now on hand; the General therefore desires that you continue the charter of the Cambridge, or make a new one, so as to send her here with such of the Massachusetts supplies and camp equipage as are not necessary at Fort Monroe, that the Massachusetts troops here may have the advantage of them.

Your several requisitions have been acted on as soon as received, and the supplies have been ordered, and in some cases increased. Fourteen 10-inch columbiad barbette carriages have been ordered to be sent forthwith from Watertown Arsenal; and, if possible, twelve 8-inch columbiad barbette and twenty-eight 42-pounder barbette carriages will be sent from Washington Arsenal to-day. Captain Dyer reports that he will soon have ready several 8-inch iron gun-carriages, which of course are at your disposal. If powder and cartridges have not already been ordered from New York, they will be furnished as soon as possible. There is no ordnance officer who can be ordered to report to you.

The Secretary of War has been urged to procure from the Navy Department an armed steamer, to insure your supply of water and to guard the approaches from Hampton.

The Quartermaster-General ordered camp equipage, bed-sacks, spades, axes, &c., the 19th April, from Philadelphia.

The Engineer Department ordered from New York, by steamer, the 24th instant, all the supplies required by Colonel De Russy, with additions, including a large number of sand bags. There should now be three Engineer officers, at Fort Monroe, who can certainly secure the magazine and other works against any such batteries as you apprehend may be erected.

The General-in-Chief directs me to say, in conclusion, that he believes all the supplies you have required are either now at Fort Monroe or will very soon be landed there; and he is satisfied that with the force-soon to be increased from Boston-and means at your command, Fort Monroe is by far the most secure post now in possession of the United States against any attack that can possibly be made upon it, independent of the war vessels, the Cumberland and the Niagara, at hand and approaching you.

I am, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. G.

P. S.-The General says, beg the commander of the naval forces to do his best to prevent the erection of batteries within reach of Fort Monroe.

Respectfully,

E. D. T.

* Not found.

{p.613}

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COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, EXECUTIVE DEP’T, Council Chamber, Boston, April 30, 1861.

Brigadier-General BUTLER:

GENERAL: The propeller Cambridge, Capt. S. H. Matthews, owned and fitted jointly by the State of Massachusetts and the underwriters of Boston, is loading as a transport for the purpose of taking out supplies for the Massachusetts troops (of which a memorandum will be hereto appended), provided at the expense of the State, and intended to be charged to the General Government, which charge will be allowed or not, as the General Government may decide.

You will note that in addition to the ordinary rations we have added a few articles which may be necessary for the comfort of the troops, for officers’ use, or for hospital purposes. The largest item among these is preserved meats in tin, which ought to be carefully used as a reserve. They will keep for years, are already cooked, and being the most concentrated form of carrying food, may be useful for camp service. I learn this morning that Colonel Jones’ Sixth Massachusetts Regiment is in great need of these at Washington and the vegetables now put on board. We have added a small quantity of pipes and tobacco.

The ship will probably have fifty to eighty men to fill up Colonel Packard’s regiment at Fort Monroe, and a small quantity of supplies for our troops there. After landing there she is ordered to proceed to Annapolis, and there land her stores and the company sent to guard them, subject to your orders, and immediately to return here. She can bring any sick or discharged soldiers. Should any change of circumstances arise, Captain Matthews will be directed to use his discretion, and to give weight to any recommendation from you. It is possible that there may be a prospect of opening the Potomac route for transporting stores and troops. Upon hearing from you to that effect at Fort Monroe, Captain Matthews will either await further advice there or land his stores and men there, subject to your orders.

It is desirable to have him back early, as we have more troops getting ready, and wish, if possible, to send them by water. In about five days we shall probably dispatch a small iron propeller, well armed, with further stores, with the contributions that are pouring in for the men of clothing and other things.

The Cambridge has two 8-inch guns forward on main deck and two light guns for her hurricane deck; has a full crew, including thirteen Marines, with a good supply of small-arms, and can take care of herself against any pirates on her way back. She will have coal enough on board to get her back here. She ought to reach Fort Monroe some time Friday, if she gets off to-morrow; the doubt being as to delay in getting her big guns from the navy-yard. She will be considered in the transport service until she reaches Boston on her return.

When sending Colonel Wardrop’s regiment by the propeller Spaulding we put on board an invoice of provisions, estimated sufficient for eight hundred men for thirty days, with orders to use as a reserve. If the United States supply the troops at the fort or your troops with rations, it will only be necessary to have these reserve stores taken care Of They have been carefully bought, and will be worth just about what they cost.

The Cambridge has a quantity of private baggage and contributions for the troops at Fort Monroe, and probably some of your troops, in charge of a special agent. From present appearances there will be much more. It is our present plan to keep two armed propellers (Cambridge, of eight hundred and sixty, and the Pembroke, of two hundred and sixty {p.614} tons) running between here and the Chesapeake. It would be great economy if you could get the General Government to form a depot of coal at Fort Monroe for transports to buy there at cost.

Since ordering the above we hear that the Potomac is open and also that our troops at Washington are suffering for certain supplies. In view, of the difficulty of getting stores across from Annapolis, we have decided, unless we get other information before she sails, to give the captain sealed orders to go directly up the Potomac after landing at Fort Monroe, with, or without convoy of a war ship, unless she gets at Fort Monroe or on the way up other orders from General Scott, whom we inform of her movements.

Should you have reason to suppose that there is very great hazard in going up the Potomac, or have any information bearing on the subject that requires action, please call General Scott’s attention to the subject. You may also be able to send down to Fort Monroe by return transport any important information which would justify Captain Matthews to await at Fort Monroe or at the mouth of the Potomac further orders from General Scott.

Please note that we intend to clear her for Annapolis here, in order to avoid publishing through the telegraph that we are sending Massachusetts troops up the Potomac. The Pembroke, being of iron and more vulnerable than this ship, will be less suitable to go up the Potomac, where she might be exposed to a land battery.

The Cambridge ought to reach Fort Monroe between Friday at sundown and Saturday morning.

Yours, faithfully,

JOHN A. ANDREW, Governor.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WASHINGTON, April 30, 1861.

Maj. IRVIN McDOWELL, Assistant Adjutant-General:

Dispatch immediately two companies of Pennsylvania volunteers to the navy-yard, with instructions they be sent forthwith in a steamer to re-enforce Fort Washington. Let them take their to-day’s provisions in their haversacks.

J. K. F. MANSFIELD, Colonel, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, May 1, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Commanding, &c.:

SIR: I am glad to learn that Brigadier-General Butler has re-enforced Fort McHenry, and hope that Maj. W. W. Morris may be soon sent there to command.

We still need eight or nine additional regiments of volunteers to give to this capital a reasonable security against a threatened attack. All the troops which have arrived here have been and are, with the exception of the Seventh New York Regiment, without camp equipage, and several regiments without accouterments.

In those essentials, we are here, and everywhere else, most deficient, although I gave orders to the Quartermaster-General five weeks ago on the subject of camp equipage, and to the Ordnance Department at the same time on the subject of the accouterments, and each order has been often repeated since.

{p.615}

But even with the same deficiencies, we must have here the additional regiments, some of which, it is supposed, may be spared from those already at Annapolis. To save time in writing, I put this letter (open) under cover to Brigadier-General Butler, to be read and forwarded.

The governor of Maryland writes that it is reported a new regiment from New York, called the Zouaves, threatens to force its way to Washington through Baltimore. This is not fully credited. That operation, if it become necessary, must be duly authorized and methodized in the manner I have heretofore indicated in my letters to you.

With high respect, yours, very respectfully,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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BALTIMORE, May 1, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

Yesterday sent our master of transportation to Washington to wait upon Mr. Scott and yourself about arranging for the reopening of business and intercourse between Baltimore and Washington. He conferred fully with Mr. Scott, who advised that he would represent our views and wishes to you, under which Mr. Smith considered it unnecessary to trouble you directly with the subject. We have not as yet received any response. For more than ten years past we have run four regular passenger trains daily each way between Baltimore and Washington, and at least one freight train. We now ask the privilege of running two passenger and mail trains and one freight train each way daily, subject to such supervision as you may deem desirable, and not to interfere with the movements of the Government trains. The interests and convenience of numerous parties in Washington and Baltimore, and we hope of the Government, can be greatly served if you can gratify these requests.

J. W. GARRETT, President.

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PHILADELPHIA, PA., May 1, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington City:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt from the General-in-Chief of two communications, dated April 28 and 29, relating to moving troops upon Baltimore via York and Havre de Grace.

Anticipating the wishes of the General-in-Chief, I have, since the withdrawal by the President of troops placed at Cockeysville, given attention to the demonstrations designed, and have posted unequipped regiments in camps of instruction at points from which they can be easily withdrawn and distributed on these lines of communication, viz: At York, 6 regiments; Chambersburg, 2; Lancaster 6; Harrisburg, number unknown, but probably 6; and in this vicinity, 6.

The impoverished condition of the quartermaster’s department here in regard to tents, canteens, and other camp and garrison equipage and the depleted arsenals will prevent the execution at an early day of any plan of operations. The troops are not fully armed, and are very incompletely equipped, having but few cartridge-boxes, no canteens, tents, or cooking utensils. Articles ordered for troops in advance will exhaust the supply for the next three days. I have directed these commands to be drilled and made efficient, and by the time they are equipped I hope {p.616} to be able to move on Baltimore with an effective force of six thousand men via York and six thousand via Havre de Grace, and have sufficient to guard the road as they advance.

To effect this I request my requisitions may be filled as rapidly as forwarded, or the depot quartermaster here and the arsenal at Frankford be directed to fill them direct from me. I will keep you informed of my progress and my probable advance in time for concerted action. I shall lose no time, but for success take care not to be too fast.

I have authority to draw good volunteers from this State, but I desire, if regular artillery companies are en route to Washington City, to obtain one to serve as artillery with the column from York.

The railroad companies here, and also via York to Baltimore, are now ready to repair their roads, but the troops cannot advance. As soon as the men are equipped they will be thrown to the front, and in a few days the lines will be in working order. Col. Andrew Porter has gone to York to hasten the organization of that column.

Major Porter, governed by the prospect of being able to use for our purposes the bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio Road, deferred arranging for their destruction, and sent parties to examine the bridges and a portion of the road. He is informed that the large bridges are each guarded by about two hundred men, and so carefully that they cannot be injured. The road, however, will, under his plans, be rendered impassable for our opponents as soon as desired, and he will act when convinced that the present hopes of submission in Maryland prove delusive.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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PHILADELPHIA, May 1, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington:

DEAR SIR: You will have learned from others that General Patterson forbids the sale of passenger tickets by the military line. I have given Mr. Scott some reasons why I think he cannot work this line successfully for a passenger route. Mr. Felton tells me that he thinks he could now repair his road from Havre de Grace to Baltimore in four or five days if you would protect it as the work progresses. As this work has to be done, would it not be well to have it done at once? General Patterson, I learn, thinks it would require one thousand men to protect it. In a few days I think a much less number would answer. He has the men, but needs arms and ammunition.

Looking at the large fleet of steamers at Annapolis and Havre de Grace, with the confusion at the former place, I believe it would save the Government a large-a very large-amount to transport directly by rail from here to Washington. I presume there would now be no difficulty with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. Mr. Scott could soon ascertain this. By the time the road is repaired I think there will be no difficulty about going through Baltimore, but if there is to be, I know of no reason why that question cannot be settled as well now as at any time-perhaps the sooner the better, and before an opposition call be organized or aid obtained elsewhere. Just now the North seems to be spoiling for a fight with Baltimore, and if there is to be one, I repeat the sooner it comes off the better, in my judgment. If you concur in {p.617} these views, instructions given to General Patterson to protect the road will set Mr. Felton at work with great energy. Would it not be well for me to secure all the powder Du Pont has for sale if to be had at fair prices?

Yours, respectfully and truly,

JOHN TUCKER.

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WASHINGTON, May 2, 1861.

J. W. GARRETT, Baltimore, Md.:

In reply to your dispatch of yesterday I beg leave to say that this Department will consent to your proposal whenever the railroad lines running into Baltimore from the North and East are placed in such a condition as to admit free and uninterrupted travel over them, and when the U. S. Government can be assured that satisfactory arrangements have been made to enable it to transport through Baltimore, unmolested and without interruption, such troops, arms, ammunition, supplies, &c., as it may deem necessary or desire.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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FORT MCHENRY, MD., May 2, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, A C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I have made an examination of the means of defense of this post today, and that I consider them inadequate to a successful defense against a night attack or escalade. The top of the scarp wall is within easy reach of ladders of not more than ordinary length. There are no ditches or other obstacles to prevent the march of a hostile force up to the walls of the fort. There are not carriages enough to mount all the guns. There is not one round of grape, and only a few rounds of canister, at the post. More than half the command is composed of recruits who have not been drilled sufficiently to be relied upon in a night attack. I therefore respectfully request that at least two companies of regular soldiers (artillery) may be sent as early as practicable to re-enforce my command; and I urgently request that a supply of ammunition may be furnished as soon as possible.

I am, colonel, very, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MORRIS, Major, Fourth Artillery, Commanding Post.

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WASHINGTON, May 3, 1861.

JOHN TUCKER:

DEAR SIR: Your favor of May 1 from Philadelphia is received. General Patterson has been directed to remove military restrictions from the movements of passengers, and to give prompt facilities at Perryville and Annapolis for their transfer. Messrs. Felton and Scott now have on the line the steamers Ariel and Warner, both of which are comfortable, quick vessels. In my judgment the sooner the line via Annapolis is perfected the better. It will have a good effect in bringing our Maryland friends to terms.

{p.618}

The administration cannot afford to temporize with Baltimore. They (the people of Baltimore and Maryland at large) must agree to restore the property they have destroyed, and make reparation for damages, before we can open communication by their city. They must also agree that the Federal Government shall have the absolute right to move troops through their city, or quarter them in it or any part of the State of Maryland. Northern sentiment on this question is overwhelming and just in every respect. In a very few days Baltimore will beat work reconstructing the works destroyed by authority under color of mob violence. In the mean time see Felton, perfect the line via Annapolis, which will be useful in the future, even after route through Baltimore is opened. The large fleet of vessels should be dispensed with as rapidly as our wants for transportation will admit.

The transshipping arrangements at both points should be well looked after, and be in charge of men that are practical and accustomed to the business. Give your attention to everything in regard to vessels. See General Patterson in regard to powder. It should be purchased.

Yours, respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS, May 3, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel SCOTT, Aide-de-Camp:

COLONEL: The General desires that the headquarters and five companies of the Third Infantry, now at Fort Hamilton, be sent to this city, as soon as they are equipped, by the route through Baltimore. They are to be filled up with recruits, and to bring their camp equipage with them; their arms, and the usual number of rounds of ammunition to be in serviceable order. The authorities of Baltimore, having proclaimed that the transit shall be open for troops to this place, have requested that the first body that comes through shall be headed by regulars. Please inform Major-General Patterson beforehand at Philadelphia when they will arrive there, and he will be instructed by the General in relation to forwarding them. The General wishes their movement to be hastened.

Very respectfully, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WASHINGTON, May 3, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Commanding the U. S. Army:

SIR: Agreeably to the deliberations of last evening I now submit to you the following on the defenses of this city:

1st. On the side of the navy-yard and bounded by the Anacostia River, I have simply to say that with ample troops in the city at command there can be no difficulty in crowning the heights on the opposite shore, and affording a complete defense from an enemy approaching from that quarter to attack the city or the navy-yard.

2d. That part of the city between the Anacostia River and the Potomac can readily be fortified at any time by a system of redoubts encircling the city. This is always in our power.

3d. We now come to the city and Georgetown and arsenal, exposed {p.619} to the Virginia shore. Here I must remark that the President’s House and Department buildings in its vicinity are but two and a half miles across the river from Arlington high ground, where a battery of bombs and heavy guns, if established, could destroy the city with comparatively a small force after destroying the bridges. The Capitol is only three and a half miles from the same height at Arlington, and at the Aqueduct the summits of the heights on the opposite shore are not over one mile from Georgetown.

With this view of the condition of our position it is clear to my mind that the city is liable to be bombarded at the will of an enemy, unless we occupy the ground which he certainly would occupy if he had any such intention. I therefore recommend that the heights above mentioned be seized and secured by at least two strong redoubts, one commanding the Long Bridge and the other the Aqueduct, and that a body of men be there encamped to sustain the redoubts and give battle to the enemy if necessary. I have engineers maturing plans and reconnoitering further. It is quite probable that our troops assembled at Arlington would create much excitement in Virginia, yet, at the same time, if the enemy were to occupy the ground there a greater excitement would take place on our side, and it might be necessary to fight a battle to disadvantage.

I know not exactly how many troops we have at command. I presume the enemy might bring 10,000 troops into the field in a short time on such an occasion. I would not urge any premature movement in this quarter, yet one taken too late might cause much bloodshed.

All which is respectfully submitted.

JOS. K. F. MANSFIELD, Colonel, Commanding Department.

P. S.-I should have said in the body of this report that I have been In consultation with my chief engineer, Major Barnard in all these views, and his services have been and are very valuable to me.

J. K. F. M., Colonel, Commanding Department.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 24.}

HDQRS. DEP’T OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, May 3, 1861.

I. The line of communication with Washington City via Annapolis having been opened, commanding officers on the portion of the route in this department will permit passengers to* pass to and fro.

...

By order of Major-General Patterson.

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, May 4, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Commanding, &c.:

SIR: I am sorry to learn, unofficially, that your health has not been fully established. A few days of good weather will, I hope, accomplish that desirable object.

I have ordered the five companies of the Third Infantry, recently from Texas, now at New York, to Perryville to be united there, at Havre de {p.620} Grace or Elkton, with Sherman’s battery of horse artillery, as you may direct.

My wish is that these regulars shall head any movement that may be made, by land or water, from your side upon Baltimore.

The temper of Maryland, which a few days ago seemed to have undergone a very favorable change, is now believed to have suffered a relapse, that makes the movement of the six regular companies alone, by the old mail road from the Susquehanna to Baltimore, as was at first intended, hazardous, if not entirely unsafe, without a large addition of volunteers.

You will therefore hold the battalion of regulars, with the necessary addition of volunteers, ready for the combined movement from the other points (heretofore indicated), which I shall order in a few days upon Baltimore, if the route through the city be not sooner voluntarily opened.

On your part, I give you the choice to move by land or water; in the latter case, letting Brigadier-General Butler, who has his water craft ready, know the day on which your commander will be ready to meet and consult him in Patapsco Bay.

You will also let Lieutenant-Colonel Porter, on the York road, know the probable time your commander may be expected to approach the eastern side of the city, leaving the western for General Butler’s approach. Let Brigadier-General Butler and Lieutenant Colonel Porter, as well as myself, know the morning you may appoint for the movement from your side.

I have just ordered Brigadier-General Butler to occupy and support a strong post at the Relay House, on the Patapsco, beginning with a regiment of volunteers. That regiment shall be instructed to take a part in the combined movement.

Exact time must be observed on all sides, to be regulated by prompt intercommunications.

Send the New Jersey regiments here, and we shall want for the capital seven more.

With high respect, yours, truly,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

P. S.-Again, another change of temper on the part of Maryland in favor of the Union and a corresponding one in these instructions.

A member of the Cabinet, present at the interview of commissioners (sent by the legislature at Frederick) with the President this morning, reports that the commissioners declare Maryland ready to return to her duty towards the Union; consequently, I ask you to add Pratt’s company, from Mackinac, to the six other companies of regulars, mentioned above, and hold them ready to move through Baltimore on the shortest notice.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION PA. VOLS., Philadelphia, Pa., May 4, 1861.

MAJOR: I have to report that the arms issued to the regiments under my command are totally unfit for service.

I inclose letters from three commanding officers of regiments under my command, viz: from Col. F. E. Patterson, Col. W. D. Lewis, jr., and Col. P. Lyle, upon this subject. I have also verbal reports to the same effect from Colonels Dare and Morehead, and I am satisfied, from my own examination, that the fact is as stated. I have further to report that these arms came under an invoice to General R. Patterson, dated {p.621} April 20, 1861, turned over by Capt. W. Maynadier, commanding the Frankford Arsenal, to Col. Charles Thomas, assistant quartermaster-general, Philadelphia, and that it is my opinion that gross neglect has occurred, which should, for the interests of the service, be inquired into.

Very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of Pennsylvania.

[Indorsement.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 6, 1861.

I designed to have this matter examined into and the arms inspected by Captain Neill, but his own constant occupation and his now necessary absence have prevented. I now respectfully forward this, to add to my reasons given to-day and previously against moving this force till better equipped for the field. If empowered to draw arms, &c., from the arsenal no moment shall be lost. The officers and men are, anxious to move, but the former see and feel the responsibility, and know they should not move in their present condition.

Hon. John Sherman has been made acquainted with the wants and the feeling of a portion of the command, and I desire he may have a patient hearing. I was not aware till to-day that several of the regiments of this city are without arms. I ask and urge that this force be not moved till I put it in motion by my own orders, which will be at the earliest moment.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosures.]

HEADQUARTERS FIRST ARTILLERY, FIRST BRIG., FIRST DIV., PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, Philadelphia, Pa., May 2, 1861.

Maj. E. C. WEAVER, Ordnance Officer:

SIR: I have to report that the arms with which I have been provided are unfit for service. Some five or six have had the springs broken in cocking them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. E. PATTERSON, Colonel First Pennsylvania Artillery.

HEADQUARTERS FIRST REGIMENT INFANTRY, FIRST BRIG., FIRST DIV., PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, Philadelphia, Pa., May 2, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER:

GENERAL: It is my duty to report to you that the muskets issued to my command are entirely inefficient for service, most of them having either broken locks or holes through the barrels, bayonets not to fit the pieces, &c. I formally, but respectfully, protest against such a reception of arms, but deem it my duty to do so. Without enlarging upon {p.622} this protest more fully and occupy your time, I will only add, in corroboration of the above, that in one of my companies alone fifty-four muskets had to be repaired, perhaps at my own expense.

I am, general, yours, very respectfully,

WM. D. LEWIS, JR., Colonel First Infantry.

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HEADQUARTERS SECOND REGIMENT INFANTRY, FIRST BRIG., FIRST DIV., PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, Philadelphia, Pa., May 4, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER:

DEAR SIR: An examination of the muskets furnished to my command by gunsmiths and machinists has demonstrated that a great proportion of them are defective and wholly unfit for use. In tapping the nipples in they have not been inserted straight, and the iron forced around them split. They will not bear a pressure of air, which escapes around the nipple. Numbers of the locks are insecurely fastened, and many of the barrels have flaws and holes in them one-sixteenth of an inch deep. They are also filled in around the nipple with some soft metal. The number thus defective and useless are two hundred and forty-six. The balance are reported to be only in tolerable condition, and if taken apart and critically examined would no doubt be found to be unsafe and useless.

Very truly, yours,

P. LYLE, Colonel.

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PHILADELPHIA., PA., May 5, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. G., Headquarters of the Army, Washington City:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt this day, from the General-in-Chief, of his communication of the 4th instant, relating to the advance on Baltimore. My communication of yesterday, by Major Belger, and of the 3d instant, by mail,* will show that no portion of this command is in a proper condition to take the field. Unless there is greater activity in the Quartermaster’s and Ordnance. Departments, I fear it can be moved only by consigning the cartridges to the pockets of the men and without cooking utensils. I cannot, at present, designate a day when the command can probably move, but I will inform you in time to prevent delaying the other columns.

I am informed that the portion of the Second Cavalry, which was to have marched ere this, under Major Thomas, is not to be put in motion till the other four companies are equipped and mounted. If such be the case, I request permission to use such portion as may be prepared to advance with the column from York.

I understand that the Northern Central Railroad have repaired a large portion of the road without interruption. It may be the design of the people of Maryland to offer no resistance in future, but, if peaceable, the command at York should not advance till better provided. I deeply regret the troops cannot advance as early as the General-in-Chief would desire and the interests of the country appear to demand.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.623}

P. S.-I received the inclosed telegram at 6 o’clock to-night, and send this communication by Captain Neill, to be delivered early to-morrow. No delay in the execution of the order will result., if, after what I have stated, the order be reiterated in these words: “Execute the order,”

R. PATTERSON, Major-General.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 5, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. PATTERSON:

Send immediately six regiments of Pennsylvania volunteers to this city via York, Pa.

SIMON CAMERON.

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WASHINGTON, May 6, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Army:

DEAR SIR: I deem it important that our railway from Washington to the Relay House (within nine miles of Baltimore) should be well guarded by the military department.

The Annapolis Branch is now protected. Colonel Scott, in charge of the railway and telegraph departments, recommends that a regiment (if possible to spare it) be stationed along the line as a permanent guard, say one company each four miles, with tents and equipments complete. This would require eight companies, the two remaining companies to encamp at or near Bladensburg, which it is believed is not a loyal district. With our railway and telegraph protected, we could move this regiment for you at any time on short notice to Annapolis, Relay House, or Washington.

Our telegraph has been destroyed twice since yesterday morning. We much fear that evil-disposed persons may interfere with tracks and cause serious accidents and delay in many of our movements.

Respectfully, yours,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, May 6, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

GENERAL: In obedience to your command, I have occupied the station at the Relay House, nine miles from Baltimore, with the Eighth New York Regiment. I have learned however that a force of two regiments of dragoons had been raised and were in force at Ellicott’s Mills, Some eight miles from this point, and I therefore ordered up Major Cook’s light battery, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, which was with me at Annapolis; and as I was moving Colonel Jones’ Sixth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia from the capital, I ordered them also here, so that I am here in considerable force, to wit:

Colonel Lyons, Eighth Regiment1,000men.
Colonel Jones, Sixth Regiment600
Major Cook100
Total1,700
{p.624}

I have placed two howitzers to command the viaduct, also a sufficient guard to prevent its destruction, and have occupied the station house at the railroad Relay Station.

An officer has been detailed to examine the trains and stop all armed men, arms, and munitions of war. Before, however, we established a full surveillance of the trains, a squad of some ten or twelve men from Baltimore passed up the road to join the traitors at Harper’s Ferry. These men, before I had heard of it, had put the freight train of this morning under contribution, and passed some eight miles along the road plundering the country people. All such irregularities hereafter will be promptly suppressed

A matter of some doubt has arisen in this connection. A burden train passed up toward Harper’s Ferry, laden with wheat, whisky (a great quantity of it), spades, picks, and shovels; all these were marked for Virginia. In the doubt, the officer in charge allowed the train to pass until further orders. What shall be done with such freight?

I learn that I am in the immediate neighborhood of the residence of Major-General Carroll, a gentleman who is most bitter in his hostility to the Government, who ordered out the troops under his command to oppose the passage of the U. S. troops across Baltimore. Two companies of cavalry alone responded to the call from this vicinity. They were commanded by Capt. William H. Dorsey and Capt. George R. Gaither, both violent rebels, who have more than once put themselves in a hostile attitude to the U. S. Government. They have conducted themselves with great violence, and in fact are now in arms against the Union, although nominally holding commissions from the governor of Maryland. Can anything be done with them? Might they not be arrested and at least restrained until we are certain what will be the disposition of Maryland? But this is a matter for your better judgment.

I find the people here exceedingly friendly, and I have no doubt that with my present force I could march through Baltimore. I am the more convinced of this, because I learn that for several days many of the armed secessionists have left for Harper’s Ferry or have gone forth plundering the country.

I trust my acts may meet your approbation, whatever you may think of my suggestions.

Most truly, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 6, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington City:

COLONEL I received last evening a telegram from the honorable Secretary of War, directing me to send immediately to Washington, via York, six regiments of volunteers, but at so late an hour I could acknowledge its receipt only by a postscript to a letter then about to be dispatched to you. I, however, ordered the six best regiments in the department to be prepared for immediate call.

I have now to present, through the General-in-Chief, for the consideration of the honorable Secretary of War, a renewal of my reasons why these regiments should not be passed, without urgent necessity, through the city of Baltimore. I premise my reasons by the statement {p.625} that no delay will result from awaiting a reply to the communication of yesterday, borne by Capt. T. H. Neill, Fifth Infantry. I have been given to understand that it is desirable regular troops should precede the volunteers through Baltimore. If so, the five companies of the Third Infantry should be here. This will not be before to-morrow night.

Only three of the sixteen regiments (there are more, but not reported) in this department are supplied with cooking utensils, and only one with tents, and almost all of them rely from necessity upon rations supplied to them cooked at their present location. If withdrawn from those camps without further preparation, they will be thrown for a time upon a community where such resources cannot be relied upon, and the public interests perhaps suffer in many ways.

The troops have but very little ammunition; some of them none; some of the cartridges do not fit their arms, and no boxes are on hand to secure them against wear and weather. Much ammunition has already been destroyed. To supply the troops in advance supplies here have been nearly exhausted.

The bridges on the Northern Central Railroad will all be repaired and protected at the time the combined movement can be made, and all the forces be before Baltimore at the same time.

I have arranged to gather transportation at Perryville on Wednesday. I design that night or Thursday morning to throw ample force into Havre de Grace (which I occupy to-morrow) to be at once thrown forward to Bush River, leaving companies to secure the road. To Bush River and the Gunpowder boats bearing companies will be sent to hold and secure the bridges over those streams, and to Canton, in the vicinity of Baltimore, will be sent vessels to land Sherman’s battery, the five companies of the Third Infantry, and two regiments of volunteers from this city. These regiments will send back on the road to Havre de Grace companies to protect it.

I have given the commanding officer at York his instructions, and a telegram will put him in motion. General Butler will also be notified of my intended movements. The command hence to Baltimore will be under Brevet Major-General Cadwalader; that from York under Major-General Keim, having the aid of Lieutenant-Colonel Porter. The movement shall be made without waiting for any more cooking utensils and ammunition than can be procured by Wednesday from such resources as are at hand. The ordnance depot having been closed to me, and the clothing bureau having but a scant supply, and no requisition from. Washington (except that one regiment had been ordered to be supplied from Frankford) having been acted upon, I must rely upon what can be procured in open market.

I judge from the telegrams of the Secretary of War that he is desirous to have opened these routes through Baltimore, and, presuming he must be aware of the unprepared condition of the troops in this department, I shall although advising against it, make this movement, unless instructed by the General-in-Chief to delay, relying upon the Quartermaster’s and Ordnance Departments to supply deficiencies as soon as practicable.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding

P. S.-Since writing the above I have been notified that the clothing bureau will provide the necessary cooking utensils and canteens. {p.626}

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION PA. VOLS., Philadelphia, Pa., May 6, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dep’t of Pennsylvania.

MAJOR: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your two letters of yesterday’s date,* received at a late hour last night, in one of which I am informed that the Commanding General directs you (me) to hold your (my) command in readiness to move at an early call from him.

It becomes my duty again to call your attention to the fact that three of the regiments of this division are not only without clothing, but also without arms or cartridge-boxes, camp equipage or cooking utensils of any description, and that there has not been a single cartridge-box issued to any one of the eight regiments of this division. Moreover, I yesterday made a more particular report that the muskets issued some days ago to the other regiments of the division are entirely unfit for service. Most of the springs of the locks are broken, and those that are not will not explode a cap. Some of the barrels are not in a condition to resist a discharge, and the alterations of some of them are so imperfect as to render them dangerous to those who use them, and it is the opinion of a gunsmith employed in one of the regiments, to endeavor to put them in order at their own expense, that a discharge of them would do more harm to those who attempted to fire them than they could do to an enemy in their front.

Under these circumstances, I protest against these men being sent into service with such arms and without the means of protecting their ammunition from the weather. My great reliance upon these men is their confidence in each other. Place them in front of an enemy without arms or ammunition upon which they can depend, and that confidence is gone. I would consider the responsibility which would rest upon me a heavy one were I not urgently to call the attention of the Government to this fact. The character of this city, of the State, and of the country, to say nothing of the officers and men connected with the command, requires me officially, as I now do, to place this statement upon record, and to ask for a board of survey to examine and report upon the condition of these arms.

In my former communication I omitted to state that some of the plugs in the vents were easily driven out, and holes in the sides of the nipples had been filled with putty. Many of the threads of the screws were imperfect, and many of the locks are so wood-bound that it is with difficulty they can be cocked.

I sent to you in my report, on the 4th instant, letters reporting these defects from the commanding officers of three regiments of this division Colonel Patterson, Colonel Lewis’ and Colonel Lyle-and I now inclose reports from Colonel Dare and from Colonel Gray upon the same subject. I repeat, that to send these regiments into service with such arms would be to discourage the command, and to give them a want of confidence in their superiors and in their Government.

I am, major, very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

{p.627}

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WASHINGTON, May 7, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Or the Commanding Officer at Annapolis, Md.:

Send a steam propeller, armed if practicable, to Perryville, to receive Sherman’s battery of light artillery and five companies of U. S. Third Infantry, supposed to be at Perryville, together with any well-equipped companies of volunteers to fill up the steamer. Land at the transportation depot of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad near Fort McHenry. Instruct the commanding officer on the Susquehanna River, Colonel Dare, to send the said troops provisioned to this city, and with orders that they come direct to this city. A steamer, in addition, will go from Baltimore to Perryville for the troops.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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WASHINGTON, May 7, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Commanding, &c., Relay House:

GENERAL: The General-in-Chief directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th instant, and to say in reply that in regard to the arresting of persons who commit acts of hostility to the Government you are clothed with the same authority which has been conferred upon him, and he has confidence in your discreet exercise of it.

In relation to the surveillance of trains passing into Virginia, the General approves it, and only regrets the supplies contraband of war, intrenching tools included, were not detained.

An officer of Engineers has been ordered to report to you.

The General does not desire you to remain longer at the Relay House than you deem your presence there of importance.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, May 7, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Commanding, &c. :

SIR: An arrangement has been made with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company by which Mr. Falls will send a steamer from Baltimore to Perryville this evening to receive troops at the latter place tomorrow morning, and bring them to Baltimore immediately to be loaded at the railroad transportation depot near Fort McHenry, and brought through that city to Washington.

The mayor and police of Baltimore will co-operate to prevent any disturbance. A transport is ordered from Annapolis to unite with the steamer in bringing troops. This or any other now at Perryville may be used. It is important that this movement be promptly executed, that the troops may arrive at Baltimore and come through by daylight. If no volunteers are at Perryville ready to come forward, send some companies to-day or to-night from Philadelphia, and if necessary to complete equipment use Frankford and Schuylkill Arsenals.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

P. S.-This is the opening of daily communication between Philadelphia and Washington for public travel, including U. S. troops.

{p.628}

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PHILADELPHIA, PA., May 7, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. G., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington City:

COLONEL: Since my letter (No. 2) of yesterday all hope has vanished of moving at an early day the Pennsylvania contingent in this vicinity. (See inclosures.) I did rely upon the Ohio volunteers to execute the movement upon Baltimore, but there is no force to sustain them, and their condition is no better than that of the Pennsylvania troops. I have suspended the order for transportation, and will renew it only when an efficient force can be raised to sustain the Third Infantry and battery. Third Infantry not yet heard from or of.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-The horses purchased for the wagon train here are ordered to Washington, and further purchases suspended by order from Washington.

[Inclosures.]

MAJOR: I have said what I could to deter the movement of this force. I now say what I cannot officially, that General Cadwalader says if this force is moved without being better equipped the officers will resign. The guns are horrible, and if a collision should arise the responsibility is fearful. The officers will not take it. I beg and implore that the order to advance on Baltimore will be suspended till General Patterson says move. We must be trusted and relied upon, and God knows neither of us will delay or hesitate to do what is right. The move towards Baltimore should not be made now; but if it be found that it can be done, at however much risk, it will be made.

Yours, truly,

F. J. PORTER.

PHILADELPHIA-10 P. M.

Since the packages were closed to you I have telegraphed for two Ohio regiments to come here, and shall send them with the force to move on Baltimore. I called them in the hope of striking and stirring up Pennsylvania pride. They (the Ohioans), under McCook, will go forward at all risks. When I wrote the letter of General Patterson to-day I was not aware of any hesitating disposition on the part of any one. I then spoke for him of the impropriety of moving unorganized troops. I forced the plan, and am resolved to carry it out if it be possible, and if General Cadwalader won’t go, will try to push the affair through with those who are not so squirmish. It is true the arms are in a lamentable condition, and I fear to-day’s rain will ruin the ammunition and drive out more patriotism.

If you will authorize General Patterson to exercise his discretion about moving the Pennsylvania troops, I think I can push the matter through anyhow. At all events, unless you get notice by to-morrow night’s train from here that the movement should not take place, you may consider it going on, and that the command will be before Baltimore on Thursday afternoon. The great uncertainty attending these movements must not discourage you and the General. Volunteers have elements of great inconsistency to work upon, and I can say I never {p.629} saw more uncertain elements than these. I wish Lieutenant Treadwell would be telegraphed, “Give General Patterson what he wants.” We could work with some certainty then. I will have another talk with Mr. Sherman in a few minutes.

Yours, truly,

F. J. PORTER.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Camp at Relay House, Md., May 8, 1861.

[SECRETARY OF WAR:]

SIR: I have given orders to detain all provisions and munitions, of war that are attempted to be passed westward. I have given special directions for careful examinations of the express companies, to prevent them from carrying caps, of which the rebels are in great need. I have not as yet examined passengers’ baggage, although large quantities of caps might be easily forwarded under such designation. I await your directions upon this subject.

At first I was inclined to permit, and did permit, provisions to pass into Western Virginia, but I am not convinced of the good faith of those consignments, and I have, therefore, ordered all provisions to be stopped, revising my original order. I have permitted groceries (proper) to be forwarded, such as coffee, sugar, spices, fruits, &c. Since I have given the order, I have had a very full conversation with the president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Mr. Garrett, who expressed doubts as to the policy we are pursuing. He avers that we are receiving much larger supplies of provisions from the West than we can by any possibility cut off, and that Governor Dennison, of Ohio, is most anxious to reopen communications through for the purpose of sending forward live-stock; that no portion of the trains has been stopped at Harper’s Ferry, and that there may be hereafter no retaliation, and that it becomes important that the miners of Cumberland and Western Virginia should receive supplies from Baltimore, from whence he avers that they receive the most of their cured provisions. Although they have not stopped provisions on the trains at Harper’s Ferry, they have stopped live stock and the sheep, about which I wrote in my former dispatch, had gone from our reach before I received the orders from the Department. At present I am returning these provisions and stores to the consignees at Baltimore, although they would be of great use to the troops at Washington. Sending them back will save complications, but will probably result in their being sent forward by a more circuitous route.

Companies of volunteer troops are passing within about six miles of me daily. I have been in doubt whether or not to stop them. The principal question being, not of our ability so to do, but what we should do with them after we have detained them. I await instructions upon this point also.

Being in doubt as to which office I should apply for instructions, I have, forwarded this in duplicate to the Commanding General and to the War Department.

I have been called upon by an association of butchers and provision dealers from Baltimore, who desire that an order shall be transmitted from the Commanding General allowing certain cattle, now stopped at Bellaire, to be transported, via Harrisburg, to Baltimore. I see no objection {p.630} to such order, and will see that their request be complied with should such order be sent to me.

I send these dispatches by my brother, A. J. Butler, who desires to be of any service, and will return with any order from the Department or General Scott.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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GRAFTON, VA., May 8, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington :

DEAR SIR: You will see by Governor Letcher’s late proclamation that Grafton is made a point for the concentration of the State volunteers. This has been arranged by the secession leaders in order to intimidate us, as this is one of the strongest Union towns in this section of the State. There is no avowed secessionist in our town, and our people are, very indignant at the proclamation of the governor, and are rapidly preparing to resist the entrance of troops unloyal to the Star-Spangled Banner into our town. I saw Mr. Carlile on Monday evening, and he informed me that there would be five thousand stand of arms at or opposite Wheeling in a few days, but unless some arrangement can be made with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, it will be very inconvenient for us to get them from there, a distance of one hundred miles. Can anything be done for us? We are now enrolling men and drilling every day, collecting such arms as may be had, and manufacturing cartridges, &c., and preparing for a fight if Governor Letcher’s troops attempt to occupy our town.

Mr. Carlile opposes our being mustered into the United States service for home protection, but I cannot see why, and I do decidedly favor that plan, and can make a good company here for that purpose if thought advisable.

The Union men of Northwestern Virginia are becoming more firm every day. They want to see secession put down and the leaders hung, and I think, with a very little help and a good marshal, we are now about ready to take those among us. As an evidence of this, Judge Camden, who has been appointed to the Montgomery Congress, is not allowed to speak in his own town-Clarksburg, Harrison County-and in Morgantown, at a general muster on last Saturday, the regiment drove the colonel and brigadier-general (secessionists) from the field.

Yours, very truly, &c.,

GEO. R. LATHAM.

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FREDERICK, May 8, 1861.

To COMMANDING OFFICER at Relay House:

We are threatened with an invasion from Baltimore conjoined with traitors in our midst. We expect upwards of one hundred men from Baltimore to-night, and their friends are preparing to meet them here. Send us five hundred men by first train, with power to arrest and disarm. Answer immediately.

M. NELSON, Judge of Court of Frederick County.

{p.631}

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WASHINGTON, May 9, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. PATTERSON, U. S. A., Commanding, &c., Philadelphia, Pa.:

SIR: The letter of General Cadwalader, dated May 4, with inclosure, on the subject of defective arms and deficient equipments, has been referred to the Colonel of Ordnance. Premising that circumstances entirely beyond the control of the existing government conspired to produce the unfortunate state of affairs represented, I will now communicate to you the remarks of the present Chief of the Ordnance Bureau, for the purpose of showing that it was beyond his power to avoid the inconvenience referred to by General Cadwalader.

ORDNANCE OFFICE, May 8, 1861.

The arms within referred to were issued in compliance with an order of 19th April, 1861, to the commanding officer of Frankford Arsenal by telegraph, per the Ordnance Office, to issue to General Patterson 5,000 smooth-bore muskets. The number of these arms at the arsenal was just 5,000, and no more or no other arms could possibly be issued. When, as in this case; and probably in many others, under the present excitement and pressure, the very best is done that the utmost industry and energy of officers can accomplish with the available means of the Government, such charges as the within are cruel and unjust. This department, and every officer in it, is just as anxious to supply the best arms to all the troops as they are to get them, but it is simply impossible to do so now.

Respectfully returned.

JAS. W. RIPLEY, Lieutenant-Colonel Ordnance.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, May 9, 1861-1.30 p. m.

Mr. WILLIAM PRESCOTT SMITH, Master of Transportation, Baltimore, Md.:

A telegram from General Patterson last evening says Colonel Patterson’s regiment, seven hundred and seventy-five aggregate and Sherman and Shepherd will be in Perryville to-night and off in the morning.

Another telegram just received from Sherman at Perryville says the whole force leaves for Washington this moment. Sherman’s command is a light battery with, say, seventy horse and six guns, besides six ammunition carriages, and his and Shepherd’s command have a little less than six hundred men, say, in all, thirteen hundred and fifty men. If all cannot be accommodated in one trip, the surplus may either encamp near Fort McHenry or come by the Washington depot.

By command of General Scott:

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION PA. VOLS., Philadelphia, Pa., May 9, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs Dep’t of Pennsylvania:

MAJOR: I inclose report from Capt. T. H. Neill, U. S. Army, that Colonel Lyle’s muskets are entirely unserviceable. Captain Neill is now inspecting the arms of Colonel Lewis’ regiment, and will then inspect {p.632} the muskets issued to the regiments under Colonel Morehead and Colonel Gray. I am under the impression that it will be found that the muskets issued to Colonel Morehead’s regiment are better than the others. Those of Colonel Lewis’ and Colonel Gray’s command are, I think, defective, I would respectfully suggest that other arms should be issued forthwith to the two companies of Colonel Gray’s regiment, under orders for Forts Mifflin and Delaware. Knapsacks and cartridge-boxes are very much wanted.

I have to report that there seems to be no prospect of obtaining clothing for the three regiments which have last been mustered into the service, commanded by Colonel Ballier, Colonel Gray, and Colonel Owen, unless it can be procured from the United States and charged to the State of Pennsylvania. No arms have been issued to the regiments of Colonel Ballier and Colonel Owen. It appears that the regiments here are now entirely neglected by the State authorities, who are sending everything to the regiments in the interior. This could readily be corrected by public opinion if it was generally known, but it is inexpedient to have such information communicated to our enemies. The present condition of these regiments is very unsatisfactory and demoralizing to their command.

I am, major, very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 9, 1861.

Respectfully forwarded for the information of the Colonel of Ordnance. The arms replaced in my orders of to-day are of the third class, mentioned in the accompanying memorandum, and replaced by arms which have been sent here to Major Ruff and myself to arm these troops.

Very respectfully,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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PHILADELPHIA, PA., May 9, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington City:

SIR: I have the honor to report for the information of the General-in-Chief the departure at 10 a. m. to day from Perryville for Washington, via Baltimore, in compliance with instructions, Sherman’s battery, five companies Third Infantry, and Colonel Patterson’s regiment of artillery, armed as infantry. The General-in-Chief may rest assured that other regiments will be sent forward as rapidly as they are equipped, and no time will be lost in getting them out. Two Ohio regiments are within four miles of this city not equipped.

The railroad company hence to Baltimore will attempt, with our protection, to repair their bridges. If molested I shall throw the first force available forward on the road.

The failure of contractors to fulfill their engagements causes delay at {p.633} the ordnance arsenal, as well as in the delivery of tents, which cannot be obtained from the present contractors.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 19.}

WAR DEP’T, ADJT.-GEN.’S OFFICE, Washington, May 9, 1861.

I. The Department of the Ohio is extended so as to embrace so much of Western Virginia and Pennsylvania as lies north of the Great Kanawha north and west of the Greenbrier, thence northward to the southwest corner of Maryland, thence along the Western Maryland line to the Pennsylvania line, and thence northerly to the northeast corner of McKean County, in Pennsylvania.

By order:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., May 10, 1861.

Brigadier-General BUTLER, Commanding Department of Annapolis, Md.

GENERAL: I am directed by the General-in-Chief to communicate to you the following decisions from the Secretary of War in reply to your highly interesting letter of May 8, 1861 in reference to affairs at Relay House, near Baltimore, Md.:

You are hereby directed to examine the baggage of passengers going west from Baltimore, seizing all caps and munitions of war; also to stop all provisions going west, returning them to the consignees. As to groceries you may permit them to pass if you deem it expedient. You will allow the volunteers referred to in your paper to pass unmolested, and give orders for the cattle at Bellaire to pass to Baltimore as suggested.

I need not add that your course is fully approved by the War Department.

I am, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, May 11, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Commanding Department of Annapolis:

GENERAL: General Scott is informed of certain reported irregularities committed by troops guarding road from Annapolis to Junction. It being represented to him that there are quartermaster horses at Annapolis or others available for such service, also saddles and bridles sufficient to mount fifty men, it has been suggested to him that if fifty mounted men could be posted at Millersville, half way from Annapolis to Junction, a guard of infantry at Annapolis depot, a guard at Beltsville {p.634} also of infantry, you would be able, by causing mounted patrols say of ten men each, passing from Millersville to Annapolis and from Millersville to Annapolis Junction, to secure the police of the road, especially as it has to be passed over by working parties after each heavy train to repair breaks, &c.-be enabled to concentrate at such points as you may deem expedient, say either the Junction or Annapolis, the small detachments of the Fifth New York, now strung along the road; by which means the discipline of the troops may be improved and the opportunities for irregularities lessened. These are only suggestions. General Scott does not desire horses to be purchased for this service, but if not already at Annapolis, horses may be expected to arrive from day to day, or the men attached to battery of Sixth and Eighth New York might be detailed for this, service. The Chief of the Quartermaster’s Department sees no objection for this use of the number of horses specified from those of his department should they be on hand or arrive. The details of this arrangement, if it meet with your approval, are left entirely to your discretion. This is a letter of suggestions, not orders, so far as relates to this matter.

The General-in-Chief desires you, as Baltimore is within your department, to issue an order to Lieut. Thomas Grey, Second Artillery, now discharging the duties of acting assistant commissary of subsistence at Baltimore, to perform the duties of acting assistant quartermaster at the same point.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SCHUYLER HAMILTON, Lieutenant-Colonel and Military Secretary.

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RELAY HOUSE, May 11, 1861.

The SECRETARY OF WAR:

From the dispatch I received from Captain Hamilton I fear that in the haste to inform you of the capture of the steam gun I may have laid myself open to the censure of having claimed more credit than belonged, therefore beg leave to briefly state the facts, viz:

Yesterday I received information of the gun having left Baltimore. I immediately informed Colonel Lyons, who was left in command of the brigade by General Butler, of the rumor. He deemed it unreliable, and not worthy of notice. I did not have full confidence in the report, but still thought it of sufficient importance to be looked after. It was finally decided to send one company from Colonel Lyons’ regiment, one from my command, and two pieces from the light artillery. I arranged for a train (by seizure), and had embarked the light artillery with their horses and the company from my command, and started the train. When the company from Colonel Lyons appeared I stopped the train, and they went aboard. R. R. Rare, esq., a gentleman connected with General Butler’s staff, volunteered and went forward on horseback, and overtook the gun, which was in the charge of two men, and captured it alone, and with the assistance of the neighbors held it until the arrival of the train. It has been brought into camp, and I shall set some machinist at work to-day to get some knowledge of it.

Your obedient servant,

EDWARD F. JONES, Colonel Sixth Massachusetts.

{p.635}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 11, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I forward for the information of the General-in-Chief, on a department return, a detailed statement of the regiments mustered into, the service of the United States, which are or have been in the department, and the present condition of the equipments.* Eight regiments in excess in the Pennsylvania quota arises from troops having been mustered in at this place by authority and no attention taken of them at Harrisburg. I have urged and pressed the equipping of these regiments. The commander of Frankford Arsenal reports he cannot fill before the 25th instant the orders now in his possession for twelve regiments, three of which are at Chambersburg and three at York. No requisition for ordnance equipments for General Negley’s command has been received, and Lieutenant Treadwell, the ordnance officer at the arsenal, is, by orders from Washington, providing only for twelve thousand four hundred men, the Pennsylvania quota. I am aware that. Maryland has been invaded from Virginia at Harper’s Ferry, but in the present condition of my command am powerless.

I make the above statement that the General-in-Chief may not rely at present upon these regiments in his plan of attack upon Harper’s Ferry. By Wednesday of the coming week one regiment at York and two in this city will be provided with accouterments. I request to be informed if troops from York are to march through or around Baltimore, and whether the regiments on that line are to be pushed to Washington. The railroad hence to Baltimore will be opened in a few days. I desire also to be informed if there is any objection to using this route through Baltimore.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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PHILADELPHIA, May 13, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Washington:

DEAR SIR: I called to-day on Mr. Thomson, as requested, but did not see him, as he is at home sick.

I have discharged a large number of propellers, and will continue to rapidly reduce the number employed. I shall not, however, impair, the efficiency of the route via Perryville and Annapolis until I receive further instructions. But as the route is now open between Philadelphia and Washington via Baltimore, and also between Harrisburg and Washington by the way of the Northern Central, I think the number of steamers plying between Perryville and Annapolis may be still further reduced, say to three or four, unless you wish to continue to make this line the chief route, about which I shall be glad to have your instructions.

I saw Mr. Garrett, president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, on Friday last. I am perfectly satisfied that he will now voluntarily and cheerfully make the road from Baltimore to Washington entirely subservient to the purposes of the Government. He thinks, and, Mr. Felton concurs in the opinion, that the troops, &c., can pass through. {p.636} Baltimore without any danger of an attack. This is the quickest route, of course. I think that both of these companies will reduce their regular charges thirty-three and a third per cent. for all Government purposes. I hope that the Camden and Amboy Company will consent to a similar reduction. If so, I am now inclined to think that this route will be the cheapest, and it will certainly be the most simple way of transacting the business.

I am acquiring information about iron propellers suitable for gunboats, about which I will report to-morrow or next day. Anything of the kind that is required can be built as quickly as it can be procured from England.

Knowing the value of your time, I shall make my communications as brief as possible.

I remain, dear sir, yours, very respectfully,

JOHN TUCKER.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 14, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: A few minutes since I received a telegram from the commander At York stating General Butler, on Federal Hill, Baltimore, had sent a special messenger for re-enforcements. At the same time came another from Col. Andrew Porter stating the Northern Central Railroad was insecure and should be guarded by at least two regiments.

Lest the re-enforcements should be checked by an injury to the road I immediately, as I telegraphed you, changed the route of the command to leave to-day to the direct one, and have arranged for General Cadwalader to land at Locust Point to-morrow morning at daybreak.

General Keim has been directed to secure to-day the Northern Central Road, after which other troops, as they are prepared, will be pushed over the route. Two regiments will leave here on Thursday.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 39.}

HDQRS. DEP’T OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, May 14, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. George Cadwalader, commanding First Division, will proceed as soon as practicable to-day to Federal Hill, Baltimore, with the regiments now equipped, and assume command of the troops in that vicinity.

The quartermaster will at once provide transportation.

By order of Major General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 41.}

HDQRS. DEP’T OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, May 14, 1861.

In place of halting in Baltimore, as directed in Special Orders, No. 39, {p.637} of this date, General Cadwalader will proceed with his command to Washington City.

By order of Major-General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant General.

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WASHINGTON, May 14, 1861.

General PATTERSON, Philadelphia:

Your telegram of this date is received. It is not known what reason you can have had for sending more troops to Fort McHenry. The garrison is supposed to be amply sufficient, and no more can be accommodated. Let the troops come as at first ordered. Baltimore is within General Butler’s department.

By command of Lieutenant-General Scott:

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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PHILADELPHIA, PA., May 14, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington City:

SIR: This instant (4.30 p. m.) I received your telegram of this date stating the General-in-Chief knows no cause for sending as I did troops to Fort McHenry, &c. Explanation, additional to that of this morning (copy herewith), is now respectfully presented.

In the absence of more direct information the call of General Butler direct upon Major-General Keim, at York, appeared so urgent that I should have been derelict in duty if I had failed to respond in the most effective manner, i. e., by sending direct from here, thus re-enforcing the troops on Federal Hill eight hours earlier than by Harrisburg. On Lieutenant-Colonel Porter’s telegram, then just received, that the road was insecure and should be guarded by two regiments before other troops were sent over it, I ordered from York troops (for the first time telegraphed as equipped) to seize and secure the road for future use. Only one regiment was available. I feared if the road was passed over by a portion of the command (insufficient to re-enforce and to guard) it might be rendered impracticable before the passage of troops from here. It is too late to tarn General Cadwalader’s command from the direct route.

Your telegram apprises me for the first time that Baltimore is embraced within the limits of General Butler’s department. I was making preparations to advance and take up, temporarily, my headquarters in that city.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, May 15, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. PATTERSON, Commanding, &c., Philadelphia, Pa.:

When I telegraphed you about the sufficiency of the garrison at Fort McHenry I did not know that General Butler had called for Pennsylvanians {p.638} to re-enforce him. He had occupied Baltimore without my knowledge, and was equally without authority in his Call for Pennsylvania troops.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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WASHINGTON, May 15, 1861.

JOHN TUCKER, General Agent of Transportation:

SIR: Your communication of the 13th is received, and its recommendations generally approved.

The importance of keeping the line of transportation open via Perryville and Annapolis, in case of emergency, is fully recognized and admitted by the Department. At the same time, it is thought best to recommend that the number of propellers on that route be reduced to the lowest number warranted by the circumstances. It is not probable that the route will be employed for transportation of Government stores at present. In view of this you are directed to employ the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the Camden and Amboy routes in forwarding stores, munitions, &c., to this point and intermediate points from New York. The capacity of those routes will doubtless prove equal to the ordinary demands, should the route via Baltimore remain unobstructed. The work will also be accomplished with greater dispatch, as well as with a great reduction of expense to the Government, as you suggest.

Thanking you for the promptness and conciseness of your report, very truly yours,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, May 15, 1861.

Brevet Brigadier-General CADWALADER:

SIR: This department is much in want of more troops for defensive purposes. After retaining a reasonable force for the occupation of Baltimore (independent of Fort McHenry), the Relay House, the Junction, and Annapolis, as also for holding and protecting the railroads between those points and Bladensburg, you will send the whole surplus within your command to this place. It is supposed that four regiments will amply suffice in the Department of Annapolis for the foregoing objects.

The headquarters of the Department of Annapolis may be, upon changed by the commander from and to the principal points, who will report on the sufficiency of the number of troops suggested above.

I write by command of Lieutenant-General Scott.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, D. C., May 15, 1861.

To Brevet Major-General CADWALADER, Or Commanding General of Baltimore:

If Brevet Major-General Cadwalader be in Baltimore with regiments of Pennsylvanians, let him halt there with them and relieve Brigadier {p.639} General Butler in the command of the Department of Annapolis, whereupon the brigadier will repair to Fort Monroe and assume the command of that important point.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Baltimore, Md., May 15, 1861.

1. Brevet Major-General Cadwalader assumes command of the Department of Annapolis, and establishes his headquarters, until further orders, at Baltimore, Md.

By order of Brevet Major-General Cadwalader:

THOS. H. NEILL, Captain, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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WASHINGTON, May 16, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. G. CADWALADER, U. S. A., Commanding Department of Annapolis, Baltimore, Md.:

SIR: I have already, by the direction of the General-in-Chief, addressed to you a letter and a telegram of yesterday’s date, and have received your acknowledgment of the letter. Herewith you will receive a power to arrest persons under certain circumstances, and to hold them prisoners though they should be demanded by writs of habeas corpus.

This is a high and delicate trust, and, as you cannot fail to perceive, to be executed with judgment and discretion. Nevertheless, in times of civil strife, errors, if any, should be on the side of safety to the country. This is the language of the General-in-Chief himself, who desires an early report from you on the subject of the number of troops deemed necessary for your department.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-The Lieutenant-General desires me to add that he has just been instructed by highest authority to cause Mr. Ross Winans, of Baltimore, now a military prisoner at Fort McHenry, to be liberated on condition of his written parole, to this effect: “I solemnly give my parole of honor that I will not openly or covertly commit any act of hostility against the Government of the United States pending existing troubles or hostilities between the said Government and the Southern seceded States, or any one of them.”

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Baltimore, May 16, 1861.

To Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR : I have already written two letters to you to-day in reply to your two letters of yesterday’s date,* and have since, received your letter {p.640} of this date. In regard to the number of troops deemed necessary for this department, I have already in my letters of this date expressed the difficulty which I experience in forming an opinion from not having had time since my arrival to visit any other of this department, or to converse or receive reports from any officer in command of troops.

In forming any opinion upon this subject I would be guided by a consideration of the question of a probability of an advance of hostile troops, of which probability I have no means of obtaining information. Should no such advance take place, I should suppose one or two regiments here sufficient for present protection, if there should be nothing to develop the hidden and stifled sympathies which certainly exist, and of which I have the candid admission of persons of high standing here, who assume to be in favor of the Government and the Union, but who would immediately take part against it if their fears of the consequences were removed.

On receipt of your letter, which gave me the first official [information] I had that Mr. Ross Winans was a military prisoner at Fort McHenry, I sent an officer to read to him the condition of the written parole, upon acceptance of which I was instructed to liberate him. The result was that Mr. Winans signed the parole and was immediately liberated. I inclose the parole duly signed and witnessed.

I have to report that on leaving Philadelphia three regiments of the First Division of Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanded by Colonels Ballier, Gray, and Owen, mustered into the service of the United States (and not then furnished with clothing and equipments), were directed to remain until properly equipped. The regiments of Colonels Dare and Nagle are fully equipped, and are stationed upon the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad near to Havre de Grace and Perryville. They could, if it was desired, be brought forward immediately and replaced by the regiments before mentioned or by two regiments from Ohio that were in camp near Philadelphia when I left there. I think it proper to mention the fact, although having nothing to do with my present command.

The power to arrest persons under certain circumstances, and to hold them prisoners though they should be demanded by writs of habeas corpus, is certainly a high and delicate trust. I will use every effort to execute it, if necessary, with prudence and discretion, and with the best judgment I am capable of giving to the subject. As a matter of caution I would merely state that I did not receive any further power to arrest persons under circumstances than that which is contained in your letter of this date, as your letter seems perhaps to imply that I was to receive a power with instructions to accompany the letter. Awaiting your orders, either by letter or telegraph,

I am, very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

* Only one letter found.

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WASHINGTON, May 18, 1861.

Maj. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, U. S. Volunteers:

SIR: You will proceed to Fort Monroe and assume the command of that post, when Colonel Dimick will limit his command to the regular troops, composing a part of its garrison, but will, by himself and his Officers, give such aid in the instruction of the volunteers as you may direct.

{p.641}

Besides the present garrison of Fort Monroe, consisting of seven companies of regular artillery, portions of two Massachusetts regiments of volunteers, and a regiment of Vermont volunteers, nine additional regiments of volunteers from New York may soon be expected there. Only a small portion, if any, of these can be conveniently quartered or encamped in the fort, the greater part if not the whole area of which will be necessary for exercise on the ground. The nine additional regiments must therefore be encamped in the best positions outside of and as near the fort as may be. For this purpose it is hoped that a pine forest north of the fort and near the bay may be found to furnish the necessary ground and shade for some three thousand men, though somewhat distant from drinking and cooking water; this, as well as fuel, it may be necessary to bring to the camp on wheels. The Quartermaster’s Department has been instructed to furnish the necessary vehicles, casks, and draught animals.

The war garrison of Fort Monroe against a formidable army provided with an adequate siege-train is about 2,500 men. You will soon have there, inside and out, near three times that number. Assuming 1,500 men as a garrison adequate to resist any probable attack in the next six months for at least many days or weeks, you will consider the remainder of the force under your command disposable for aggressive purposes, and employ it accordingly.

In respect to more distant operations you may expect specific instructions at a later date. In the mean time I will direct your attention to the following objects:

1. Not to let the enemy erect batteries to annoy Fort Monroe;

2. To capture any batteries the enemy may have within a half-day’s march of you, or which may be reached by land;

3. The same in respect to the enemy’s batteries at or above Craney Island, though requiring water craft; and

4. To menace and to recapture the navy-yard at Gosport in order to complete its destruction, with its contents, except what it may be practicable to bring away in safety.

It is expected that you put yourself into free communication with the commander of the United States naval forces in Hampton Roads, and invite his cordial co-operation with you in all operations in whole or in part by water, and no doubt he will have received corresponding instructions from the Navy Department.

Boldness in execution is nearly always necessary, but in planning and fitting out expeditions or detachments great circumspection is a virtue. In important cases, where time clearly permits, be sure to submit your plans and ask instructions from higher authority. Communicate with me often and fully on all matters important to the service.

I remain, with great respect, yours,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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BALTIMORE, May 18, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have just received an order from General Scott transferring the command of the Department of Annapolis to General Cadwalader and ordering me to Fort Monroe. What does this mean? Is it a censure upon my action? Is it because I have caused Winans to be arrested? Is it because of my proving successful in bringing Baltimore to subjection and quiet? {p.642}

Cadwalader may release Winans--probably will. You must guard against that.

If my services are no longer desired by the Department, I am quite content to be relieved altogether, but I will not be disgraced. In all I have done I have acted solely according to what I believed to be the wishes of the President, General Scott, and yourself.

I am not disposed to be troublesome to you, but I wish this matter might be laid before the President. To be relieved of a command of a department and sent to command a fort without a word of comment, is something unusual at least, and I am so poor a soldier as not to understand it otherwise than in the light of a reproof.

At least, I desire a personal interview with you and with the President before I accept further service. This will be handed you by my friend and aide-de-camp, R. S. Fay, jr., who knows its contents, and is able to represent me fully to you.

Very truly, yours,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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NAVY-YARD, WASHINGTON, D. C., May 18, 1861.

Hon. W. H. SEWARD:

The Anacostia is just in and reports a battery at Aquia Creek, four guns, and one of heavy caliber. Work not completed. About two hundred men on it.

JNO. A. DAHLGREN, Commander.

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CINCINNATI, May 20, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON:

Important to occupy Cumberland at once. Advices indicate, movement through it on Western Virginia to influence election. Occupation of Cumberland will stop the movement. I hope Ohio contingent will not be limited to nine regiments be brought up to twenty. I have as yet received neither instructions nor authority. My hands tied until I have one or the other. Every day of importance.

GEO. B. MCCLELLAN, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 21, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army:

COLONEL: In the absence of General Patterson I forward the accompanying report of the capture of parties engaged in the burning of bridges. I suggested to Colonel Dare that he should ascertain if the civil authorities in the district where the offense was committed would take cognizance of these cases, and hold the men by bail to appear in future; if they would do so, to turn them over, first (as I understand they are responsible persons) requiring them to take oath to commit no act of hostility against the United States. If the civil authorities {p.643} will receive these men I think the effect of offering them will be a happy one.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP SUSQUEHANNA, Perryville, Md., May 19, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that last evening signal rockets were reported in direction of Aberdeen. I immediately proceeded to Havre de Grace (Lieutenant-Colonel Birney being absent), and finding they were not according to code agreed upon, considered no re-enforcement necessary. I proceeded to Aberdeen to ascertain why the rockets had been fired, and at that post they were reported as having been seen in direction of Perrymansville. Taking a guard to that point, I found all quiet.

Information having been given in relation to Capt. Benedict H. Kean, in command of Spesutia Rangers, William B. Michael, and Thomas Wilson, Captain Hoffman, of Company E, First Regiment P. C. G., arrested them; the first as in command of forces hostile to the United States, and the two latter-named gentlemen as being engaged in destruction of bridges. The arrests were made quietly, and every consideration shown to the gentlemen detained. They were taken to Perryville and lodged at my quarters.

From representations made by Captain Kean and by other parties, the Spesutia Rangers have not been engaged or intending to engage against the Government. His action in opposing the destruction of the bridges, as represented by credible parties, induced his release on parole of honor to appear if wanted. The others I believe to have been engaged in destruction of bridges, and that the evidence will be ample to sustain the fact. I am now detaining them until I receive instructions from headquarters.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. P. DARE, Commanding Post.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., May 22, 1861.

In compliance with instructions from the Lieutenant-General commanding the Army, the undersigned hereby assumes command of this department.

...

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General Volunteers, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Baltimore, Md., May 22, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: Your letter dated the 20th instant* came duly to hand. {p.644} The copy of the power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus had been previously received with your letter of the 16th instant.

I have had such constant claims upon my time here in seizing arms and ammunition, and in arranging the details with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company of the understanding in regard to goods passing over their railroad, that I have not been able to accomplish more than to keep up the necessary correspondence with the officers commanding posts, and to give the necessary attention to the troops here preparatory to a visit to the different posts of the department, with a view to possess myself of its affairs, and to communicate such suggestions as may occur to me as proper in regard to the withdrawal of small outposts near Annapolis. There is a large quantity of powder of which I have information stored near this city, which I was about to seize to-day, but I am at a loss to know where to place it. The magazine at Fort McHenry is full, and I do not like to move it until it is decided where it is to go. I should like to have instructions upon this subject. There is a magazine belonging to the city in the northern part of the town where it could be stored, but it would require, a strong guard, as it is so far from the other positions occupied by the troops.

I inclose a copy of instructions given by me to Colonel Jones, commanding officer at the Relay House, in relation to goods passing over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On my return from Annapolis to the Relay House, if the General-in-Chief desires a personal interview, I could go over to Washington and return the same day; otherwise, I would communicate in writing what I may have to say.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

[Inclosure.]

BALTIMORE, MD., May 22, 1861.

Col. EDWARD F. JONES, Comdg. Massachusetts Sixth Reg’t and Post at Relay House:

COLONEL: Until further orders you will-pass over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad groceries, such as tea, sugar, coffee, spices, and dry goods, &c., except uniform clothing, and such goods, in quantities as could be used as clothing for troops. Goods in your judgment designated bona fide for country stores in the territory upon the lines of the road and its branches may be passed at your discretion.

I am, very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, May 22, 1861.

Col. SAMUEL YOHE, First Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Woodberry, Md.:

SIR: The unquiet state of the country and the point you now occupy in the vicinity of Baltimore and the road to Frederick, Md., makes your position of the highest importance in a civil as well as military point of view. The proper execution of your duties calls for great activity on your part, and watchfulness on the part of your command, that no aid or comfort goes to Harper’s Ferry, or those arrayed in arms against the {p.645} United States, and also requires of you the exercise of sound judgment, that while securing the interests of the United States and the safety of your command, you do not unnecessarily trench upon the right of citizens.

The safety of the Northern Central Railroad is intrusted to you, but that is not all; you are to see to the quietude of the country adjacent your stations, and if at any time you know of armed bodies of men outside of Baltimore collected with hostile intent, and the force be not too strong to overcome and overawe with that at your disposal, you will arrest them, by surprise, if possible, and hold them subject to future orders. Men not known to be friendly, drilling at night, or secretly, must be looked upon with suspicion of hostile intent and treated accordingly; and also wagons with supplies of large amount leaving Baltimore at night, munitions, arms, &c., not designed for the United States, should be seized and held till properly accounted for.

Over the road to Frederick a surveillance must be exercised, and so soon as there is ample force at your disposal it should be stationed on that road within your reach.

The city of Baltimore is within the command of Bvt. Major-General George Cadwalader, and you must be careful to avoid interfering with his prerogatives; but if through force of circumstances you should be forced suddenly to act within his limits, you will report your act to him and the reason therefor. Where time will permit, you will report irregularities to General Cadwalader for his action.

In addition to the above the commanding general desires me to say he wishes to hear from you from time to time, as occasion may offer, in relation to the feeling of the people in your vicinity; the discipline of your command, and other matters you deem of interest and importance. The fact that everything is quiet is of importance to report.

You are also desired to maintain strict discipline, and to drill continuously; also to instruct your sentinels to permit no gatherings around them; to walk their post; talk to no one unnecessarily, and to be vigilant at all times. Tents for your regiment will soon be sent to you. In the mean time you will protect them from the weather by hiring such proper houses as may be in the immediate vicinity of the road.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-General Keim is ordered to relieve by others the companies of Your regiment north of Gunpowder Bridge. You will then collect them and distribute them so as to re-enforce your post and have a disposable force.

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HDQRS. PENNSYLVANIA MILITIA, QUARTERMASTER’S DEP’T, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

SIR: This morning in Philadelphia Major-General Patterson insisted on my delivering to the troops mustered into the service of the United States the accouterments I have had made for the militia of this State. I partly agreed to do so, but on my arrival here I find a letter from the Secretary of War, saying that arrangements had been made to supply from the U. S. arsenals all the accouterments necessary for the troops mustered into the service of the United States.

{p.646}

Under these circumstances, what can I do? The United States has not got the accouterments ready, as General Patterson informed me, and the United States seems to be unwilling to take what I have on hand. If the United States want these now they can have them, and let our Pennsylvania reserve troops receive a like number from the United States as soon as they can get them ready. I inclose copy of letter from Secretary of War.

Very respectfully,

R. C. HALE, Quartermaster-General, Pennsylvania Militia.

P. S.-Please let me hear from you by telegraph to-morrow whether I shall deliver accouterments or not.

[Inclosure.]

WAR DEPARTMENT, May 20, 1861.

R. C. HALE. Esq., Quartermaster-General, Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pa.:

DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 14th instant, relative to infantry accouterments, was received and its suggestions taken into consideration. Arrangements have been made for procuring and issuing from the U. S. arsenals accouterments in ample quantities to supply all the troops mustered into the U. S. service, and it would be unadvisable, in my opinion, to provide them otherwise.

Respectfully, yours,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 23, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. G., Headquarters of the Army, Washington City:

SIR: In compliance with verbal intimation from the General-in-Chief I present for his information in tabular form the locations of the regiments now in this department; the condition of their equipment, accouterments, clothing, &c., and the probable time they can be put in motion, fully equipped. The probable time is based on the accompanying statement from the commander of Frankford Arsenal, to which I respectfully refer. I also call attention to the offer herewith of the quartermaster-general of this State.* With his aid six regiments can be thrown into the field as rapidly as the accouterments can be distributed, say Monday. Without his assistance (accepted by telegraph through me) the term of service of some of the regiments will expire before they are equipped, or they will be provided at so distant a day that new shoes and other clothing will have to be issued, unless accouterments are provided outside of this department. Colonel Hale offers, some four thousand sets. I am anxious to forward the views of the General-in-Chief and to execute his designs, and will be much gratified to have the means of putting in the field regiments well drilled and desirous of seeing service. If desirable, they can be sent forward without accouterments, {p.647} but without them the men lack confidence in each other and inflict severe injuries.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-If Colonel Hale’s offer be accepted I shall at once equip the Twelfth and Thirteenth Regiments, at York; Eighth and Tenth, at Chambersburg; Fourteenth and Fifteenth, at Lancaster; and Twentieth and Twenty-first, at Philadelphia, from those accouterments, to be supplied the first of next week by Lieutenant Treadwell.

* Not found.

[Inclosures.]

Pennsylvania Volunteers.-One regiment at Woodberry, Md., complete, except tents; two regiments at York, all ready for service; three regiments at York, tents by 27th, no accouterments; three regiments at Chambersburg, tents by 27th, accouterments by 30th;* three regiments at Philadelphia, no accouterments, rest ready by 25th; two regiments at Lancaster, no accouterments, test ready by 25th two regiments at West Chester, no accouterments, rest ready by 25th, except clothing, very deficient; one regiment at Havre de Grace and one at Elkton and Perryville, all ready for service by replacing them at their posts by Delaware Volunteers; one company cavalry at Philadelphia, provided with nothing.

Delaware Volunteers.-One regiment at Wilmington, deficient in clothing; two companies only with accouterments, in other respects ready.

NOTE.-May 23, General Patterson ordered two regiments, marked* above, to camp of instruction at Suffolk Park; the regiments at Havre de Grace and Perryville to go into camp at those places.

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FRANKFORD ARSENAL, May 23, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, A. A. G., Hdqrs. Dep’t of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.:

SIR: In answer to your letter of to-day I have the honor to state, for the information of the general commanding, that only two thousand two hundred and ninety-nine sets of round-ball accouterments are to be received from the Philadelphia manufacturers. I will be able to equip the Seventh Regiment, at Chambersburg, to-morrow, and the Eighth and Tenth Regiments probably early next week.

As I have no further orders for accouterments to give out, my farther supply will be derived from Newark, from a contract recently made to deliver twenty thousand sets at this arsenal, dated May 15, at the rate of eight hundred or more sets per week, the first delivery to be made in ten days from date of contract. I will also receive from the Philadelphia makers eight thousand five hundred sets of elongated-ball accouterments, and will be able to equip regiments requiring these at the rate of about three thousand sets per week. I have communicated with the Newark contractor for twenty thousand, requiring him to deliver first five thousand sets of round ball accouterments, and requesting him to send here as soon as possible any of this or any other kind he may have ready. Three thousand sets of round-ball accouterments, ordered to Washington Arsenal, have delayed the supplying of the Pennsylvania {p.648} regiments from this arsenal. I will fill the requisitions in the order designated in your letter as rapidly as the stores are received.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. J. TREADWELL, First Lieutenant of Ordnance.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 3., HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Baltimore, Md., May 23, 1861.

I. By order of the Secretary of War the military department called the Department of Annapolis includes the country for twenty miles on each side of the railroad from Annapolis to the city of Washington as far as Bladensburg, Maryland.

...

By order of Brevet Major-General Cadwalader:

THOS. H. NEILL, Captain, Fifth Infantry, A. A. A. G.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY, Washington, May 24, 1861.

General MCCLELLAN, U. S. A., Cincinnati, Ohio:

We have certain intelligence that at least two companies of Virginia troops have reached Grafton, evidently with the purpose of overawing the friends of the Union in Western Virginia. Can you counteract the influence of that detachment? Act promptly, and Major Oakes, at Wheeling, may give you valuable assistance.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, May 24, 1861.

Lieutenant-General WINFIELD SCOTT:

I have the honor to report my arrival at this post Wednesday morning at 8 o’clock. I found that no troops had arrived except some recruits for the Third and Fourth Massachusetts Regiments of three-months’ men and two detached companies of three-years’ men which have been temporarily annexed to those regiments. This morning the Second New York Volunteers have reported themselves in good condition, numbering 782 men. These I have encamped on the farm of Mr. Segar, which is at the end of Mill Creek Bridge toward Hampton, and have also ordered into camp in connection with them the First Vermont Regiment (militia), Colonel Phelps. The force at this post maybe stated thus: Colonel Dimick, commanding U. S. Regulars, 415 men; Third Regiment Massachusetts Militia and one company three-years’ men, 727 men; Fourth Massachusetts Militia and one company three-years’ men, 783 men; First Vermont Militia, 779 men; Second New York Volunteers, three years, 782 men. As there is very little sickness, the effective force will be probably 3,375 men. Of these, the New York and Vermont regiments only are furnished with camp equipage.

{p.649}

Upon my arrival I put myself in communication with Colonel De Russy, of the Engineers, and consulted him upon two subjects:

First, as to the supply of water. I found that on that day the Minnesota was supplying herself from a well or spring on land of Mr. Clark, near the end of Mill Creek Bridge, about a mile from the fort, and that after pumping 800 gallons the well was exhausted, but refilled itself during the night, and from personal examinations of its surroundings I think it may be trusted to supply 700 to 1,000 gallons daily with a little enlargement of the reservoir. The water is of the best quality, and as it is immediately under the guns of the heaviest battery of the fort on the land side, I have thought it proper, with the advice of Colonel De Russy, Of the Engineer Corps, to direct that a pipe be put in to bring it into the fort along the bridge and causeway, first having a cistern excavated at the fountain which will contain the whole supply of the spring. I have also advised with Colonel De Russy of the propriety of finishing the artesian well which had been begun here, and he is now in communication with a contractor for that purpose. There is an appropriation, as I understand, of $14,000 made by Congress for that purpose.

On Thursday I directed Colonel Phelps, of the Vermont regiment, to make a reconnaissance in force in Hampton and its neighborhood within two miles of the fort, in order to examine its capabilities for encamping the troops about to arrive, and at the same time I made personal examination of the ground, Colonel De Russy being of opinion that the wood suggested by the Lieutenant-General might be a little unhealthy, and I was further determined upon encamping in this direction by considerations of probable advances in this direction, to which I win take leave to call your attention soon. The rebels upon our approach attempted to burn the bridge over Hampton Creek, but the fire was promptly extinguished by the Vermonters, assisted by the citizens. Colonel Phelps passed into the village of Hampton, and found only a few citizens, who professed to be watching their negroes, in which occupation I have not as yet disturbed them. I therefore encamped Colonel Phelps? Vermont regiment and Colonel Carr’s New York regiment on the point of land just above the spring, about half way between Fort Monroe and Hampton.

Saturday, May 25.-I had written thus far when I was called away to meet Major Cary, of the active Virginia volunteers, upon questions which have arisen of very considerable importance both in a military and political aspect, and which I beg leave to submit herewith.

On Thursday night, three negroes, field hands, belonging to Col. Charles Mallory, now in command of the secession forces in this district, delivered themselves up to my picket guard, and, as I learned from the report of the officer of the guard in the morning, had been detained by him. I immediately gave personal attention to the matter, and found satisfactory evidence that these men were about to be taken to Carolina for the purpose of aiding the secession forces there; that two of them left wives and children (one a free woman) here; that the Other had left his master from fear that he would be called upon to take part in the rebel armies. Satisfied of these facts from cautious examination of each of the negroes apart from the others, I determined for the present, and until better advised, as these men were very serviceable, and I had great need of labor in my quartermaster’s department, to avail myself of their services, and that I would send a receipt to Colonel Mallory that I had so taken them, as I would for any other Property of a private citizen which the exigencies of the service seemed {p.650} to require to be taken by me, and especially property that was designed, adapted, and about to be used against the United States.

As this is but an individual instance in a course of policy which may be required to be pursued with regard to this species of property, I have detailed to the Lieutenant-General this case, and ask his direction. I am credibly informed that the negroes in this neighborhood are now being employed in the erection of batteries and other works by the rebels, which it would be nearly or quite impossible to construct without their labor. Shall they be allowed the use of this property against the United States, and we not be allowed its use in aid of the United States?

Major Cary, upon my interview with him, which took place between this fort and Hampton, desired information upon several questions: First. Whether I would permit the removal through the blockade of the families of all persons who desired to pass southward or northward. In reply to this, I informed him that I could not permit such removal, for the reasons, first, that presence of the families of belligerents in a country was always the best hostage for the good behavior of the citizens; and, secondly, that one object of our blockade being to prevent the passage of supplies of provisions into Virginia so long as she remained in a hostile attitude, the reduction of the number of consumers would in so far tend to neutralize that effect.

He also desired to know if the transit of persons and families northward from Virginia would be permitted. I answered him that with the exception of an interruption at Baltimore there was no interruption of the travel of peaceable persons north of the Potomac, and that all the internal lines of travel through Virginia were at present in the hands of his friends, and that it depended upon them whether that line, of travel was interrupted, and that the authorities at Washington could better judge of this question than myself, as necessary travel could go by way of Washington; that the passage through our blockading squadron would require an amount of labor and surveillance to prevent abuse which I did not conceive I ought to be called upon to perform.

Major Cary demanded to know with regard to the negroes what course I intended to pursue. I answered him substantially as I have written above, when he desired to know if I did not feel myself bound by my constitutional obligations to deliver up fugitives under the fugitive-slave act. To this I replied that the fugitive-slave act did not affect a foreign country, which Virginia claimed to be, and that she must reckon it one of the infelicities of her position that in so far at least she was taken at her word; that in Maryland, a loyal State, fugitives from service had been returned, and that even now, although so much pressed by my necessities for the use of these men of Colonel Mallory’s, yet if their master would come to the fort and take the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the United States I would deliver the men up to him and endeavor to hire their services of him if he desired to part with them. To this Major Cary responded that Colonel Mallory was absent.

This morning the steamer Alabama arrived, having on board Colonel Duryea’s regiment of New York, 850 strong, fully equipped. I have caused them to be landed and encamped with the First Vermont. The steamer Pembroke, from Massachusetts, has arrived, having two unattached companies-one of rifles and the other of infantry, 101 men each, and without equipage-so that now the actual number of men ready for service may be set down at 4,400, but not very efficient, some being quite new recruits and others not fully equipped, two regiments being wholly without tents.

{p.651}

The rebels have built a very strong battery on Sewell’s Point, at the entrance of Elizabeth River, about four miles from this post, and about two and one-half miles from the Ripraps, or Fort Calhoun, and supported in the rear, at the distance of about a mile across Tanner’s Creek) by the rebel forces gathered about there, amounting, as nearly as I can ascertain, to some 3,000 or 4,000 men, it being understood from the attack of the Monticello on Sunday last that I intended to menace Norfolk in that direction. Of course I had not at my disposal any force sufficient to make such an attack and carry this battery with any hope of holding possession of it should it be taken. I had determined, however, upon consultation with Commodore Stringham, to engage the battery with the naval force, and to endeavor, under the cover of their fire, to land and at least destroy the guns and works, and such plan was arranged for this morning; but yesterday Commodore Stringham received orders from the Navy Department to sail at once for Charleston, so that our expedition was disorganized. As we had no sufficient force to make such an attack-in the absence of the Rag-ship Minnesota and her guns at long range-as would give the movement that assurance of success which I understand you desire should seem to attend our operations, it has been abandoned. I have, however, directed Colonel De Russy to prepare to put some guns of long range upon the Ripraps, so as to prevent any further approach towards us from Sewell’s Point or Willoughby’s Spit.

In this connection I beg leave to suggest to the Lieutenant-General the necessity in coast operations for say fifty surf-boats, of such construction as he caused to be prepared for the landing at Vera Cruz, the adaptation and efficiency of which have passed into history. May I respectfully request and urge that such a flotilla be furnished for coast operations.

I have learned that the enemy are about to fortify a point at Newport News, about eleven miles from this place, at the mouth of the James River, and on the northerly side of it. They have already a battery at Pig Point, on the southerly and opposite side, of the river, which commands the Nansemond River. I think it of the last importance that we should occupy Newport News, and I am now organizing an expedition consisting of two regiments for that purpose, unless I find unexpected obstacles. I purpose this afternoon, in the steamer Yankee, to make a personal reconnaissance of that point, and at once to occupy the same with that amount of force, intending to intrench there for the purpose of being in possession and command of the entrance to the James River myself, and from that position, by the aid of the naval force, to be in condition to threaten Craney Island and the approaches of Norfolk, and also to hold one of the approaches to Richmond. By a march of nine miles, at farthest, I can support the post at Newport News; by the sea, in two hours, I can afford it relief. There is water enough to permit the approach of the largest sized vessels-indeed the Lieutenant-General will recollect that Newport News Point was once counted upon as a naval depot instead of Norfolk.

Trusting that these dispositions and movements will meet the approval of the Lieutenant-General, and begging pardon for the detailed length of this dispatch, I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding. {p.652} [Indorsements.]

MAY 29, 1861.

There is much to praise in this report, and nothing to condemn. It is highly interesting in several aspects, particularly in its relation to the slave question.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

I agree with the Lieutenant-General in his entire approval of the within report.

SIMON CAMERON.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., May 24, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army, Washington City:

SIR: I am in receipt of two telegrams of this date from the General-in-Chief-one directing troops to be pushed to Frederick, Hagerstown, and Cumberland, the other that Major Hagner would be here to-day to arrange about accouterments. In anticipation of the orders of the General-in-Chief, I to-day issued orders (herewith) disposing of troops unserviceable for marching purposes, so as to untie the legs of good regiments. One regiment was sent to New Castle, in consequence of temporary excitement there. That regiment, with Major Hagner’s aid, with all others, will, if possible, be in motion by Tuesday to the field of operations. I shall employ the four cavalry companies at Carlisle with the Hagerstown column, and I desire the General-in-Chief to be reminded of my request for artillery to accompany the column to Frederick.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C., May 26, 1861.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, &c., Cincinnati, Ohio:

In reply to your cipher telegram General Scott directs me to furnish you with the following instructions to General Patterson, to wit:

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, May 24, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Philadelphia:

You need not send any more Pennsylvania troops to Cadwalader or Mansfield, but push forward the remainder of the Pennsylvania and New Jersey quotas towards Frederick, Hagerstown, and Cumberland, to threaten Harper’s Ferry and support the Union sentiment in Western Virginia. Cumberland being distant, must, if occupied, have a self-relying garrison.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

By command of General Scott:

SCHUYLER HAMILTON, Lieutenant-Colonel and Military Secretary.

{p.653} –––

MAY 27, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT:

Two bridges burned last night near Farmington, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Have ordered First Regiment Virginia and one regiment Ohio to move at once by rail from Wheeling on Fairmont, occupying bridges as they go. Two Ohio regiments ordered to occupy Parkersburg and move towards Grafton; one regiment at Gallipolis.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 26.}

WAR DEP’T, ADJT. GEN.’S OFFICE, Washington, May 27, 1861.

All that part of Virginia east of the Alleghany Mountains and north of James River, except Fort Monroe and sixty miles around the same, will for the present constitute a now military geographical department, under the command of Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, U. S. A., whose headquarters will be movable according to circumstances.

By order:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, May 29, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: I arrived here too late in the afternoon of the 27th to assume on that day formally, in orders, the command of the department, but I reported to Major-General Sandford at this place, and received from him such information as to the state of affairs as he was able then to give me. I encamped the night of the 27th with the New Jersey brigade, and early on the morning of the 28th went to Alexandria, and was occupied from 5 a. m. till 9 o’clock at night in examining the position occupied by the troops and looking into the condition of the men.

Defensive works under construction.-The works at Alexandria had not been commenced nor even laid out as late as 10 o’clock a. m. yesterday, nor had the plans been definitely determined upon. A want of tools in the first place, and in the second place of means of transportation for the men from the wharf in Alexandria to the hill to be fortified, and changes made necessary by a better knowledge of the ground, were the principal causes given for the delay. Both the Michigan regiment and the New York Zouaves were bivouacked and encamped on the site, leaving but a few men in town. I trust, therefore, that the Navy Department may be requested to [retain] the Pawnee at her present station. The works at the bridgehead of the Long Bridge were progressing finely, and the report to me was that the men were working diligently. The main work covering the Aqueduct and ferry opposite Georgetown was in a fair state. The Sixty-ninth New York is the only regiment at work on it, and they seemed to me to be working admirably.

Subsistence and means of transportation.-Subsistence is furnished to the troops away from the vicinity of Alexandria by returns on the main depot in Washington. This, and the utter absence of any wagons on {p.654} this side, the want of means of communication on the part of some of the regiments, and the inexperience of most of the commanders, have caused the supplies to be irregularly and insufficiently furnished. One regiment has hired on its own account, out of private means, some wagons to procure its supplies. Forage has also been wanting. A depot is to be established at Alexandria, which will afford supplies to the troops in that vicinity. The depot in Washington might answer for all the others, provided the regiments be furnished with wagons to go for them. I suppose the Quartermaster’s Department in Washington has not at this time enough wagons to supply the force here with its allowance for its baggage merely, which would require about 200.

For the purpose of giving greater efficiency and a better administration of affairs, I have organized the troops not now brigaded into three brigades, and placed them under the colonels ordered to report to me in their letters of appointment. If a portion of the allowance of wagons for the regimental baggage were sent on and placed under the control of the brigade commanders, I think a better state of affairs will be gained at the least cost. With a view to movements in that direction, I have directed Colonel Stone to ascertain and report the amount of rolling stock on the Alexandria and Manassas Gap Railroad, and the amount of material required to place the road in working order.

I beg to request that some of the recent graduates heretofore assigned to the duty of instructing the volunteer regiments may be sent here for the same purpose and other duty. The only assistant quartermaster in the department is at Alexandria, to be in charge of the Quartermaster’s and Commissary Departments. I have to request that another officer of that department, furnished with funds, be sent for duty at headquarters. The troops are occupying houses in some cases, and fields, and cutting wood for fuel. Shall not rent and compensation be paid? If so, funds are needed for that purpose, as well as the hiring of means of transportation where the same has not been furnished.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, May 29, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. Army, Washington, D. C.

COLONEL: There have been rumors of outrages committed by volunteers in Alexandria. Colonel Butterfield, of the Twelfth New York, has reported several cases of trespass, depredations, and attempts at burglary in his vicinity.

I am aware we are not, theoretically speaking, at war with the State of Virginia, and we are not, here, in an enemy’s country; but if the ordinary courts and officers of the State, against whose peace and dignity it is these acts have been committed, are not in the exercise of their functions, shall not these cases be punished, as similar ones were in Mexico, by military commission? It is a question of policy which, being so near at hand, I beg to submit to the General-in-Chief.

In connection with this subject I will mention that the battalion of Georgetown Volunteers at the head of the Chain Bridge are reported as acting harshly towards the inhabitants on this side, whom they charge {p.655} with being secessionists; that, coming themselves from so near their present station, they have stronger personal feelings in this matter and are more liable to be influenced by them than troops coming from a distance. The plea that a man is a secessionist is set up in some cases by persons depredating on property as a justification of their acts.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, May 30, 1861.

Mrs. R. E. LEE:

MADAM: Having been ordered by the Government to relieve Major-General Sandford in command of this department, I had the honor to receive this morning your letter of to-day, addressed to him at this place.

With respect to the occupation of Arlington by the United States troops, I beg to say it has been done by my predecessor with every regard to the preservation of the place. I am here temporarily in camp on the grounds, preferring this to sleeping in the house, under the circumstances which the painful state of the country places me with respect to its proprietors.

I assure you it has been and will be my earnest endeavor to have all things so ordered that on your return you will find things as little disturbed as possible. In this I have the hearty concurrence of the courteous, kind-hearted gentleman in the immediate command of the troops quartered here, and who lives in the lower part of the house to insure its being respected.

Everything has been done as you desired with respect to your servants, and your wishes, as far as they are known or could be anticipated, have been complied with. When you desire to return, every facility will be given you for so doing.

I trust, madam, you will not consider it an intrusion if I say I have the most sincere sympathy for your distress, and that, as far as is compatible with my duty, I shall always be ready to do whatever may alleviate it.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL.

P. S.-I am informed it was the order of the General-in-Chief, if the troops on coming here found the family in the house, that no one should enter it, but that a guard should be placed for, its protection.

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CINCINNATI, June 1, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Road from, Parkersburg to Grafton open. Move on Philippi and Beverly to-night to drive rebels entirely over the mountains.

Kanawha movement suspended for present in consequence of conference with Union men. I explain by mail.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

{p.656}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Cincinnati, June 1, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I had intimated in preceding dispatches an intention of moving on the valley of the Great Kanawha, and had in fact matured my plans for carrying that intention into effect in such a manner as to render all resistance hopeless, with the design of effecting the occupation as I did that of the Grafton line, without firing a shot.

My view of our course in Kentucky and Western Virginia is that we should not cross the frontier without being fully assured that our assistance is demanded by the Union men, and that our movements should be in such force as to preclude the probability of resistance.

I had a long interview this morning with Judge L. Ruffner and Col. B. F. Smith, both of the Kanawha Valley. They came accredited by Hon. V. B. Horton, of Pomeroy, and other reliable men, and are represented as expressing the sentiment of the Union men of that region. My conference with them was full and frank. I told them that I did not believe it to be the will of the General Government to force assistance on the Union men where there was good ground to believe that they were able and willing to take care of themselves; that should I learn that any force from Eastern Virginia had entered their valley I could promptly drive them out; that they might count upon our aid whenever demanded, and that it is necessary for them to make up their minds to take a decided stand.

They stated that the Union feeling (shown to be decidedly preponderant by the late elections) is rapidly increasing; assert their ability to keep the secessionists under; say that they will not allow themselves to be forced into the Southern Confederacy, and deprecate sending any troops there at present. I have therefore thought it prudent to submit the matter to General Scott, the more especially as I think no ill effects can follow from some delay, for I have information which satisfies me that there are no Eastern Virginians nor Confederate troops in that region, and that they cannot move them there at present. These Kanawha gentlemen approve of the Grafton movement, and I have determined, until I receive further instructions from the General, to modify my original plan so as to accomplish the same result in a manner that will not be obnoxious.

Learning that the rebels who abandoned Grafton were this morning at Philippi I have ordered an advance on that point in two columns from Grafton and Clarksburg, with instructions to drive them beyond Beverly, and hold the latter place. I propose also gradually to advance on Elizabeth and Weston, in order to encourage the Union sentiment and to induce the Kanawha people to take a more decided course. I think they are not yet fully up to the mark, and need careful nursing. By driving the rebels beyond Beverly I think we shall free almost the whole of Western Virginia from their influence.

I have already informed you that I have placed the operations in Western Virginia under Brig. Gen. T. A. Morris, of the Indiana volunteers, a graduate of West Point, and a cool, deliberate man.

I would be glad to have some cavalry at my disposal as soon as possible. There are two companies organizing in Indiana, as many in this State, and some in Illinois, under the State laws. I presume they will be received into the regiment to be raised in this department. We should have at least a couple of companies in Western Virginia. I am watching Beauregard’s movements closely, and am glad that he is to be my antagonist.

{p.657}

I received a detailed report of the condition of the Illinois troops today. With the exception of those at Cairo and Caseyville, it was unsatisfactory. It would be well if efficient general officers could be promptly assigned to the troops of this department, as well as a greater number of adjutants-general, quartermasters, and commissaries. The absence of all military information in this region is very lamentable. It is a very rare thing to find any one who knows even the elements of squad drill.

The Michigan Battery will be here to-morrow. I have ordered it to Camp Dennison for the present, and will probably retain it there until it is ready for the field.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, U. S. Army, Commanding Department.

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JUNE 1, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel MARTIN, Comdg. Seventy-First Regiment New York, Navy Yard:

If you hear a battle at Alexandria proceed at once in the steamers with your whole force to that place.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General, and Commandant.

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WASHINGTON, June 1, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Philadelphia :

If Harper’s Ferry be your first object, you may neglect, meanwhile, Cumberland and intermediate points. I can give you but one field battery. How many regiments have you? The river is fordable just above Williamsport. When ready to cross, I will make a demonstration beyond Alexandria. Report freely.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, Pa., June 1, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

SIR: I have the honor to state, for the information of the General-in-Chief, in reply to his telegram of this date, calling for a report of my intended operations, that, though looking to Cumberland, my plans have been mainly directed to turning Harper’s Ferry throwing across the river near Williamsport ample force (with support following and threatening Shepherdstown) to push on and occupy Martinsburg, if I do not find the enemy too strong and moving to cut my line of march. His attitude and strength will then determine the course to be pursued, either to move direct upon him through Shepherdstown or to cut off his retreat along the Winchester Railroad and to harass his rear. I wish to place such a force on the Virginia shore as can hold every inch of ground gained, and, however slowly, to advance securely, after Harper’s Perry falls, upon Winchester.

The effective force now in Chambersburg is five companies of cavalry {p.658} (four regular and one volunteer) and six infantry regiments, and four not accoutered. At York and Lancaster two regiments each, not accoutered. These will be at once collected in Chambersburg. A regiment at New Castle and one at Baltimore will soon follow. The troops in New York Harbor are ordered on.

I shall to-morrow evening be in Chambersburg, and shall lose no time to complete arrangements and send forward the command, as indicated in my letter to Major-General Keim, a copy of which is inclosed. All the troops are anxious to be on the move and to see their foe-a desire which shall soon be gratified. I will inform you when I shall move in time to permit the General-in-Chief to make the demonstration indicated.

I am much gratified to know the General-in-Chief will provide some artillery.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Philadelphia, May 29, 1861.

Maj. Gen. W. H. KEIM, Commanding U. S. Forces, Chambersburg, Pa.:

GENERAL: The commanding general instructs me to give you in his name the following information and directions:

A movement, as soon as the force is prepared, will be made to Hagerstown, for the purpose of establishing beyond an encampment as the base of future operations. You are relied upon to organize and hold ready for instant movement those regiments which are prepared to move and face an enemy, and now gathering at Chambersburg, in the following manner:

1. A column of cavalry and three regiments of well-drilled infantry, to march from Chambersburg to Hagerstown. This column to be under the command of Col. George H. Thomas, Second Cavalry, U. S. Army.

2. A second column, to be commanded by Brigadier-General Williams, to follow next day on foot, or by rail, if circumstances demand.

3. A third brigade, to go by rail, and to land in Hagerstown just after arrival of Colonel Thomas’ brigade. If the second brigade goes by rail, the third, wholly or in part, will be pushed to Hagerstown as rapidly as transportation will permit.

4. A fourth brigade, composed of the other regiments, will be pushed by regiment to Hagerstown as soon as prepared and transportation (rail) can be procured.

Colonel Thomas, with his cavalry from Carlisle, will arrive at Chambersburg on Friday. Direct the regimental commanders to report at once.

Wagon transportation is being prepared at Harrisburg and will be pushed to Chambersburg, and the train organized by A. R. Eddy, assistant quartermaster. Captain Eddy will have charge of the quartermaster’s department at Chambersburg, and transfer the depot to Hagerstown as the forces are located.

Capt. B. Du Barry, Subsistence Department, at Harrisburg, will provide for your present depot, and you are desired to see that each regiment has when it moves at least three days’ provisions.

{p.659}

The commanding general wishes you to require commanders to keep their officers and men in camp and out of the towns, and always ready to turn out.

The commanding general, with his staff, will join you in a few days, till which no movement to the front will be made unless circumstances should imperatively demand, which you will telegraph. He hopes on his arrival to find, through your energy and judgment, aided by the active efforts of every officer of your command, the different commands organized and prepared to move at a moment’s notice on arrival of accouterments, and, if necessary, before their arrival.

Capt. John Newton, Engineers, will soon join you. He goes with special instructions relating to reconnoitering the ground in advance of Hagerstown. He and Captain Eddy have the confidence of the commanding general, and on this account are sent to you.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 4.}

HDQRS. DEP’T OF N. E. VIRGINIA., Arlington, June 2, 1861.

Statements of the amount, kind, and value of all private property taken and used for Government purposes, and of the damage done in any way to private property by reason of the occupation of this section of the country by the U. S. troops, will, as soon as practicable, be made out and transmitted to department headquarters by the commanders of brigades and officers in charge of the several fortifications.

These statements will exhibit-

1st. The quantity of land taken possession of for the several field-works, and the kind and value of the crop growing thereon, if any.

2d. The quantity of land used for the several encampments and the kind and value of the growing crop thereon, if any.

3d. The number, size and character of the buildings appropriated to public purposes.

4th. The quantity and value of trees cut down.

5th. The kind and extent of fencing, &c., destroyed.

These statements will, as far as possible, give the value of the property taken or of the damage sustained, and the name or names of the owners thereof. Citizens who have sustained any loss or damage as above will make their claims upon the commanding officers of the troops by whom it was done, or in cases where these troops have moved away, upon the commander nearest them. These claims will accompany the statements above called for.

The commanders of brigades will require the assistance of the commanders of regiments or detached companies, and will make this order known to the inhabitants in their vicinity, to the end that all loss or damage may, as nearly as possible, be ascertained, whilst the troops are now here, and by whom or on whose account it has been occasioned, that justice may be done alike to the citizen and the Government.

The name of the officer or officers (in case the brigade commanders shall institute a board) who fix the amount of loss or damage shall be given in each case.

By order of Brigadier-General McDowell:

JAMES B. FRY, A. A. G.

{p.660}

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 3, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

Ready on Thursday morning to carry out proposed plan, and will move if General-in-Chief approves.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 3, 1861.

General R. PATTERSON, U. S. A., Chambersburg, Pa.

General Scott will send you in a few days a letter of instructions. One or two batteries will be sent you. Your plan of operations was received yesterday.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 3, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington City:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report my arrival at this place. Previous to leaving Philadelphia, I arranged for the satisfactory working of the staff departments there and on this line, and in passing Harrisburg removed many inconveniences under which we have labored for the transportation of troops and supplies. Though this road is of very limited capacity, I expect to execute my designs as herein expressed. I am forced to adopt this mode of putting the column in motion, as not more than six regiments of infantry per day can be transported over the railroad. Wagons will be arriving and no inconvenience will be experienced, as regiments will be receiving accouterments while the troops are advancing to Hagerstown.

My impressions as to the point of attack indicated in my plan of operations have been confirmed by Captain Newton, who has been industriously engaged gathering information, and I shall arrange to advance on Thursday morning. I request to be informed by telegraph if the General-in-Chief has no objection.

Unless something should change my present design, I will direct Colonel Thomas to pass through Hagerstown early on Saturday morning, and advance the whole or part, as circumstances indicate best, of his command to Williamsport, seize the ford, and throw pickets beyond.

As he passes through Hagerstown a company of cavalry will be detached from his advance guard to the road leading through Boonsborough to Harper’s Ferry. The brigade under General Williams (three regiments) will be directed to follow Colonel Thomas, and will be close upon him. Other regiments will be thrown forward as rapidly as the capacity of the road will permit (six or seven per day, probably), and sent on the roads towards Boonsborough and Williamsport-the former to guard against forays from Harper’s Ferry, the latter to sustain the main column. Some of these regiments will reach Hagerstown as soon as Colonel Thomas. Of course I rely upon artillery arriving in time to permit the column to continue on towards Martinsburg.

{p.661}

On Monday morning I hope to have about fourteen regiments in and in advance of Hagerstown. I asked this morning by telegraph for the Second Infantry, which newspaper report placed at Pittsburgh. My design was to unite it to a brigade of volunteers, to command of which Colonel Miles would be assigned, thus having two brigades under experienced officers of the Regular Army. The information I have received leads me to believe a desperate resistance will be offered at Harper’s Ferry.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding. 9 P. M.

P. S.-I have just received your telegram of this date, and shall await the receipt of instructions.

[Inclosure.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA Chambersburg, Pa., June 4, 1861.

[Col. TOWNSEND:]

COLONEL: The last paragraph in the general’s letter [next preceding] refers to this, that at night the sound of the hammer is heard breaking stone on the Maryland Heights, the ax felling trees. Evidently a blockhouse is going up. No one can get near enough to see, and no one is permitted to come here all the way from there. Their informers only go part way. No guns have been placed on this side, unless they are light field pieces, and taken up in wagons. The Virginia side of the Shenandoah is armed, and the guns are iron and long-probably 32 or 24 pounders. Squadrons of cavalry roam the Virginia shore, oppressing people and pressing them into service. Our volunteers are as green as green can be. Marching is their forte, if they have a drum or a band. They cannot form a square yet of those I have seen, yet they think themselves perfect. As the General has just said he would send one or two batteries here, the general will do nothing about getting the field artillery from Harrisburg, though ammunition will be called here, which will be available for the two field batteries if they come. If they do not come, we can get those guns and plant them. We are working like bees.

Yours, truly,

F. J. PORTER.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, June 3, 1861.

Governor BUCKINGHAM, Norwich, Conn.:

Send on to this place your three years’ regiments as soon as organized. Report when.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

(Similar dispatches to governors of Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Wisconsin.)

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 3, 1861.

To the United States Troops of this Department

The restraint which has necessarily been imposed upon you, impatient {p.662} to overcome those who have raised their parricidal hands against our country, is about to be removed. You will soon meet the insurgents.

You are not the aggressors. A turbulent faction, misled by ambitious rulers in a time of profound peace and national prosperity, have occupied your forts and turned the guns against you; have seized your arsenals and armories, and appropriated to themselves Government supplies; have arrested and held prisoners your companions marching to their homes under State pledge of security; have captured vessels and provisions voluntarily assured by State legislation from molestation, and now seek to perpetuate a reign of terror over loyal citizens.

They have invaded a loyal State and intrenched themselves within its boundaries in defiance of its constituted authorities.

You are going on American soil, to sustain the civil power, to relieve the oppressed, and to retake that which is unlawfully held.

You must bear in mind you are going for the good of the whole country, and that while it is your duty to punish sedition, you must protect the loyal, and, should occasion offer, at once suppress servile insurrection.

Success will crown your efforts; a grateful country and a happy people will reward you.

By order of Major-General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, June 3, 1861.

Col. W. B. FRANKLIN, U. S. A., New York City:

How many of the three years’ regiments south of Albany are organized? Order immediately to this place by Harrisburg all that are ready.

SIMON CAMERON Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS, June 3, 1861.

General McDOWELL, Commanding, &c., Arlington:

General Scott desires you to submit an estimate of the number and composition of a column to be pushed towards Manassas Junction, and perhaps the gap, say in four or five days, to favor Patterson’s attack on Harper’s Ferry.

The rumor is that Arlington Heights will be attacked to-night.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., June 4, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have nothing of special interest to report since my last, save the general health of the troops. Their condition in discipline {p.663} and drill is much improved. I have had great pain in being obliged to issue the accompanying general order. The volunteer troops seem to have adopted the theory that all property of the inhabitants was subject to plunder. I have taken the most energetic measures to correct this idea and prevent plundering. There are some few flagrant instances which can admit neither of palliation nor justification. I have proposed to deal with these by court-martial, which I have ordered in session to-morrow. As the outrages to be investigated are very grave, and as the punishment ought to be, and may be, very severe, I will take leave, unless otherwise instructed, to report the proceedings to yourself before any severe punishment is inflicted.

I have had no new accession of troops since my last report, save that a body of men known as the Naval Brigade, amounting to eight hundred and eighty, were reported here as ready to enlist in the service of the United States; but, under the instructions of the War Department, I have not received them into the service, and have sent so many of them home by the steamer in which they were brought as did not voluntarily engage to labor in the engineer, ordnance, and quartermaster’s departments about the fortress. These men have very much embarrassed me. While I impute no fault, save that perhaps of want of discretion (which I easily pardon), to their colonel, Washington A. Bartlett, esq., I have been exceedingly annoyed with this whole subject; but I hope it is now finally adjusted.

I have here altogether about six thousand effective men, and no more. I am as yet without transportation trains or surf-boats, which I must have in order to make a movement, the project of which I will submit to yourself in my next dispatch. I am preparing myself, however, to be able to land, by causing one regiment at least to be drilled in embarking in and landing from boats. I have also sent up to the mouth of the Susquehanna to charter or purchase ten of a kind of fishing boats, which, I am informed by a gentleman connected with the squadron, will be the best possible, except regularly-constructed surf-boats, for the purpose of landing troops. I hope to receive them within the next three days.

I have the honor to report the camp at Newport News and the battery there, to command the mouth of the James River, in a state of defense and forwardness, which I think will enable us to hold it against any force which may be brought against it.

We have made an armed reconnaissance some nine miles towards Yorktown, and find no armed men in that direction nearer than the Half-Way House, some twelve miles hence, and that but a picket guard of the enemy, who is in considerable force at Yorktown.

May I most respectfully ask if there is any reason known to the Lieutenant-General why the troops that were expected, and which I understood were promised to arrive here, have not been forwarded?

I beg leave further to call the attention of the Lieutenant-General to the fact that from some oversight, probably in the Adjutant-General’s Office, the orders creating the Department of Virginia, North and South Carolina, which I understood were issued when I was in Washington, have not been published; at least I have not seen them. May I ask the attention of Lieutenant-General Scott to this omission, which might prove embarrassing?

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding. {p.664} [Inclosure.]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., May 28, 1861.

The general in command has heard with pain that there are instances of despoliation of private property by some persons who have smuggled themselves among the soldiers of his command. This must not and shall not be. The rights of private property and of peaceable citizens must be respected. When the exigencies of the service require that private property be taken for public use, it must be done by proper officers, giving suitable vouchers therefor. It is made the special duty of every officer in command of any post, or of any troops on detached service or in camp, to cause all offenders in the matter of this order to be sent to headquarters for punishment, and such measure of justice will be meted out to them as is due to thieves and plunderers. If any corps shall conceal or aid in receiving plundered property or plunderers, such corps will be dealt with in its organization in such a manner as to check such practices.

This order will be promulgated by being three times read with distinctness to each battalion at evening parade.

Any citizen, at peace with the United States, despoiled in his person or property by any of the troops of this department, win confer a favor by forthwith reporting the outrage to the nearest officer.

By command of Major-General B. F. Butler:

W. D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT N. E. VIRGINIA, Arlington, June 4, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report as follows, in compliance with your telegram of the 3d instant requiring me to submit “an estimate of the number and composition of a column to be pushed towards Manassas Junction, and perhaps the gap, say in four or five days, to favor Patterson’s attack on Harper’s Ferry.”

In view of the number of the enemy supposed to be at Manassas Junction, at Centreville, Fairfax Station, Fairfax Court-House, and other places this side of Manassas, and of that at places beyond Manassas, but within a few hours of it by rail, and of the possibility of troops coming from the valley through the gap, I think the actual entire force at the head of the column should, for the purpose of carrying the position at Manassas and of occupying both the road to Culpeper and the one to the gap, be as much as 12,000 infantry, two batteries of regular artillery, and from six to eight companies of cavalry, with an available reserve ready to move forward from Alexandria by rail of 5,000 infantry and one heavy field battery, rifled if possible; these numbers to be increased or diminished as events may indicate. I propose that this force, composed mostly of new troops, shall be organized into field brigades, under active and experienced colonels of the Army, whilst their regiments are being recruited, aided by a few regular officers. This is made the more necessary from the fact that the presence on this side of some corps indifferently commanded has led to numerous acts of petty depredations, pillage &c., which have exasperated the inhabitants and chilled the hopes of the Union men, and show that these regiments should {p.665} all of them be restrained as well as led; and where, as is the case with many, they are not so by their officers, they must have some one immediately over them who can and will. I do not propose to have a supply train of wagons for the main body, but to use the railroad, which makes it necessary that every bridge or other important point be guarded, and have either a block-house or field-work. This will require several Engineer officers, and a fall supply of intrenching tools, axes, &c.

I have now, perhaps, done all that the General-in-Chief desires of me, but I will take the liberty of adding a few remarks, if not even some suggestions. As soon as we commence to move they will do the same, and as their communications with their position at Harper’s Ferry, which they evidently cherish, will be threatened, they will do as they did when we first came over-hurry forward from all the stations at the South-and the question arises as to the best point or line it is advisable to hold, even for defensive purposes. This, it seems to me, is the line of the Rappahannock, which, if occupied in force, will effectually free all Northeastern Virginia, without coming in contact with the inhabitants, and also free the Potomac. It will be necessary to hold the Aquia Creek Railroad, which, if done in large numbers, would make a powerful diversion in General Butler’s favor. It is true the foregoing is not directly in answer to the question of the General-in-Chief but I think it flows from it. In relation to the number of troops to be used, I have only to say-what, perhaps, is evident enough, however-that in proportion to the numbers used will be the lives saved; and as we have such numbers pressing to be allowed to serve, might it not be well to overwhelm and conquer as much by the show of force as by the use of it?

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, colonel, your most obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 4, 1861.

Gen. R. PATTERSON, Chambersburg, Pa.:

General Scott says do not make a move forward until you are joined by a battery of the Fourth Artillery and a battalion of five companies Third U. S. Infantry, to leave here the 6th instant for Carlisle. Company F, Fourth Artillery, is the one to be mounted. Orders have been given to purchase horses and collect the guns, equipments, &c., as soon as possible at Carlisle. It will require some days, but the General considers this addition to your force indispensable If two Ohio regiments come to you, retain them. Also halt the first two regiments that may pass through Harrisburg from the North to this city, and add them to Your force. You will receive a letter from the General before you move.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, June 5, 1861.

Governor ANDREW, Boston, Mass.:

Send to this place, via Easton and Harrisburg, all your three years’ regiments as soon as organized. Please report the number.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

{p.666}

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ARLINGTON, June 5, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel TOWNSEND:

The following information is respectfully forwarded.

General McDowell is temporarily absent.

JAMES B. FRY, A. A. G.

ALEXANDRIA, June 5, 1861.

Capt. J. B. FRY, Arlington:

I have it from a most reliable source that there are 20,000 men at Manassas Junction, Lee’s Station, Fairfax Court-House, and Centreville. Persons from there are instructed to say that there is a much smaller force there. General Beauregard arrived at Manassas Junction on Friday last. General Lee has returned to Richmond.

S. P. HEINTZELMAN.

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CINCINNATI, June 6, 1861.

General SCOTT:

Recent developments show that it is absolutely necessary to muster in Virginia troops between Grafton and Parkersburg for service in that State. This cannot be delayed, and every motive of policy requires it to be done at once. I am so urgently solicited by Carlile and other reliable Unionists to take this step, that I feel forced to do so, unless I hear from you to the contrary. The case requires prompt action.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 6, 1861.

Maj. Gen. G. B. MCCLELLAN:

Muster in the Western Virginians as you propose.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA., June 6, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

SIR : I have the honor to report the arrival of Colonel Townsend with the Third New York Regiment of Volunteers, 800 strong, so that now the aggregate effective force under my command, including the regulars, may be set down at 6,750 men. As yet, however, we have not a single piece of artillery for the field. I received some artillery harness, however, and will ask leave to enlist from the three-months’ men for three years two companies of artillerists. We have no horses even sufficient for the quartermaster’s service yet. May I have permission to cause to be bought horses for the guns? I have thought that, as the quartermaster’s service is so pressed in New York, if I had authority to order purchases in Boston, which is substantially an untried market, it might be done with advantage and economy to the Government. My military secretary, Major Fay, is now in Boston arranging his private affairs. He is a thorough business man, and would cause an inspection of the animals before delivery.

The intrenchments at Newport News will be completed by the time {p.667} this report reaches you, and the place is really very strong. A battery of four 8-inch columbiads will command the channel of the James River upon one side, but still leaves open the channel on the Nansemond side.

On this side, as you will perceive, is Pig Point, upon which the rebels have erected batteries, which they are striving now to finish, mounting some seven guns of 32-pounders and 42-pounders. If we were in possession of Pig Point the James and Nansemond would both be under our control, and the services of one blockading vessel might be dispensed with, which are now required to prevent water communication between Richmond and Williamsburg and Norfolk and Suffolk. My proposition is, therefore, to make a combined naval and land attack upon Pig Point, and endeavor to carry the batteries both by turning them and by direct attack from the naval force; if we succeed, then to intrench ourselves there with what speed we may, and re-establish the battery; but at the same time to push on with the same flotilla of boats with which we land up the Nansemond, which is navigable for boats and I believe light-draught steamers, to Suffolk, a distance of twelve miles. When once there, the Commanding General’s familiarity with the country or a glance at the map will show that we are in possession of all the railroad communications between Richmond, Petersburg, and Norfolk, and also of the Great Shore Line, connecting Virginia with North Carolina via Weldon, by which the guns taken at the navy-yard will be sent South whenever the operation in that direction demands.

By going eight and a half miles farther, by Jericho Canal we enter Drummond Lake, a sheet of water some four by six miles. From the lake the feeder of the Dismal Swamp Canal might be cut off, and that means of transport cut off. Once at Suffolk in position, with these lines of communication of the enemy cut off, Norfolk must fall with her own weight. Starvation, to be brought on by simply gathering up the provisions of Princess Anne County, will make her batteries and the theft of the navy-yard guns substantially valueless, and will save many lives to be spent otherwise in their reduction. I am not insensible to the disadvantages and difficulties of this project, which I may have painted with too much couleur de rose. I do not recognize as among the most formidable the reduction of Pig Point Battery-that is, there is plenty of depth of water within point-blank range to float the Cumberland; but, the battery once reduced, there must be a pretty active march on Suffolk to prevent trouble; some fortifications there, which I believe have not yet been undertaken.

If I am right in the importance which I attach to this position, then I must expect all the force of the rebels both from Norfolk and Richmond, brought there by the railroads, to be precipitated upon me, and be prepared to meet it in the open field. Could they do otherwise? Norfolk would be hemmed in. Am I able to withstand such an attack between two forces which may act in conjunction, with the necessary drafts from my force to keep open the line of communication by the Nansemond with Newport News, which would then be the right flank of my base of operations?

All these questions, much more readily and easily comprehended by the General-in-Chief than by myself, with the thousand suggestions that will at once present themselves to his mind, are most respectfully submitted. May I ask for full and explicit instructions upon this matter? I have adopted the suggestions of the Lieutenant-General upon the subject of arming the flank companies of Colonel Duryea’s command {p.668} with 200 Sharp’s rifles, which were sent here for the so-called Naval Brigade.

Further, I have the honor to report a general state of good health on the part of the troops, and that no disaster has befallen us, except the great influx of slaves.

I have the honor to be, most truly, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 6, 1861.

Col. LEWIS WALLACE, Eleventh Indiana Regiment, Cumberland, Md.:

SIR: I am instructed by Major-General Patterson to direct you to halt your forces at Cumberland, securing the bridges over the Potomac and Green Spring Run, respectively, five and fifteen miles upon this side, and there to await further orders from him. He also instructs me to add in his name, as follows: Gather as much reliable information as possible of the disposition of the people of Maryland and Virginia in that vicinity, and extend your inquiries by secret agents south into Virginia and east along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Encourage the Unionists in disaffected regions to band together for self-defense, and to take heart from the support the Government has already given and the protection now given to them. By a kind, yet firm, course on your part, and by the good deportment of your troops, secure the confidence and good-will of the community in which you may be located. Let the inhabitants feel you are in their midst as friends and protectors. Should you gain information of the gathering, for offensive movements, of armed bodies of men not too powerful to be overcome by a force you can safely detach, capture or rout them by surprise, if possible, and seize and held as prisoners of war all parties injuring the lines of communication, or arrayed or plotting against the peace of the United States; ascertain the resources of the country, with a view of subsisting your command (perhaps to be largely increased), and drawing as little as possible provisions and stores from this or other distant regions.

The commanding general desires you to report in full your operations and any information gained on matters of importance, and from time to time, as occasion may offer, he would be pleased to hear from you on such topics as you may deem of interest.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CHAMBERSBURG, Pa., June 7, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Washington City:

SIR: The inclosed telegrams will inform the General-in-Chief how the Elmira regiment succeeded in passing out of this department and what companies of the Second Infantry have, been to Pittsburgh.*

From private information I have reason to believe Company C, Second {p.669} Infantry, will soon be in from Fort Ripley. Am I authorized to take it and others of the regiment passing East!

I desire in a few days to occupy the roads beyond Hagerstown, and to establish my headquarters in that town, but do not, in face of the order of the General-in-Chief not to make a forward movement, like to advance beyond Greencastle, to which point Colonel Thomas’ brigade moved to-day. I can in a few days hence throw with wagons eight thousand men beyond that point, and by rail at the same time two thousand more.

While the river is high from recent rains, I wish to establish my depots and to intrench my left flank on the Boonsborough road, placing there the force with which I can threaten the Maryland Heights, and, should a favorable occasion offer, storm them. This force will be that which I will not be able to provide with sufficient transportation at present. The approaches to Harper’s Ferry are so well guarded, and the sympathizers with the rebels in the immediate vicinity so numerous, that no spy can approach their works. The little information I can gain assures me that they are fortifying west of Harper’s Ferry as well as at the Maryland Heights, and design on this field to make a desperate struggle for supremacy.

Independent of the regular force with Colonel Thomas, I have now in this vicinity seventeen regiments, all the force which is to join me, except the New York and Ohio regiments, of which I know nothing.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 7, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Washington City:

SIR: On the 24th ultimo I was notified by the General-in-Chief to make use of the New Jersey quota on this line. I called upon the governor of that State to ascertain when they would be ready, and was informed that they would, at the request of the Secretary, go to Washington.

Before daybreak this morning a New York regiment passed through Harrisburg, claiming orders of later date than the 4th instant from the General-in-Chief too move to Washington. I have ordered it to return, unless their last order from the General-in-Chief is subsequent to the one to me.

To-day I commenced placing on the road to Hagerstown the brigades as prepared, Colonel Thomas, Second Cavalry, leading off with five companies of horse; a battalion of two companies of the First Artillery; one of Eighth Infantry, and one of volunteers; the Sixth, Twenty-first, and Twenty-third Regiments Pennsylvania Volunteers. He will encamp near Greencastle, and hold himself ready to move at any moment.

To-morrow morning Brigadier-General Williams, commanding the Seventh, Eighth, Tenth, and Twentieth Regiments, will encamp near him. If Colonel Miles arrives by the time wagons will be prepared, he will be assigned to the command of a brigade, and placed in close proximity to General Williams. The baggage train comes in slowly, but every one is working hard, intelligently, and cheerfully to be prepared at the earliest moment, and I expect that by the arrival of the Third {p.670} Infantry and battery the whole command, will be ready to move off together.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 7, 1861.

Col. GEORGE H. THOMAS, U. S. A Second Cavalry, Comdg. First Brigade, Greencastle, Pa.:

COLONEL: The commanding general does not wish to make any movement forward tending to permanent occupation tin he is prepared with all his force to sustain the advance. He wishes every precaution taken against precipitate action and nursing ill-feeling, both by political discussions and improper conduct of the men. The Army must have no enemies in the rear. On your prudence and judgment he relies to maintain the present status.

Appeals may be made to cross into Virginia to protect Union people under assurance that a small force only is required to present itself for disunion to hide its head and loyal people to flock to your banners. They must not be heeded. If, however, inroads are made into Maryland within your reach, the commanding general desires you to meet the invaders with a force which will ride down all opposition, and in all cases to return to your present camp. When practicable, the surprise of armed parties will be effected. Brigadier-General Williams will be immediately in your rear, and is directed to sustain you in all cases.

I am, &c.,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 8, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. A. MORRIS, Commanding U. S. Volunteers, Grafton, W. Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter introducing Mr. Philip Pendleton has been handed to me by that gentleman. Mr. Pendleton has given me much valuable information, and I am extremely gratified by your kindness in referring him to me. I request that you will not allow yourself to be hampered by the fear of trespassing on my department. I would suggest the propriety of securing Smith’s farm and Paddytown and the bridges in their vicinity, with a view of cutting off such supplies as may be found in those neighborhoods, and dispersing any bodies of insurgents that you may meet, or who may assemble near your line of operations.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 8, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. Forces, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: I think your expedition against Harper’s Ferry well projected, and that success in it would be an important step in the war; but there {p.671} must be no reverse. Hence I have given you the best re-enforcements within my reach, and have just ordered Colonel Burnside’s fine Rhode Island regiment of infantry, with its battery (about 1,200 strong), to proceed to Carlisle, and there receive your orders. A company of the Fourth Artillery (to receive its horses and battery at Carlisle) with the battalion of the Third Infantry took the same route and with the same instructions yesterday. This battery may not be ready for you in time, though these heavy rains must swell the Potomac and delay your passage some days.

I am organizing, to aid you, a small secondary expedition under Colonel Stone. He will have about 2,500 men, including two troops of cavalry and a section (two pieces) of artillery.

The movements by road and canal will commence the 10th instant, and passing up the country, touching at Rockville, be directed upon the ferry opposite to Leesburg. This may be but a diversion in your favor, but possibly it may be turned into an effective co-operation. Colonel Stone will be instructed to open a communication with you if practicable, and you will make a corresponding effort on your part.

I do not distinctly foresee that we shall be able to make any diversion in your behalf on the other side of the Potomac beyond repairing the lower part of the railroad leading from Alexandria towards the Manassas Gap.

I have said that we must sustain no reverse; but this is not enough, a check or a drawn battle would be a victory to the enemy, filling his heart with joy, his ranks with men, and his magazines with voluntary contributions.

Take your measures, therefore, circumspectly; make a good use of your engineers and other experienced staff officers and generals, and attempt nothing without a clear prospect of success, as you will find the enemy strongly posted and not inferior to you in numbers.

With entire confidence in your valor and judgment, I remain, your brother soldier,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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FREDERICK CITY, MD., June 9, 1861.

General PATTERSON, Comdg. U. S. Forces at or near Chambersburg, Pa.

Whereas Lieutenant-General Scott has authorized me, by an accredited messenger, to make a requisition upon you for a detachment of troops, to be sent to Frederick City, if in my discretion I deem it necessary for the public welfare; and whereas the city of Frederick is at any moment liable to attack by the rebels at Harper’s Ferry and vicinity; and whereas stores and provisions are daily sent from this city and vicinity to Virginia, in aid and comfort of the enemy, I having no means at my disposal of preventing said transportation of stores And provisions:

Now, therefore, I, Thomas H. Hicks, governor of Maryland, do, by this my requisition, call upon you for such detachment of the troops under your command as you, in your military knowledge, may deem sufficient for the purposes indicated, provided your response for this requisition will not interfere with the safety of the great interests confided to you.

I have the honor to be, with high respect, your obedient servant,

THOS. H. HICKS.

{p.672}

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WASHINGTON, June 10, 1861.

Maj. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Commanding Fort Monroe, Virginia:

SIR: Your letters of the 4th and 6th instant are received.

The General-in-Chief desires me to say in reply, that he highly commends your zeal and activity, which oblige the enemy to strengthen his camp and posts in your vicinity and hold him constantly on the alert. The principal value of your movement upon Suffolk is, that it would be the easiest route to the Gosport navy-yard, and the objects (including many ships of war) which our people on the former occasion left undestroyed. The possession of Norfolk within itself is of no importance whilst we blockade Hampton Roads; but the destruction of the railroads leading from that city, as far as you may find it practicable, would be a valuable coercive measure.

The naval commander should aid you in the collection of boats for joint expeditions, and the Secretary of War has said that he would cause some eighty horses to be bought and shipped to you for a light battery.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CHAMBERSBURG, June 10, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

DEAR GENERAL : I have your note, and thank you for the attention. There, is no use in telegraphing General Scott or the Department to stop troops at Harrisburg. Under authority from General Scott I have ordered from New York regiments in succession to proceed from Harrisburg to this place, and in each case the colonels have refused to obey. If the Department will send orders to their camps to come here, they will probably obey; not else.

Remember, I beseech you, that Harpers Ferry is (as I have said from the first) the place where the first great battle will be fought, and the result will be decisive of the future. The insurgents are strongly intrenched, have an immense number of guns, and will contest every inch of ground. Under these, circumstances I earnestly and urgently request that you order the regiments expected in Harrisburg and the three New Jersey regiments to proceed to this place with all dispatch. The commander of the Jersey regiments has served with me, and I can rely on him. The Jersey troops were put under my command by General Scott, but Governor Olden says you have ordered them to go to Washington, not being aware, I suppose, that they had been assigned to me by the General-in-Chief. Pardon me for pressing this subject. The importance of victory at Harper’s Ferry cannot be estimated. I cannot sleep for thinking about it. Remember, my dear general, that my reputation and the reputation of our dear old State is at stake in this issue. I beseech you, therefore, by our ancient friendship, give me the means of success. You have the means; place them at my disposal, and shoot me if I do not use them to advantage.

With great regard, truly yours,

R. PATTERSON.

Please issue the orders at once.

{p.673}

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 10, 1861.

His Excellency THOMAS H. HICKS, Governor of Maryland:

GOVERNOR: In response to the communication of the 9th instant, with which you have honored me, and to the call for protection you make upon the troops under my command, I have to inform you that the public interest in your vicinity, as well as in other portions of your State, have received my devoted attention, and that I am preparing to protect and secure you against molestation by the common enemy of our country; and I assure you that the people throughout your State, and especially in the vicinity of Frederick, shall have protection so soon as I can extend it consistently with the safety of other important interests confided to me and movements, one object of which is to rid you forever of the parties of whom you complain.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 10, 1861.

General R. PATTERSON, U. S. A., Chambersburg, Pa.:

The General-in-Chief says call the two regiments of Colonels Small and Einstein to your column. He thinks this will probably be as much addition as you will now require to your force.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CINCINNATI, June 11, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. W. SCOTT:

Immediately upon receipt of your telegram of the 6th I gave orders to muster in Virginia troops for defense of the State. Counter order of Secretary of War received yesterday, and at once transmitted to General Morris at Grafton. Just received from him the following telegram:

If we don’t muster Virginians into service according to proclamation and arm them, we must quit the territory or prepare to hold it with Federal troops. The strong motive of the move here is gone unless their volunteers are received. Such as volunteer for the service will not enter unconditionally, having not State aid. Small force of rebels can control numbers. Have already mustered some informally. When a regiment is ready it will not do to disband. The effect would be disastrous. It is the cheapest way to defend Western Virginia. It is the only way to unite her citizens. Other methods will fail.

I fully concur with General Morris and the leading men in Virginia, and think it would be impolitic to make further movements in Western Virginia at present unless we can follow it up by raising Virginia troops for their own defense. If decision cannot be reversed, shall troops now mustered in be disbanded? I beg and trust not.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, U. S. Army. {p.674}

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Cincinnati, June 11, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I sent by telegraph to-day General Morris’ telegram in relation to troops in Western Virginia. It is long, but of such importance, that I felt it necessary to transmit it as it was. I cannot urge too strongly the importance of this matter, on which hinges, I think, the fate of Western Virginia. I regard the position of Western Virginia as very different from that of Maryland. The anxiety in regard to this condition arises, I think, not from any unwillingness to fight the battles of the Union on any battle-field, but from the natural solicitude of a simple people for their own homes and families. We have it in our power to unite that people firmly to us forever. I hope the opportunity may not be permitted to pass by. I ask the efforts of the Lieutenant-General in my support.

General Morris informs me to-day by telegram that one of his parties has dispersed another small camp at St. George, capturing a lieutenant and two secession flags. If secession flags are not too plenty with you I will forward that taken at Philippi in fair fight.

I have been prevented from a forward movement on Beverly by the want of transportation and cavalry. The first defect is by this time remedied, and I am trying to secure the second by inducing the governor to raise State cavalry. I know the slender force of regulars on hand, and dislike asking for them, but if I could have the six companies of First Cavalry now at Fort Leavenworth, I could make excellent use of them.

I have been obliged to defer the Kanawha movement for a few days. I hope before I am ready to make it to have received authority to muster in Virginia troops for the defense of that valley. I learned to-day, from authority apparently reliable, that two regiments of Tennessee troops had orders to move last night from Camp Cheatham (near Nashville) to Union City, and thence, when re-enforced, to take possession of Island No. 1, some six miles south of Cairo. I at once sent to General Buckner a telegram, of which I inclose a copy, also one, to Governor Magoffin, and had them repeated to Hon. J. J. Crittenden and Hon. James Guthrie for their information. General Buckner came to see me on Friday last. We sat up all night talking about matters of common interest. Buckner gave me his word that should any Tennessee troops cross the frontier of Kentucky he would use all the force at his disposal to drive them out, and, failing in that, would call on me for assistance. He went to Tennessee after leaving here to present that view to Governor Harris.

Great trouble is being experienced in reorganizing the regiments at Camp Dennison. It is very necessary that money should be provided at once to pay off the three-months’ men and get them out of the way, say $120,000 at a rough calculation.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. B. McCLELLAN Major-General, U. S. Army.

[Inclosures.]

CINCINNATI, June 11, 1861.

General S. B. BUCKNER, Louisville, Ky. :

I have information, apparently reliable, that at least two Tennessee regiments had orders to move last night from Camp Cheatham to Union {p.675} City, thence, on being re-enforced, to occupy at once Island No. 1, six miles below Cairo. I notify you of this in accordance with our understanding that you would not permit Tennessee troops to cross Your frontier. Please reply at once whether you consider the island on the Kentucky side of the channel within the jurisdiction of Kentucky, and how you regard those on the Missouri side of the river. Prompt action is necessary.

GEO. B. MCCLELLAN, Major-General.

CINCINNATI, June 11, 1861.

Gov. B. MAGOFFIN, Frankfort, Ky.:

I have received information that Tennessee troops are under orders to occupy Island No. 1, six miles below Cairo. In accordance with my understanding with General Buckner, I call upon you to prevent this step. Do you regard the islands in the Mississippi River above the Tennessee line as within your jurisdiction; and, if so, what ones?

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 5.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, June 11, 1861.

In pursuance of orders from the headquarters of the Army, Major-General Banks hereby assumes command of the Department of Annapolis.*

By order of Major-General Banks:

ROBERT WILLIAMS, Assistant-Adjutant General.

* Relieving Brevet Major-General Cadwalader.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 12, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Washington City:

SIR: I yesterday notified you of the occupation of Cumberland by the Indiana regiment under Colonel Wallace, and the fact of secession militia being in his vicinity, upon whom he designed to call. I now inclose for the information of the General-in-Chief the satisfactory report of his journey through Virginia.

I have reason to believe that with few exceptions the people of Maryland are loyal, and wherever a Federal force will appear disloyalty will hide its head and the Government receive powerful auxiliaries. The Unionists now present a bold front and call for aid, which, as I cannot now give and properly sustain, would invite attack and perhaps cause defeat.

In the counties bordering the Potomac are many Union-loving people, but the secessionists are so powerful and violent and well armed, that our friends dare not express open sympathy, and are often forced to array themselves against us. For, this reason and to sustain the command at Cumberland, which can gradually work its way east, repairing bridges, I would respectfully suggest two regiments at least, if they could be devoted to that purpose, be designated to protect the road in the rear and permit Colonel Wallace to approach. Supplies must also {p.676} be sent by rail from Wheeling, and require protection. I regret my command is not in condition and sufficiently strong in face of a powerful foe to detach at present a force towards Cumberland. I am resolved to conquer and risk nothing.

On Saturday my depot will be established in Hagerstown, and immediately thereafter my headquarters will be transferred to that place. The want of wagons and the difficulty of procuring teams rapidly enough, has trammeled me and does so yet, but on Saturday night I shall have in front of Hagerstown over ten thousand men, strongly posted. With depot there established the different commands will be fitted with expedition and pushed towards the river. The Fourth Artillery battery will not receive its horses before Saturday. The heavy battery will arrive in Hagerstown after me. Before being prepared to advance from that point the troops will be well drilled and disciplined. A marked improvement is daily manifested in their military exercises, and the regiments lately arrived are in excellent condition and drill. Their successes ere long will, I hope, prove we have gained by delay.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

CUMBERLAND, MD., June 11, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON:

SIR: Your dispatches, by hand of Jerome Closson, were delivered to me by him this morning, shortly after my arrival. At this time I have only to say that your instructions shall be carried out to the best of my ability. It gives me pleasure to add that my command has been most kindly and hospitably received by the citizens of Cumberland, who appear from their demonstrations to be most loyal and Union. I may also say that I reached this point by way of Grafton, and along my route through Virginia was met with a feeling of good-will amounting to enthusiasm. Although my march was considerably in advance of General McClellan’s troops, and through what is called a disaffected region, there was not a single act of hostility to disturb my progress or interrupt communication with General Morris’ command at Grafton.

By every available opportunity I will forward you reports of the positions and strength of my detachments and the condition of my regiment. At this time I have over eight hundred effective men keen for the contest, uniformed and very perfectly equipped for the field. If there is impropriety in the remark, general, I hope you will excuse it, but I cannot help concluding with an earnest expression of the hope that you will not forget me when you advance upon Harper’s Ferry and Richmond, if such be your aim. Through special favor of General Scott (God bless him) we are in the East and under your command, probably the only stranger regiment in a division of gallant soldiers. I hail from a State, which, since Buena Vista, has been under a cloud of slander. Do not, I beg you, withhold from us the only chance we may ever have to show the people of the East that Indiana has as much courage as loyalty, and can and will fight to the last man to crush out treason and vindicate her lost honor. General, I will go to the duty you have assigned me, confidently relying upon your generosity and judgment.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your servant,

LEWIS WALLACE, Colonel Eleventh Indiana Regiment.

{p.677}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Cincinnati, June 12, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have, the honor to inclose for the information of the General-in-Chief a letter from the Hon. Garrett Davis.

I leave this afternoon for Cairo. In the mean time I have started all the preparations for an expedition to gain possession of the Kanawha Valley, which will probably be the end of the secession cause in that region.

I have directed Major Marcy to make, a careful inspection or those Illinois regiments which I will not see en route, to Cairo.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, U. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

PARIS, Ky., April [June ?] 8, 1861.

General GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN:

DEAR SIR: It will probably be unnecessary and superfluous, but still I feel impelled to address you this note:

An intelligent friend was with me last evening who had left the State of Mississippi three days before, and traveled through a section of Tennessee and from Nashville to Louisville by the railroad. He informed me that the insurgents claimed to have eight thousand troops at Corinth, in Mississippi, and about twenty thousand along the railroad between Nashville and the Kentucky line and along that line. He understood from an officer high in command in one of their camps that there was a perfect understanding between their leaders and our governor that if Colonel Anderson moved with any troops to Louisville or the authorities of the United States proceeded to take possession of Louisville and of the railroad, or to violate the neutrality of Kentucky as laid down in the governor’s proclamation, the Tennesseeans had his express permission to take possession of the road in Kentucky and also of Louisville, and that they, with the secessionists in that part of Kentucky, would advance upon Louisville with twenty thousand troops.

My informant further said that the same officer had disclosed to him this as the general plan of the campaign by the Confederate leaders in Virginia: Beauregard was to make a movement on Alexandria and a feint attack on Mansfield’s lines, and then fall rapidly back on the interior of Virginia, with a view to draw Mansfield after him in rapid pursuit, and in this way he was to be drawn deeply in the pursuit, when all the Confederate forces that could in the interval be assembled in Virginia and all that could be got together in that State were to move rapidly upon him, intercept his retreat, and capture or annihilate his army. The gentleman told me that the whole Southern people were animated by the most intense hatred against the Northern States and Lincoln’s administration, and felt the greatest confidence that their forces would be victorious wherever they fought on anything like equal terms. He also expressed his own belief that the Southern men had much greater skill in the use of small-arms, superiority in horsemanship, and were more alert and spirited than Northern men, and that when they were anything like equal in numbers they would be victorious, especially in the early battles.

{p.678}

I do not believe we can much longer escape trouble in Kentucky. The sympathy for the South and the inclination to secession among our people is much stronger in the southwestern comer of the State than it is in any other part, and as you proceed towards the upper section of the Ohio River and our Virginia line it gradually becomes weaker until it is almost wholly lost. The vote for our delegates to the Border State Convention was not a true test of the strength of parties in our State, though I doubt not that two-thirds of our people are unconditionally for the Union. The timid and quiet are for it, and they shrink from convulsion and civil war, whilst all the bold, the reckless, and the bankrupt are for secession. They think that if they could have a large body of their partisans armed as the Knights of the Golden Cross, the State Guards, &c., they could strike a startling blow, establish extensively over the State a reign of terror, and force Kentucky out as Virginia and Tennessee were taken. Such an attempt would have been much more apt to have succeeded before the distribution of the arms that we obtained through Lieutenant Nelson. Since the Union men got them they have organized companies and have been actively drilling, and they feet much more confidence in their ability to defend themselves and a growing disposition to uphold the Union at all hazards; but all the efforts of our governor and of our inspector-general have been to arm the secessionists and to keep arms from the Union men. The consequence is that the secessionists have the largest number of armed men.

We have placed the 5,000 muskets in the hands of the Union men, of whom about one-half would use them in defense of the Union in their particular localities and the others anywhere in the State. We have something like one hundred companies organized widely over the State who have applied for arms since we distributed our whole stock, and we have not been able to furnish them with a gun. We were promised 5,000 more of muskets and 8,000 Sharp’s and Enfield rifles. It has been unfortunate that they were withheld, for we could by this time have had them all distributed to good men, which would have made the Union strength in the State invincible. There is a great difference between Union men armed and unarmed. We ought to be putting many more guns in the hands of our friends, and particularly in the northern and eastern sections of the State, for there the largest body of its most faithful friends is to be found. About the latter part of this month or first of July the ball will very probably open. You will have to move on Paducah and Columbus, in this State, and Memphis, in Tennessee, and if we now had the arms that were promised us we would have ready three times as large a movable force to aid you as we could now bring in the field. We will find our governor a declared and active rebel, and we would have ample numbers to drive him from the State.

Your obedient servant,

GARRETT DAVIS.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 12, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Headquarters of Army, Washington City:

General Cadwalader arrived, and goes to Greencastle to command First Division, composed of First, Third, and Fourth Brigades. Am delayed for want of transportation, which comes in slowly. Saturday shall establish depot at Hagerstown, well guarded in advance. Write by mail to-day. Nothing new.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.679}

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CIRCULAR.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 12, 1861.

The commanding general directs the following movements to take place on Saturday morning:

The First Brigade, Colonel Thomas commanding, will march by the Williamsport and Greencastle road, leaving Hagerstown to the left, and establish its camp near Williamsport, but far enough from the river to be free from the enemy’s shot. He will hold Williamsport and protect the ford by artillery.

The Fourth Brigade, Colonel Miles commanding, will follow the First Brigade, and locate its camp temporarily on stream in the rear and on the right of First Brigade.

The Third Brigade, Brigadier-General Williams commanding, will take the Hagerstown turnpike and the direct road to Sharpsburg, and establish its camp near head of stream. This brigade will throw a large picket towards Sharpsburg.

The Second Brigade, Brigadier-General Wynkoop commanding, will proceed by rail to Hagerstown and march on the Frederick turnpike to vicinity of Funkstown.

The Fifth Brigade, Brigadier-General Negley commanding, will move by rail as rapidly as possible, and be established on the Hagerstown and Williamsport turnpike.

The quartermaster will provide wagon transportation in Hagerstown for this and the preceding column.

Each brigade will post its guards and sentinels so as to secure a continuous line from camp to camp, and place its pickets far enough in advance and on the flanks to secure against surprise.

Each brigade will protect the adjoining one, and in case of attack go to its assistance.

The Fifth Brigade will, in addition to being the reserve, provide the guards for the store-houses, hospitals, &c., in the vicinity of Hagerstown.

In selecting camps, the commanding officers will have a regard for defense and drill and healthy locations.

General Cadwalader will see to the location of the camp of each brigade and administration of affairs.

General Keim will see to the execution of orders in this vicinity, until the departure, of his division, when he will join it in front of Hagerstown.

Immediately on arrival of a train in Hagerstown the regiments will be formed and marched through town and be located on its ground in line of battle, its pickets thrown out and guards established.

The men must be kept in camp ready at all times for instant action, and be drilled in the school of the company and regiment.

By order of Major-General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 12, 1861.

General MCCLELLAN, U. S. A., Cincinnati, Ohio:

Your telegram of yesterday is received. There has been a misapprehension somewhere. The Secretary of War approves your policy of mustering Western Virginians to defend Western Virginia. Proceed in this at your discretion.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

{p.680}

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WASHINGTON, June 13, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Commanding, &c., Chambersburg, Pa.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs me to say that on the supposition you will cross the river Monday or Tuesday next (17th or 18th), Brigadier-General McDowell will be instructed to make a demonstration from Alexandria in the direction of Manassas Junction one or two days before. The General does not wish you to hasten, but keep him informed, so that General McDowell may properly time his movement.

Colonel Stone is advancing on Edwards Ferry and towards Leesburg, to intercept supplies and be governed by circumstances. If he finds means to communicate with you, and it is expedient to effect a junction with you, he has instructions to do so. The General has sent a man (William Johnston) to endeavor to pass through Harper’s Ferry, and then to join you and give you useful information. It is hoped the facilities he seemed to possess will make his mission successful.

I have the honor, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CHAMBERSBURG, June 13, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington:

SIR: On Saturday, the 15th, I propose to throw a strong force in front of Hagerstown, the remainder of the command to follow as speedily as my limited means of transportation will permit. We will then be beyond the telegraph, and have but one mail a day. The railroad company runs two trains a day, and the postmaster informs me that the additional cost of carrying the mail by both trains would not exceed fifty dollars a month. I venture to request that the contractors be directed to forward the mails twice in twenty-four hours to the Army under my command wherever located.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

JUNE 15, 1861.

Approved.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, June 13, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, Chambersburg, Pa.:

GENERAL: Information has been given the General-in-Chief that Ben. McCulloch has two regiments of sharpshooters coming from Texas, and that he is now on the spot preparing to meet your column, and then to fill back on Harper’s Ferry.

Indications received from this side confirm the impression you seem to have that a desperate stand will be made at Harper’s Ferry by the rebels. The General suggests that sharpshooters be met by sharpshooters.

{p.681}

This will be handed to you by Lieutenant Babcock, Corps of Engineers, ordered to report to you.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, June 13, 1861.

To the MAYOR OF THE CITY OF BALTIMORE:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of an order issued to the troops of the United States in this city and the vicinity.

In pursuance of this authority no soldier will be permitted to leave his post or enter the city during this day without positive orders front the general in command, except those who are voters under the constitution and laws of Maryland, and whose rights as voters, as I understand, have been recognized in a communication addressed by you to my predecessor in command of this department.

I earnestly desire to co-operate with you in all measures that may tend to promote the peace of the city. The large police force, wisely controlled, I think, if impartial and vigilant, will have strength to suppress ordinary election tumults and preserve order. If they fail to do this, or if any considerable portion of the people of Baltimore avail themselves of the difficulties of the occasion to organize anarchy and overthrow all forms of government, the responsibility for the results, whatever they are, will fall upon them.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

NATH. P. BANKS.

[Inclosure.]

CIRCULAR.]

FORT MCHENRY, June 12, 1861.

The general commanding the department directs me to say that you will on no account allow any of the men of your command to be absent from your camp during the day or night of to-morrow. You will hold your command in readiness at a moment’s notice to move under orders during that time, with arms in perfect order, and provided with forty rounds of ammunition to each man. Should you not have the necessary ammunition on hand, you will send your quartermaster to report to me this afternoon for an additional supply. He also directs that you close all liquor shops in your vicinity during the same time.

By order of Major-General Banks:

ROBERT WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., June 13, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding the Forces at Yorktown, &c.:

SIR: Your favor of June 12, by Captain Davies, with a flag of truce, was this morning received.*

I desire, first, to thank you for the courtesy shown to the flag and its messengers.

{p.682}

I will accept the exchange for Private Carter. The two citizens Whiting and Sively were taken with arms in their hands, one of which was discharged from the house of Whiting upon the column of our troops when all resistance was useless and when his attack was simply assassination, and when no offense had been committed against hi

The house from which the shot was fired and a building formed a part of your outposts are, the only conflagrations caused by the troops under my command, and the light of these had ceased hours before your men ventured out from under their earthworks and ditches to do us the courtesy of burying our dead, for which act you have my sincere thanks.

After our troops returned from the field-hours after-a building was burned which furnished our wounded some shelter, and from which we had removed them, but was not burned by our men.

For your kind treatment of any wounded you may have, please to accept my assurances of deep obligations, and with the certainty that at any and every opportunity such courtesy and kindness, will be reciprocated.

I am sorry that an officer so distinguished in the service of the United States as yourself could for a moment suppose that the wanton destruction of private property could in any way be authorized or tolerated by the Federal Government and its officers, many of whom are your late associates. Even now, while your letter is being answered, and this is on its way to you, a most ignominious and severe punishment, in the presence of all the troops near this post, is being inflicted upon men who have enlisted in the service of the United States-not soldiers-for plundering private property, which could not, by the strictest construction, be considered contraband of war or means of feeding or aiding the enemy. That which has been brought within my lines, or in any way has come into the hands of my troops and been discovered, with the strictest examination, has been taken account of collected together, to be given up to those peaceable citizens who have come forward to make claim for it. A board of survey has been organized and has already reported indemnity for the property of peaceable citizens necessarily destroyed. In order to convince you that no wrong has been done to private property by any one in authority in the service of the United States, I do myself the honor to inclose a copy of general orders from this department,** which will sufficiently explain itself, and the most active measures have been taken to rigidly enforce it, and to punish violations thereof. That there have been too many sporadic acts of wrong to private property committed by bad men under my command I admit and most sincerely regret, and believe they will in the future be substantially prevented, and I mean they shall be repaired in favor of all loyal citizens, so far as lies in my power.

You have done me the honor to inform me that the vedette Carter is not a prisoner taken in battle. That is quite true. He was asleep on his post, and informs me that his three companions left in such haste that they neglected to wake him up, and, they being mounted and my men on foot, the race was a difficult one. If it is not the intention of your authorities to treat the citizens of Virginia, taken in actual conflict with the United States, as soldiers, in what light shall they be considered? Please inform me in what light you regard them. If not soldiers, must they not be assassins ?

A sergeant of Captain Davies’ command will be charged to meet your sergeant at 4 o’clock at the village of Hampton, for the purpose of the exchange of Private Carter.

{p.683}

I need not call your attention to the fact that there will be unauthorized acts of violence committed by those who are not sufficiently under the restraint of their commanding officers. My men complain that the ambulance having the wounded was fired into by your cavalry, and I am informed that if you have any prisoners they were taken while engaged in the pious duty to their wounded comrades, and not in battle. It has never occurred to my mind that either firing into the ambulance or capturing persons in charge of the wounded men was an act authorized, recognized, or sanctioned by any gentleman in command of the forces in Virginia. Before this unhappy strife I had not been so accustomed to regard the acts of my late associate citizens of the United States, and I have seen nothing in the course of this contest in the acts of those in authority to lead me to a different conclusion.

I inclose a certificate by Sively and Whiting, which will show you that they, at least, had received no harm from the Federal troops.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER.

* In reference to exchange of prisoners. To appear in 2d Series.

** See p. 664.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, June 14, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army:

COLONEL: I have received a letter from Maj. J. G. Barnard, Engineer, making suggestions concerning the defenses thrown up on this side of the Potomac. I have attended to these so far as my resources enabled me. Speaking of the work on Shooter’s Hill, he says:

Having to use heavy guns on sea-coast carriages for this as well as for other works in progress, it will require at least a week, probably more, before such guns can be mounted; but there will also be eight field-guns (part of them rifled) in the armament. These could be put in position in a couple of days, but they should not be sent to the work until the matter of a guard or garrison is attended to and artillerists provided for them.

...

With reference to the tete-de-pont at Long Bridge, he adds:

Arrangements must be made for moving and working these guns (twenty-three in all). The same may be said of the tete-de-pont at the Aqueduct.

I have made the above extracts for the purpose of saying that I am unable to comply with so much as relates to providing artillerists for manning these works.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 14, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Your note of 13th received by Lieut. O. B. Cannot cross at time indicated. Will give notice in time to make diversion. See letter of 12th instant.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.684}

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 14, 1861.

[Colonel TOWNSEND:]

DEAR COLONEL: To-morrow morning our force will be in Hagerstown, located as indicated in the accompanying map. Every effort has been made to press forward, and the move to-morrow is a strained one. Every wagon we could get is engaged with the front column, except twelve employed here taking baggage to the trains. We could not hire teams here, and as far as I see here the people are just as willing to be employed by the foe as by as if it would be safe and would pay. Our one-horse railroad does not permit much work. By Sunday night I hope the main work will be over and the force in Hagerstown, and the track open to the trains coming in with supplies.

To-day many reports have come to us to the effect that the enemy is evacuating Harper’s Ferry. Persons sometimes circulate such to induce us to press on to the trap. Our own spies do not confirm them. Though I have been engaged night, and day in the office, and have no intelligent assistants in a military point of view or cognizant of the workings of the staff, I have succeeded in inspecting the regiments here, and to so organize the brigades as to make them the most effective. In each are some riflemen, good marksmen, though the regiments are mainly armed with smooth-bore muskets. Till I came here I could not get from any one of them the kind of arm in possession, nor the caliber, nor a solitary requisition for anything. I have had to order each individual article generally before I came here, and to push the articles forward. I have had to play ordnance officer, assistant adjutant-general, commander of the forces, inspector, quartermaster-everything. Now all branches have got to working well, except that part of the quartermaster’s department embraced in transportation. A kingdom for a few horses or mules would be my cry if I had a kingdom. I do wish our force to be the first to enter Harper’s Ferry, but rather than make a false step and lose by it or be checked, I shall be content to be last. Our force is an imposing one to all else outside the ring.

The heavy battery will probably be here on Sunday night or in Hagerstown. The Fourth Artillery battery has not yet arrived at Carlisle, though believed to be on the way. Harness not heard from or of. By the time that battery reaches Hagerstown we will be ready. Our force will be advanced immediately, and a position assumed which will permit the camps to be abandoned to a guard and the force move on. We will soon have a telegraph established to Hagerstown this way. The one through Frederick cannot be trusted. We will soon see other work.

Write to Stone to-night, telling him what we will do, and that at the proper time we wish him to move up, according to his judgment and information, either towards Frederick or Leesburg. You think us slow, but if you and the General were here you would think otherwise, and that we have accomplished much. The enemy have cut off all avenues Of approach. The deserters give various accounts, and I believe in some cases they have been sent here to deceive. They gained no information.

I send you sketches of Berkeley County. Cannot get one of Jefferson. The Maryland Heights were re-enforced on Wednesday by about 3,000 men; whether to coerce the Kentuckians or not, can’t say, or to cover a movement in rear. They have tried several times to induce us to cross and get whipped.

F. J. PORTER, Major, and A. A. G.

{p.685}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 14, 1861.

COL. CHARLES P. STONE, Commanding, near Leesburg, Va.:

SIR: The commanding general instructs me to inform you that as soon as he can move his force, so as to strike a blow on the enemy’s left, at Harper’s Ferry, and follow it up with success, he will inform you, to obtain your co-operation, if circumstances, in your judgment, will permit. He desires to be informed of your position, and whether you can most advantageously threaten the Maryland or Virginia Heights opposite Harper’s Ferry. He will not necessarily rely upon your cooperation though glad to receive it. Can you stop supplies passing from Frederick County, Maryland, into Harper’s Ferry?

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 14, 1861.

Brevet Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding First Division, Greencastle, Pa.:

GENERAL: The commanding general desires me to inform you that in operating against the forces which occupy and surround Harper’s Ferry his design is, in general terms, as follows:

First. To threaten an attack of the Maryland Heights.

Second. To turn the enemy by their left, through or near Martinsburg, with a strong column of mixed arms of service (cavalry mainly in reserve for critical moments, either to launch upon the enemy, to sustain our columns, or hasten the movements of a retreating enemy), cut their line of communication, and attack them in position.

Third. To sustain the advance column by a force strong enough to resist an effort to cut off the advance, maintain the line of communication and give the necessary aid to sustain the movement.

I reconnaissance of the enemy’s position may cause a change in this plan, but it is not likely to any material degree. The commanding general, therefore, desires you, while he is preparing his forces, to mature your plans for executing so much of the design as will fall to the lot of your division, that of taking the advance, and breaking the enemy’s lines. The commanding general has every reason to believe that a determined stand will be made at Harpers Ferry-a desperate struggle for supremacy; and so momentous are the interests of our country, involved in the undoubted success of our arms, that all plans must be matured with great prudence; the agents selected and so well disciplined as to render victory certain. While in position near Williamsport, the sustaining force being unprepared, the commanding general desires you to avoid bringing on a collision of any extent by entering Virginia, or attempting anything the success of which is doubtful. Many efforts will be made to induce you to cross the river, but heed them not or give them your careful consideration, and, whatever you undertake, move with great caution. When our forces cross the river he does not wish to withdraw, but to be able to sustain them and to advance. This, of course, is not designed to restrict you in regard to parties who may annoy you or be destroying property or the dams or cross the river into Maryland. They must be quickly met by an overpowering force.

{p.686}

The commanding general will be at Hagerstown on Monday morning, when, if you can leave your post, be will be pleased to see you and receive your impressions and such information as Captain Newton will have obtained.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS YORKTOWN, VA., June 15, 1861.

Maj. Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Commanding Fort Monroe, &C.:

SIR: I have just received yours of the 13th instant, with respect to the firing into the ambulance by my cavalry. I have simply to say that the statement of your informant is entirely untrue. My cavalry was never ahead of your column, whose retreat was so rapid as to cause many of your wounded to be left on the field, while others were carried off in the rear, instead of in the front of your column, as they ought to have been, and over bridges, which were immediately taken down to prevent pursuit.

You say the citizens, who defended their homes, must either be considered soldiers or assassins. They are neither, but brave men, defending their firesides against piratical invasion, and are entitled to the respect of all good men. Messrs. Whiting and Sively, whose certificate you have obtained while in duress, were captured before Whiting’s house was burned. I stated that they knew the depredations which had been committed on their neighbors. These depredations are acknowledged by you both in your order and in your letter to me. The last paragraph of your order, guaranteeing protection only to citizens at peace with the United States, that is, only to persons who think as you think, destroys whatever merit there may have been in the previous clauses. With respect to the vedette, Private Carter, I desire to inform you that when a picket of four is placed out for twenty-four hours, as in this case, at least one is permitted to sleep. This picket had orders to retreat before a large force of the enemy. Four men against five thousand constituted, however, such great odds, as to have justified the retreat of the picket even without orders. Had Private Carter been awake, perhaps a retreat would not have been necessary.

Reciprocating the kind expressions contained in your letter, I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

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CHAMBERSBURG, June 15, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Have advanced under General Cadwalader First, Second, Third, Fourth, and part of Fifth Brigades, and the first four are beyond Hagerstown. I go to-day with my staff. General Cadwalader is ordered to exercise the greatest caution, feeling his way under careful reconnaissance under Captain Newton. Reports from Captain Newton are that Harper’s Ferry, is abandoned and destroyed. I believe it designed for a decoy.

R. PATTERSON. Major-General, Commanding.

{p.687}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 15, 1861.

Capt. JOHN NEWTON, Engineer Corps, en route, to Williamsport

CAPTAIN: In reply to your note of this date I have, by direction of the commanding general, hastily addressed a letter to General Cadwalader authorizing him to throw a force beyond Williamsport, and to send in advance towards Martinsburg parties to secure against surprise, provided the report you send that Harper’s Ferry is vacated be true. He is advised to send you to reconnoiter carefully, and as you know the wishes of the commanding general and the momentous interests at stake, which would suffer even from a check, which would be construed into a victory, to take your advice into consideration and act upon it, knowing, as does the commanding general, that he can rely upon your judgment and prudence not to compromise our present position. You understand the condition of the Army and the impossibility of advancing far with any large portion of our force, and the danger of having a portion cut off. If the enemy has abandoned Harper’s Ferry, the commanding general wishes it occupied as soon as it can be done safely.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-We will be at Hagerstown to-night. Keep the general well informed by expresses.

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 15, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding First Division, en route to Williamsport:

GENERAL: The commanding general desires you to give Captain Newton the necessary aid to carefully reconnoiter the position of the enemy beyond Williamsport, to ascertain if he is really vacating the borders of the Potomac in your vicinity. If he has vacated, the commanding general wishes you to throw a portion, if not the whole, of your division over the river, and send parts well in advance to secure against surprise, and, if it can safely be done, to annoy their retreat. Captain Newton will advise you of the wishes of the commanding general, and his advice you are desired to take into careful consideration for the purpose of acting upon. If you find the enemy gone, the general wishes General Wynkoop placed as soon as possible near the river, on your line, and General Williams advanced towards Shepherdstown.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-If Harper’s Ferry is abandoned, send a force there. Keep the general well advised by expresses. If it be possible, the general will be at Hagerstown to-night.

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CHAMBERSBURG, PA., June 15, 1861.

Brevet Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding First Division, Pennsylvania Volunteers:

GENERAL: Cumberland is threatened by a large force (three thousand men) and asks for aid. If you are certain that the enemy has {p.688} abandoned the right bank of the Potomac and cannot injure you in any possible manner, the commanding general desires you to detail towards Cumberland, as assistance, a section of artillery, A squadron of cavalry, and three regiments of infantry, using for the purpose the transportation of other regiments. No risk, however, must be run to endanger your own force, lest you be cut up in detail. The burning of Harper’s Ferry may be a decoy, and hence the general enjoins the utmost caution upon you and Captain Newton and every officer. Just at this time, when a movement is made, the danger is the greatest. If you can hire a man to go to Cumberland and tell Colonel Wallace what you have decided to do, the general desires it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WILLIAMSPORT, MD., June 15, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General:

MAJOR: I wrote to you, directed to Chambersburg, in reply to your letter as to sending forward assistance to Cumberland. It is impossible for us to send the force you speak of for many reasons, as we are without sufficient transportation, and we shall have to send to-morrow evening or Monday morning to Hagerstown for subsistence. Moreover in the absence of more reliable information in regard to Harper’s Ferry, and the country between this and Winchester, and hence to Martinsburg, the hazard would be too great, even if we were in condition to move. I have no, doubt my letter will reach you at Hagerstown, although it was addressed to Chambersburg, as it was sent to Captain Holabird, at Hagerstown, to be forwarded to you, and he, no doubt, is aware of your intended arrival at Hagerstown, and will retain my little note, or memorandum, to hand to you. My present object is to repeat this, and, farther, to add that I have taken measures to be possessed of information of a definite description as to Harper’s Ferry, and as to the neighborhood in our front on the opposite side of the river, including Martinsburg, to be reported to the commanding general to-morrow as early as possible at Hagerstown.

I will be happy to learn the views of the commanding general and to receive his instructions. I have, also taken measures to have information from Winchester and from Cumberland as speedily as possible. It is said that the fire of about thirty rounds of artillery was distinctly heard this morning near Winchester this however may be incorrect. In consequence of what has transpired Captain Newton does not send your message to Colonel Stone.

Very truly, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

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WILLIAMSPORT, MD., June 15, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Chambersburg, Pa.:

MAJOR: Yours of this date is received. We are endeavoring to obtain reliable information as to Harpers Ferry and the other side. There may be a deep-laid plot to deceive us. To reach Cumberland would {p.689} require three marches, and would weaken us too much to make such a detachment as you propose. The moment we have reliable information you shall hear from me; probably too late for Cumberland. The whole affair is to me a riddle. Our command is exhausted, and could not make any march before morning.

Very truly, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major. General, Commanding.

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CUMBERLAND, MD., June 15, 1861.

F. J. PORTER:

I will have all my baggage in wagons to-night, to move at a moment’s notice, without leaving a rag behind. Let forces to meet me go by way of Hancock. I will not take my regiment off till I feel the enemy or know their force exactly. With the exception of one company, I am armed with sword bayonet and minie musket. The sword bayonet and rifle cartridges is what I want, with a supply of percussion caps. General Morris has acted very strangely towards me. I would fight them in some of the mountain passes on the other side of the river if he had done the fair thing. It is useless to depend for help on him or General McClellan. I have positive information that there will be four thousand rebel troops at or in Romney to-night, who swear they will follow me to hell but what they will have me.

LEWIS WALLACE, Eleventh Regiment Indiana Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Chambersburg, Pa., June 15, 1861.

Gen. GEO. B. MCCLELLAN, Commanding, Cincinnati, Ohio:

Colonel Wallace is threatened between Grafton and Cumberland by three thousand rebels, and asked for aid (artillery, infantry, and ammunition) from General Morris, which was declined. If possible, assistance will go from Hagerstown, but I may be able only to hold my own for a few days, fearing to be cut up in detail. The destruction of Harper’s Ferry is a decoy, I fear. I have ordered him, if hard pressed, to come this way or to return towards Bedford. The force of enemy at Harper’s Ferry exceeds mine at Hagerstown. Do not know the kind of arms Wallace has.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 15, 1861.-Received 11.15 p. m.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

I arrived and located my headquarters here at 6 p. m. Harper’s Ferry at 2 p. m. was occupied by five hundred men breaking camp. Everything destroyed; also depot, iron-works, &c., at Martinsburg. Rebels gone to Winchester.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding. {p.690}

WASHINGTON, June 15, 1861.

Capt. B. Du BARRY, U. S. A., Chambersburg, Pa.:

It is said you are making arrangements to send all regiments arriving at Harrisburg to Chambersburg. General Scott says the Third Michigan Regiment and all others are now to be forwarded to this city. General Patterson will need no more troops.

Acknowledge this, and send it to General Patterson.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 15, 1861. General McDOWELL, Arlington:

General Scott says, whether Harper’s Ferry is evacuated or not, General Patterson cannot cross the river before Wednesday next [19th]. This in reference to a proposed movement of yours, on the expediency of which events must now decide.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, June 16, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: The election passed without disorder, but the fact is not a just indication of the spirit of the city. Active demonstrations on the part of secessionists can only be suppressed by constant readiness of our forces. We need greatly some assistance here.

1st. Authority to establish a home guard. There are many good Union men here, who are ready to enter the service, and we have arms for them, which have been taken from ill-disposed persons. They can be deposited at the custom-house under guard of our troops, so as to make secure their possession. This will give occupation to the Union men and confidence to the loyal portion of the city. I think it will be prudently and safely managed.

2d. We need a corps of cavalry to suppress the contraband trade on the back roads leading southward. We have not now a mounted orderly by whom to send a message even to the city. Some assistance of this kind is indispensable. The infantry can well command the railways. I have written to Mr. Secretary Chase to loan us the service of a revenue cutter for a brief period, by which we could control this trade upon the river and bay. To cut off the contraband is to deprive Baltimore of the support now given publicly to the secession spirit and strip the rebel army of its most useful supplies. I beg you to think of this subject, and give us prompt aid.

3d. Baltimore would afford most excellent camps of instruction for raw troops. They can be easily and cheaply supported here in healthy and convenient locations, well drilled and disciplined, and their presence would afford support to the Government against the rebel elements in the city. In a short time you could safely withdraw the best troops for service elsewhere, leaving the new levies in possession here.

With respect I submit these considerations to you, and remain your obliged and obedient servant,

NATH. P. BANKS, General, Commanding.

{p.691}

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CINCINNATI, June 16, 1861.

General WINFIELD SCOTT:

I hear from General Patterson that he is checked at Harper’s Ferry. If I do not hear from you to the contrary, I will attack from the west in sufficient force to make it sure. Will require two or three days to prepare. In mean time will arrange so that I can move by the route suggested in my earliest dispatch to you from Columbus, if you prefer. Please reply.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, Commanding Department of Ohio.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, June 16, 1861.

General MCCLELLAN, Cincinnati:

We have nothing later from Patterson than his arrival last night at Hagerstown. The report that he is checked at Harper’s Ferry to-day therefore can’t be true. The enemy has evacuated Harper’s Ferry. Do not send a regiment across the mountains. There is no need of it.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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WASHINGTON, June 16, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, Commanding:

You tell me, you arrived last night at Hagerstown, and McClellan writes you are checked at Harper’s Ferry. Where are you?

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 16, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Am here, checked by no enemy. Cadwalader waded the ford at Williamsport to-day. Rhode Island regiment gone to Cumberland. Asked McClellan to send one or two regiments in rear of rebels from Romney after Wallace. He has sent one. Wallace holds his own.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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JUNE 16, 1861-11 a. m.

Major-General PATTERSON, Hagerstown, Md.:

What movement, if any, in pursuit of the enemy, do you propose to make consequent on the evacuation of Harper’s Ferry? If no pursuit, and I recommend none specially, send to me at once all the regular troops, horse and foot, with you, and also the Rhode Island regiment.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 16, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Design no pursuit; cannot make it. The enemy is routed by fear. Cross the river to-day. If approved wish to make Harper’s Ferry my depot, and can establish line of communication east and west and advance {p.692} on Winchester. Have sent squadron of cavalry, section of artillery, and Rhode Island regiment towards Cumberland to sustain Colonel Wallace, threatened by a large force and demanding aid, and who may be forced to Hancock. Sustain this by another regiment. Wish to retain regulars for the present, if the General-in-Chief is not urgent. I write by Colonel Sherman to-night.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 16, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report, for the information of the General-in-Chief, my arrival last evening in this place.

From time to time I have, notified you of the condition of the command to move, and my intention soon to advance to this place with a force which could maintain any position it might take. With our own transportation, aided by every wagon and team which could be hired contiguous to our camps, in Pennsylvania and in this-place, I advanced yesterday (the earliest moment) General Cadwalader’s division, and sent the largest portion of General Keim’s by rail. The remainder, with the supplies, are now rapidly coming in. General Cadwalader encamped last evening near Williamsport; to-day, under my instructions, he will cross the river and occupy the bend to Falling Waters, and will be prepared to push on to Martinsburg, to which place he sends an exploring force. He will be sustained by Generals Wynkoop and Negley, whose brigades are posted for the purpose.

Early yesterday morning I received simultaneously reliable information of the evacuation of Harper’s Ferry, and a threatened attack upon Colonel Wallace at Cumberland, with a call for aid, which General Morris, in rear, had refused. I directed Colonel Wallace to hire transportation, maintain a bold front to the last moment, and, if hard pressed, to move towards Hancock, in which direction horse, foot, and artillery would be sent, with orders to push on to him; or, at his discretion, to fall back upon Bedford, communicating the fact to the column on this side. With the spirit of a true soldier he has prudently determined to stand, and retire contesting the ground, unless he will have to sacrifice his men.

Confident the enemy had retired and was in rapid retreat from Harper’s Ferry, I ordered a force to be detached to Cumberland. Owing, as will be seen by the accompanying letters, to the want of the means of transportation and the fagged condition of the command, the march being long and the day oppressively hot, the command could not be put in motion.

Major Porter late at midnight visited General Cadwalader at Williamsport, and arranged to send to-day a section of artillery, a squadron of cavalry, and the Rhode Island regiment, Colonel Burnside-a gallant soldier and a gallant command-to support the noble. Indiana regiment, similarly commanded. The transportation for that command exhausted all available wagons and checked, had I been able and it been prudent, further advance to push on a fleeing enemy. On the approach, suddenly on their rear of this well-organized force, and the steadily advancing column under Colonel. Stone, the enemy appear to have hastily decided to evacuate the position they had openly declared should be held at all hazards. They have fled, and in confusion. Their retreat is as {p.693} demoralizing as a defeat; and as the leaders will never be caught, more beneficial to our cause. Harper’s Ferry has been retaken without firing a gun. The moral force of a just cause, sustained by a strong and equable Government, has conquered.

I am prevented, from advancing rapidly by want of transportation. The interests of the Government are too momentous to risk a defeat or even a check, and hence I send out no inferior force. To-day and to-morrow about nine thousand men cross to Virginia, there to await transportation, and to be sent forward in detachments well sustained. In the mean time I propose and submit for the consideration of the General-in-Chief

First. To transfer to Harper’s Ferry my base of operations, depot, headquarters, &c.

Second. To open and maintain free communication east and west along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

Third. To hold at Harper’s Ferry, Martinsburg, Charlestown, &c., a strong force, gradually and securely advancing as they are prepared, portions towards Winchester, Strasburg, &c.

Fourth. To re-enforce Cumberland and move south to Romney, Morehead [Moorefield], &c., and operate with the column in the third proposition towards Woodstock, and cut off communications with the west.

We will thus force the enemy to retire, and recover, without a struggle, a conquered country.

To carry out this plan time is required, and that, with a strong, firm hand will restore peace and unity to our distracted country.

To effect what I propose requires the co-operation of General McClellan, and the force from him to be under my control at Cumberland, both to secure the road as far as Grafton and to advance to Romney

With Harper’s Ferry in possession, Baltimore falls. Maryland will be a quiet spectator, awaiting the result of the campaign, with her interests developing a feeling in favor of a permanent Federal Government.

If this proposition be adopted I shall continue my present operations, which have been directed to this end, and shall, as soon as I am prepared, occupy Harper’s Ferry and Martinsburg; secure the railroad, &c., thence, and canal to Cumberland; use the railroad thence to Harrisburg, as accessory only.

In connection with this I respectfully request (presuming Baltimore to be so far peaceable that the safety of the railroad can be relied upon) permission to take from the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad and the Northern Central road the regiments now guarding them. The latter I should at once transfer to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; the former to the Hue of operations.

If I am permitted to carry out this plan, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the canal will be in operation in a week, and a free line of communication to Saint Louis established.

I shall continue to carry out these views until checked; but if my course be approved, I wish to be informed. I am advancing into another department, but so essential is it, that for the instant I do not consider the sanction of the General-in-Chief requisite.

The telegram of the General-in-Chief recalling regulars is at hand. My reply is the substance of this communication, with the request that the regulars be permitted to remain for the present. Until Harper’s Ferry is occupied and fortified I should fear the return of the rebels. This force is a good one, but the General-in-Chief has, by the regular {p.694} troops and, commanders he has given me, made it a reliable one, and caused Harper’s Ferry to fall.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 16, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding First Division, Williamsport, Md.:

GENERAL: By direction of the commanding general I send you a dispatch from Colonel Wallace,* at Cumberland, by which you will see the urgency of immediate re-enforcements. Colonel Wallace must be strengthened quickly. If you can put Colonel Burnside and the cavalry and artillery in motion at once, with the provision he now has, can you not send his supply train to him well guarded? The commanding general desires you to take into consideration the canal transportation, that in ease of necessity it can be used for the force.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Wallace to Porter, June 15, p. 689

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 16, 1861.

Col. LEWIS WALLACE, Commanding, Cumberland, Md.:

Cavalry, artillery, and infantry go towards Hancock to you to-day. Communicate with them. Colonel Burnside, of Rhode Island, commanding. Ammunition of that caliber here on Tuesday.

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[HAGERSTOWN, June 16, 1861.]

Colonel WALLACE, Cumberland, Md.:

Exercise your own judgment when to move. Maintain a bold front. Rhode Island regiment, battery, and squadron of cavalry left for Hancock to-day to meet you. More will go. This command crossed to-day into Virginia at Williamsport. General McClellan sends a regiment to you.

By order of General Patterson

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 16, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, Commanding, &C., Hagerstown, Md.:

Why a detachment upon Winchester? If strong enough the detachment would drive the enemy from Winchester to Strasburg and the Manassas Junction, or perhaps from Winchester via Staunton towards {p.695} Richmond. What would be gained by driving the enemy on either of those places? And if your detachment be not strong it would he lost. Hence the detachment, if not bad, would be useless. The enemy is concentrating upon Arlington and Alexandria, and this is the line first to be looked to. Is Wallace at Cumberland threatened from below? If so, the threatening detachment is cut off by your passage of the Potomac. McClellan has been told to-day to send nothing across the mountain to support you, as since the evacuation of Harper’s Ferry you are strong enough without. The regulars with you are most needed here. Send them and the Rhode Islanders as fast as disengaged. Keep within the above limits until you can satisfy me that you ought to go beyond them. Report frequently.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 16, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. Glen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding First Division:

GENERAL: The commanding general wishes you to detach forthwith the whole of the Rhode Island regiment and battery, and send it immediately on receipt of this, with secret orders, to this place to march to Frederick, and there take rail for Washington City. Stop also the cavalry going towards Cumberland, and be ready to fall back to this bank of the Potomac. Orders will be sent to you to-morrow by noon.

By order of Major-General Patterson :

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, Va., June 17, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: Brigadier-General Tyler, with part of the Connecticut regiment, made, agreeably to instructions, a reconnaissance up the Loudoun and Hampshire Road as far as Vienna. He found all the bridges and the road in good order. All the rolling stock of the road between Vienna and Leesburg he reports as having been burned, to prevent it falling into our hands. One of the sleepers, which had been set on fire by the droppings of the locomotive, gave rise to the report from the telegraph station near Arlington Mills that the bridges had been set on fire and were burning, and that General Tyler was beyond them.

Whilst near Falls Church one of the Connecticut regiment, Private George Bigbee, Captain Comstock’s company, was wounded in the shoulder by a shot from the roadside. The man suspected of having fired it was captured, and is in jail in Alexandria.

It is reported re-enforcements have been sent from Manassas to Fairfax Court-House.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.696}

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 17, 18614

Colonel TOWNSEND:

Let me know decision after receiving my letter by Colonel Sherman. May I advance to Harper’s Ferry, where I can open communication with you and send the regulars down by road in three days? Can repair bridge over Harper’s Ferry; otherwise, if regulars are withdrawn, will withdraw. Cadwalader now intrenching neck near Falling Waters. Have no guns. Perkins cannot get harness for ten days. Siege battery not come. Can bring Perkins from Carlisle, and haul him over.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, June 17, 1861.

General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Hagerstown, Md.:

We are pressed here. Send the troops that I have twice called for without delay.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding, &c.:

GENERAL: The commanding general directs you at once to put Major Thomas, with his regular troops, in motion for this place, with secret orders to march as fast as possible, consistent with efficiency, via Frederick, for, Washington City; also, to order Colonel Miles to move at once, with secret orders, to Hagerstown, ready to take rail via Harrisburg to Washington City, with the Second, Third and Eighth Infantry; also, to withdraw your command to this side. General Scott says he is pressed, and must have the troops as fast as possible.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HARRISBURG, June 17, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Troops have been ordered, and if rail transportation now on the way can take them, you shall have them tomorrow morning. Colonel Burnside requires twenty passenger, twenty-three platform, and fifteen stock cars.

R. PATTERSON, Major. General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 17, 1861.

Col. LEWIS WALLACE, Eleventh Regiment Indiana Volunteers, Cumberland, Md.:

COLONEL: Simultaneously with your telegram that your scouts had seen no troops within twelve miles of you, came a demand from the {p.697} General-in-Chief for all the regulars with my column, and the Rhode island regiment and battery, the force which the commanding general had ordered to you. It was too late to send another regiment, and transportation could not be obtained till some time after your telegram confirmed the suspicion of the ruse attempted. It is evident the design was to draw off force from here which would be most available for relief to the capital, now threatened by all the power of the enemy. Fortunately you did not require it, and it had not gone so far as to be out of reach. It is now on its way to Washington. Cartridges will not be here until to-morrow, nor caps. In the mean time transportation is being gathered, and as soon as practicable a regiment will be sent to you. I wish you to give me by telegram the caliber of your guns, whether .69, .58, or .54-inch.

No communication from you gives information of the supplies to be procured at your place. If provisions are required be pleased to inform Col. E. G. Beckwith, U. S. Army, at this place, by telegraph, that it may be sent by first wagon train.

Our means of transportation are very limited, and the commanding general wishes you and all who join you to be self-reliant-to draw only absolute necessities from this place. He desires to hear from you as often as opportunity offers, and, when necessary, by telegraph.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 17, 1861.

Colonel TOWNSEND:

Doubleday with siege train at Harrisburg, and asks if shall take it. Would like him to return for Harper’s Ferry to secure from this side the building the bridge. Please reply to him. Miles, with Second, Third, and Eighth Infantry, left at 8 p. m. via Harrisburg. Thomas, for want of transportation, goes to Frederick. Cars for four hundred men, four hundred horses, and seven wagons required at Frederick Junction at 9 a. m. to-morrow. Perkins will be ready in two days. Shall I take him? All my force on this side of river. Wish to occupy Maryland Heights, rebuild bridge, and open route. Reports not credited that enemy is returning from Winchester.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

Later.-9.30 p. m.-General Johnston with a large force is at Martinsburg, marching on Williamsport. Thomas is passing.

R. PATTERSON.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding, &c., near Williamsport, Md.:

GENERAL: Only the “City Troop” of cavalry remain with you; an regulars with the command go to Washington. The general wishes you to send sixteen of the troop to replace the cavalry now here, and which will join Colonel Thomas here. The efforts to get cars for all of Colonel Thomas’ command (cavalry)-men, horses, and wagons-will probably succeed, in which case he will go by rail from here to-night and land in Washington tomorrow; also, the regular infantry under {p.698} Miles, and the artillery companies. Tell Captain Newton, if you please, the general would like to see him, to go to Maryland Heights, where he designs sending a force to protect the new bridge. Keep quiet about the move.

The commanding general wishes you to designate a regiment from your division to go to Cumberland. If to go, orders to prepare it will be sent to you to-morrow, if transportation can be obtained.

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, Williamsport, June 17, 1861-74 o’clock p. m.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General:

MAJOR: I have the most extraordinary rumors here within the last half hour. It is said by many persons here, the most reliable apparently that are around us, that General Johnston is this evening with a very large force at Martinsburg. It is said he has 15,000 men, and that, he is marching upon this place at this time. Mr. Pendleton, Mr. Curtis, Mr. Lamon, and others assure me the information is reliable. The best troops have left here and I have no artillery to defend the ford. Something must be done at once. It will require all my efforts to collect the remnant of this demoralized command now scattered everywhere. I have no means of accounting for this unexpected movement. I hear nothing of Colonel Wallace, and it seems impossible to obtain any one to cross the river. It appears to me the troops should all return here. This information is confirmed by several parties, and no one is willing to cross the river. I am entirely unable to account for this movement, but there appears to be every reason to think it is true. Unless it is impossible I would advise that all the troops should be returned here and concentrated, or wherever we are to assume our strongest position. Colonel Burnside might be reached and the Wisconsin regiment should be sent for. I have not one moment to lose and have no one to rely upon but myself. I would like to have some officer or two upon whom I can rely. I do not think I can defend this ford without artillery. Send me word if the troops sent to-day are within your reach, and what you would wish me to do.

I am, very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 17, 1861.

General CADWALADER, Williamsport, Md.:

GENERAL: Have halted Thomas, Miles, and Burnside, sent for a battery at Carlisle, and have the whole force here ready to move to you. Hold your command well in hand. Contest the ford with good marksmen. Keep your command together to make a good stand till re-enforced.

By order of General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant. Adjutant-General.

P. S.-The general sends Colonel Starkweather to you at once. Keep the general informed by express.

{p.699}

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 17, 1861.

General NEGLEY, Hagerstown, MD.:

GENERAL: Send Colonel Starkweather to Williamsport to report to General Cadwalader at daybreak or earlier. Leave a guard in camp. Take forty rounds of cartridges. Send pickets well in advance. Hold your two regiments (Johnston’s and Oakford’s) ready, and March with them in time to be within reach of General Cadwalader at daybreak. Give your men forty rounds, and take care to keep them together, and not to fire except by order, lest they fire into their own friends.

By order of General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-Have the Connecticut regiment and Jarrett’s ready to move at daybreak.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 17, 1861.

General WYNKOOP, Commanding Second Brigade:

GENERAL : Have your command under arms and en route to Williamsport on the cross-road from Funkstown to Williamsport road by daybreak. On arrival report to General Cadwalader. Take every precaution for your men not to fire without orders, lest they injure their friends. Supply them with forty rounds of ammunition. Procure a guide. Leave a guard with your camp. Be careful and not be surprised.

By order of General Patterson:

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-Have out your pickets.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, Md., June 17, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen. U. S. Army:

SIR: Major-General Banks, commanding the Department of Annapolis, directs me to state, for the information of the General-in-Chief, that he has moved the Thirteenth Regiment New York State troops, Col. Abel Smith commanding, from Annapolis; Major Cook’s battery of light artillery, Massachusetts volunteers, from the Relay House, and the Twenty-second Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Turner G. Morehead commanding, from Patterson Park, Baltimore, to a camp in the outskirts of Baltimore, near the Washington and Baltimore Railroad. He thinks that the partial concentration of the troops in the vicinity of Baltimore will exercise an important moral effect upon the disaffected inhabitants of the city, besides giving him the opportunity of promptly forwarding any of his command who may in future be needed in the Department of Washington.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.700}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, June 18, 1861.

Col. WILLIAM B. FRANKLIN, New York:

Hasten on the troops. Send all you can. I have telegraphed to Quartermaster Tompkins to send as many as he can by the New Jersey Central Railroad. Let him use freight cars if they have not enough passenger cars. Send the others by way of Philadelphia. See him about it.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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JUNE 18, 1861-1.35 a. m.

Brigadier-General SCHENCK:

It is not intended you Shall attempt to carry the position at Vienna.

Colonel Corcoran, with four companies, and Brigadier-General Tyler, with part of his brigade, will soon be with you.

Get your wounded attended to, and as soon as General Tyler arrives let them go down by the first train he may send.

Let me know when Colonel Corcoran and General Tyler arrive.

Let me have report early to-morrow morning.

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General.

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ARLINGTON, June 18, 1861-5.20 a. m.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Will it accord with the plans of the General-in-Chief that a movement be made in force in the direction of Vienna, near which the attack was made on the Ohio regiment?

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 18, 1861-6.30 a. m.

General McDOWELL, Arlington :

The General-in-Chief says do not make a movement in the direction of Vienna which is not necessary to bring General Schenck back to his camp.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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JUNE 18, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

General Johnston, with 12,000 men, is at Martinsburg. Thomas and Miles were stopped here, and, with my Main force, are near Williamsport. Burnside sent off, though recalled, with siege train; know nothing of Doubleday or Perkins; have sent nothing to Wallace.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.701}

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HAGERSTOWN, June 18, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General

From General Cadwalader’s report apprehensions existed of serious attack at Williamsport from force of fifteen thousand men. On that returned to him Colonel Miles, about to take rail, and Thomas marching by me, and telegraphed Doubleday to bring his artillery from Harrisburg, and protected Cadwalader with the whole command. His division had not then recrossed the Potomac. The command now are this side; one man shot. Captain Doubleday just arrived with battery and fitting it out. Miles ordered at once to join you. Reliably informed that about fifteen thousand, exaggerated to thirty-five thousand, dotted from Martinsburg to Winchester. Under circumstances shall I send to-morrow all the regular troops ? Too much fagged to march to-day. Like to retain artillery and some cavalry. Threatened attack on Cumberland a ruse to draw off forces from here. No troops at Romney. Can demonstrate in your favor via Frederick and Leesburg. Shall I occupy Harper’s Ferry after putting up bridge? I write by mail.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 18, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen. U. S. Army, Washington City:

COLONEL: Finding, on my arrival here on the 15th instant, the enemy still in the vicinity of Martinsburg, I directed, in order to be able to carry out the original plan approved by the General-in-Chief, General Cadwalader, strongly supported, to cross the river at Williamsport and establish himself within the bend opposite and intrench himself. This was executed before I received the call for the regular troops with this column. It had, I think, the happy effect of causing the troops threatening Cumberland to retire.

That night, on receipt of the order from the General-in-Chief and direction to “keep within your [my] present limits,” I ordered the regular troops to be put in motion for Washington, and the volunteers brought back to this side, and in time for all to have returned by day

light. The execution of the order was deferred by the volunteers, and at night the inclosed report (No. 1)* was received from General Cadwalader. Presuming the enemy, who knows all our movements, had taken advantage of the withdrawal of the regulars to attack the remnant of two brigades, I at once turned Colonels Thomas and Miles, then here, to the support of General Cadwalader, and provided ample force to drive back any enemy in this vicinity. As soon as the force was on this side I detached the regular infantry, in compliance with the original order, for Washington. This fact I telegraphed to-day, and asked permission of the General-in-Chief to retain Thomas and Doubleday, the former too fagged to march, except under great necessity. The delay in returning that force to the General-in-Chief was at the time a necessity, and I feel confident he will pardon it.

The telegrams of the General-in-Chief indicate a desire for me not to advance beyond the Potomac. At present I cannot advance with any large force, as my means of transportation are so limited. I should be {p.702} forced to halt every two days to send for supplies. To remedy many inconveniences, and to reopen the line of communication, and to protect the channels of trade, I propose what I consider a military necessity-the rebuilding of Harper’s Ferry Bridge, protected by a force from this side, and the reoccupation of Harpers Ferry. For this purpose, and to fortify the heights in its vicinity, I wish the artillery under Doubleday. I would approach from this side, and would not think of marching on the right bank to Harper’s Ferry, exposed as my line would be for twenty miles to be cut at several points by the enemy; if not, to advance upon Winchester from this point or from Harper’s Ferry. I recommend this course if for no other reason than to keep the volunteers employed and out of settlements. From Harper’s Ferry at any time a force can be sent to you and to operate upon Winchester. I will remind the General-in-Chief that with the exception of one regiment (Connecticut) all this force will be entitled to discharge at the expiration of their three months, and I believe all but one regiment (the Wisconsin, an excellent one) will claim it. That force in Harper’s Ferry, open to the rear and fortified towards Winchester, can maintain itself. The railroad and canal will be reopened, and the people on the line encouraged to defend them.

I respectfully present the above to the consideration of the General-in-Chief, submitting to his superior judgment whatever his decision may be.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

* See Cadwalader to Porter, June 17, p. 698,

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 18, 1861.

General SIMON CAMERON:

DEAR SIR: We are all here deeply disappointed. This entire command on Sunday was in admirable condition. It had dragoons, artillery, a good body of volunteer infantry, good spirits, plenty of provisions, and needing nothing but transportation, and this was being rapidly supplied. A large portion of General Cadwalader’s division was across the river at Williamsport, and in two days would have been in a reasonably intrenched camp, occupying a bend on the Virginia side of the river, with a good ford well defended behind. The residue of this corps was within reach, and in a very short time would have occupied Sharpsburg, Maryland Heights, Harpers Ferry, Martinsburg, and would have been in good condition to strike at Winchester, or, by a temporary bridge at Harper’s Ferry, to have advanced via Frederick or Leesburg to Washington. General Patterson had around him a corps of very superior Regular Army officers, and it was apparent that the proposed work of this corps was advancing with certainty and force. In this condition of affairs comes an order for Burnside’s regiment with all the artillery in this army, leaving General Patterson without a gun. Then comes an order for all the regular troops, leaving us without dragoons or any regular infantry to give confidence to volunteers; and, what is worse than all, the regular officers, including Colonels Thomas and Miles, heads of brigades, and upon whom much reliance was placed, were taken away. This compelled a return to this side of the river and in abandonment of all aggressive plans. We had then a rumor that Johnston was again appearing in great force at Martinsburg. This led to a delay of Miles’ and Thomas’ movements, but as all General Patterson’s {p.703} force is now on this side, able to repel attack, the orders of General Scott will be at once obeyed.

See what a position this will leave these volunteers in! They are now keen for a fight. They must now stand on the defensive. Their time of enlistment will melt away, and they go home having done nothing, and little likely to enlist again. The demoralization of this column, of which so much was expected, will be generally injurious. Pray think whether it is not better either to leave it in strength to carry out the original plan, or to call it to Washington, via Frederick, to join in your general movements.

Remember, I write to you freely as an outsider, without presuming to criticize plans, and without knowledge of your precise condition. If you are in actual danger in Washington, we ought to be with you to share in it, or have strength to make a diversion in your favor.

Very respectfully, yours,

JOHN SHERMAN.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, June 18, 1861-9.15 p. m.

General PATTERSON, Hagerstown:

I had expected you to recall the regulars on the reappearance on the Potomac of Johnston with a formidable body of troops, and to keep the former until the importance of that movement could be ascertained. I await information from you on that point. Keep the siege guns and the Perkins light battery.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

Do not omit so many words. Sentences too incomplete to be understood.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, Williamsport, June 18, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of Pennsylvania:

MAJOR: Seven regiments of my division and the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry remained on the other side of the river all night, notwithstanding my positive orders to withdraw to this side. The only way I can account for this is by the supposition that the order may not have been properly communicated to them by the commanders of brigades. I must inquire into this.

Finding when the troops left here last night for Hagerstown that those expected did not arrive, I used every effort to communicate with their commanding officers without success, I having no mounted men at my disposal. One of those, named Downs, at the suggestion of Ward H. Lamon, U. S. marshal, now with a regiment here, was sent a mile and a half from here on the other side of the river. Expecting from time to time, that our troops would come over, and hearing no firing on the other side, as it became late, we concluded not to send more troops over, but to remain in a state of readiness to cover their retreat or to defend this position in case of our being attacked. We had a force ready at the ford and a regiment advanced up the river westwardly all night. We intended at daylight to cross the river if occasion should require it. I am happy now to report the safety of our forces on the other side in Virginia, and that we are withdrawing them as speedily as {p.704} we can without loss or injury to property. The ford is about four feet deep at present, and there are many large stones or rocks that are in the way and render us liable to accidents in crossing.

I am now endeavoring to reach the truth in relation to whether or not there is really a large force of rebels near to us, as is universally asserted here. I shall make another attempt to bring here George W. Curtis, who is referred to in the note I send. It was stated he saw the force; that he was confident that there could not have been less than 14,000 men, and that General Johnston was with them. How any plans are to be formed without knowing the truth of this report appears to me to be impossible, and it maybe intended that he is to be ubiquitous, and that he is at one time to threaten Washington by uniting with the forces there, and at another to appear here or in the West, keeping our forces moving around the outside of a circle, whilst he is moving across the center. It may be that our movement on Sunday to the other side of the river has invited him to take up a position at Martinsburg to follow our rear, his position being stated to be two miles southeast of that place. General Johnston knew, no doubt, the number of our wagons, and that we would not have been prepared to subsist our column without receiving supplies from the rear, which he would have been in a position to cut off.

You will observe from Colonel Wallace’s letter that he thinks the troops went westward after abandoning Harper’s Ferry. He speaks of their attacking General Morris. Our movement over the river may have drawn them back. I send you the order which I sent over the river last night by the man who was shot, and which they did not receive. It was brought back to me this morning. As soon as we can ascertain with certainty the position of Johnston and his troops we will be able to know what to do. Two messengers have just come in, confirming accounts of large forces near Martinsburg and Darkesville. Major Sherman is here. I will write again.

Very respectfully, yours,

GEO. CADWALADER, Commanding First Division.

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CUMBERLAND, June 18, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER:

Received your letter by messenger. Have in hand eight days’ provisions brought from Indiana; also transportation wagons, which I will keep. Scouts been nearly to Romney. No sight of enemy. Hope the ruse was unsuccessful. Caliber of guns .54 inch. Beg the general for God’s sake not to leave me behind when he marches. I want to show him how we can fight. Can’t we get one of the idle Indiana or Ohio regiments here?

LEW. WALLACE, Colonel Eleventh Regiment Indiana Volunteers.

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HDQRS. FIRST REGIMENT DELAWARE VOLUNTEERS, Havre de Grace, Md., June 18, 1861.

Maj. FITZ J. PORTER, A. A. G., Dep’t of Pennsylvania, Chambersburg, Pa.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that this command occupies the several stations on the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, with one company on the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal. The divided state of the command {p.705} of course operates greatly against any regular system of instruction. I, however, endeavor to visit the several stations twice a week, and hope that the benefits of my instruction are not entirely lost. The company guarding the canal is divided into two equal parts, and its future efficiency thereby much disturbed. As I do not see the necessity of keeping it there, I respectfully suggest the propriety of placing it either at headquarters or at Elkton. I would likewise offer, very respectfully, the same suggestion respecting the occupation of Northeast and Charlestown. The bridges at Northeast and Charlestown are all of stone, and could not be materially injured before word would reach Perryville or Elkton. I would therefore suggest that two companies be kept at Elkton, two at Perryville, and the rest at this place and below-say two at Bush River and two at Gunpowder. This last place seems to me much more exposed than any other, and as demanding greater protection. I await your orders in these respects. I beg leave to add further that I have not felt easy without some means of constant communication with the other shore of the Susquehanna, and that I have accordingly chartered the steamer Fairy for thirty dollars per day, she finding coal.

In conclusion, I beg leave to present to the general, as the wish of the officers and men of this command (myself included), that it should be called into more active service at an early day. I would also say that the officers and men of this command have received at all hands the well-merited encomiums of all here, and at all the stations, for their genial society and good conduct. I regard the material favorable for a first-rate regiment.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY H. LOCKWOOD, Colonel, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 19, 1861.

Hon. JOHN S. CARLILE, Wheeling, Va. :

DEAR SIR: The Secretary of the Treasury has laid before me a letter addressed by you to him, and I cheerfully comply with his request to assure you that this Department will do all in its power to carry out your wishes. All the supplies that can be obtained in Western Virginia for the troops there concentrating will be purchased from the people residing in that section, and every proper effort will be made to encourage the loyalty and promote the interests of your people.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, June 19, 1861.

Major-General MCCLELLAN, Cincinnati, Ohio:

DEAR SIR: It is deemed highly important that the Union men in Western Virginia be aided and encouraged in every way possible, and it is desired that you and those under your command should do so as far as you can. One mode of doing it is to obtain, as far as possible, the supplies for your forces from them, and you are requested to give instructions to this effect to those who are charged with the duty of providing supplies.

Very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War. {p.706}

HEADQUARTERS, June 19, 1861.

Maj. Gen. JOHN A. DIX, New York:

Come to me at the first convenient moment. I shall charge you with the command of the Alexandria and Arlington Department, the next to the enemy containing five brigades. I shall do what I can to give you some regular staff officers. Bring horses with you.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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CINCINNATI, June 19, 1861.

General WINFIELD SCOTT:

If you will order Patterson to send a strong column on Cumberland and thence on Romney, we will cut off the whole rebel force that now threatens Piedmont, Grafton, and Cumberland. I shall move from Parkersburg some time to-morrow, fight everything I meet, take Beverly as my point of direction, and trust to you carrying out my suggestion for catching the whole rebel crew. After completing this I propose to clear out the Kanawha.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, U. S. Army.

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CINCINNATI, June 19, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

I learn that the enemy is in front of Piedmont in force; also moving on Grafton and Clarksburg from Beverly. Will go in person to take command to-day with five additional regiments, one battery, two companies cavalry. Movement on Grafton appears more important than that in valley of Kanawha. Had arranged to reach Kanawha to-morrow. Will now defer it until certain bridge burned eight miles east of Piedmont. Patterson better re-enforce Cumberland at once.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN.

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WASHINGTON, June 19, 1861-9.45 p. m.

General McCLELLAN, U. S. A., Cincinnati:

I do not credit the existence of any formidable rebel force in the mountains to disturb Wallace, and have so said to Patterson; but have desired him, as I desire you, to act on any better information possessed.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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FORT MONROE, VA., June 19, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Army:

GENERAL: I avail myself of the opportunity to send to Washington to inform the General-in-Chief that I have not as yet received the transportation which he assured me I should have, and for which, I doubt not, he gave orders. I have waited impatiently, but with resignation, because I supposed that the exigencies of the service required so much {p.707} at Washington as to prevent my being supplied. I also desire to call his attention to the fact that I have great need of mounted men for outpost service and vedettes. A company or two would be of great service. I have as yet received no horses for my light battery. I have the harness and guns, and could provide the men if I had the horses. I was reduced to the necessity of sending my own saddle-horse to Big Bethel, to endeavor to convey orders nine miles from my camp, that being the only horse not on duty away from the forts which had a saddle, and those horses were my own personal property. If the exigencies of the service will permit, it will be of great advantage that I should receive some aid in this matter.

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 19, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Headquarters of the Army:

I move to-day to occupy early to-morrow the Maryland Heights and shore opposite Harper’s Ferry. Am I permitted to retain cavalry, as asked for yesterday?

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 19, 1861-12.15 p.m.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Your message of 9.15 p. m. of 18th just received-12.15 p. m. The enemy is dotted between Martinsburg and Winchester; main force at Bunker Hill. Thinking your demand for regulars imperative, and as I could not hold the bend to Falling Waters without regular horse, foot, and guns, I withdrew to this side and sent Miles to you. I now hold ford at Williamsport, protected by a gun of Doubleday’s battery, &c., under Cadwalader. I occupy Maryland Heights to-morrow morning with guns and infantry to protect bridge-builders. With bridge secured, propose to occupy Harper’s Ferry, fortify it toward Winchester; throw everything into Harper’s Ferry. Troops and supplies ready to advance towards Winchester or to connect with you. My proposition is given in a letter to you of last night. Shall I carry out this plan? I shall move with caution and security. I hold Thomas subject to your call, wishing to retain him.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 19, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Headquarters of the Army:

After receiving assurances that the bridge over the Potomac at Harper’s Ferry would be rebuilt, I arranged to protect laborers and bridge. The company now will not act unless the whole [road] to Cumberland be guarded, saying all the line is threatened if they commence rebuilding Harper’s Ferry Bridge or any other structure thence to Cumberland. {p.708} I will not, therefore, occupy the Maryland Heights, but direct attention on the Williamsport line, where the enemy in small squads frequently appeared to-day.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 19, 1861-9.45 p. m.

Maj. Gen. R. PATTERSON, U. S. A., Hagerstown, Md.:

McClellan is again alarmed for the safety of Wallace. I do not believe there is any formidable force in the mountains to assail Wallace, and sooner than be annoyed with these daily rumors it would perhaps be better to call him to you and absorb him. Govern yourself, however, by the later and better information that you may possess. Retain two companies of Thomas’ horse, and send him with the other two here. I shall send Major Palmer temporarily to you.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., June 20, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Army:

SIR: I send you inclosed a memorandum* of information obtained by me from two deserters from Sewell’s Point, who escaped this morning in a boat. They are both Northern men, apparently frank and honest, and they have been sent North by me. They belonged to the Macon (Ga.) Volunteers. The general will see that we have an experimental gun on Fort Calhoun, of 24-pounder bore, carrying a 53-pound elongated shot, of Sawyer’s patent, by which we are enabled to strike the enemy’s battery with a great degree of accuracy. I think Sawyers shell is a success, and I have directed at the ordnance workshop two 6-pounder cannon to be rifled and perhaps one 12-pounder for field purposes, and I have also ordered a competent supply of shell for the same. I hope to have these orders filled within a week. It is among the possibilities, and perhaps the probabilities, that a concentration of troops may be made at Yorktown via James River, and an advance movement upon this post ensue. While waiting for the transportation and the farther troops that have been promised me, I have turned my attention, with the aid of the Engineer officers who reported to me four days since, to strengthening my positions outside the walls of the fortress. Newport News, perhaps, can hold out with the three thousand men there against the attack of five thousand or six thousand men, but we have not, as yet, any field artillery here. To defend ourselves outside the fort, we have but about three thousand effective men, and some of them not the best troops. May I ask again for Cook’s battery and the Massachusetts troops which were promised met The enemy are apparently preparing for an advance movement from Yorktown. By the concentration of the Yorktown and Norfolk troops, should they attack, I should be, to say the least, largely outnumbered.

There are plenty of regiments, especially the Second Volunteer Regiment {p.709} in Massachusetts, and Major Cobb’s light battery, ready, waiting, and anxious to join me here if an order were only given, and there are ample means of transportation for this.

The General-in-Chief is thus possessed substantially with an the information I have, and it is for his better judgment to deal with the exigency. I will do the best my limited knowledge and experience will permit with the material I have. Perhaps the General would advise a joint land and sea attack upon the battery on Sewell’s Point. If there are any such numbers as are claimed at Norfolk, it will be seen that it would be impossible to hold the battery if it were taken.

I have the honor to be, with much respect, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding.

* Omitted.

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WASHINGTON, June 20, 1861.

General R. PATTERSON, U. S. A., Hagerstown, Md.:

I desire you to cause to be examined the Maryland Heights, overlooking Harper’s Ferry, with a view to a battery sufficient to hold the same, and also without delay to propose to me a plan of operations with a portion of your force to sweep the enemy from Leesburg towards Alexandria, in co-operation with a strong column from this end of the same road. Of course it is designed that you should absorb the column of Colonel Stone, now covering the fords and ferries on the Potomac below Leesburg; the remainder of your troops (how many?) to be left to cover the detachment on the Maryland Heights. Reply promptly.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

(Copy to General McDowell.)

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 20, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. S. NEGLEY, Commanding Fifth Brigade, near Hagerstown, Md.:

GENERAL: The commanding general directs you to move as early as Practicable towards Sharpsburg, and take position on the Sharpsburg road, near to Bakersville, a little to the right of the Sharpsburg road, throw forward your pickets towards Mercersville and Sharpsburg, and carefully guard against surprise. Protect as much as in your power, consistent with the safety of your command, the people in your vicinity, and wherever your guards may be sent be cautious not to be entrapped so far to the left that any portion may be cut off. Be cautious and be sure that you receive no check of reverse. The commanding general has sent Lieutenant Smith, of the Topographical Engineers, to select a proper ground, and to locate your command for defensive purposes. Colonel Owen will follow you as soon as practicable, and you are directed immediately on arrival to report your proximity to General Cadwalader, and ask him to keep open communication.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.710}

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 20, 1861.

General GEORGE A. MCCALL, Harrisburg, Pa.:

I received express from Wallace stating he had at 1 p. m. yesterday started his baggage for Bedford, and was waiting to see and feel the enemy. No aid could be sent from here to do him any good. It was exposed to be cut by the enemy at many points. He was told if hard pressed at any time to fall back on Bedford, a friendly county, where every one would turn out to aid a gallant band. Until last night at 12 o’clock I had no idea of danger to him, he having reported the day before that no enemy was near him or at Romney. If you receive information leading you to believe Wallace has retired on Bedford, and you can give him aid, please act upon your own good judgment.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT N. E. VIRGINIA, Arlington, June 20, 1861.

Brigadier-General RUNYON [and others]:

General Tyler reports enemy concentrating in his front. Hold all your command in readiness to move at a moment’s warning. If you have time, cook a day’s rations.

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-To Colonel HUNTER.

Have the Sixty-ninth Regiment move forward to Balls Cross-Roads.

By order General McDowell:

W. H. WOODY Captain, Third Infantry, Acting Inspector General.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, June 20, 1861.

Hon. JOHN SHERMAN, Hagerstown, Md.:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 18th instant, and regret to learn that any embarrassment to the successful movement of the forces under command of Major-General Patterson occurred in consequence of orders issued from here by the General-in-Chief.

It has been my aim and purpose to furnish General Patterson all the force and aid to enable him to accomplish a gloriously successful result, and to that end I ordered as many troops arriving at Harrisburg to follow in his train as I could, until the apparent change of circumstances at Harper’s Ferry and its neighborhood seemed to make it apparent that it was more important to increase our force here than there. It may be true that if the General-in-Chief had been on the spot and understood the condition of things there as they are now stated by you to have existed at the date of the order issued by him for the return of Burnside’s artillery to this place, he would not have issued it. Of that, of course, I cannot undertake to speak, and do not mean even to express an opinion. Certain it is, however, that this Department, and, indeed, the whole administration, has but one safe course before it in this emergency, and that is to be guided by the counsels of the Generalin-Chief {p.711} in all that relates to the plans, movements, and commands of the campaign. He has superior military knowledge, experience, wisdom, and patriotism, over any other member of the administration, and enjoys the unlimited confidence of the people, as well as the President and his advisers.

...

[Here the copy ends, and no signature.]

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WASHINGTON, June 21, 1861.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, U. S. A.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief sends you the inclosed copy of instructions to Major-General Patterson,* and desires you to propose a column to co-operate from this end, according to the outline plan indicated.

I am, &c.,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Scott to Patterson, June 20, p. 709.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 21, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Washington City:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the telegram of the General-in-Chief calling for a plan of operations with a portion of my force to sweep the enemy from Leesburg, &c. Inclosed is a copy of my telegraphic reply. The following is my plan more in detail:

To carry out the views of the General-in-Chief I propose-

First. To occupy the Maryland Heights with a brigade (2,100 men); fortify and arm with Doubleday’s artillery, and provision for twenty days, to secure against investment.

Second. To move all supplies to Frederick, and immediately thereafter abandon this line of operations; threaten with a force to open a route through Harper’s Ferry, this force to be the sustaining one for the command on Maryland Heights.

Third. To send everything else available (horse, foot, and artillery) to cross the Potomac near Point of Rocks, and unite with Colonel Stone at Leesburg. From that point I can operate as circumstances shall demand and your orders require. If no blow is to be struck here, I think this change of position important to keep alive the ardor of our men as well as to force an enemy.

The reasons for this change of depot will be so apparent to the General-in-Chief that I need not refer to them. By the employment of the local transportation of the country I can soon make the necessary changes, and will hasten to carry out your orders.

I have many reports in regard to the movements of the force opposite us in Virginia, and have reason to believe that when the regulars were withdrawn, General Johnston, with thirteen thousand men and twenty-two pieces of artillery, was marching to the attack, and that night posted his force, expecting from us an attack the following morning. I regret we did not meet the enemy, so confident am I that, with this well-appointed force, the result would have been favorable to us, and that this portion of Virginia would now be peaceably occupied.

{p.712}

Reports of the enemy having returned to Harper’s Ferry and had driven the occupants to this shore reached me yesterday. I immediately dispatched a strong force to take position in the vicinity of Sharpsburg and protect all parties on this side of the river, and drive back any force which may attempt to cross.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 21, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Washington City

The telegram of the General-in-Chief of yesterday was received at midnight. To carry out proposed plan I think involves a change of depot to Frederick and evacuation of Williamsport and Hagerstown. With an enemy close at hand, a move suddenly, with present amount of transportation, necessitates sending a large mass of stores back to Harrisburg or their abandonment.

Maryland Heights can be secured, and Frederick also, and a strong force of infantry, some cavalry, and artillery sent via Frederick to Leesburg to sweep the enemy from that point to Alexandria. If no blow is to be struck here, and this meets the views of the General-in-Chief, I will at once commence moving, and be in position to act at the earliest practicable moment. I send a regiment to-day to Frederick at the urgent solicitation of the governor. I shall write in full by mail. Reconnaissance of heights being made. Send your telegrams via Harrisburg, Chambersburg, &c. Frederick line cannot be relied upon.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 21, 1861.

General MCCALL, Harrisburg, Pa.: Please send the following to Colonel Wallace:

Five thousand cartridges and six thousand caps for rifle (caliber. 54 inch) and eight thousand extra caps were dispatched to you on Tuesday at noon. Yesterday Jerome Closson was sent to report the condition of the country east of Cumberland. The force you specially wish is not here. The commanding general now wishes you to join this force, partly in anticipation of immediate active operations, and in part to be relieved of constant anxiety for you when it is impossible to render you relief, and leaves the route to your judgment.

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 21, 1861.

Col. SAMUEL YOHE, First Regiment Pennsylvania Vols., near Funkstown, Md.:

COLONEL: The commanding general directs you, on arrival at Frederick, to notify Governor Hicks of the presence of yourself and regiment, prepared to aid in the execution of the laws and to maintain order. You will carefully guard against your men being induced to commit acts of violence, or in any manner taking part in redressing private wrongs, {p.713} and discountenance and punish improper conduct on their part, so that the citizens may see that you go to protect and not to oppress.

If bodies of men, unlawfully armed, are in your vicinity, and in any manner threaten the peace of the country or the safety of the loyal inhabitants of the State, or are arrayed with hostile intent against the Government, you will disarm them, using such a force that the issue of such a collision shall not be doubtful.

The commanding general desires you to communicate by every opportunity the state of feeling in your vicinity, and all matters and points you may deem of interest or importance. Should the deputy quartermaster-general, Colonel Crosman, call for your wagons, you will send them to him with a proper guard.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Wheeling, Va., June 21, 1861.

His Excellency the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

SIR: Reliable information has been received at this department, from various parts of this State, that large numbers of evil-minded persons have banded together in military organizations with intent to overthrow the government of the State, and for that purpose have called to their aid like-minded persons from other States, who, in pursuance of such call, have invaded this commonwealth. They are now making war on the loyal people of the State. They are pressing citizens against their consent into their military organizations, and seizing and appropriating their property to aid in the rebellion.

I have not at my command sufficient military force to suppress this rebellion and violence. The legislature cannot be convened in time to act in the premises. It therefore becomes my duty, as governor of this commonwealth, to call on the Government of the United States for aid to suppress such rebellion and violence. I therefore earnestly request that you will furnish a military force to aid in suppressing the rebellion and to protect the good people of this commonwealth from domestic violence.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS H. PEIRPOINT, Governor.

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HEADQUARTERS TYLER’S BRIGADE, Camp McDowell, June 22, 1861.

To Brigadier-General MCDOWELL, Commanding Department N. E. Virginia:

GENERAL: Your intimation yesterday that we might be ordered to fall back to Ball’s Cross-Roads took me so by surprise, that I went at once to your headquarters to see if there was not some mistake in the matter, and, not finding you, returned immediately back.

Since I have been in my present position I have used every possible means to connect it with our present line of operations, and also with the probable movements of the enemy, and I am satisfied that to abandon it would be the greatest mistake we could commit, and for the following reasons.

{p.714}

1. It is so situated as, to give you the best possible position to observe the enemy and to obtain the very earliest possible information as to any movement he can make towards Washington.

2. It is the strongest and most defensible military position, except that about Shooter’s Hill, that I have seen between Washington and four miles of Fairfax Court-House, and is so situated that it must be, attacked and carried before it would be safe for any enemy to make any forward movement on Ball’s Cross-Roads or Bailey’s Cross-Roads, as a movement on Bailey’s Cross-Roads would expose the enemy to a flank attack from the troops situated at Falls Church and a movement on Ball’s Cross-Roads to a rear attack, and neither of these crossings is more than two and a half miles from Falls Church.

3. As the enemy’s pickets before our arrival here were in possession of the ground in our front, I am satisfied the moment we leave the position it will be occupied, and, in connection with the possession of Vienna, will give him the possession of a line that it will cost us thousands of men to drive him from it, and we shall have to do it if he is strong enough to sustain an advance.

4. A retrograde, if followed by the occupation of the Falls Church position, as it will be, will enable the enemy to control the entire valley of the Four Mile Run, from Vienna to within two miles of Roach’s Mills and if they have twenty thousand men, everything else being equal, fifty thousand men can-not drive them out.

5. A retrograde movement (I will not consider its effects on the country) will have a most injurious effect on the Union men in this vicinity (and they are in considerable numbers), and thus must necessarily leave with us or be killed.

The above, general, are only some of the reasons that present themselves to my mind in opposition to a retrograde movement, which I think can be prevented and our position here perfectly secured by posting three regiments at Ball’s Cross-Roads and as many at Bailey’s Cross-Roads, which will bring the whole front from Georgetown, Falls Church, and Alexandria within short supporting positions. With a single battery of light artillery and a couple of hundred of cavalry, with two Connecticut and the two Ohio regiments, I can hold our position at Falls Church for two hours against ten thousand men, counting time from the moment our pickets will notify us of the approach of the enemy, and that will give us time to be supported from Ball’s and Bailey’s Cross-Roads and the New Jersey regiments at Roach’s Mills, leaving the troops at Alexandria and those in the vicinity of Arlington, Georgetown, and Washington near enough to sustain us in case we should be overmatched, which I do not think we should be. At all events; we would give time enough for these troops to come to our relief.

Before a retrograde movement is made I would like to canvass this matter with yourself and General Scott. Since I came here my mind has been constantly occupied with the subject of my position here, and I think I understand as well as any engineer officer or officers who may come out here and pass half an hour examining it and then return to Washington with a report. I know that these things must be, but I must confess that I felt mortified that two gentlemen of the Engineers should come into my camp under instructions, as I now find, to examine and pass upon the most important military positions in our whole line, which had been selected by me, and not have the courtesy to invite my attendance or call my attention to the fact that they were on any official duty.

When I had the honor to have a commission in the line of the United {p.715} States, many years ago, the etiquette of service would not excuse such neglect, even in the scientific officers of the Army.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

DANL. TYLER, Brigadier-General, Commanding Ohio Brigade.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 22, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

At 10 o’clock last night Wallace was safe, and apprehended no immediate danger, though some 3,000 secessionists were said to be about twenty miles west. Anticipating active operations either as directed by the General-in-Chief or forward, I yesterday called him to me from a point where he is only a cause of anxiety and doing no good. I have supplied him with ammunition, and there is no force between us.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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CAMP SPRAGUE, Washington, D. C., June 22, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. W. SCOTT, Headquarters U. S. Army:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the regiment under my command, in pursuance to orders from headquarters of the U. S. Army, departed from Washington on Monday, June 10, for the purpose of joining the column of Major-General Patterson, then moving from Chambersburg upon Harper’s Ferry. The battery of artillery attached to the command, with the baggage, preceded the main body of the regiment twelve hours.

Early upon Monday morning we left camp, and, marching to the station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, entered the cars prepared for our transportation, and were carried to Baltimore. The command was composed of 1,128 men and 117 officers, accompanied by a long wagon train. The passage through Baltimore was peacefully made, and, taking the cars of the Northern Central Railroad, the entire regiment reached Chambersburg, Pa., on the morning of Tuesday, June 11, when I immediately reported to Major-General Patterson for duty. Still proceeding by rail, we reached Greencastle at noon, and encamped. The command remained in camp at Greencastle until Saturday morning, when, in conjunction with the First Brigade of Major-General Patterson’s column, under command of Colonel Thomas, the line of march was taken up for Williamsport, Md. That place was reached at noon, and occupied by the force of which this regiment formed a part.

On Sunday a portion of the battery of artillery was ordered across the Potomac to Falling Waters; but, in accordance with orders from Major-General Patterson, it was recalled on Monday, and the regiment, once more complete, commenced its march at an early hour for Fredericksburg. The route lay through Hagerstown, Boonsborough, and Middletown, and in these places the command was received with enthusiastic demonstrations of favor. The march continued through the entire day and a part of the following night, with an interval of three hours for rest at Boonsborough.

At 12.30 a. m. on Tuesday the regiment bivouacked in the immediate vicinity of Frederick, having accomplished a march of thirty-three miles. {p.716} Soon after sunrise the regiment marched into the city, and remained there through the day.

At 7 p. m. we left Frederick by rail and proceeded to Washington, arriving at 6 o’clock on Wednesday morning, June 19; It gives me pleasure to assure the General-in-Chief of the gratification which I feel at the bearing and conduct of the command during this expedition. The fatigues of the way were endured with fortitude, and had any danger threatened I have no doubt that it would have been bravely met. As it is, I cannot avoid the expression of my satisfaction that the object of the expedition in which this regiment participated was attained in safety and without the loss of life. The command is now in an effective condition for the further service of the Government of the United States.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. E. BURNSIDE, Colonel, Comdg. First Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers.

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WASHINGTON, June 23, 1861.

Major-General BANKS, Baltimore;

SIR: I have the honor to, acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th, and have given it due consideration. The experience of the Department of the operations of home-guard organizations in communities similar to that of Baltimore has been such as to lead to great doubts as to the propriety of them. The subject is, however, under consideration, and shall be fully examined before an adverse determination is arrived at.

In view of the necessity of having cavalry at your command, the forces organized by Colonel Chorman have been accepted with the design of co-operating with the Maryland regiment, and they will be at once ordered to be mustered into service if ready. Your views in regard to making Baltimore the place for the instruction of our new levies impress me favorably.

Yours, &c.,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WASHINGTON, Washington, D. C., June 23, 1861.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, Arlington:

Your note is received. The General-in-Chief directs as follows: It is his intention that the Third Connecticut Regiment and the Second New York, Colonel Tompkins, shall be sent to you this evening. It will not be convenient to send them by steamer, and he directs that the trains, which will be thirty wagons to each, shall leave their camp-ground precisely at six o’clock. These trains will carry their knapsacks also. Please to designate where they shall cross the river, and have two guides to each regiment, one for the train and one for the column, to conduct them to their respective encampments. They can be over the river before 8 o’clock p. m.

Answer.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General and Commandant.

{p.717}

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 23, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen. U. S. Army, Washington City:

COLONEL: Up to the present instant I have received from Capt. J. Newton, Engineer Corps, only a report of a part of his reconnaissance of the Maryland Heights and the ground adjacent, made in compliance with the injunctions of the General-in-Chief. I hasten to give the result thus far, expecting to-morrow evening to present the whole.

Captain Newton approached the heights from this side, ascending over rough and steep roads difficult for artillery. The summit he found capable of defense of ample character by about five hundred men. The main difficulty to be overcome is the supply of water; the springs, which a week since afforded an ample supply, have become dry. He found no water within half a mile of the position selected on the heights for an intrenched camp. In Pleasant Valley, on the east, near the base of the mountain, springs are reported to abound; their character will be ascertained to-morrow. Water would have to be hauled from this valley, and he reports the ascent very difficult. In this valley I propose to place the force sustaining that on the heights. The whole command, if the location prove favorable, need not exceed two thousand five hundred men. That force would render the position safe; anything less would invite attack.

The following is what I have to report in relation to the enemy: Deserters from their ranks, some one or more of whom come in daily, all agree in saying the whole of the force originally at Harper’s Ferry (said to have been 25,000 men) is still between Williamsport and Winchester, about 8,000 coming this way on Friday at Martinsburg. The remainder are distributed in a semicircle, and on the route to Winchester, within four hours’ march of the advance. The advance is approaching Falling Waters under the command of General Jackson, who now commands the whole. The force under Jackson controls the people of Berkeley County, whom I believe are sorely oppressed and would welcome our approach. That force has become some little encouraged from our not advancing, and may soon annoy us. If so, I shall not avoid the contest they may invite-indeed, if it meet the approval of the General-in-Chief, I would march my whole force, as soon as the battery receives harness, upon the enemy, and drive him step by step to Winchester. I believe this force can in ten days rid the adjoining portion of Virginia of its oppressors. I may be forced to this course. My fear is that I may interfere with the general plan of the General-in-Chief and drive the enemy to the aid of the main body. They would, however, go as fugitives, to aid in its demoralization. My means of transportation are coming in rapidly.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 24, 1861.

Col. LEWIS WALLACE, Commanding, &c., Cumberland, Md.:

General Patterson orders you here, to come by the shortest route, unless you have strong reasons against coming that way, not anticipated by him.

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.718}

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, June 24, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Army

COLONEL : I have the honor to submit the following, in answer to your letter of June 21, in reference to a column to co-operate from this position with a movement to be made with a portion of Major-General Patterson’s command “to sweep the enemy from. Leesburg towards Alexandria.” For a better understanding of what follows, I have the honor to transmit a map, which I have had prepared, showing the position of our troops and of that of the enemy in front of it. There is at Manassas Junction and the places in its front or immediate vicinity a force of from 23,000 to 25,000 infantry and about 2,000 cavalry and a supply of well-provided artillery. The advanced position of this force is at Centreville, Germantown, Fairfax Court-House, and Fairfax Station, the numbers and proportion at each varying from time to time. How much of a force is beyond Manassas Gap, in the valley, and could be brought within the operations here contemplated, I have no means of judging. There is nothing to hinder their coming, and unless they are kept engaged by our troops around Harper’s Ferry, re-enforcements, in case of serious operations from that section would have to be guarded against, as would also those from places to the south of Manassas, on the line of the railroad to Richmond or Lynchburg, which would be pressed forward whenever it should become known we were moving upon them or they upon us in any force.

I have not learned that the troops in our front are fully provided with transportation, though I am satisfied they are not so deficient as we have supposed, and not as much so as we are at this time ourselves, for the Quartermaster-General, after supplying yesterday transportation for two regiments to move each about six miles, had but three horses left.

We have in this department, good, bad, and indifferent, twenty regiments of infantry, giving an aggregate of less than 14,000; four companies of cavalry, giving about 250; one battery of regular artillery of six rifled guns; one battery of volunteer artillery, smooth-bores-an excellent company, but not accustomed to their guns, and hardly fit for service in the field. There are three companies of regular artillery, but they are in the earthworks, and not available for field service. The General-in-Chief was pleased to say he wished I would fight this project of a combined movement to sweep away the enemy from Leesburg towards Alexandria with him step by step. I take advantage of this permission, if, indeed, I do not obey a command, to say that it seems to me the distance between General Patterson’s force and this one is so great, and the line of march each has to take is such (a flank exposed), that, in my view, the force to move from each position should be constituted without reference to material support from the other. I am thought by those for whose judgment I have great respect, and who have been on the ground, to hazard something in having my advanced position so near Falls Church, when it is thrown forward from the right of the line, Fort Corcoran, and there are means of re-enforcing it promptly by the Georgetown turnpike and the railroad to Alexandria.

What would be our position if a movement is made to the right, at this the right bank of the Potomac, towards Leesburg? In the first place, as we are for any such purpose without means of wagon transportation, we should be obliged to repair and use the railroad; but whether this was done or not, we should march with the left flank of {p.719} the column exposed to attack from their advanced positions, and on getting as far to the right as Vienna, have our line exposed to interruption, for Vienna is nearer to the enemy than it is to Falls Church or the camps on the Georgetown road.

To go farther to the right could not safely be done, even by a force superior to that the enemy can bring against us. I think a glance at the map will show this. Any reverse happening to this raw force, pushed farther along, with the enemy on the flank and rear and an impassable river on the right, would be fatal. I do not think, therefore, it safe to risk anything from this position in the direction of Leesburg farther than Vienna, seven miles by the Leesburg turnpike from Falls Church, and even to go there the force should be large. Vienna could be supplied or re-enforced

1st. By the Leesburg road from Falls Church.

2d. By the railroad from Alexandria.

3d. By the dirt road from Ball’s Cross-Roads.

The first two are liable to interruption unless strongly guarded, and the third is an indifferent road and a long one. The force, then, to go as far as Vienna should be large enough to hold the position for several hours, and should be well supplied with artillery and cavalry and strengthened by such defenses as could be readily thrown up. Vienna being held in force, and offensively, would cover the country from the Difficult Creek well towards Goose Creek from any force of the enemy operating from Manassas Junction or its dependencies, and I have never heard of there being over 500 men, mostly local troops, at Leesburg. As it would be constantly liable to be attacked by all the available force of the enemy and is only a few hours’ march from him, it would be necessary to have strong reserves ready at either Falls Church or the camp of the Ohio brigade.

The force sufficient to hold Vienna cannot well be stated, because of the changes which are taking place in front of us. I do not think it prudent to go there with less than 8,000 infantry, a battery of field regular rifled artillery, with some guns in position, and six companies of cavalry, and the line from Fort Corcoran to General Tyler to be held as strong as at present, and a reserve on that line of 3,000 men; some of the force to be organized into small field brigades, as heretofore proposed, under regular colonels.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, June* -, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters of the Army:

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following plan of operations, and the composition of the force required to carry it into effect, in compliance with the verbal instructions of the General-in-Chief:

The secession forces at Manassas Junction and its dependencies are supposed to amount at this time to-

Infantry 23,000
Cavalry 1,500
Artillery 500
25,000
{p.720}

We cannot count on keeping secret our intention to overthrow this force. Even if the many parties, intrusted with the knowledge of the plan should not disclose or discover it, the necessary preliminary measures for such an expedition would betray it; and they are alive and well informed as to every movement, however slight, we make. They have, moreover, been expecting us to attack their position, and have been preparing for it. When it becomes known positively we are about to march, and they learn in what strength, they will be obliged to call in their disposable forces from all quarters, for they will not be able, if closely pressed, to get away by railroad before we can reach them. If General J. E. Johnston’s force is kept engaged by Major-General Patterson, and Major-General Butler occupies the force now in his vicinity, I think they will not be able to bring up more than ten thousand men. So we must calculate on having to do with about thirty-five thousand Men.

The objective point in our plan is the Manassas Junction. This is covered by the enemy’s troops stationed at Centreville, Germantown, Fairfax Court-House, Fairfax Station, a place between Fairfax Station and Sangster’s, and on the Occoquan. The position at Manassas may be reached by four routes: First, by the Leesburg stone road, Georgetown turnpike, and Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad, via Falls Church and Vienna; second, by way of the Little River turnpike and Fairfax Court-House; third, by way of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad; fourth, by way of the road south of the Orange and Alexandria road.

There is a fifth approach, from Dumfries or Evansport, by way of Brentsville, a march of about twenty-two miles but the starting point is too far from the main direct approach to admit of its being used in the first instance without a superabundance of force. The country lying between the two armies is mostly thickly wooded, and the roads leading across it, except the turnpikes and railroads, are narrow, and in places sunken by the wear of travel and wash of rains. This makes it necessary to have the fewest possible number of carriages of any kind, and our forces, therefore, though the distance is short, Will have to move over several lines of approach in order to get forward in time a sufficient body to operate with success. The Loudoun and Hampshire road is in working order as far as within five miles of Vienna, and no doubt could soon be repaired to that place. The Orange and Alexandria road, which I propose to look to as the main channel of supply, Is now in working order some seven miles out of Alexandria, and from Manassas Junction to within fifteen miles of Alexandria. In the intermediate space the road has been destroyed as effectively as possible, and a long deep cut filled in with trees and earth. Nevertheless, all these obstacles can soon be removed with plenty of force and an adequate supply of proper materials.

Leaving small garrisons in the defensive works, I propose to move against Manassas with a force of thirty thousand of all arms, organized into three columns, with a reserve of ten thousand. One column to move from Falls Church or Vienna (preferably the latter), to go between Fairfax Court-House and Centreville, and, in connection with another column moving by the Little River turnpike, cut off or drive in (the former, if possible) the enemy’s advanced posts. The third column to move by the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and leaving as large a force as may be necessary to aid in rebuilding it, to push on with the remainder to join the first and second columns.

The enemy is said to have batteries in position at several places in his front, and defensive works on Bull Rum and Manassas Junction. I {p.721} do not propose that these batteries be, attacked, for I think they may all be turned. Bull Run, I am told, is fordable at almost any place. After uniting the columns this side of it, I propose to attack the main position by turning it, if possible, so as to cut off communications by rail with the South, or threaten to do so sufficiently to force the enemy to leave his intrenchments to guard them; if necessary, and I find it can be done with safety, to move a force as far as Bristoe, to destroy the bridge at that place.

I cannot learn that the enemy has any magazines at the Junction, and I am under the impression he receives his supplies, except fresh beef, from the south by the railroad. I am told that on most of the approaches abatis have been made and other preparations to obstruct the advance of our troops, and, as the roads are mostly through woods, and are narrow, it will be necessary the Army should go, in the first place, as free from baggage as possible-no tents; provisions only in the haversack; the only wagons being those necessary for carrying axes, spades, and picks, and ammunition for the infantry, and ambulances for the sick and wounded. A subsistence train should be ready in Alexandria to go by the Little River turnpike in case the Orange and Alexandria road cannot be repaired, and another should be ready at Vienna, under the guard to be left there, for the use of the column moving from that point, in case it should fail to reach in time the Orange and Alexandria-road or the Little River turnpike, or the latter should not in time be cleared of the enemy.

Believing the chances are greatly in favor of the enemy’s accepting battle between this and the Junction, and that the consequences of that battle will be of the greatest importance to the country, as establishing the prestige in this contest on the one side or the other-the more so as the two sections will be fairly represented by regiments from almost every State-I think it of great, consequence that, as for the most part our regiments are exceedingly raw and the best of them, with few exceptions, not over steady in line, they be organized into as many small fixed brigades as the number of regular colonels will admit, these colonels commanding brigades to be assisted by as many regular officers as can be collected for the purpose, so that the men may have as fair a chance as the nature of things and the comparative inexperience of most will allow.

If the three companies of artillery in this department are furnished with batteries, we shall have with the three regular and three volunteer batteries here and in Washington a sufficiency of artillery; though, if the nature of the country did not make it embarrassing, I would, on account of the confidence it gives new troops, have still more. Fortunately, the country is so wooded that our deficiency in cavalry will be the less felt. We shall need all we have for the ordinary work of escorts, advance pickets, &c. I think every arrangement should be made, that when the columns take up their line of march no step be taken in retreat, but that they should press forward to the ultimate point steadily and determinedly. If they are well led I think they will do so, and with every chance of success.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* About June 24, 1861. {p.722} [Memorandum for General Scott.]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, June 25, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters of Army:

Statement of Mr. J-n, a man on whom I rely:

Arrived at Fairfax Court-House Thursday, 20th instant; found there Prince William company and the Rappahannock-about sixty-five in each company. Friday morning these companies went to Fairfax Station, leaving nobody in the town. Friday night the South Carolina regiments began to come, and Saturday night it was said there were three regiments at the Court-House and another coming; saw the three himself-amounting to about 3,000 men. Started for the Junction about 8.30; went by Germantown and Centreville. At Germantown saw Gregg’s South Carolina regiment-about 1,000. The road between Fairfax and Centreville much obstructed about one mile before you get to the Bald Hill, where there are five cannon planted.

At Centreville, Bonham, of South Carolina, was in command. He had other troops besides his own regiment and the artillery. At Bull Run there was an entrenchment on the right bank-four guns. Two regiments of South Carolinians stationed there; they had been there but a short time. Bull Run Crossing is five miles from Centreville and two from Manassas Junction. Arrived at Manassas Junction at 10 o’clock a. m.; saw General Beauregard; staid until 3 p. m.; returned the same way he went. On reaching Bull Run, found the South Carolina regiments had struck their tents, had their wagons packed and were moving in the direction of Centreville and Fairfax Court-House, taking their four cannon with them, occupying the road for about two miles. Had a difficulty in passing the column. The colonel asked if he had a pass; showed him one from General Beauregard; was then allowed to pass. He was cautioned by the colonel not to speak of movements of troops even to their own men. These regiments did not come to the Court-House. At Centreville things were not as they were when he went through first. At Germantown found Gregg’s regiment had broken up its camp and moved to the Court-House, and was encamped near the Little River turnpike, about one-quarter mile from the Court-House. Learned that Gregg’s place at Germantown had been supplied by another regiment or regiments, and supposes it may have been by those he passed at Bull Run and those which were on the march to the front.

At Fairfax Station there were about 800 men-Virginians. The South Carolina regiments were all (except one-Spratt’s) about 1,000 men each. Forty of Gregg’s regiment had the measles. The two regiments on the march from Bull Run had about fifty wagons for their baggage and supplies, old road and farmers’ wagons, five to six horses each. Wagons well crammed up to the bows. The South Carolina regiments were the best armed and equipped and in high spirits, “freezing for a fight,” being much elated by the Vienna affair. Negroes with them as servants. Cavalry, estimated, all told, 1,500; 500 Louisianians and 1,000 Virginians; mounted so-so as to Virginians; those from Louisiana good. Virginia cavalry armed irregularly with double-barreled shot-guns, pistols, fowling-pieces, some carbines, and sabers. Horse furniture indifferent, made up of odds and ends. Louisiana cavalry better in all respects--men, horses, arms, and equipments. The total at the Junction and the places this side he estimated at 20,000, all told. {p.723} There are twenty Kentucky well-mounted guerrillas. Five of them took the Connecticut man prisoner. The Connecticut man seemed well pleased with being a prisoner. Subsistence, chiefly ship biscuit and fresh beef. Crops-wheat very fine; grass, corn, and oats indifferent. They seemed to be expecting an attack from us. Saw no guns at Germantown. Saw five guns harnessed at Court-House. Saw five guns at Centreville. Saw four guns at Bull Run.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

IRVIN McDOWELL, Brigadier-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 25, 1861.

Hon. JOHN S. CARLILE, Wheeling, Va.:

SIR: As the President has now been appealed to by his excellency Governor Peirpoint to aid in repelling the Southern marauders and their confederates from Virginia, you are requested to take your instructions from him in organizing forces in Virginia for that purpose, and the company and field officers of the troops now or hereafter to be organized will be commissioned by him.

Allow me to tender you my sincere thanks for the patriotism, intrepidity, and intelligence which have characterized your intercourse with this Department in the trying times during which you have aided its efforts.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, June 25, 1861.

Hon. FRANCIS H. PEIRPOINT, Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Wheeling:

SIR: In reply to your application of the 21st instant for the aid of the Federal Government to repel from Virginia the lawless invaders now perpetrating every species of outrage upon persons and property throughout a large portion of the State, the President directs me to say that a large additional force will soon be sent to your relief. The fall extent of the conspiracy against popular rights which has culminated in the atrocities to which you refer was not known when its first outbreak took place at Charleston. It now appears that it was matured for many years by secret organizations throughout the country, especially in the slave States. By this means, when the President called upon Virginia in April for its quota of troops, then deemed necessary to put it down in the States in which it had shown itself in arms, the call was responded to by an order from the chief confederate in Virginia to his armed followers to seize the navy-yard at Gosport, and the authorities of the State, who had till then shown repugnance to the plot, found themselves stripped of all actual power, and afterwards were manifestly permitted to retain the empty forms of office only because they consented to use them at the bidding of the invaders.

The President, however, never supposed that a brave and free people, though surprised and unarmed, could long be subjugated by a class of political adventurers always adverse to them, and the fact that they have already rallied, reorganized their government, and checked the march of these invaders demonstrates how justly he appreciated them. {p.724} The failure hitherto of the State authorities, in consequence of the circumstances to which I have adverted, to organize its quota of troops called for by the President, imposed upon him the necessity of providing himself for their organization, and this has been done to some extent; but instructions have now been given to the agent of the Federal Government to proceed hereafter under your directions, and the company and field officers will be commissioned by you.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WASHINGTON, June 25, 1861.

Maj. Gen. N. P. BANKS, U. S. A., Commanding Department of Annapolis, Fort McHenry, Md.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief has heard that on several occasions, when troops have arrived in Baltimore from the North, the police and others have interfered to prevent friendly persons from furnishing them with water at the depot. Two worthy Quakers, named William Robinson and James D. Graham, have, it seems, been threatened with violence for no other cause than this. The General asks your attention to this matter, and suggests that by having a detachment of your troops at the depot at the proper time the regiments arriving might be duly supplied with water.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 25, 1861.

His Excellency A. G. CURTIN, Governor of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pa.:

GOVERNOR: As in the course of the military operations of the command now in this department this force may be withdrawn from this vicinity and that of Frederick and Cumberland, leaving the frontier of Pennsylvania unprotected, I consider it my duty to notify you, that you may take such steps as may appear to you proper to be prepared to defend your State from encroachment should the offensive be assumed by the insurgents. As you now have a considerable force of reserve troops, which at any moment the General Government might wish to use for common defense, I trust you will pardon me for suggesting that they be posted at points on the frontier of Pennsylvania which to my mind are the most exposed, and from which at any moment, if the Government desired their services, they could be pushed as Federal troops into this State, or sent by rail to other threatened parts of our country. The places of importance in a military point of view are Bedford, Chambersburg, Hanover or Gettysburg, and York. State troops at these points would sustain U. S. forces in Maryland, and check, in case of their being withdrawn, encroachments from Virginia. York has the additional advantage of supporting Hanover, and of being on an easy line of communication with Washington. At all of them a Federal officer, authorized by the Government, can speedily turn the State into Federal troops, and throw them where they may be required.

{p.725}

I respectfully present this subject to your consideration, trusting my views may meet your approbation, and be found to coincide with State policy in authorizing a reserve of State troops.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding

–––

WASHINGTON, June 25, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON:

SIR: I have received your letters of the 22d and 23d instant.

As the enemy on breaking up at Harper’s Ferry did not abandon that district of country, but still continues in force between Winchester and the Potomac, observing that river from Harper’s Ferry to Williamsport, I deem it best that you should with your column remain in his front, and if, as is supposed, with superior or equal numbers, that you should cross the river and offer him battle; but if the enemy should retire upon his resources at Winchester it is not enjoined that you should pursue him to that distance from your base of operations without a well-grounded confidence in your continued superiority.

A secondary object to which your attention is invited is a combined operation upon Leesburg between a portion of your troops and the column of Colonel Stone, at and (possibly) above the Point of Rocks, in order to occupy and to hold that village, the center of a wealthy district, abounding in friends of the Union. As I write I learn from Colonel Stone that the enemy has just re-enforced Leesburg up to about 1,600 men, and may increase that number. Inquire.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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WASHINGTON, June 25, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. PATTERSON, Hagerstown, Md., via Harrisburg and Chambersburg, Pa.:

I wrote by mail in substance. Remain in front of the enemy while he continues in force between Winchester and the Potomac. If you are in superior or equal force, you may cross and offer him battle. If the enemy should retire upon his resources at Winchester, it is not enjoined that You should pursue him to that distance from your base of operations without a well-grounded confidence in your, continued superiority. Your attention is invited to a secondary object-a combined operation on Leesburg between a portion of your troops and the column of Colonel Stone, at and probably above Point of Rocks, to hold that village. The enemy has re-enforced Leesburg to 1,600 men, and may increase the number. Inquire.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 25, 1861.

Colonel TOWNSEND, Headquarters Army:

Restrained by an order from General McClellan (as he says a sharp reprimand for attempting to move), Wallace remains in Cumberland to await the result of some of General McClellan’s movements. He asks {p.726} for orders; reports six days’ provisions on hand; ready to move, and no enemy near. A sustaining force of Pennsylvania troops is at Bedford. If I bring him here shall I interfere with plans of operations westward of which I am not informed?

R. PATTERSON.

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WASHINGTON, June 26, 1861.

General PATTERSON, Hagerstown, via Chambersburg and Harrisburg:

Your telegram of 25th received. Let Colonel Wallace remain at Cumberland until farther orders.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 26, 1861.

[General MCCALL:]

My DEAR GENERAL: If I can get permission to go over into Virginia, I intend to cross the river and offer battle to the insurgents. As the regulars and Rhode Island regiment and the battery have been taken from me, I will require all the force now here, and must leave the Pennsylvania line unguarded. Please inform me how many men you could throw forward and how soon.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,

R. PATTERSON.

–––

JUNE 26, 1861.

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Abstract from return of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, commanded by Brigadier-General McDowell, U. S. Army, for June 26, 1861.

Commmands.Present for duty.Total present.Present and absent. Pieces of field artillery.
Officers. Men.Officers. Men.Officers. Men.Aggregate.
Heintzelman’s brigade1923,5801973,8552184,2044,4226
Runyon’s brigade1322,4741352,5731522,9123,064
Hunter’s brigade1182,0581182,2191292,5442,673
Schenck’s brigade1272,1531302,2421372,2962,433
Tyler’s brigade1062,0431092,1431122,2022,314
Troops not brigaded791,358791,558871,6081,6906
Department staff10101010
Totals76413,66677814,59084515,76616,61112

NOTE.-Of the twenty regiments embraced in above return, seventeen were three months’ troops.

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GRAFTON, June 27, 1861.

General WINFIELD SCOTT:

General McCall has ordered two Pennsylvania regiments to a position in Pennsylvania near Cumberland. Wallace had a very handsome {p.727} skirmish near there yesterday, killing seventeen. Parties threaten Piedmont. I suggest that one of McCall’s regiments occupy Piedmont at once to protect Union, and the other re-enforce Wallace. I cannot spare the force just at present. It would produce excellent effect, and is really important. If rumors are true, I have sharp work before me. Information vague.

GEO. B. MCCLELLAN, Major-General.

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WASHINGTON, June 27, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, U. S. A., Commanding, &c., Hagerstown, Md.:

I have your telegram of this date about a prisoner, but no acknowledgment of mine of the 25th, and letter of the same date. Under the latter I had expected your crossing the river to-day in pursuit of the enemy. You needed no special authority for sending prisoners to Fort McHenry.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 27, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE CADWALADER, Commanding, Williamsport, Md.:

GENERAL: The commanding-general desires information of the location of the enemy on the opposite side of the river. To aid in obtaining it he sends Captain Simpson to you, and for the same purpose authorizes you to retain Captain Newton. This information is to determine the importance of crossing the river and offering battle or the possibility of cutting off any considerable body of their army. He purposes, with a part or all of his available force, to cross the river east of Falling Waters and to rout such portions of the enemy as may be near the point of crossing; to attack the force stationed near the junction of the Shepherdstown road with that from Williamsport to Martinsburg; to turn upon the enemy Stationed on the Neck, and recross at the ford near Williamsport. Though wishing specially the character and number of the fords east of Williamsport, the Same information of those west is important, in order to make a diversion, and perhaps his main attack on that side.

Lest a reconnaissance should draw the enemy in force from Bunker Hill in time to strengthen the body between this and Martinsburg, the general desires the information obtained as secretly as possible, employing spies to go into Virginia and testing the fords at night by intelligent persons, swimming, &c. He designs to cross with a force which will render success certain. Other information may be obtained in seeking for that desired, which may tend to change this plan or to mature it, and therefore the general desires the officers not to confine themselves to this. As soon as possible, after sufficient information is obtained, the general wishes Captains Newton and Simpson to report to him. He only awaits the arrival of harness for Perkins’ battery and this information to act.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.728}

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GRAFTON, June 28, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Washington:

From information received to-day, I renew request that two Pennsylvania State regiments, now near Cumberland, be directed on Cumberland and Piedmont. If possible, some guns and cavalry. If Piedmont unprotected, almost certain town will be ruined by rebels and railway destroyed. I cannot now spare necessary force. The movement will materially strengthen my base operations. Learn reliably that rebels destroyed all bridges except two between Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland. If possible, will do same up to Cheat River. Forty-five engines and over four hundred cars destroyed at Martinsburg.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, Williamsport, June 28, 1861-8 p. m.

Col. F. J. PORTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dep’t of Pa., Hagerstown, Md.:

COLONEL. I have just received the inclosed letter from General Negley, saying that he is informed the enemy are preparing to cross the river at Harper’s Ferry. I have no reason for doubting the fact, other than I think their main force is near Bunker Hill, say 7,000 or 8,000 men, and the remainder with perhaps the greater part of the artillery and cavalry, south of Falling Waters, say perhaps 5,000 men. The artillery, said to be seventeen 6-pounders, are rifled brass pieces, as is said by an intelligent deserter here and confirmed by one other source. I have written to General Negley to say I will support him at once on hearing that the enemy have actually crossed the river.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CADWALADER, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS FIFTH BRIGADE, Camp Newton, Md., June 28, 1861.

Col. F. J. PORTER:

DEAR SIR: I am this moment reliably informed that the enemy are preparing to cross the river at Harper’s Ferry. They moved a force from the Ferry this morning (3 a. m.) towards Shepherdstown. This force was replaced about 9 o’clock a. m. They were engaged during the morning loading some army stores at the railroad. The second messenger informed me as above.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

JAMES S. NEGLEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

I have sent a squad of dragoons to Harper’s Ferry for further information.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 28, 1861.

Respectfully forwarded to the headquarters of the Army. The enemy have collected in large numbers on the Virginia side of the Potomac. {p.729} The crossing at or near Harper’s Ferry was to secure a large quantity of provisions seized by the force at Frederick, and to hold that place of entry for provisions.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, Hagerstown, Md., June 28, 1861

Col. J. J. ABERCROMBIE, Seventh Infantry, Commanding Sixth Brigade:

SIR: The commanding general directs you to march as early as practicable to-morrow morning with two regiments of your brigade, and encamp near the First Brigade at Downsville. The third regiment, will be left as guard to the store-houses, hospitals, &c., in town. A guard of one officer and twenty-five men will be sent to guard the property, funds, &c., in this building pertaining to the staff departments. Captain McMullen is directed to report to you with his company to march at the same time.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HAGERSTOWN, June 28, 1861. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Telegrams of 25th and 27th received. The enemy being superior in number, 15,000, with twenty-two guns, and having just assumed a threatening attitude and location, I would not be warranted under the orders of the General-in-Chief in crossing the river with my single battery, raw and immovable for want of harness. Send me the Rhode Island regiment and battery, or one or more batteries in condition for service, and I will cross on their arrival. If you will send regulars it will add to the obligation. Unless the force in front is dispersed or driven back, I cannot well carry out the judicious suggestion of moving on Leesburg.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 28, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen. U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a telegram from the General-in-Chief, dated 27th instant, saying: 111 had expected your crossing the river to-day in pursuit of the enemy.” I infer from this that orders have been sent me to cross and attack the enemy; if so, I have not received them.

Captain Newton, of the Engineers, returned at midnight, after two days’ absence in the direction of Sharpsburg and Dam No. 4, and reports, on information he considers reliable, 5,000 men from Falling Waters to Dam No. 4; 4,500 in the vicinity of Shepherdstown, under {p.730} General Jackson, and a reserve of 5,500 men under General Johnston near Bunker Hill. He also reports twenty to twenty-four guns and a large cavalry force with General Jackson, and thinks that General Negley, whose brigade is on my left, near Sharpsburg, will be attacked-the river being fordable at almost every point. To meet this force of 15,000 men, with twenty-two guns, and nearly 1,000 cavalry, I have about 10,000 volunteer infantry, and 650 cavalry and artillery, the latter being nearly all recruits. The horses are untrained and we are still without harness for the battery.

I have repeatedly asked for batteries, and ought to have one for each brigade, but have none. The only one fit for service sent me was the Rhode island Battery, and that the General-in-Chief was compelled, by the necessities of his own position, to take from me when most wanted, and within a week after it joined me. I have neither cavalry nor artillery sufficient to defend the fords of the river between Harper’s Ferry and Hancock, but I would much rather attack than defend, and would have far more confidence in the result. While I will not on my own responsibility attack, without artillery, a superior force, I will do so cheerfully and promptly if the General-in-Chief will give me an explicit order to that effect.

To insure success, I respectfully, but earnestly, request that the troops taken from me when Washington was menaced be sent to me with all speed, with a number of field guns equal to those of the insurgents. I will then be enabled to choose my point of attack, offer battle to the enemy, and, I trust, drive them before me, clearing the valley in front, and taking such position as the General-in-Chief may indicate.

I respectfully suggest that Colonel Stone’s column be sent me, with other re-enforcements, and venture to add that the sooner I am re-enforced with reliable troops and abundant field artillery the better. I am making arrangements for crossing the river, and will do so without waiting for orders or re-enforcements, if I find that the strength of the enemy has been overrated.

I beg to remind the General-in-Chief that the period of service of nearly all the troops here will expire within a month, and that if we do not meet the enemy with them, we will be in no condition to do so for three months to come. The new regiments will not be fit for service before September, if then, and meanwhile this whole frontier will be exposed.

I have got my command into as good condition as I could expect in so short a time. Officers and men are anxious to be led against the insurgents, and if the General-in-Chief will give me a regiment of regulars and an adequate force of field artillery I will cross the river and attack the enemy, unless their forces are ascertained to be more than two to one.

I beg you to assure the General-in-Chief of my sincere desire to sustain him faithfully, and to promote, by all the resources at my command, the success of his general plan of operations.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Wheeling, June 28, 1861.

Hon. S. CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I am happy to inform you that nearly the whole of the three regiments {p.731} called for by his excellency the President of the United States from the State of Virginia are now in the field under the direction of Major-General McClellan.

The first regiment was of the three months’ volunteers. They have received guns, &c., but no tents. I think if they now had tents, the most if not all of that regiment would enlist for three years.

The second regiment for three years is full, but they are without arms and equipments. A large number of this regiment are from the mountain region of Western Virginia. It is important to have them in the field as soon as possible, on account of their knowledge of the country. Permit me to urge the importance of sending arms, tents, and equipments immediately for this regiment. I would also observe that the First Regiment has yet no knapsacks.

I have also two companies of cavalry, of one hundred men each, ready to muster into the service. They are much needed. They are also gathered from the mountain region; well acquainted with the country. You will please send arms for them. They are all marksmen, and have been accustomed to the use of the rifle.

It gives me great pleasure to assure you that our Union men are entering into the spirit of the work with great energy; and when they learn that our government is recognized at Washington, it will strengthen Union men and stop cavilers. Our people will give the United States all the aid they can spare from defending their families and property from their secession neighbors, many of whom have imbibed the spirit of their leaders.

I am in receipt of information from every part of Western Virginia, from the most intelligent and influential citizens, of their high approval of the action [of] our Convention and of their determination to sustain it.

I am, my dear sir, your obedient servant,

F. H. PEIRPOINT.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Grafton, Va., June 29, 1861.

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT, Commander-in-Chief Army of the United States:

SIR: I have the honor to call your attention to the present condition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway. By a written communication received to-night from the roadmaster, I am informed that parties of the enemy have recently examined the trestles, bridges, &c., with a view to further destruction. My informant asserts that he is threatened, if the slightest attempt is made to repair the trestles, greater injuries to the road will follow. The company, however, is prepared to reconstruct the road on our promise to protect it. The injured road being beyond the limits of this department, I can only say that I regard the reconstruction of it necessary to our operations here. There is a strong Union feeling along the route, especially in Hampshire and Morgan Counties, Which only awaits protection to practically develop itself, companies in that vicinity being prepared to muster into service. Under these circumstances, by ordering down the Pennsylvania troops, the war frontier would be moved towards the South, and our left flank be so protected that we could continue our operations of advance with greater alacrity, More expeditiously, extending them to the Kanawha.

{p.732}

The necessity of the continual detachment of bodies of troops to watch the enemy on the left being obviated, we could throw a greater force on the more prominent points of attack. The opening of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, the protection of a Union sentiment wherever manifested, and the importance of guarding the base of our operations

which, I alike point to the apparent necessity of the measure indicated, trust, will appear a sufficient excuse for presenting it to your attention.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 29, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Washington City:

COLONEL: I inclose, for the information of the General-in-Chief, Captain Newton’s report of his examination of the Maryland Heights. The report is not as full as I desired it to be, due to its being rapidly made, in consequence of having to send him off suddenly. From conversation with him and information I gain from residents, I am convinced the occupation of the heights would be attended with great labor, and unless a strong force be placed in Pleasant Valley to keep open communications with water, it cannot be held at this season by any command opposed.

I inclose also a communication from Captain Newton, relating to the reoccupation of these heights. I do not think the information reliable. Considerable force has been seen in the vicinity of Shepherdstown.

I arranged to-day to advance into Virginia on Monday. This is the earliest I can move with artillery, without which I deem it very imprudent to cross the river, with information of a large opposing force close at hand. I expect to drive the enemy from our vicinity, and, should it appear advisable, will push to Winchester. If the enemy have retired (which his demonstrations may have prepared for), you will next hear of my approach to you.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosures.]

HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 25, 1861.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I have the honor to report the result of my examination of Maryland Heights (Elk Ridge).

I ascended first the western slope by the county road leading to Solomon’s Gap; thence I proceeded on the summit four miles to the southern extremity of the ridge. This road requires extensive repairs for heavy hauling for a distance of about four miles.

The top of the ridge is covered with a small growth of timber and brushwood, and is difficult of penetration. An easy defense could be made by cutting down the timber and brush across the summit for about two hundred yards in width, and forming behind this obstruction a light parapet, having the interior slope stockaded, the stockade to be high enough to protect the heads of the men when standing on the banquette, and to be loop-holed. Other stockaded parapets maybe erected whenever a more minute examination may render it necessary and at {p.733} those points where the access up the sides of the mountain may be convenient to an enemy. The portion of the heights to be occupied by us should extend about one and three-fourths miles from the southern extremity of the ridge, with the object of protecting our supplies of water from the base of the mountain at the foot of the eastern slope and distant about one and one-quarter miles from the southern extremity of the ridge. Our principal defense should be felling trees, &c., on the sides and slopes of the mountain and on the summit wherever an approach would be practicable. We should also occupy below the base of the slope, where our supplies of water are to be drawn. The mountain affords capabilities for a strong defense, but from the extent of ground to be occupied, the condition of the roads, and the necessity of hauling water and stores up the mountain, much inconvenience may be experienced, and a certain amount of time also will be expended in completing the defenses.

The ascent of the eastern slope is through Solomon’s Gap, by a road larger and steeper than by the corresponding road from the western side, and also by a road constructed by the enemy and leading up from Sandy Hook. The latter road is not too steep, but is very rough, having large stones five or six feet long in many places directly in the road. The same is true in a measure of all other roads upon the mountain. The rocks are said by those who have made roads on the mountain to be generally detached, and not to form a part of a ledge.

It is impossible to state what amount of force could be detailed from the Army at this period, with the necessity also of watching closely the enemy, to construct the necessary defenses. My estimate is that two thousand men are necessary to occupy the mountain and the eastern slope, and it would require two thousand men to work about ten days in order to put everything in condition to make a vigorous defense.

The extent and rugged nature of the ground examined and the close growth of timber and brush rendered it impossible to take measures, and the distances are accordingly taken from maps, guides, and from personal observation, without the use of instruments. I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

JOHN NEWTON, Capt., U. S. Engineers, Chief of Engineer Staff.

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HEADQUARTERS FIFTH BRIGADE (NEGLEY’S), June 29, 1861-11.30 a. m.

Maj. F. J. PORTER, A. A. G., Hdqrs. Dept. of Pennsylvania, Hagerstown, Md.:

My DEAR MAJOR: From all the information as yet received the enemy has recrossed the river at Harpers Ferry on flats and boats and occupied the Maryland Heights with two regiments-said to be the Kentucky and Mississippi-numbering together about two thousand men.

First. The express arrived at General Cadwalader’s at 3 a. m. from this camp. I considered it best at the time for me to come over here, and accordingly here I am.

Second. Is this movement made to mask Johnston’s retreat

Third. Is it to secure his flank while he marches against Stone?

Fourth. Has he been re-enforced, as has been asserted, and is this the first offensive movement on his part? He is likewise said to have a number of rifted cannon, a deserter asserting that the balls are not round, but flat at one end and egg-shaped at the other.

{p.734}

Fifth. His position now threatening all communication with Stone, is it not necessary to effect this junction at all hazards I

General Cadwalader thinks, and it may be the case, that the present movement is a feint, while the real point of attack is to be our right. Unless he (the enemy) is decidedly superior in force, such an intention would scatter his forces over too long a line. This is per contra to General Cadwalader’s opinion.

If General Negley is to maintain his present position it would be well to send to-day some crow-bars (20), 30 axes, 30 picks, and 40 shovels, consigned to the brigade quartermaster, with directions to him to receipt for them, and to use them for no other purpose except intrenching. Very truly, &c.,

JOHN NEWTON.

P. S.-At the present moment, after waiting some time for them, a number of scouts have not returned. Their report may correct in some particulars, though I think unimportant, the points in this letter. Do you want me?

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 29, 1861.

General G. B. MCCLELLAN, Grafton, Va.:

Cumberland is held by Colonel Wallace, supported by two Pennsylvania reserve regiments at Bedford. Can spare none for Piedmont, as the insurgents are in large force in front. Please keep me informed of any forward movement made, or intended to be made, that I may co-operate and aid you as far as practicable by demonstrations intended as feints or for attack.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, June 30, 1861.

Major-General PATTERSON, Hagerstown, Md.:

The Rhode Island Battery is ordered from here to join you at Hagerstown by rail. Colonel Stone’s command, consisting of First New Hampshire Regiment, First Pennsylvania Regiment (Colonel Patterson), Ninth New York Regiment, and five companies Pennsylvania regiment, is ordered to join your column.

The regulars cannot be spared from here.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 30, 1861.

Major-General MCCALL, Harrisburg, Pa.:

I subjoin copy of telegram received from General McClellan, and will rely on you to send aid to Colonel Wallace if he calls for it before we can support him from this point:

The two Pennsylvania State regiments are at State Line, ten miles from Cumberland. I recommend that one of them be ordered to Cumberland to support Wallace; the other to Piedmont. The two posts can communicate by the coal road via Lonaconing, and can draw their supplies from this direction. I move to-morrow on the main force in my front.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN.

R. PATTERSON Major-General, Commanding.

{p.735}

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HAGERSTOWN, MD., June 30, 1861.

General GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, Grafton, Va.:

I have forwarded your telegram on the subject of the two regiments Pennsylvania State, troops to General McCall. I rejoice to hear of your intention to move forward. To-morrow I will feel the enemy on the other side of the Potomac. He is reported to be there in force.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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DOWNSVILLE, MD., June 30, 1861.

Colonel TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Washington City:

I cross at daylight to-morrow morning.

R. PATTERSON, Major-General, Commanding.

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HARRISBURG, Sunday, June 30, 1861.

[GENERAL PATTERSON:]

My DEAR GENERAL: On my return from Pittsburgh this morning I find your note of the 26th instant, informing me of your purpose to cross the river and offer battle to the insurgents, and asking what force I can throw forward upon the Pennsylvania line.

In reply I have to say that the only force (one regiment rifles and one infantry, with a section of artillery) of my command as yet armed and equipped has been pushed forward to the support of Colonel Wallace at Cumberland and for the protection of our border settlers in that direction; the other regiments are without clothing, arms, or equipments still, notwithstanding my efforts to fit them for the field. You will therefore perceive how impossible it will be for me, although I much regret it, to comply with your request.

With great regard, very truly, yours,

GEORGE A. McCALL.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, July 3, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

SIR: I have the honor to report that yesterday my scouts captured an enemy’s picket about five miles from Newport News, and from letters found at their quarters it appears that General Magruder left Yorktown on Tuesday last with the intention of attacking the post at Newport News; that he advanced within three miles of the News without baggage, tents, or trains, and stopped overnight on the road near the site of Little Bethel, and in the midst of a drenching rain. He had with him two regiments of Carolina troops, a regiment of Louisiana zouaves, a howitzer battalion from Richmond, and some two hundred or two hundred and fifty horsemen. After advancing so as to be almost within reach of our pickets at Newport News he changed his course up the James River, and was yesterday encamped at Young’s Mills, between eleven and twelve miles from Newport News, near Mulberry Point.

Acting in consultation with my engineers, I have advanced the two {p.736} Massachusetts regiments into the town of Hampton, and directed [them] to extend their pickets as far as New Market Bridge, and to hold the road to Newport News, that being at the corner of the road, seven miles from that post, so as to be ready to act in conjunction with my forces there in case of an attack, and also to hold the peninsula Of Elizabeth City County, in the neighborhood of Fort Monroe, thus keeping open communication to Newport News both by land and water. I have further to report the arrest of Colonel Allen, of the First New York Volunteers, under the following state of facts:

There was a wheat field of some twenty-five acres belonging to the Twine estate, owned by a widow and some minor heirs, as I am informed. The occupants had received a written safeguard upon taking the oath of allegiance and giving parole not in any way to aid, counsel, or advise the enemies of the United States. Colonel Allen, against express orders, crossed, the creek near Hampton by the police guard there stationed. A small detachment of his men proceeded to the ground, arrested the parties for no other offense, as he states, save that they were getting the wheat, and sent them, six in number, to Fort Monroe and to my headquarters (which was also against orders), and ordered the wheat field to be set on fire, which was done, and the crop consumed. Upon report of these facts by General Pierce in the form of charges against Colonel Allen, and upon other charges affecting his personal habits, substantially verified by evidence, I caused him to be arrested and held for trial. I have caused enlisted men to be punished for the destruction of private property, and I believe this act of Colonel Allen was a most unnecessary, not to say wanton, destruction and waste. The place where it happened was wholly within our control, and if there had been any attempt at an improper use being made of the wheat, it might easily have been brought within our camp and served some good purpose at least. I trust that this action will receive the approbation of the General Commanding, because it has become necessary, in order to prevent such destruction and waste of the property of our enemies even as will disgrace us.

When I last had the pleasure and honor of an interview with the Lieutenant-General Commanding, I was assured that Major Mackall would be detailed as assistant adjutant-general as soon as he returned from the Pacific coast. I am now using the services (and necessarily) without compensation of the adjutant of this post. I pray leave to call the attention of the General to this fact, and to ask that Major Mackall, or some assistant adjutant-general, may be detailed here.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, July 3, 1861.

His Excellency Governor PEIRPOINT, Wheeling, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication, dated the 28th ultimo. A requisition for camp equipage, &c., has already been made by Major-General McClellan upon the Quartermaster’s Department, and an order in his favor has been issued for as many as the Government could supply. The remainder he was authorized to procure through the quartermaster under his command. This Department fully appreciates the importance of arming the troops whom you report ready for service, and has referred the subject to the Ordnance {p.737} Department for prompt attention. I am glad to learn of the prevalence, of the Union sentiment throughout Western Virginia, and of the spirit of energy manifested by your people in the great work of preserving the Government.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SIMON CAMERON Secretary of War.

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COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Wheeling, July 3, 1861.

To General G. B. MCCLELLAN, Grafton, Va.:

SIR: Inclosed I send you a slip from the Cincinnati Gazette. I learn there were two men taken-Messrs. Miller and Wagner.

I propose that we occupy Point Pleasant.

There are 3,500 secession troops at Charleston, fifty-two miles from Point Pleasant. Can we not take the regiment from Gallipolis and send him some other forces, and let them intrench themselves at Point Pleasant, if necessary ? I have received intelligence in the last few days that they can raise a regiment in that neighborhood of Virginia troops if they had a rallying point.

I have an offer of a regiment from Pittsburgh to come into the service, unconditionally, for three years. The gentleman offering says he can be ready in a week. We could place that regiment there. Can you not spare Captain Daum, who is here in camp yet, with his artillery, to join that movement?

I can procure artillery and ammunition at Pittsburgh for Captain Daum, if you need what he has here, if you can do without the company.

My dear sir, I deem it a matter of great importance to commence a movement in that direction, even if we have to encamp them on the Ohio side until we get strong enough to take position on the Virginia.

Yours, in haste,

F. H. PEIRPOINT.

P. S.-My impression is that the object of Wise in his trip towards Parkersburg is to make a dash at the Northwestern Virginia Railroad and burn up the bridges, by dashing at different points with his cavalry.

I have just learned that there were many of the Union men with their families driven into Ohio from Jackson County-from Ravenswood and that vicinity. It is also stated-for the truth of which I cannot vouch-that a regiment from Ohio passed into Virginia at Point Pleasant.

Yours, &c.,

F. H. PEIRPOINT.

[Inclosure.]

COLUMBUS, July 1.

Colonel Norton, of the First Regiment State troops at Gallipolis, telegraphed the governor to-day that on Saturday night amounted party of fifty men came from Charleston, Va., to Point Pleasant, headed by A. G. Jenkins, and took some of the most prominent Union men there prisoners and marched them off. Colonel Norton started with a hundred men in pursuit, but could not overtake them. He then scoured the country, and took thirty prominent secessionists prisoners, whom he now holds as hostages for the safety of the Union men in hands of the rebels. Norton says there are 3,500 rebels now at Charleston, under command of Hawes. {p.738}

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, Manassas Junction, Va., July 7, 1861.

Brig. Gen. IRVIN McDOWELL, Commanding U. S. Forces, Arlington, Va.:

SIR: The bearer, Col. Thos. H. Taylor, is sent (with an escort of twelve men and an officer, under a flag of truce) as bearer of dispatches from the President of the Confederate States to the President of the United States. He is instructed by the former to deliver his dispatches in person to the latter, and to return with the answer. His escort will await his orders.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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FORT MCHENRY, July 8, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

Four men, parties to the seizure of the St. Nicholas, were arrested on board the Mary Washington this evening. The officers and sailors of the St. Nicholas on board the Mary Washington identified the prisoners. The leader had a commission as colonel of the Virginia army, dated July 1, and signed by Governor Letcher. He was secreted in a bureau when arrested. Captain Williams, who arrested him, identified him as a West Point student.

NATH. P. BANKS.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Arlington, July 9, 1861.

[General Beauregard]

General McDowell presents his compliments to General Beauregard, and begs to inform him that the paper referred to in his note of the 7th was delivered to the General-in-Chief, and by him transmitted to the President. When an answer shall be received from the latter it will be duly forwarded. In the mean-while Colonel Taylor is instructed by the General-in-Chief to return this morning.

[General McDowell]

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, July 9, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND , Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

SIR: The general commanding directs me to report, for the information of the General-in-Chief, that, in accordance with instructions from your office of July 5, the First Maryland Regiment left its camp at Mount Clare Station, Baltimore, at 9.30 o’clock p. m., on the 7th instant, with orders “to take, post and cover the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal between Dams No. 4 and 5, and as much below and above as practicable.” The regiment was under the command of General Cooper, of the Maryland volunteers, and was sent by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Frederick, Md., where it was to be furnished with wagon transportation.

{p.739}

Major-General Banks regrets the delay with which the orders of the General-in-Chief in the case have been carried out. It was to a great extent unavoidable.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, July 10, 1861.

GEORGE R. DODGE, Marshal of Police, Baltimore:

SIR: It having been reported to the general commanding the Department of Annapolis, by reliable authority, that plans are maturing for the capture of one or more of the steamers which ply between the city of Baltimore and the Patuxent River, the general wishes you to stop the steamers until farther orders from him.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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WASHINGTON, July 12, 1861.

Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy:

SIR: I have the honor to request that the disposable effective marines now here may be organized into a battalion and held in readiness to March on field service, and that the officers commanding the battalion be instructed to report to Brigadier-General McDowell and receive his orders.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SIMON CAMERON Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST DELAWARE REGIMENT, Havre de Grace, Md., July 13, 1861.

S. M. FELTON, Pres. P., W. & B. R. R., Philadelphia, Pa.:

SIR: I beg leave to lay before you and the board of directors of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company a communication from the officers of Company D, of this regiment, which has for two months past been posted at the east end of Bush River railroad bridge. This letter was elicited by me from them, and is not known to Miss Bowman or any of her father’s family. The highly remarkable conduct of Miss Bowman calls, in my opinion, for some substantial reward from your honorable board, and I doubt not that they will be as ready to give as I am pleased to suggest the same. She is quite young, apparently not over 22 or 23, and really, for her station in life, quite an attractive young person. I have found her modest and retiring, and this character is given to her by the officers. I hope you will excuse me for troubling you with this matter, but I feel that I am only doing an act of justice to a worthy family by so doing.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY H. LOCKWOOD, Colonel First Delaware Regiment. {p.740} [Inclosure.]

CAMP DARE, AT BUSH RIVER, July 11, 1861.

Col. H. H. LOCKWOOD:

SIR: As a part of the command stationed on the line of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, we deem it but right and proper to make known to you the heroic conduct of the daughter of Mr. Bowman, the keeper of the bridge at this place, on the night of the burning of the bridge by Trimble and his men. From Mr. Smith, the master carpenter of the road, and others who were present on the occasion, we have learned the following particulars:

When the train bearing the bridge-burners had crossed the bridge, and Trimble had drawn his men in line immediately in front of Mr. Bowman’s house, the object of their coming as announced in the hearing of Miss Jane by Trimble himself. She pronounced him a coward, and in a loud voice called upon the men, who had been armed by the road and placed there, to protect the bridge, to defend it, and when she saw these men throw away their arms, some of them taking to the woods and others hiding within her father’s house, she called upon them again not to run, but to stand fast and show themselves to be men. At this time, seeing one of the pistols lying upon the floor of the porch, which had been thrown away by one of the bridge-guards, she picked it up and ran with it. Meeting Air. Smith she gave it to him, saying at the same time, “Use it; if you will not, I will.”

Another evidence of the wonderful courage and presence of mind of Miss Jane was shown in her anxiety for the safety of one of the men employed by her father to assist him in taking care of the bridge. This man was on the draw at the time the firing of the bridge commenced. Miss Jane was the first to think of him, and promptly called upon her father, or some one, to go for him in a boat, saying, “If no one else will go, I will.”

In conclusion, permit us to say that such heroism in a young lady as shown in the conduct of Miss Bowman on this occasion has rarely been met with anywhere, and, in our opinion, should not be suffered to go unrewarded.

JAMES GREEN, Captain Company D, First Delaware Volunteers. E. J. SMITHERS, First Lieutenant.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, Md., July 14, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: By direction of Major-General Banks, I have the honor to report, for the information of the General-in-Chief, that the schooner Georgiana, owned by Thomas and his party, and with which a portion of them had been lying in wait for the capture of other steamers from Baltimore, has been taken possession of and is now at the dock of this post, having been run aground and deserted by the crew. No capture of rebels was made on board of her.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.741}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, July 15, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

I have the honor to report that the term of enlistment of the Third and Fourth Massachusetts Regiments, three-months’ men, expires by limitation to morrow, and I have made arrangements to have them sent to Boston as the place of rendezvous. I had some doubt whether, as they were mustered into the service of the United States at Fort Monroe, that might not be considered their place of rendezvous; but learning from the colonels that they claimed their rendezvous at Boston, and as it would at best make but two or three days’ difference in their term of service, and as there would be saved to the United States a very large amount of traveling fees over and above the cost of transportation, being, as near as I can reckon it, about twenty dollars per man, I have caused transportation and three days’ rations to be furnished them, in order that they maybe mustered out of service at Boston.

These two regiments were armed with the improved rifle muskets, while most of my regiments are armed with the issue of 1844, altered to percussion. Believing that these arms were distributed to the States under the act of Congress only to be used in the service of the Union, I have supposed that it was competent, as it was certainly desirable, to have them kept here, and therefore I have directed that all rifled muskets that will pass inspection of the ordnance officer at this post in the hands of the three-months’ men be exchanged for the altered flint-lock muskets of 1844, and I propose to distribute these rifled muskets to the most deserving and best drilled troops. I also propose to have returned to my assistant quartermaster by the three-months’ men such tents and camp equipage as they have, received from the United States, and allow them to take back with them such as has been furnished by the State of Massachusetts. I trust these dispositions will meet the approbation of the Commanding General.

It will be observed that by the return home of these men at least a thousand of the most effective of my troops are withdrawn from our forces, and I beg to call your attention to the fact that within fifteen days the First Vermont Regiment, three-months’ men, 750 strong, being one of the best regiments here, will be entitled to a discharge. I would respectfully ask if the exigencies of the service will not permit other regiments, now being raised in Massachusetts or elsewhere, to be ordered here to take the place of those withdrawn by the expiration of enlistment.

I have further the honor to report that in a skirmish between Newport News and Warwick, by a patroling party numbering twenty-five, of Colonel Hawkins’ regiment, under command of Captain Hammell, and a detachment of Louisiana volunteers, numbering one hundred and fifty, under the command of Colonel De Russy, late of the U. S. Army, Colonel De Russy and one other officer of the rank of captain, name unknown, were killed, and seven men wounded. No one was injured upon our side.

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.742}

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

ARMY OF OCCUPATION, W. VIRGINIA, Huttonsville, Va., July 15, 1861.

The commanding general has experienced much embarrassment during the progress of this campaign from the want of early information regarding the movements of distant detachments within his command.

The success of the operations of the main column are in a great degree intimately connected with and dependent upon the subordinate auxiliary detachments, and unless the commanding general is kept constantly advised of the exact condition of those commands the service must suffer.

In view of this it is directed that all commanders of detachments and posts in Western Virginia make daily reports to these headquarters, showing the true state of their commands, all movements of the enemy, and such other information as it may be important for the commanding general to know.

These daily reports will be forwarded by the most expeditious methods of communication.

By order of Major-General McClellan:

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS NEAR BEVERLY, July 16, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

In view of the large call of the President for troops, and of the probable demands for operations in my department, I would respectfully urge upon the General-in-Chief the propriety of accepting for three years’ service the Ninth Regiment of Ohio State troops now in this department, instead of forming four regiments from among them, as is now contemplated by existing orders. Much valuable time and a great deal of annoyance and ill-feeling would be saved by this course, by which also I think the mass of the men may be retained for the three-years’ service. I also ask the authority to send recruiting parties to fill these regiments to the maximum standard. I am emboldened to make this request by the necessities of the service. I also ask authority to muster into the three-years’ service Burdsal’s company of Ohio Cavalry, now serving with me under the State organization. An early reply by telegraph is requested.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

The Secretary says take the cavalry company. As for the other proposition, please talk with Secretary and send over word to General Scott as early as convenient.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS, July 17, [1861].

General McDOWELL:

In case of emergency, a reserve is held ready for you in Washington.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant General.

{p.743}

–––

BEVERLY, July 17 [1861].

Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT:

Will a movement of mine on Staunton facilitate your plans I If so, I can probably take that position. I do not know your plans of operation, but can move on Staunton if you desire.

Please reply at once.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, Commanding.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, July 18, 1861.

General MCCLELLAN, Beverly, Va.:

Your suggestions in respect to Staunton would be admirable, like your other conceptions and acts, with support. McDowell yesterday drove the enemy beyond Fairfax Court-House. He will attack the intrenched camp at the Manassas Junction to-day. Beaten there, the enemy may retreat both upon Richmond and the Shenandoah Valley, where Patterson is doing nothing. He will lose eighteen regiments by discharges in about a week. I may re-enforce him in that time sufficiently to enable you, with him, to bag Johnston in that valley if the latter has not been permitted to send his principal force to Beauregard. If you come to Staunton, and McDowell’s victory at the Junction be complete, he may, with Patterson, give you a hand about Winchester. I will telegraph you again to-day.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, July 18, 1861.

Governor CURTIN, Harrisburg, Pa. :

The Pennsylvania troops were expected to have joined the forces going into battle this week. I trust there will be no delay to prevent them sharing the honors of the expected battles this week. Hasten them forward.

SIMON CAMERON Secretary of War.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 18.}

HDQRS. DEP’T NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Fairfax Court-House, July 18, 1861.

It is with the deepest mortification the general commanding finds it ]necessary to reiterate his orders for the preservation of the property of the inhabitants of the district occupied by the troops under his command.

Hardly had we arrived at this place when, to the horror of every right-minded person, several houses were broken open and others were in flames by the act of some of those who, it has been the boast of the loyal, came here to protect the oppressed and free the country from the domination of a hated party.

The property of this people is at the mercy of troops who we rightfully say are the most intelligent, best-educated, and most law-abiding of any that were ever under arms. But do not, therefore, the acts of yesterday cast the deeper stain upon them?

It has been claimed by some that their particular corps were not {p.744} engaged in these acts. This is of but little moment; since the individuals are not found out, we are all alike disgraced.

Commanders of regiments will select a commissioned officer as regimental provost-marshal, and ten men as a permanent police force under him, whose special and sole duty it shall be to preserve the property from depredation, and arrest all wrong-doers, of whatever regiment or corps they may be. Any one found committing the slightest depredations, killing pigs or poultry, or trespassing on the property of the inhabitants, will be reported to headquarters, and the least that will be done to them will be to send them to the Alexandria jail.

It is again ordered that no one shall arrest or attempt to arrest any citizen not in arms at this time, or search or attempt to search any house, or even to enter the same, without permission.

The troops must behave themselves with as much forbearance and propriety as if they were at their own homes. They are here to fight the enemies of the country, not to judge and punish the unarmed and helpless, however guilty they may be. When necessary, that will be done by the proper persons.

By command of Brigadier-General McDowell:

JAMES B. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

QUARTERMASTER GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington City, July 18, 1861.

Major-General MCCLELLAN, Beverly, Va.:

No surplus transportation at Leavenworth.

Dickerson at Cincinnati reports two or three hundred horses on hand. I have ordered large quantities of wagons built at Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Wheeling, and other points; informed Captain Craig some days ago of names, and authorized him to order the wagons for you. I have also directed the builders to fill his orders.

In extremity, I advise you to buy the country wagons and horses and give orders on the quartermaster for payment.

Drafts on this department will be honored if indorsed by you.

General Lyon obtained funds and transportation in Missouri by this means, and it had a good effect on the people.

Endeavor to draw horses and transportation from loyal parts of Kentucky and Tennessee. This will confirm the loyalty of the districts benefited.

M. C. MEIGS, Quartermaster-General.

–––

BEVERLY, July 20, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

Nothing new to-day except confirmation of Cox’s check.* I am gathering a column to accompany me via Summersville; it is slow work, and the distance is great. What news from Manassas! I anxiously await it.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN.

* See McClellan’s reports, p. 288.

{p.745}

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 20, 1861.

Col. D. E. SICKLES, Staten Island, N. Y.:

Lieutenant-General Scott desires that as many of the regiments under your command as are accepted, mustered into service, armed and ready, be without delay put en route to Harper’s Ferry, and there join the army under General Patterson in the valley of the Shenandoah.*

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Destination changed to Washington.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 37.}

HDQRS. DEP’T NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Centreville, July 20, 1861.

The general commanding has learned with regret that the term of service of the Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers is about to expire. The services of this regiment have been so important, its good conduct so general, its patience under privations so constant, its state of efficiency so good, that the departure of the regiment at this time can only be considered an important loss to the Army.

Fully recognizing the right of the regiment to its discharge and payment at the time agreed upon when it was mustered into the service, and determined to carry out literally the agreement of the Government in this respect, the general commanding, nevertheless, requests the regiment to continue in service a few days longer, pledging himself that the postponement of the date of muster out of service shall not exceed two weeks. Such members of the regiment as do not accede to this request will be placed under the command of proper officers to be marched to the rear, mustered out of service, and paid as soon as possible after the expiration of their terms of service.

By command of General McDowell:

JAMES B. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 39.}

HDQRS. DEP’T NORTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, Centreville, July 20, 1861.

1. The Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, having completed the period of its enlistment, is hereby honorably discharged from the service of the United States. The regiment will, under command of the lieutenant-colonel, take up the march to-morrow for Alexandria, and on its arrival at that place will report to General Runyon to be mustered out of the service.

2. Colonel Hartranft, Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, having volunteered his services, is assigned to duty on the staff of Colonel Franklin, commanding brigade.

3. Captain Varian’s battery of light artillery, attached to the Eighth Regiment New York State Militia, having completed the period of its enlistment, is honorably discharged from the service of the United States, and will march to Alexandria and report to General Runyon to be mustered out of the service.

The material of the battery will be turned over to the ordnance officer of this command.

By order of General McDowell:

JAMES B. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.746}

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, July 20, 1861-1.30 a. m.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, &C., Centreville:

Your dispatch received at 1.5 a. m.* It is now 1.30 a. m.

Hunt’s battery left here at 5 a. m. yesterday by Fairfax road. We have but forty recruits; orders have been given to send them forward. It will be some time before they reach you, as there is no officer to spare to send with them.

By command of General Scott:

SCHUYLER HAMILTON, Lieutenant-Colonel and Military Secretary.

*See p. 307.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 20, 1861.

General MANSFIELD, Commanding, &c.: Telegraphic communication only open to Fairfax.

You will please therefore take measures to carry out instructions of General-in-Chief to send forward recruits early in the morning. I suppose you can send the recruits part of the way by rail. Cars now run to within 2 1/2 miles of Fairfax Station. Trains leave Alexandria at 6 and 9 a. m.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SCHUYLER HAMILTON, Lieutenant-Colonel and Military Secretary.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 21, 1861.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, Commanding, &c.:

It is known that a strong re-enforcement left Winchester on the afternoon of the 18th, which you will also have to beat. Four new regiments will leave to-day to be at Fairfax Station to-night. Others shall follow to-morrow; twice the number, if necessary.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

Major-General MCCLELLAN, U. S. A., Beverly, Va.:

I sympathize with you on the subject of Cox. You will soon redeem blunders, and so will McDowell. Johnston has amused Patterson and re-enforced Beauregard. McDowell is this forenoon forcing the passage of Bull Run. In two hours he will turn the Manassas Junction and storm it to-day with superior force.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

CENTREVILLE, [July] 21, 1861.

Colonel TOWNSEND:

Captain Fry writes to me to say, “Telegraph to Washington: Send on immediately all the troops that can be spared.” Colonel Hunter has just arrived, badly wounded.

D. S. MILES, Colonel.

{p.747}

–––

FAIRFAX COURT-HOUSE, July 21, 1861-5.15 o’clock.

General SCOTT:

I am directed to send the accompanying dispatch to you or to deliver in person.

HANSCON.

CENTREVILLE, July 21-4 p. m.

Adjutant-General THOMAS:

General McDowell wishes all the troops that can be sent from Washington to come here without delay. He has ordered the reserve now here under Colonel Miles to advance to the bridge over Bull Run, on the Warrenton road, having driven the enemy before him. Colonel Miles is now about three or four miles from here, directing operations near Blackburn’s Ford, and in his absence I communicate.

G. H. MENDELL, First Lieutenant, Topographical Engineers.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

General McDowell’s army in full retreat through Centreville.

The day is lost. Save Washington and the remnants of this army.

All available troops ought to be thrown forward in one body.

General McDowell is doing all he can to cover the retreat. Colonel Miles is forming for that purpose. He was in reserve at Centreville.

The routed troops will not reform.

B. S. ALEXANDER, Captain, Corps Engineers.

–––

WASHINGTON, D. C., July 21, 1861-7 p. m.

COMMANDING GENERAL AT BALTIMORE:

Put your troops on the alert. Bad news from McDowell’s army not credited by me. Shall write again in an hour. Doubt whether I shall call Delaware regiment here or order it to Baltimore.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

JULY 21, 1861-8 p. m.

Brigadier-General RUNYON:

Of the regiments which crossed the river this morning you are directed to retain two for the defense of Alexandria. It is now known that McDowell has rallied his army at or about Centreville. Consequently, you will send forward the two regiments to support the rally. You are aware that Taylor’s regiment was Saturday morning at Burke’s Station. Cannot this regiment be ordered up to McDowell also?

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 21, 1861.

General McDOWELL, Fairfax Court-House:

Three regiments-Woodbury’s, McCunn’s, and another, name not known-are at Fairfax Station.

A commissary train is stopped a little way out of Alexandria with a drove of cattle. Call it up, if you mean to risk a stand; but under the circumstances it seems best to return to the line of the Potomac.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

{p.748}

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, July 21, 1861-9 p. m.

General McDOWELL, Centreville:

Besides three regiments sent you by General Runyon from the reserve, four regiments have crossed the river today. Two of the latter we know have reached Fairfax Station. The other, two must be there in a few minutes. We suppose you to have rallied your army at Centreville, or, at the worst, you will rally at Fairfax Court-House and Fairfax Station. We know that you and your experienced officers will do all that is proper and possible. A company of regulars has also gone over. Additional re-enforcements shall follow early to-morrow. We are not discouraged.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

FAIRFAX, July 21, 1861.

General McDOWELL:

I have learned from my scouts that large trees are felled across the turnpike on road from here to Alexandria. Things are looking ugly here.

McCUNN.

–––

FAIRFAX COURT-HOUSE, July 21, 1861-9.10 p. m.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

We are reliably informed that the enemy’s cavalry will attack us on the left to-night.

Send instructions.

D. A. WOODBURY, Colonel, Commanding [Fourth Michigan Infantry].

–––

FAIRFAX STATION, July 21, 1861-11.5.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

Orders have arrived that no more regiments are to come here from Alexandria to-night.

I have placed myself in best position. Have removed obstructions of slide from railroad track.

I have no communication from General McDowell.

I am guarding the roads lest a surprise.

Colonel Woodbury telegraphed me that he expects an attack from cavalry. What shall I do?

McCUNN, Thirty-Seventh New York Volunteers.

–––

WASHINGTON, July 21, 1861-11.45 p. m.

Colonel MCCUNN, Fairfax Station:

General McDowell is at Fairfax Court-House, where he will try to make a stand. Communicate with him there, and also let Colonel Woodbury know.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

{p.749}

–––

WASHINGTON, July 21, 1861-[8 p. m.].

Major-General MCCLELLAN, U. S. A.:

McDowell has been checked. Come down to the Shenandoah Valley with such troops as can be spared from Western Virginia, and make head against the enemy in that quarter. Banks and Dix will remain at Baltimore, which is liable to revolt.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, Washington, July 21, 1861.

Col. SICKLES, Staten Island, N. Y. :

Send your regiments to this city instead of Harper’s Ferry, and hurry them.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

ALEXANDRIA, July 21, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

General McDowell directs me to ask whether I shall send the troops out of the fortifications?

T. RUNYON.

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 21, 1861.

General RUNYON, Alexandria, Va. :

Send forward no more troops from Alexandria during the night.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, Washington, July 21, 1861.

General RUNYON, Alexandria:

Lot the two New Jersey regiments remain at Fairfax Station as General McDowell must know they are there, and will call them up if he needs them.

The brig-of-war Perry will be towed down to Alexandria for any assistance she can render with her battery.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

[JULY 21, 1861.]

Hon. A. G. CURTIN, Harrisburg:

Get your regiments at Harrisburg, Easton, and other points ready for immediate shipment. Lose no time preparing.

Rake things move to the utmost.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

To OPERATOR:

Under no circumstances let this message be made public.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

{p.750}

–––

Governor CURTIN, Harrisburg: JULY 21, 1861.

Forward all you can to-night. Transportation will be provided by Northern Central Company.

Press forward all available forces.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

–––

[JULY 21, 1861.]

Governor CURTIN:

Do not lose a moment in sending Wisconsin and your own regiments. Start them before daylight in the morning.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

–––

HARRISBURG, July 21, 1861.

T. A. S. [Col. T. A. SCOTT]:

One regiment left for Washington noon; one from Pittsburgh and one from West Chester have just arrived; one from Pittsburgh and two from Easton will arrive to-morrow; the others as rapidly as can be transported to and from this place.

The three-months’ regiments are arriving here without being announced or any preparation for them.

Du Barry seems hardly to know what to do.

Our men justly complain of their arms-those that came and those we send here. They complain the more, as a Wisconsin regiment refused to take the same kind of arms, and the colonel went to Washington, and was given the best modern arms.

Will you not use your influence to get better arms for these three-years’ men ?

A. G. CURTIN, Governor.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

General McDOWELL:

Do you want re-enforcements at Fairfax Court-House? There are three regiments at Fairfax Station on the railroad, within three miles of you; and we have another regiment loaded on cars at Springfield Station, which can reach you in three hours, if you say send them.

We also have a regiment at the railroad station in Alexandria, which can reach Fairfax Court-House in four hours.

Give instructions immediately.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

SAM. D. YOUNG:

If any troops or regiments are on the Cumberland Valley on their way to Hagerstown, tell Lull to stop them at first station, and return them {p.751} to Baltimore without transshipment. This is the wish of Commander-in-Chief

Keep this information quiet. Ascertain and report movements.

You will also aid with cars and other facilities, if necessary, at Harrisburg to forward troops to Washington.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

Under no circumstances let this message be made public.

T. A. S.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 21, 1861.

Governor CURTIN, Harrisburg, Pa.:

Please send the Wisconsin regiment at Harrisburg to report to the general at Baltimore instead of Harper’s Ferry. Send all the regiments at Harrisburg and elsewhere to Baltimore.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

Commander DAHLGREN, Navy-Yard:

Send an armed vessel at once to Alexandria, to command as much as possible the approaches to Alexandria.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, at Fairfax Court-House:

By General Scott’s orders I send you four regiments, brigaded under Colonel McCunn, to Fairfax Station, to wit: the Thirty-seventh, Colonel McCunn; Fifteenth, Colonel Murphy, Twenty-sixth, Colonel Christian; Twenty-fifth, Colonel Kerrigan.

They should all be at the point above designated by 6 p. m.

They have three days’ supply of rations.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

JULY 21, 1861.

General RUNYON, Alexandria:

Hold my two last regiments at Alexandria and man your lines.

McDowell is on the retreat.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

FAIRFAX, July 21, 1861-7.45 p. m.

General RUNYON, Alexandria:

I reported with the De Kalb regiment at Centreville in person to General McDowell, who is there protecting the retreat of his army on the right flank.

{p.752}

The First and Second three-years’ New Jersey are there. The First three-months’ and Third three-years’ New Jersey are at Fairfax Station. General McDowell wishes you to communicate with General Scott whether you will take any of the regiments out of the forts.

J. B. MULLIGAN.

–––

BEVERLY, VA., July 22 [?], 1861.

General WINFIELD SCOTT:

Your telegraph of 8 p. m. received. I am much pained at its contents. My three-months’ men are homesick and discontented with their officers, and determined to return at once. When I suggested the Staunton movement I expected these regiments to unite in it. I should be compelled to fight the enemy now ascertained in force at Monterey, and should reach Staunton without men enough to accomplish much. McDowell’s check would greatly increase my difficulties and render numerous detachments necessary to keep open my communications and protect my flanks. How would it meet your views were I to leave, say, four regiments at Huttonsville and in the strong position of Cheat Mountain, one at Beverly, one at Bulltown, And send two or three and a better general to re-enforce Cox, then move with the rest by railroad to New Creek, on Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and effect a junction with Patterson near Jamesburg, on the road from Now Creek to Charlestown? With this force, in addition to such State troops as Pennsylvania can furnish, we should be able either to defeat Johnston or separate him from Beauregard, and, connecting with McDowell, fight them in detail. I shall know early to-morrow the exact condition of the three-years’ regiments now in Ohio and Indiana. Depending upon that information, I can join Patterson with probably fifteen thousand men besides such as Pennsylvania can furnish. The time required would be about seven days, perhaps six, from the day on which I receive your orders until the junction with Patterson at Jamesburg. This, though not so brilliant a plan as a movement on Staunton, appears to me the sounder and safer one. Whatever your instructions may be, I will do my best to carry them out. I will suspend all further preparations for my projected movement on Kanawha until I hear from you. Please reply by telegraph at once.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, U. S. Army.

–––

WASHINGTON, July 22, 1861.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, Grafton, Va.:

General A. S. Johnston, of the Confederate Army, is marching with a large force into Northwestern Virginia. The operator at Grafton will get this message to General McClellan wherever he may be.

JNO. S. CARLILE.

–––

HEADQUARTERS, July 22, 1861-1 a. m.

General MCCLELLAN, Beverly, Va.:

After fairly beating the enemy, and taking three of his batteries, a panic seized McDowell’s army, and it is in full retreat on the Potomac. {p.753} A most unaccountable transformation into a mob of a finely appointed and admirably-led army. Five regiments have been ordered to join you from Ohio. Brigadier-General Reynolds hap been commissioned and ordered to report to you. Remain in your present command instead of going to the Valley of the Shenandoah.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

ADJUTANT-GENERAL’s OFFICE, Washington, D. C., July 22, 1861.

General GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, Beverly, Va.:

Circumstances make your presence here necessary. Charge. Rosecrans or some other general with your present department and come hither without delay.

L. THOMAS Adjutant-General.

–––

FAIRFAX STATION, July 22, 1861-12.15 a. m.

General SCOTT:

I have my own regiment, 700; Colonel Taylor’s New Jersey, 825; Colonel Johnson’s New Jersey, 550.

I have heard no firing so far as I can hear. Panic is unabated.

I have sent an aide to General McDowell two hours and a half since; he has not returned.

I will dispatch another, and inform you at once.

One has returned.

McCUNN.

–––

ALEXANDRIA, July 22, 1861.

Hon. S. CAMERON:

SIR: There are about seven thousand men here without officers. Nothing but confusion. Please tell me what I shall do with my regiment.

J. E. KERRIGAN, Colonel Twenty-fifth New York Volunteers.

–––

MONDAY, July 22, 1861-a. m.

General RUNYON, Alexandria, Va.:

Consult engineers, and strengthen the garrisons of Forts Ellsworth, Runyon, and Albany. Similar instructions are given* in respect to Fort Corcoran. Some regiments besides the garrisons will be halted on that side of the river; the number to be determined by General Mansfield or General McDowell, when the troops arrive from the interior.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

* To Col. Andrew Porter.

–––

JULY 22, 1861.

Captain MOTT, Chain Bridge:

Send out a man to Richardson and require him to march in in order.

We may want rations. {p.754}

Order the Sixth Maine to keep these demoralized troops out of his camp.

Order Richardson not to let his men leave camp.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

JULY 22, 1861.

General RUNYON, Alexandria:

Why do the regiments I sent to you yesterday return so precipitately to Alexandria without a shot?

Stop this stampede.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

JULY 22, 1861.

General RUNYON, Alexandria:

Put an officer in charge and sentinels at the wharf, and forbid the volunteers leaving the city.

There are two hundred pounds of boiled pork in the commissary there.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 22, 1861.

Colonel MCCUNN, Thirty-seventh New York, Fairfax Station :

Come in with the regiments with you and Colonel Woodbury to your camps in Washington.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

ALEXANDRIA, July 22, 1861.

Col. T. A. SCOTT:

General Scott’s last instructions to me last night, before I retreated, was to retire to our camps in Washington.

Is this order to be respected?

MCCUNN.

[Indorsement.]

He evidently meant to the lines of the Potomac, to cover retreat, protected by the forts, of the straggling army of McDowell, which is now coming in.

T. A. S.

–––

JULY 22-2.30 a. m.

General MANSFIELD, Arlington, Chain Bridge, or Alexandria:

McDowell is sending his retreating army to the Potomac. Allow me to suggest that you man all the forts and prevent soldiers from passing {p.755} over to the city; their arrival here would produce a panic on this side and cause more trouble.

The enemy is still pressing McDowell, and you need every man in the forts to save the city.

Now is your time for effectual service.

THOMAS A. SCOTT.

–––

FORT CORCORAN, July 22, 1861-10.11.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL:

I have this moment ridden in [with], I hope, the rear men of my brigade, which, in common with our whole Army, has sustained a terrible defeat and has degenerated into an armed mob.

I know not if I command, but at this moment I will act as such, and shall consider as addressed to me the dispatch of the Secretary of this date.

I propose to strengthen the garrisons of Fort Corcoran, Fort Bennett, the redoubt on Arlington road, and the blockhouses; and to aid me in stopping the flight, I ask you to order the ferry to transport no one across without my orders or those of some superior.

I am, &c.,

W. T. SHERMAN, Colonel, Commanding.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF ME, ARMY, Washington, July 22, 1861-9.30 p. m.

Major-General MCCLELLAN, U. S. A., Beverly, Va.:

Bring no troops with you. The successor in the Ohio Department may need them all in Western Virginia, including the five new regiments from Ohio in addition, and others probably from Indiana.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 22, 1861.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, U. S. A, Arlington, Va.:

Captain Wright, Engineers, is detached from your department. Send another engineer in his place.

For the garrison of the forts and their support, fifteen regiments and such field batteries as you deem necessary will be retained in your department. The General-in-Chief desires you to send over to this side an the remaining troops and all the wagons and teams not absolutely needed for your purposes.

Send in the wagons all the camp equipage not required by your fifteen regiments.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 22, 1861.

General McDOWELL, U. S. A., Arlington:

General Scott says it is not intended you should reduce your command {p.756} to the minimum number of regiments mentioned by him (fifteen) to-day, but if the enemy will permit, you can take to-morrow or even the next day for the purpose.

E. D. TOWNSEND.

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 22, 1861.

Colonel MCCUNN, Alexandria:

The officers and non-commissioned officers of companies and regiments should collect their men and keep them together as well as they can. A few of each regiment will soon form a body for all to rally on, and the place where provisions are issued to a regiment will be the best point to collect its men if issue is made there to men of no other regiment. A drum or bugle at such points will attract the men.

Respectfully,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, July 22, 1861.

MOSES H. GRINNELL, SIMEON DRAPER, ALEXANDER HAMILTON, Jr.:

GENTLEMEN : In reply to your telegram will say, cheer our friends to active exertions, in order that we may speedily retrieve our misfortune of yesterday. We are making most vigorous efforts to concentrate a large and irresistible army at this point. Regiments are arriving, and many have left for the capital. Our works on the south bank of Potomac are impregnable, being well manned with re-enforcements. The capital is safe.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, July 22, 1861.

C. A. STETSON, Astor House, New York:

In reply to your dispatch, I am happy to be able to say that our loss is much less than was at first represented, and the troops have reached the forts in much better condition than we expected. The Department is making vigorous exertions to concentrate at this point an overwhelming force, and the response from all quarters has been truly patriotic. A number of regiments have arrived since last evening. There is no danger of the capital nor of the Republic.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

–––

WASHINGTON, July 22, 1861.

T. A. SCOTT:

Shall I allow anything to go forward this morning?

B. P. SNYDER.

[Indorsement.]

You may allow messages to go East, in substance what General Scott stated to McClellan by cipher message;* but do not give it official from or refer to the General.

{p.757}

Our loss, by officers just from rear of column, is estimated at from 2,500 to 3,000. All beyond that we believe to be exaggeration. The retreat was covered by a good steady column, and the forts on south bank of Potomac are all strongly re-enforced with fresh troops.

T. A. S.

* Page 752.

–––

FORT MCHENRY, Baltimore, July 22, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT, Washington:

Only the Wisconsin and two regiments from Pennsylvania, the First and the Fourth, have arrived. All of them yesterday and to-day. I think they are all needed here.

General Banks has gone to persuade the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment to stay, their time having expired. He goes to Harper’s Ferry to-morrow morning.

JOHN A. DIX, Major-General.

–––

WASHINGTON, July 22, 1861.

Colonel SCOTT:

Please ascertain quickly if General McClellan’s dispatch of last night,* containing three hundred and twenty words, was delivered to General Scott before he sent the dispatch sent in cipher to him last night by Mr. Westervelt.** Important.

B. P. SNYDER.

[Indorsement.]

The long message was not received until after cipher message had gone.

T. A. SCOTT.

* Page 752.

** Probably that on p. 752.

–––

JULY 23, 1861.

General RUNYON, Alexandria:

Is the citizen steamer on the line to Alexandria? I have understood there was so great a rush of men on board from your wharf they would not go back again.

Can you not put a guard strong enough to preserve order there?

This boat is quite a convenience to us and the public.

The passage of all men properly authorized to go on board will be paid.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

–––

JULY 23, 1861.

Captain MOTT, Chain Bridge:

Liberate all the stragglers you have, and direct them to their respective camps this side of the Potomac.

{p.758}

If you have sick, and wounded that cannot walk, I will send ambulances. Give them ample bread for their breakfast, and make out extra returns to cover the issue from your stores.

We are all amply able to whip the enemy if he will give us a chance here.

MANSFIELD, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 23, 1861.

Brigadier-General MCDOWELL, Arlington:

An Ohio volunteer, who left Centreville at 9 o’clock yesterday morning, walked to this place, and did not see an enemy. May you not profit by this; and send out for our wounded and stragglers? It is reported that Mr. Jefferson Davis, or the enemy, is advancing upon your lines. This is possible. Rally and compact your troops to meet any emergency.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 23, 1861-11.30 a. m.

Brigadier-General MCDOWELL, Arlington:

The General-in-Chief directs that you have a suitable escort at the Georgetown Ferry at one o’clock to-day to meet the President of the United States, and accompany him throughout lines to visit the troops.

The General also directs that after this service is performed all the companies of cavalry except two be sent over to this side the river and report to General Mansfield.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 23, 1861.

Brigadier-General McDOWELL, Commanding, &c., Arlington, Va.:

Col. E. D. Keyes sends word he is at Ohio camps with the well part of his brigade. Twenty-five wagons with provisions have just been sent forward.

He wants well men of Ohio regiments and Second New York to be sent to him to help load their knapsacks and camp equipage into wagons. He will protect them. There are no more than twenty-five wagons can be sent from here. The General-in-Chief desires you to designate as soon as possible the regiments to remain on other side. Keep none but long-term volunteers.

By command of General Scott:

SCHUYLER HAMILTON.

{p.759}

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, July 23, 1861.

By orders received from the headquarters of the Army, Maj. Gen. N. P. Banks relinquishes the command of this department.

By order of General N. P. Banks:

ROBT. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF ANNAPOLIS, Fort McHenry, July 23, 1861.

Pursuant to General Orders, No. 46, from the headquarters of the Army, Major-General Dix assumes command of the Department of Annapolis, to be hereafter called the Department of Maryland.

...

By order of Major-General Dix:

L. H. PELOUZE, Captain, Fifteenth Infantry, A. A. G.

–––

BEVERLY, VA., July 23, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND:

I leave in the morning. Will reach the railroad (forty-eight miles) to-morrow, and thence per railroad without delay to Washington. I have given the necessary directions for the disposition of the troops in this region to fortify Cheat Mountain and Parkersburg and Winchester pike, in advance of Cheat River. Rosecrans is left in command and will at once go to Kanawha. I take it for granted that Johnston will move on Grafton, and provide accordingly.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General.

–––

GRAFTON, July 24, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

Cheat River region is stripped of troops except one regiment. One, diverted from Huttonsville, went to Oakland last night. Two more, ordered from Beverly, will reach there to-morrow evening. A telegram from Governor Morton announced the Twelfth and Sixteenth Indiana has left Indianapolis for Washington without orders from the Department.

I have telegraphed Governor Morton troops are wanted here to clear Cheat River. You all see the necessity if the enemy is enterprising.

Please reply as soon as possible.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND, Fort McHenry, July 24, 1861-9 p. m.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army:

COLONEL: I annex a list of the regiments whose term of service is about to ex ire and of those who are mustered for three years. General {p.760} Banks persuaded the Sixth Massachusetts to remain till August 2. I have been to the encampment of the Twenty-second Pennsylvania, whose term expired yesterday, and the men consent to continue in service a week longer. The Thirteenth New York resolved unanimously this morning to go home to-morrow. I have just returned from their camp, and by the most urgent remonstrances and by strong appeals have induced them to stay another week.

By August 2 there will not be one of the eight first-named regiments in the annexed list left. I shall have only the last three regiments on the list remaining. I must urge the immediate re-enforcement of the troops under my command. There ought to be ten thousand men here and at Annapolis. I would not venture to respond for the quietude of the department with a smaller number.

The late reverse at Manassas has brought out manifestations of a most hostile and vindictive feeling in Annapolis, as well as in Baltimore. Major-General Banks, on the evening of my arrival here, asked, at my suggestion, for four hundred cavalry. They would, for the special service required, be equal to a full regiment of infantry. I hope they may be furnished without delay. It is understood that a regiment of cavalry leaves New York to-morrow. Can I have a detachment of three or four companies from this regiment, with a field officer?

I will see to the immediate protection of the bridges in all directions.

The Sixth New York, at Annapolis and the Junction, has been in service more than three months. It was put on duty in detachments on its arrival at Annapolis, and was not mustered for a month afterwards. The men are dissatisfied, and to some extent demoralized. They might be willing to remain if they could be sent to Washington and another regiment substituted for them. They contend that their term of service is ended now.

I understand there is a Home Guard in Philadelphia. Could it not be put on the bridges between that city and Baltimore 7 It would, no doubt, be sent on at the request of the Secretary of War.

I am, very respectfully, yours,

JOHN A. DIX Major-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

Colonel. Designation. Where stationed. Time expires.
William D. LewisEighteenth PennsylvaniaFederal HillJuly 24, 1861.
Peter LyleNineteenth PennsylvaniaNear Fort McHenryJuly 27, 1861.
T. G. MoreheadTwenty-second PennsylvaniaMount Clare StationJuly 23, 1861.
Abel SmithThirteenth New York MilitiaWest Baltimore streetJuly 25, 1861.
J. S. PinckneySixth New York MilitiaAnnapolis & JunctionAug. 19, 1861.
George W. PrattTwentieth New York MilitiaPatterson ParkJuly 23, 1861.
Lieut. Col. Abraham SpearSecond New JerseyBladensburg
Edward F. JonesSixth MassachusettsRelay HouseJuly 22, 1861.
Edward W. HinksEighth Massachusetts,West Baltimore streetJuly 30, 1861.
Major CookMassachusetts bat. of light art.Mount Clare StationJuly 20, 1861.
Captain CreagerSecond Maryland*Mount Clare StationVery recently mustered into service.
Captain SpragueThird Battalion Mass. RiflesFort McHenryJuly 19, 1861.
– RobertsFirst PennsylvaniaMount Clare Station1864.
Robert G. MarshFourth PennsylvaniaMount Clare Station1864.
Halbert E. PaineFourth WisconsinMount Clare Station1864

* The Second Maryland, not being completely organized, is not referred to in the foregoing letter.

{p.761}

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND. Fort McHenry, July 24, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I received your confidential dispatch last evening, with the letter inclosed, concerning the “Winans arms.”* Major-General Banks doubts the fact stated, and thinks that a search would excite a great deal of feeling among the Roman Catholics. I sent for a special agent of the police, and directed him to station policemen by night and day near the only two nunneries, as he thinks, in the city, and keep them in constant supervision. If they are entered by any unusual number of persons, or if any attempt is made to move the arms in case they are secreted there, as conjectured, the whole police force, aided by the military, will be called out. In half an hour two regiments can be concentrated at either point. In the mean time, if any circumstance occurs to confirm suspicion, I will not hesitate a moment to institute a thorough examination of the premises.

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

JOHN A. DIX.

* Not found.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND, Fort McHenry, July 24, 1861.

Gen. B. F. BUTLER, Commanding U. S. Forces, Fort Monroe, Va.

GENERAL: The following telegram has just been received at these headquarters :

WAR DEPARTMENT, July 24, 1861.

Major-General Dix, U. S. A.:

Transmit this telegram to Major-General Butler, U. S. forces, Fort Monroe, by the first steamer:

“By the first line of steamers running between Fort Monroe and Baltimore, and the railroad from Baltimore, send to this place, without fail, in three days, four regiments and a half of long-term volunteers, including Bakers regiment and a half.”

WINFIELD SCOTT.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN A. DIX, Major-General, Commanding.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 186.}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., July 24, 1861.

The troops at Camp Hamilton, in command of Colonel Duryea, and at Camp Greble, under the command of Colonel Baker, except the New York regiment, will, at the earliest possible time in the morning, strike and pack their tents and prepare to march.

...

By order Benjamin F. Butler, major-general, commanding:

P. HAGGERTY, Aide-de-Camp.

{p.762}

–––

HEADQUARTERS ARMY, July 25, 1861.

General McDOWELL, U. S. A., Arlington:

General Scott says he hears some of your regiments are too far advanced, particularly between Little River turnpike and old Fairfax road, being three to five miles out. Examine carefully that part of your line; draw the troops nearer in before dark, and strengthen it by approximation.

E. D. TOWNSEND.

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 25, 1861.

General Dix, Commanding, &c., Baltimore:

Of the four and a half regiments long-term volunteers, which will be up at Baltimore Friday night, retain two and send hither the remaining two and a half, including Baker’s regiment and a half. I have just learned that the Northern Central Railroad from Baltimore is without protection, the Pennsylvania troops guarding it being discharged. Look to the security of that road. I ask your attention to Annapolis and the railroad leading to it, as in a possible case we may again be thrown upon that liner of communication with the North.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. ARMY OF OCCUPATION W. VA., Grafton, July 25, 1861.

1. By authority of the War Department, Major-General McClellan has been relieved from the command of the Department of the Ohio and ordered to Washington. The command of the Department of the Ohio, of which the Army of Occupation Western Virginia is a part, devolves upon Brigadier-General Rosecrans, U. S. Army, who assumes the command.

2. The first brigade of the Army of Occupation will, until further orders, consist of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Indiana and Third Ohio Regiments, Burdsal’s cavalry, and Loomis’ battery, to which will also be attached the depot of Beverly, consisting of the Sixth Ohio detachments of First and Second Virginia Regiments, and Bracken’s cavalry.

3. The second brigade will consist of the Seventh, Tenth, Thirteenth, Seventeenth Ohio, Mack’s battery, and Schambeck’s cavalry.

4. The third brigade will consist of the Ninth and Fourth Ohio, and Howe’s battery, and continue, until further orders, under command of Col. Robert L. McCook, U. S. Volunteer Infantry.

5. The fourth, consisting of the First and Second Kentucky, Eleventh and Twelfth Ohio Regiments, U. S. Volunteer Infantry, the Nineteenth, Twenty-first, and portions of the Eighteenth and Twenty-second Ohio Volunteer Militia, the Ironton Cavalry, and such others as may hereafter be attache, will be called the “Brigade of the Kanawha,” and will be commanded by Brigadier-General Cox, U. S. Volunteer Infantry.

6. The brigadier-general commanding desires all officers and soldiers under his command to be animated by the true spirit of the soldier. Let us remember that only by patient training, watchfulness, and care may we expect to roll back the tide which has for the moment checked {p.763} our onward movement for the restoration of law and order, and with them peace and all its blessings.

By order Brig. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans:

C. KINGSBURY, JR., A. A. A. G.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

HDQRS. ARMY OF OCCUPATION W. VA., Grafton, Va., July 25, 1861.

I. The region within the department watered by Lower Tygart’s Valley and Cheat Rivers will, until farther orders, constitute a military district, to be called the “District of Cheat River.”

II. Col. Charles J. Biddle, First Pennsylvania Regiment, is hereby assigned to the command of the District of Cheat River. The daily and other reports, required by the Army Regulations, will be rendered to his headquarters and by him to these headquarters.

By command of Brigadier-General Rosecrans, U. S. Army, commanding department:

C. KINGSBURY, JR., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 47.}

WAR DEP’T., ADJT. GEN.’S OFFICE, Washington, July 25, 1861.

I. There will be added to the Department of the Shenandoah the counties of Washington and Alleghany, in Maryland, and such other parts of Virginia as may be covered by the Army in its operations; and there will be added to the Department of Washington the counties of Prince George, Montgomery, and Frederick.

The remainder of Maryland and all Pennsylvania and Delaware will constitute the Department of Pennsylvania; headquarters, Baltimore.

The Department of Washington and the Department of Northeastern Virginia will constitute a geographical division, under Major-General McClellan, U. S. Army; headquarters, Washington.

...

By order:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, Va., July 26, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

DEAR SIR: Your orders directing four and one-half regiments to be sent to Washington, via Baltimore, were received at 2 o’clock this morning. Believing that the exigency required promptness, I have sent forward the California regiment, Colonel Baker, and the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Regiments New York Volunteers making an aggregate force of about four thousand men. These regiments are among the very best I have, and, with the exception of their equipments, will compare favorably with any other volunteers in the service.

The General will perceive that this reduction of my forces here leaves it impossible to take up or hold any advanced position. Newport News, where I have an intrenched camp, and a very important point in my {p.764} judgment, will be in great danger of attack from Yorktown and Warwick, where the Confederates are now concentrating troops across James River from Smithfield to Warwick.

From the very best sources of information I can get there are about eight thousand men at Yorktown, and some ten thousand at Norfolk and vicinity. Might I suggest that we here now are too few for safety, unless under the guns of the fort, and too many for comfort or health even within the fort?

Would it not be better, if no offensive movement is intended from this quarter, to withdraw three regiments and a light battery, which I have just mounted, leaving about two thousand men for a garrison, which I remember the Commanding General remarked would be a sufficient number?

I ask direction upon the point whether I shall hold Newport News or withdraw the troops from it. It will be at once occupied by the enemy when we leave it. It will be recollected that the Vermont regiment will be entitled to return home in a week from date. I trust my action will meet the approval of the Commanding General.

I have now no brigadier, and my senior colonels, with the exception of Colonel Phelps, who will be away by limitation of time in a few days, are with the withdrawing regiments.

I have the honor to be, most truly, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER, Major-General, Commanding.

–––

HARPER’S FERRY.-(Received July 26, 1861.)

Colonel TOWNSEND:

Received dispatch. Twenty thousand men is the least force that can hold this place against a probable attack. There are three points that must be held-Loudoun Heights, Maryland Heights, and the plateau beyond the village of Bolivar that commands the road to Winchester. If the enemy has possession of either one, it will command the town. If attacked with our present force we shall secure the Maryland Heights, which will make the town absolutely untenable by the enemy and cover our line of communication. Orders have been sent to Hagerstown to have the stores ready for removal if attack is threatened in that direction. We are sending as far as convenient the regimental wagon’s across the ferry for safety. No indications of a movement of the enemy is seen here, but various reports of his intentions.

There is no doubt that the local cavalry scouts are busy in impressing men into service of the rebels, but that is all we know with certainty. The remaining three months’ force is unreliable.

N. P. BANKS, Major-General, Commanding.

–––

WASHINGTON, July 26, 1861.

Maj. Gen. N. P. BANKS, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry:

Your telegram of July 26 to Hon. Wm. H. Seward received.* I am desired to answer it.

Your post is in no particular danger for the next three or five days. In the mean time I will try to re-enforce you to the number of twenty or twenty-one regiments.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

* Not found.

{p.765}

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 27, 1861.

Major-General BANKS, U. S. A., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

I have ordered Captain Newton back to you. I do not ask that you shall attempt to hold Harper’s Ferry at a great hazard even after being largely re-enforced. With less than 15,000 men, and a probability of being attacked by 20,000 it may be better to cross the Potomac and take up position on Maryland Heights and opposite to Leesburg. Give me your views.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA, Fort Monroe, July 27, 1861.

Lieutenant-General SCOTT:

SIR: I have the honor to report that by adding four steamers of my own to the steamers furnished by the Bay Line I was enabled to get off the forces mentioned in my report of yesterday, with the exception of four hundred men, who go forward in the boat to-night. I have been obliged to abandon the village of Hampton and withdraw the regiments that I have here under the walls of the fort. I beg leave further to report that upon advising with Colonel Phelps I have concluded to hold Newport News until I get instructions from the General Commanding. I have also the honor to ask instructions as to the disposition to be made of some twenty-five prisoners that I have taken-some in conveying intelligence to the enemy; some in supplying them with provisions, and, all of whom refuse to take the oath of allegiance, or take it with reservation. I have no power to try them; it would be dangerous to allow them to escape, and I am guarding and feeding them at Fort Calhoun.

It becomes my duty to report that Colonel Duryea, commanding Fifth New York Regiment, took with him certain negro slaves to Washington. They are reported nine in number. This was done against my express orders, and after a portion of them had been detained by my provost-marshal. This is a question of difficulty with departing regiments, and one upon which I ask instructions. I will forward to Colonel Baker, as senior officer commanding, the official returns as soon as they reach me.

Awaiting instructions, I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. F. BUTLER.

–––

WAR DEPARTMENT, July 27, 1861.

Maj. Gen. J. A. Dix, Comdg. Department of Maryland, Fort McHenry, Md.:

SIR: Your letter of the 24th instant, proposing to arm a home guard of 850 picked men in Baltimore, has been received and referred to the General-in-Chief, who approves the proposal warmly.

You are authorized to organize and equip a regiment of home guards as you suggest. The necessary instructions will be given to the Ordnance Department.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

{p.766}

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HDQRS. DIVISION OF THE POTOMAC, Washington, July 27, 1861.

In accordance with General Orders, No. 47, of July 25, 1861, from the Wax Department, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the Division of the Potomac, comprising the Military Departments of Washington and Northeastern Virginia. Headquarters for the present at Washington.

...

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General, U. S. Army.

–––

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 3.}

HDQRS. ARMY OF OCCUPATION, W. VA., Clarksburg, Va., July 28, 1861.

Numerous instances of plunder by teamsters in the employment of the U. S. Quartermaster’s Department, and others, of citizens along the train routes, having been reported or discovered, it is hereby ordered-

1. No officer nor soldier, nor person employed in the service of the United States, shall enter the houses or inclosures of inhabitants of Western Virginia without permission from the owners thereof, except in cases of absolute necessity, nor shall they use threats or intimidation to obtain such consent. It is also forbidden to take food, or other property, without absolute necessity, nor then without providing full compensation therefor. Persons violating these prohibitions will be regarded as trespassers and plunderers, and most severely punished.

2. Commanders of trains, escorts, and troops moving will be held responsible for the observance of these prohibitions by those under their command, and a failure therein, or to report offenders for punishment, will expose them to be tried as participators in, the crime. It is earnestly enjoined on all officers to do their utmost to ferret out the perpetrators of outrages on the rights of citizens by persons apparently in Government employ, in order that thieves and plunderers, who follow the Army or attach themselves to it may be prevented from disgracing our arms.

By order of Brigadier-General Rosecrans:

C. KINGSBURY, JR., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

–––

ADJUTANT-GENERAL’s OFFICE, Wheeling, Va., July 29, 1861.

Hon. SIMON, CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington:

SIR: I write under the instructions of the governor. During the recent operations of the U. S. troops in Western Virginia quantities of arms, ammunition, and other munitions of war have been captured from the rebels, the greater part of which is the property of this State.

Our people, who are loyal and true to the Government of the Union, are clamorous for the means of defending themselves and vindicating their loyalty. We are unable to comply with their requests, and the governor directs me to ask that the captured arms, ammunition, and camp equipment to which I have referred, it consistent with the paramount interests of the National Government, may be delivered to the authorities of this State.

I am, with respect, your very obedient servant, &c.,

JAMES S. WHEAT, Adjutant-General.

{p.767}

–––

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, July 29, 1861.

Brigadier-General ROSECRANS, Clarksburg, Va.:

Leave Cox on the Kanawha for the present if he will consent to stay. Fortify the Gauley as heretofore proposed; also Cheat Mountain, Huttonsville, and the West Union road. Bring up to Grafton the stores left by the Pennsylvanians (ordered to Harper’s Ferry), or send a detachment to Cumberland or Piedmont.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

–––

SANDY HOOK, July 29, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

Two Pennsylvania regiments and one Indiana arrived, making nine war regiments now here. In view of our reduced force and the probabilities of attack, which, however uncertain, can not be disregarded, I have placed our force chiefly on the Maryland side. We are too weak to defend, yet so strong as to make retreat across the ford impossible if necessary. Commanding officers unanimous in recommending this movement. We occupy the town and the heights commanding it absolutely, and with our increasing forces and the immediate erection of a temporary bridge we shall be ready for any movement you may order.

N. P. BANKS.

–––

DEPARTMENT OF THE SHENANDOAH, Harper’s Ferry, Va., July 29, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, &c.:

SIR: I telegraphed you this morning the position we had taken. Our force was reduced, with the exception of the battery of Major Doubleday, to five or six thousand men. Reports were received constantly of advancing forces of the rebels, and, although proving in the end to be unfounded, we could not disregard them. So strongly did these rumors come to us, that one of the officers on Saturday evening, at 5.30 o’clock, believed that he saw several regiments crossing the Shenandoah above Keys’ Ford. In momentary expectation of attack, with a force wholly incompetent to defend against any considerable number, we were also compelled to recognize the fact that, with our force of six thousand, and the volunteers whose terms were daily expiring, and more than three hundred baggage-wagons, it would be utterly impossible to cross by the ferry without destruction. The ferry was likely to be made impassable by threatened rains. We sent our disposable baggage-wagons across on Saturday. Yesterday we moved the chief part of our troops across, taking a very strong position in Pleasant Valley, a little below Sandy Hook. Our troops still occupy the town, and we planted batteries on the plateau opposite the town, and another on the summit of the Maryland Heights, to which there are good mountain roads. These will make the town of Harper’s Ferry and the Loudoun Heights, on the south of the Shenandoah, absolutely untenable to the enemy, whether in large or small force. We are so placed that we can attack the enemy if he advances, support our batteries if assailed, prevent the occupation of the town by the rebels, and secure against all chances our communication with our lines. Every {p.768} commanding officer agreed in the necessity of this movement. We here have also good opportunity to organize and discipline our forces.

I have thus stated our position fully, that you may be enabled to change it as the public interests may require. With our increasing forces we shall be able to execute any orders that the Commander-in-Chief may desire at once. I do not apprehend attack immediately, but we are in readiness.

Captain Reynolds, of the Rhode Island Battery, reached us this morning with his men. Captain Tompkins will be at once relieved. We need very much another rifled gun for Major Doubleday’s battery, in return for which we can send, if necessary, one of the 24-pounder guns.

We have no reliable news of the advance of the rebels. There are some five thousand militia at Winchester, with the sick left by Johnston. Indications of movements in the direction of Leesburg seem more important, but yet not decided.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant,

NATH. P. BANKS, Major-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, July 29, 1861.

Capt. G. STONEMAN:

SIR: In conformity with your request, I transmit an informal statement of the present condition of the artillery south of the Potomac.

Fort Corcoran, above Arlington, with its two redoubts, has an armament of twelve 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, seven 24-pounder barbette guns, two 12-pounder field guns, and two 24-pounder howitzers. About two hundred light artillerists, under Captains Carlisle and Ayres, are at these works; also the German regiment (De Kalb), which has in its ranks many artillerists.

Fort Albany, on the Fairfax road, has eighteen guns, of various caliber (twelve being 24-pounders), Griffin’s and Edwards’ companies light artillery, and a Massachusetts regiment.

Fort Runyon, at the forks of the Alexandria and Fairfax roads (end of Long Bridge), one 30-pounder Parrott rifled gun, eight 8-inch seacoast howitzers, ten 32-pounders, and four 6-pounder field guns. Garrison-Colonel Rogers’ Twenty-fifth New York; artillery officer in charge-Captain Seymour, Fifth Artillery.

Fort Ellsworth, Alexandria, two 30-pounder and two 10-pounder Parrott rifles, twelve 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, four 24-pounder siege guns, one 24-pounder field howitzer, three 6-pounder guns. Garrison-Captain Arnold’s light company, one hundred and twenty men, and Seventeenth New York, Colonel Lansing.

The supply of ammunition for these forts, although not complete, is sufficient for an emergency, averaging about one hundred rounds per gun, and the amount is being increased as rapidly as possible.

The field batteries are in a very unsatisfactory condition, many of them, but as fast as the materials can be procured they are refitting.

Platt has four light 12-pounders, 107 men, in good condition; Tidball has two 6-pounders, two 12-pounder howitzers, 127 men, in good condition; Greene has four Parrott 10-pounders, rifled, 130 men, in good condition: Carlisle has 100 men, no guns; Arnold has 120 men, no guns; Ayres has two 6-pounders, two 12-pounder howitzers, 120 men; Edwards {p.769} has two 10-pounder Parrott guns, 75 men; Griffin has one 10-pounder, rifled, 120 men.

Platt and Griffin are to have two additional light 12-pounders each. They will soon be ready for issue from the arsenal. There are five 10-pounder rifles now preparing. Three will be given to Griffin and two to Tidball, and others are being prepared for issue. When the guns, howitzers, &c., are received, the batteries will be composed as follows: Platt, six light 12-pounders; Tidball, Greene, and Ayres, four 10-pounder Parrotts and two 12-pounder howitzers each; Carlisle and Edwards, two 20-pounder Parrotts and two 24-pounder howitzers each; Griffin, four 10-pounder Parrotts and two light 12-pounders; Arnold, four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers.

I further propose to equip Captain Bookwood’s company, of Von Steinwehr’s German regiment, with four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers. Captain Bookwood brought off the Varian battery from the field-that is, the guns and one caisson-when that battery was abandoned by its company. His company has a number of German artillerists, and he can easily fill up with instructed men from the brigade of German regiments (Blenker’s) to which I propose the battery be attached.

The German regiments contain a number of artillery officers and soldiers. I suggested the propriety of placing, for the present at least, those regiments in the forts, that the guns may be served by drafts from the instructed men. One company, Captain Morozowicz’s, of the De Kalb regiment, is composed almost exclusively of old German artillery soldiers, and should there be a lack of field artillery, could readily be made available.

Respectfully, &c.,

HENRY J. HUNT, Brevet Major, and Chief of Artillery.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

HDQRS. DIVISION OF THE POTOMAC, Washington, July 30, 1861.

The general commanding the division has, with much regret, observed that large numbers of officers and men stationed in the vicinity of Washington are in the habit of frequenting the streets and hotels of the city.

This practice is eminently prejudicial to good order and military discipline, and must at once be discontinued.

The time and services of all persons connected with this division should be devoted to their appropriate duties with their respective commands. It is therefore directed that hereafter no officer or soldier be allowed to absent himself from his camp and visit Washington, except for the performance of some public duty, or for the transaction of important private business, for which purposes written permits will be given by the commanders of brigades. The permit will state the object of the visit.

Brigade commanders will be held responsible for the strict execution of this order.

Col. Andrew Porter, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, is detailed for temporary duty as provost-marshal in Washington, and will be obeyed and respected accordingly

Colonel Porter will report in person at these headquarters for instructions.

By command of Major-General McClellan:

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.770}

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE SHENANDOAH, July 31, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Washington, D. C.:

DEAR SIR: It becomes necessary, with the increase of our stores at this post and the probabilities of the removal of supplies from Hagerstown, to obtain a secure position for a general depot for the army supplies and for hospital uses. I believe, from careful inquiry and examination, that the city of Frederick offers more advantages than any other point. It is equally central for all points (Baltimore or Harper’s Ferry); is sufficiently removed from the river to be safe from marauding parties, and has the best railroad facilities in every direction. The presence of a regiment there would have a most excellent effect.

At Sandy Hook there are not buildings sufficient, and the strip of land between the heights and river has not capacity, being in part occupied by canal, railroad, and highway, to admit of the erection of proper structures. It is also greatly exposed from the heights on the Virginia side.

At Frederick there are sufficient room, buildings, protection, &c. As it has recently been embraced in the Department of Washington, it becomes necessary that we should obtain consent of the Department for the transfer.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

NATH. P. BANKS, Major-General, Commanding, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND, Fort McHenry, ,July 31, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

SIR: Mr. John T. Sangston, of Caroline County, is desirous that a company of Union men in that county, who have been drilling for several months, should be armed. Governor Hicks thinks it important, and I concur with him. If I had the authority to arm eight or ten companies on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, I believe they could take care of themselves and do much to keep the secessionists in order. I think it proper to add that an active trade with the rebels in Virginia is kept up from Salisbury, the southern terminus of the Delaware Railroad. As soon as there is a disposable force, it would be well to place a regiment there.

There is a camp of secessionists, variously estimated from one thousand to three thousand men, at Eastville, in Northampton, the lower county on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. This is not in my department, but I would suggest that three or four regiments should be sent there as soon as we can spare them and break up this camp. The exhibition of such a force and the destruction of the secession camp would have a salutary effect throughout the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, yours,

JOHN A. DIX, Major-General, Commanding.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6