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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 2, Ch. IX–Confederate Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER IX.
OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA.*
April 16-July 31, 1861.
(Bull Run / Manassas)
–––
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.771}

Extract from the Executive Journal of the State of Virginia.

APRIL 18, 1861.

...

The following order war, issued, through the adjutant-general, to Maj. Gen. William B. Taliaferro:

You will forthwith take command of the State troops which are now or may be assembled at the city of Norfolk. Your immediate presence there is necessary.

The governor appointed and commissioned the following officers for the State Navy:

Robert B. Pegram, captain, to rank as such from 18th of April, 1861.

George T. Sinclair, captain, to rank as such from 19th of April, 1861.

Catesby Ap R. Jones, captain, to rank as such from 20th of April, 1861

James H. Rochelle, lieutenant, to rank as such from the 18th of April., 1861.

The following order was issued to Capt. Robert B. Pegram:

SIR: You will proceed to Norfolk and there assume command of the naval station, with authority to organize naval defenses, enroll and enlist seamen and marines, and temporarily to appoint warrant officers, and do and perform whatever may be necessary to preserve and protect the property of the commonwealth and of the citizens of Virginia.

Co-operate with the land forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William B. Taliaferro, and report all important acts which may be done or performed under your orders promptly to the executive, through the general in command.

...

JOHN LETCHER.

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PETERSBURG, April 20, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

Governor Letcher has stopped three steamers on James River, and may stop two more. They can put seven thousand men in Baltimore in twenty-four hours from here by our connections with the railroads from Lynchburg to Dalton. We can, carry from five to seven thousand men daily at the rate of three hundred and fifty miles per day. Georgia cars can be run through without unloading. The South Side Railroad is at the service of the Confederate States.

H. D. BIRD, Superintendent.

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PETERSBURG, VA., April 20, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

Colonel Owen, president of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, has just reached here from Baltimore by way of Norfolk. He witnessed the butchery of Baltimore citizens by the Massachusetts regiment yesterday. He states the city is in arms and all are Southern men now. He says bridges north of Baltimore been burned, and no more troops can come from the North unless they march, and in large bodies, as Maryland is rising. Lincoln is in a trap. He has not more than twelve hundred regulars in Washington and not more than three thousand volunteers. We have three thousand in Harpers Ferry. Our boys, numbering {p.772} four hundred, went down to-day to Norfolk, to join the companies there and your forces coming from Charleston. You know how many we want. As leader we want Davis. An hour now is worth years of common fighting. One dash and Lincoln is taken, the country saved, and the leader who does it will be immortalized.

H. D. BIRD.

P. S.-Pollard knows me.

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Extract from proceedings of the Advisory Council of the State of Virginia.

SUNDAY, April 21, 1861.

It being considered desirable to ascertain the condition of affairs and the state of public opinion in Maryland, the governor is respectfully advised to appoint Col. James M. Mason a commissioner to proceed forthwith to that State, and to acquire and communicate to the governor such information as he may obtain.

JOHN J. ALLEN. FRANCIS H. SMITH. M. F. MAURY.

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DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., April 21, 1861.

General Wm. H. RICHARDSON, Adjutant-General:

DEAR SIR: My present force here is about two thousand. I have endeavored to-day to get up a consolidated report of the strength and condition of my command, but defer it on account of imperfectness in the returns.

I have effected an understanding with the Maryland authorities. They are pledged to report to me any hostile approach through their territory, and consent to the occupancy of the heights commanding my position whenever necessity requires it. I have guarded all the approaches east and west, and established telegraphic communications, to guard against surprise.

The work of forwarding to Winchester uncompleted arms and machinery progresses rapidly. The arrangements for this branch of my duties are so nearly completed, that I hope to give more of my attention to the military command. From necessity I have had to devolve many of the details upon General Carson. I have had to assume heavy responsibilities, and felt some embarrassment in the absence of all written instructions. The troops assembled without ammunition, generally, and, there being little here, I have had to send abroad for it.

Not being informed of the troops ordered into service, I have, so far, received all which were presented. General Meem, of the Seventh Brigade, reports for duty, as he states, upon verbal orders, received through Colonel Crump, from the governor. This presents some difficulty. I see no reason for the employment of three brigadier-generals for such a force; but, not being informed of the number of troops ordered to this point, I of course recognize him. General Carson’s brigade has reported to-day; numbers six hundred and fifty-five. General {p.773} Harman’s nine hundred and fifty-five, and General Meem’s four hundred and six. About one hundred and fifty, however, of the troops included in General Harman’s command belong properly to that of General Meem’s. The times are exciting; but, if possible, I would be glad to receive some written instructions from you. I expect, from news just received, an additional force to-morrow of five hundred men. If needed, I could have thousands. Not knowing, however, the extent of your orders, I have concluded to “trust in God and keep my powder dry.”

Very respectfully, &c.,

KENTON HARPER, Major-General, Commanding.

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APRIL 22, 1861.

Governor JOHN LETCHER, Richmond, Va.:

In addition to the forms heretofore ordered, requisitions have been made for thirteen regiments, eight to rendezvous at Lynchburg, four at Richmond, and one at Harper’s Ferry. Sustain Baltimore, if practicable. We re-enforce you.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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Extracts from the proceedings of the Advisory Council of the State of Virginia.

MONDAY, April 22, 1861.

Present, the whole council.

A telegram from John S. Barbour, jr., confidential agent of the Government at Alexandria, asking for arms for the Maryland troops to enable them to resist the passage of Northern troops to Washington, who are said to be now concentrating near Baltimore, was submitted to the council by the governor for advice.

Whereupon his excellency was respectfully advised to send the following telegram to Mr. Barbour:

Telegraph received. Maj. Gen. Kenton Harper, in command at Harper’s Ferry, is hereby ordered to deliver to General Steuart, at Baltimore, one thousand of the arms recently taken at Harper’s Ferry.

And-

It was also advised that the following telegram be sent to the governor of Tennessee:

The condition of affairs in Maryland and Virginia makes it important that we should know how far we may rely upon the co-operation of Tennessee to repel an invasion of our common rights. Please communicate fully and without reserve. Answer at once.

Ordered, That the governor be respectfully advised to communicate to the Convention, in secret session, the purport of the telegram in reference to the loan of arms to General Steuart, commanding the Maryland troops; and also the telegram advised to be forwarded to the governor of Tennessee.

...

Ordered, That the governor be respectfully advised to authorize the {p.774} shipment of as many sailors as may be deemed necessary for the public defense, at the same rate of pay that is allowed in the U. S. Navy; the term of enlistment to be at the pleasure of the commonwealth, not exceeding three years.

Upon the representations of the governor, the council respectfully recommend the issue from the arsenal at Lexington of 5,000 muskets, as a loan, to the Maryland troops.

The council respectfully recommend to the governor to forward the following telegraphic dispatches:

Maj. Gen. WALTER GWYNN Norfolk, Va.:

General Lee has arrived and will assume command. Forward with dispatch to Richmond all the heavy ordnance not needed for your defensive operations. It is deemed best to place these guns out of danger. Use railway or river, as you may deem safest.

No obstruction in James River.

...

JOHN J. ALLEN. FRANCIS H. SMITH. M. F. MAURY.

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ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 22, 1861.

Col. R. E. LEE, Richmond Va.:

We are the bearers of a letter to you from General Steuart, of Maryland, and we regret, on arriving here, to find you absent. The letter referred to we forward to you in a separate inclosure, to the care of the governor of the State of Virginia. We left Baltimore by way of Ellicott’s Mills the cars having been stopped, on yesterday at 3 p. m., and reached Washington at 2 a. m. The people of Baltimore, and, indeed, the citizens of Maryland generally, are united in one thing at least, viz, that troops volunteering for Federal service against Virginia and other sister Southern States shall not, if they can help it, pass over the soil of Maryland. We have desired to have an interview with the colonel in command at this point, but find him too unwell to be seen. General Steuart will be most anxious to hear from you immediately.

Respectfully,

L. P. BAYNE. J. J. CHANCELLOR.

P. S.-I am authorized to say to you by Maj. Montgomery D. Corse, commander of the Alexandria battalion, that if you or the governor desire to communicate with General Steuart or the authorities of Maryland, any dispatch directed to them, to his care, at this point, will be forwarded by horse express across the country immediately.

P. S.-All public communication, I understand, has been stopped between Washington and farther north. General Steuart has declared Washington road to be under military rule.

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DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., April 22, 1861.

[Governor LETCHER:]

DEAR GOVERNOR: I have endeavored to keep you advised of my action here. Two official communications have been made through the adjutant-general and two communications to yourself. So far I have had no written instructions from you. My object has been, not only {p.775} to secure all the efficient arms here, and remove the machinery in such a manner as that it may be readily put together again, as well as all the unfinished guns, but to have an inventory made of the public property, so that the officers charged with the details may be held to proper account. Of course I could do no more than adopt such general directions of military affairs as were important for the security of my position-the details being left to the Yanking brigadier-general (Carson). I am now though this terrible pressure, however, in regard to the public property, and intend to assume at once the active military command. I have now about twenty-four hundred men here. Not knowing what troops you ordered, I have received all which offered. The hourly telegraphic dispatches sent in are exciting; but I feel calm, as I have taken adequate measures to guard against surprise. Some here, who do not know, no doubt think I am rather incredulous as regards their information. But trust me; I am well posted, and shall be found ready. The responsibilities assumed by me, under the circumstances in which I was placed, have been heavy; but the exigencies were pressing, and I rest with confidence on the record of my proceedings for full vindication of all my acts. If man could have effected more, then I am willing to be condemned.

From the information I have of the condition of the guns in progress of manufacture, there are components to fit up readily for use from seven to ten thousand stand of arms, exclusive of those rescued uninjured from the flames. I have employed artificers to put these together, and am turning out daily several hundred minnie muskets. You must sustain me. I am wholly unprovided with funds. I can get them from the Winchester banks, if you will give authority. You may judge of the state of things here when I say even Virginia money will procure nothing, but at an enormous discount, in the stores of the place.

With sincere regard, yours,

KENTON HARPER, Major-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., April 22, 1861.

By the authority of the governor of the State of Virginia I assume command of the volunteers and militia along the line of the Potomac River, extending from Mount Vernon south to the mouth of the Rappahannock River. Headquarters are established at this place until farther orders.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Forces

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, April 23, 1861.

Major-General Lee having reported to the governor, he will at once assume the command in chief of all the military and naval forces of the State and take in charge the military defenses of the State.

JOHN LETCHER.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 1.}

HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., April 23, 1861.

In obedience to orders from his excellency John Letcher, governor of {p.776} the State, Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee assumes command of the military and naval forces of Virginia.

R. E. LEE Major-General.

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FREDERICKSBURG, Va., April 23, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN LETCHER:

I am this moment informed that the enemy has landed from a small steamer at Lee, on the Rappahannock River, fifty miles below us, attacked the inhabitants, and caused general alarm. Can you send us three or four thousand disciplined volunteers at once, two or three batteries of light artillery, with ammunition; also twenty heavy guns, with plenty of ammunition? Please answer immediately.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General Virginia Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS, Alexandria, Va., April 24, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE:

SIR: Your dispatch of the 23d instant,* by telegraph, has been received. I had fully anticipated all your instructions. I recognized from the moment I took position and command on this line of operations the policy of preserving the anomalous military position now existing, but which may at any moment be overthrown in the present disorganized and feeble military position of our State, and especially on this line of operations. Time, therefore, gained on the one side will enable us to organize and strengthen; but, unless every possible nerve is strengthened on our side, and every moment reckoned as a month, our enemy will press us in this race. Your summons, therefore, from the heart of the State should be “To Arms! To arms!” from the center to the remotest confines, and, as soon as you can cover from Alexandria to the heart of the State, at Richmond, immediately extend the whole might of the commonwealth to come up to the aid of the line of operations I stand here to-day in sight of the enemy’s position, an army now numbering from ten to twelve thousand men, under arms, and rapidly increasing by re-enforcements from the North, while I have today but three hundred men fit for duty; and while I am without any staff organization, cannon, or any ordnance and ammunition, without any officers, engineers, artillery, or ordnance, and without suitable staff officers, it will be my part to mask your designs and operations; to act for the present absolutely on the defensive; to watch the enemy; to keep you informed of his movements; to rally to my aid the whole country in the rear; to organize, and await re-enforcements from every possible quarter. Indicate to me, as soon as possible, whatever points shall be decided upon in rear of my position for the rendezvous of any proposed re-enforcement. Your instructions, also, as to the best position of my own headquarters and of my camp of recruits and organization in my rear will be gladly received. I am moving back the flour from Alexandria to the depots on the railroads in the interior. I am also moving back a large amount of railroad iron, which we shall want for batteries. I am cutting off the supplies from Washington, and sending them back to the farms, or returning what may pass through this place. {p.777} In case of a change of existing military status, in case the enemy take the initiative and invade our soil, I would be glad to have your instructions or advice as to the line by which I should retire to soonest meet with support and cooperation. Say whether you think I ought to continue my headquarters in Alexandria or remove them elsewhere, or under what probable contingencies I should make any movements.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 24, 1861.

General P. ST. GEORGE COCKE:

GENERAL: Your dispatch of the 24th is at hand. I rejoice that you so fully recognize the proper policy to be pursued, and initiated it on your arrival at the scene of your operations. Continue it till compelled to change. I am endeavoring to organize the military of the State. Two 8-inch columbiads, with implements and one hundred rounds of ammunition, go to you to-day.

Captain Walker, with four rifled 6-pounders, was dispatched, by the governor, to the Potomac before my entering on duty. Direct him to report to you, and assign him to service where you deem best. Lieutenant Simms, State naval forces, has been ordered to duty on the Potomac, above Aquia Creek. He will be under your orders.

Select points of rendezvous on or near the railroads leading to Alexandria. Leesburg would be a suitable point for forces on that road; such points as you think convenient on others. Establish your headquarters as necessary. Establish camps of instruction, and instruct your troops in the use of their different arms; make the necessary arrangements for their support. No bacon is to be obtained in Virginia. Consult with merchants in Alexandria as to the feasibility of obtaining bacon from Ohio or Kentucky. If this is not practicable, beef and mutton must be your meat ration. The valley of Virginia will naturally suggest itself to you as the point from which this part of the ration must be obtained.

Let it be known that you intend no attack, but invasion of our soil will be considered an act of war.

Very few officers of experience have as yet reported; as soon as possible some will be sent to you.

In reference to the regiment to be raised by Mr. Funsten, I will state that, in conformity to an ordinance of the convention, volunteers are accepted by companies; when organized into regiments, the field officers are appointed by the governor and council.

It is not now believed that the enemy will attack you; should he do go, however, and you are not able to maintain your position, fall back on your reserves, on the route to Gordonsville.

I am, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS FORCES OF VIRGINIA, April 24, 1861.

General DANIEL RUGGLES:

GENERAL: Your dispatch, of the 24th instant, requesting to know the policy and orders by which you are, to be governed, is at hand. {p.778} You will act on the defensive. Station your troops at suitable points to command the railroad; write and give assurance of protection to the inhabitants on the rivers; cause your troops to be instructed in the use of their several arms, and take immediate steps for provisioning them. If bacon cannot be procured, fresh meat must compose that part of your ration.

Two 8-inch howitzers have been sent you to-day; also ammunition for the same. I regret I cannot furnish you with carriages for these pieces, but I hope you will be able to have them constructed or made available for your purpose in Fredericksburg. You will endeavor to allay the popular excitement as far as possible. As soon as you can, send in a return of your troops, and where stationed.

I am, general, very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 24, 1861.

General LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

I can destroy the light-boats and remove the buoys, through the pilots, without military force. Shall I do it?

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General.

[Indorsements.]

Our object is to interrupt the navigation of the Potomac by batteries, &c. If the governor and council see no objection, I will direct General Cocke, unless he can remove the light-boats to places of safety, to destroy them and to remove the buoys.

R. E. L.

Submitted to the council by the governor.

COUNCIL OFFICE, April 24, 1861.

Advised unanimously that the decision upon the matter be left to the discretion of General Lee.

By order of the council:

P. F. HOWARD, Secretary.

Approved:

JOHN LETCHER.

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FREDERICKSBURG, VA., April 24, 1861.

Brigadier-General RUGGLES:

By your orders I proceeded to Aquia Creek, and examined the place, with the view of fortifying it, for the purposes indicated by your verbal directions of this date, viz: To secure the railroad iron, the timber, two vessels, and a small steamer at that point from the enemy. I was joined in the evening by Lieutenant Lewis, of the Virginia Navy, at your request, and we reviewed the ground together. After examining the topography of the ground and the character and position of the channel, we are of the opinion that the best place to put a battery is on the {p.779} Split Rock Bluff, as the channel can be commanded from that point by guns of sufficient caliber. A battery on Cream Point would invite attack, and, being separated from the landing by Aquia Creek, would be difficult to hold. We do not think the place worth fortifying, and would respectfully recommend that a small force of ten or twenty men be kept there, to keep off any boats that might attempt to land there, and be employed in loading cars, which should be sent to remove the iron and timber to Fredericksburg at once; that the captains of the vessels be allowed to sail with their vessels at their pleasure. While the enemy holds the Potomac the steamer is of no value to us, and we have not the slightest idea that the enemy will make the attempt to possess themselves of it. The men kept there should be required to give information to headquarters of any attempt of the enemy to land there in force, which would be indicated by the number of vessels in the offing, and not allowed to harass the inhabitants by reporting every vessel they see in the river.

Very respectfully submitted by,

THOMAS H. WILLIAMSON, Major of Engineers, Virginia Army. H. H. LEWIS, Lieutenant, Virginia Navy.

P. S.-William H. Kerr, brigade inspector, concurs in this report.

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ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 25, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE:

The following communications have just been received:

Maj. John Lee, of Orange, has just been informed by Richard L. Brown, late a clerk in the Treasury Department, and just from Washington, having resigned his place, and by Mr. Curry, a friend of Mr. Brockenbridge, likewise lately resigned from his position as clerk of one, of the Departments, that the Seventh Regiment has certainly arrived in Washington; that communications are open with Annapolis; that cars are constantly bringing troops, to be followed by very large bodies to the amount of twenty or twenty-five thousand troops, and that the purpose of the administration is to forage both Maryland and Virginia for supplies, and to push the war in this State. Their pickets are said to have been down below the Lone Bridge last night, and it is said that Alexandria is in imminent peril of being occupied by the U. S. troops.

WM. H. LEE.

APRIL 25.

DEAR STEUART: We have later news from Annapolis. Twelve thousand additional troops landed there yesterday. They have possession of the city, and are sending forces on the line of the road. They say they are going to take military possession of our State permanently. Senator Wilson, of Massachusetts, is reported in Annapolis, and Sumner is to follow. They are to establish a civil commission, to supersede our State government. The last troops were brought from Now York, and the steamers went back for more. A movement will be made on Baltimore from north and south. It is thought Fort McHenry will be assaulted to-day. It is no time for Virginia to stand on etiquette. Let her come and capture Fort Washington. Our legislature meets at Frederick City to-morrow, Annapolis being in the hands of the enemy.

Yours, &c.,

E. W. BELL.

The above is brought by one of our most reliable citizens direct. Answer immediately.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COOKE, Brigadier-General.

{p.780}

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ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 25, 1861-2 p. m.

General ROBERT E. LEE:

The following dispatches, this moment, by the hands of a courier, who received them in person from Daniel Clarke himself, which Daniel Clarke, I am assured here by reliable persons, is the son-in-law of Ex-Governor Pratt:

UPPER MARLBOROUGH, MD., April 25, 1861.

General STEUART, Commander of the Virginia Forces at Alexandria, Va.:

Accompanying I send you the latest intelligence, brought by me from Annapolis, which is authentic, reliable, and gathered from the best sources. It is desirable to telegraph the news to the South immediately, and to the Cabinet of the Southern Confederacy. In telegraphing to the Southern Cabinet at Montgomery please send the accompanying dispatch, annexed, to Hon. J. P. Benjamin. I am well known to him, and the intelligence would be known by him to be authentic, coming from me direct from Governor Pratt, Annapolis.

Yours, truly,

DANIEL CLARKE.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Montgomery, Ala.:

The dispatches dated Annapolis, April 24th, 6 o’clock, are reliable and authentic, having been brought by me from Governor Pratt.

DANIEL CLARKE.

ANNAPOLIS, MD., April 24, 1861-6 p.m.

The Northern troops have taken forcible possession of the navy-yard and the depot and railroad. This morning two thousand troops left here for Washington, via the railroad. The track, which was torn up, has been relaid by the troops. Twelve thousand more troops have just arrived by steamers and war vowels from New York. A portion of the troops, which have just arrived, are now leaving for Washington. Twenty-five or thirty thousand troops are expected to be sent to Maryland by Monday next. A joint movement of the forces from Annapolis and Pennsylvania is contemplated upon Baltimore, against which city the Northerners swear vengeance. The city is alive and making preparations against the attack. The Northern forces intend to hold Annapolis as a military post at which to land the troops ammunition and provisions for Washington. Governor Hicks, in consequence of the military occupation of Annapolis, has been forced to convene the legislature at Frederick City. It is thought that the legislature will pass an ordinance of secession at once. The people are in arms, and determined to unite in the cause of the South. Prompt and immediate action of the Southern forces for the relief of Maryland is absolutely necessary to prevent the military occupation of the state by Federal forces.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General.

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ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 26, 1861.

General LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

The two 8-inch columbiads have arrived, and, there being four rifled cannon at Aquia, under Captain Walker, I shall proceed first to remove or destroy the light boats and the buoys on the Potomac, and, at the same time order General Ruggles to hold himself in readiness to support by sufficient detachment of his troops. I shall do the same from this point, to cover and protect any working party, under the direction of the engineer, at a certain point on the Potomac. I would be glad to have Lieutenant Lee, of the Engineers, or some other officer of the Engineers, assigned for immediate service, to direct the construction of the works of this enterprise.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General.

{p.781}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 26, 1861.

General HARPER, Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

SIR: The commanding general desires you to report, by letter, without delay, whether, after taking from Harper’s Ferry such machinery as it is necessary for the armory at this city, and which he hopes is now on its way, the condition of the factories at Harper’s Ferry will be such that the arms that are partly finished may be completed and brought into use, and whether, in a military point of view, it could be safely accomplished. In the mean time, if arms can be completed safely, finish them. The property referred to in the letter of yesterday was the machinery for the armory at this place, above referred to.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 26, 1861.

Colonel LANGHORNE:

SIR: The general commanding the military and naval forces of Virginia instructs me to direct you to proceed, without delay, to Lynchburg, Va., to assume a temporary charge of that district, and to make preparations for the accommodation (food and shelter) of thirteen regiments of troops, shortly expected to arrive there, and such others as may arrive there from time to time, and report to you. Before going confer with Lieutenant-Colonel Heth, now temporarily in charge of the quartermaster’s department in this city, as to the best mode of executing this service.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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ENGINEER’S OFFICE, Norfolk, Va., April 26, 1861.

General ROBERT E. LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

SIR: In reply to your communication of yesterday’s date, I have the honor to report that, in obedience to the orders of the governor, I proceeded to Yorktown on Thursday, the 18th instant, accompanied by two assistants. Before leaving there on Saturday the form and position of a water battery on Gloucester Point was decided upon, that covers all the channel-way with fire, lying within two miles of the point. The battery will mount thirty-one guns, if twenty feet be allowed to each. If eighteen feet be sufficient, the number can be increased to thirty-four. The faces bearing on the channel above and below are arranged for five and nine guns, respectively. Those intermediate (fifteen) are arranged on the are of a circle, containing about one hundred and twenty degrees. The lines of fire cross the channel lines so near that this part may be armed with 8-inch howitzers, while for the faces 8-inch columbiads should be provided. The faces of this battery converge towards the high ground northwest of the point. This high ground affords an advantageous site for a large field work for the defense of the position. No attempt was made to trace one on the ground. A very good position for a 6-gun battery was selected on the Yorktown side, near to the river bluff. An assistant, J. J. Clarke, who has had no {p.782} experience on military works, but with a high reputation as a civil engineer, was left in charge of this work, with instructions to raise a laboring force in Gloucester, if practicable, and to meet me in Richmond on Monday p. m.

About 1 p. m., with one assistant, I embarked on board the steamer for this place, and arrived a very short time before the steamer Pawnee passed up the river; reported myself to the commanding general, but received no orders from him until Sunday morning. Since that time I have been fully occupied with the construction of defensive works on this river. The ground in front of the Naval Hospital has been prepared for mounting fourteen guns on two faces, the half of which are now ready for service with navy furnaces for heating shot. This work was commenced amid the greatest confusion and excitement. Three guns and carriages were hastily removed from the navy-yard to this place, and mounted in the rear of the ground required to be broken for the battery. One hundred and fifty bales of cotton were sent over, to make a temporary cover for the men between the guns, should the Pawnee or Cumberland attempt to return to the yard. No such attempt having been made, the cotton was carefully piled in a way to prevent serious damage, and will now be returned to the public store nearly in the condition it was when received.

As soon as working companies could be organized at this place, which, from the extreme excitement and confusion prevailing, required much time, even after local officers had been assigned to take charge of them and direct the application of labor, I proceeded to Fort Norfolk, where it war deemed expedient to mount as many guns as could be brought to bear on the channel, and also to construct between the wharf and fort covering the channel a water battery of six guns. This has since been reduced to five, in consequence of finding stone under and near the surface of the earth. Requisitions were made for materials, tools, and ordnance, and officers assigned to superintend the work; but no laboring force was available before Monday morning.

In the evening, after having made requisition for troops, materials, tools, &c., accompanied by one assistant, I left in a small boat for Craney Island. As far as practicable the ground was examined by moonlight. Neither troops nor laborers arrived during the night, but about 8 a. m. Monday morning labor commenced coming in from the plantations, and by 10.30 a. m. about one hundred and twenty laborers, with a suitable number of carts, had been placed on the work, which had been laid out to mount twenty guns, which cover all the channel-way within range from N. 50 W. to E.

A battery, to mount twelve guns, has been laid out on Penner’s Point. The work on this is under the control of officers of the Navy, but requisitions for the laborers and tools have been filled at this office.

Soller’s Point has been examined, and lines marked for three batteries, of six guns each. This position is so unfavorable for defense, no works have been commenced there.

APRIL 27.

The works in progress will mount sixty-one guns when completed. Of these, fourteen will be at the Naval Hospital, fifteen at Fort Norfolk, twelve at Penner’s Point, and twenty on Craney Island. I am unable to state the number ready for service. At the Naval Hospital the officer in charge reports ten ready for action, two 8-inch shell and eight 32-pounders, with furnaces and fuel for heating shot.

From Fort Norfolk the report is not yet in. On Thursday the guns {p.783} were on the rampart, and the platform nearly ready to receive them. Penner’s Point work is to be commenced to-day by the Navy Department. Craney Island is ready for the platform and guns. One lighter, carrying four 9-inch columbiads, with fifty rounds of ammunition for each, was ordered down yesterday p. m.

Last evening Assistant Engineer Sharp was detailed to make an examination of the approaches to the city and navy-yard and to prepare a map of the country lying between the Elizabeth River and East Branch, within ten miles of this place. Mr. Conway Howard was detailed to assist him.

I have unofficially learned that a battery of four guns is under construction, by the residents, near Bushy Bluff, which I contemplate visiting in the course of the day. Further examinations will be made this side of Soller’s Point for more favorable ground before commencing works at Soller’s Point.

Most respectfully submitted by your, obedient servant,

ANDREW TALCOTT, Engineer.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 3.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 26, 1861.

Maj. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, of the Virginia volunteers, is for the present assigned to the command of all the State forces in and about Richmond.

...

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 2.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 26, 1861.

Maj. Gen. Walter Gwynn, of the Virginia volunteers, has been assigned to the chief command of the State forces in and about the city of Norfolk. In exercising that command, it is desired that he advise with, and, as far as practicable, act in relation to naval matters in consonance with the views of the senior naval officer present. It is farther suggested that the interests of the State might be best served by employing naval officers in the construction and service of water batteries, or such as are intended to act against shipping.

By command of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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MONTGOMERY, April 26, 1861.

Governor JOHN LETCHER, Richmond, Va.:

The convention between your commonwealth and this Government Placer, at the disposal of the President the military force of Virginia. WM you therefore inform me of what this force consists, and at what points and in what numbers it is being rendezvoused. For action here an early answer is requested.

L. P. WALKER.

{p.784}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., April 27, 1861.

[JOHN LETCHER:]

I respectfully ask of the governor and council what arrangements have been made to enable the army of the State to take the field? Besides the necessary camp equipage, some means of transportation must be provided other than that furnished by the railroad companies. It will not always be possible to adhere to the railroad routes, and provision must be made for maneuvering in front of an enemy and for supplying troops with provisions, and at positions to be held or forced. Horses for the light batteries will be necessary, and wagons for local transportation. Are there any funds for these purposes, or how are they to be procured?*

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

* Answer not found,

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, April 27, 1861.

Maj. Gen., R. E. LEE, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: You will direct Col. T. J. Jackson to proceed to Harper’s Ferry, to organize into regiments the volunteer forces which have been called into the service of the State, and which maybe assembled in the neighborhood. Direct him to report with as much dispatch as possible the number and description of the companies thus organized; the character and condition of their arms, and the names of the company officers present for duty, and where from; also, the names of all general, field, and staff officers now in the field in that command, that the Executive may have the information required for the proper organization of the regiments and brigades according to the ordinance of the Convention of April 21, 1861. You will place Colonel Jackson, for the present, in command of the troops in that locality, and give him such general instructions as may be required for the military defenses of the State. Direct him to make diligent inquiry as to the state of feeling in the northwestern portion of the State. If necessary, appoint a confidential agent for that purpose, but great confidence is placed in the personal knowledge of Major Jackson in this regard. If deemed expedient, he can assemble the volunteer forces of the northwest at such points as he may deem best, giving prompt information of the same. Promptness in all these matters is indispensable.

I am, very respectfully,

JOHN LETCHER.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 27, 1861.

Col. THOMAS J. JACKSON, Virginia Volunteers, Camp near Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: You will proceed, without delay, to Harpers Ferry, Va., in execution of the orders of the governor of the State, and assume command of that post. After mustering into the service of the State such companies as may be accepted under your instructions, you will organize them into regiments or battalions, uniting, as far as possible, {p.785} companies from the same section of the State. These will be placed under their senior captains, until the field officers can be appointed by the governor. It is desired that you expedite the transfer of the machinery to this place, ordered to the Richmond Armory, should it not have been done, and that you complete, as fast as possible, any guns or rifles partially constructed, should it be safe and practicable. Your attention will be particularly directed to the safety of such arms, machinery, parts of arms, raw material, &c., that may be useful, to insure which they must be at once sent into the interior, if in your judgment necessary. If any artillery companies offer their services, or are mustered into the service of the State, and are without batteries, report the facts.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 27, 1861.

General LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

Having succeeded in accomplishing the objects of taking up my temporary headquarters at this place, I proceed tomorrow morning to Culpeper Court-House, by the 6 o’clock train, which, as at present advised, will be my headquarters for some time to come. Colonel Jones, having arrived, will accompany me to Culpeper Court-House. I have arranged for my communications, through the medium of rail, wire, and courier, to headquarters, and I have, also, through a private chain of couriers (hence through Maryland to Baltimore), connected with General Steuart, in that city. My first volunteer aid, John S. Barbour, jr., remaining here, will receive dispatches at Alexandria.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE.

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ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT, Richmond, Va., April 27, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commanding Army and Navy of Virginia:

GENERAL: As your attention is so much monopolized by the personal applications of our rather unsystematized citizen soldiers, I prefer to put on paper what I have to say:

1st. Without your positive order I fear there, will be a dangerous delay in removing the machinery from Harper’s Ferry. Captain Carter, of this department, sent by me to take charge of and remove this machinery, writes me that it will take probably six weeks to remove it. From the tenor of his letter I conclude that there is a disposition from the surrounding citizens to hold back the removal. Would it not be best for you to instruct General Harper, in command, to push forward this matter?

2d. As there is not room at the armory to work up and pack away all the ammunition for heavy ordnance, field pieces, and small-arms, I respectfully suggest that the laboratory work upon all ammunition for the heavy pieces for stationary batteries be done elsewhere than at the armory, and under the superintendence of a naval officer. Why not at Norfolk? If not there, I can get a large tobacco factory in this city. It is more than I can attend to, having but one officer in my department, and he away at Harper’s Ferry. In conversing with Captain Minor, of {p.786} the Navy, he entirely approves of this; but your order seems to be required. I can attend to all field artillery and foot troops, but wish the heavy guns and their ammunition to be under the Navy Department.

If it be intended to give me an experienced officer to aid me in the Ordnance Department, please do so, but give him a rank beyond that of captain, as if he is experienced he should rank higher than captain. The call for ammunition has been and is yet great. I hope none will be wasted, for we have none to spare. As it now is, General Richardson, adjutant-general, gives the orders for the issues-carefully, I know, but he is importuned excessively. Some assistance, I think, should be given him. Pardon this suggestive communication.

I have the honor to be, yours, very respectfully,

C. DIMMOCK, Colonel of Ordnance.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 28, 1861.

Col. THOMAS J. JACKSON, Virginia Volunteers Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: The major-general commanding instructs me to direct you to cause all the arms from the Harper’s Ferry Arsenal, now in the hands of the militia and citizens serving at that point, to be returned to you, except such as may be in the hands of those who volunteer and shall be mustered into service by you under your instructions of yesterday. As soon as practicable you are instructed to report here the number and condition of the arms so returned.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., April 28, 1861-12.30 p. m.

General LEE, Commander-in-Chief, Richmond, Va.:

Having completed the requisite arrangements at Alexandria, and succeeded in informing myself of the actual state of things at that outpost of my command, in sight of the enemy, I proceeded this morning, by the 7 o’clock train, accompanied by the assistant adjutant-general, my aide, and secretary, towards this place, which I reached at 10 a. m., and where I propose, for some time to come, to establish my headquarters. I left all quiet and composed at Alexandria, where by my presence, during the suddenly augmented flow of Northern vandalism through Annapolis, I was so fortunate as to avert alarm and panic.

Intelligence first reached me, ever finding a solution through my knowledge of and confident faith in the existing status, not immediately, in my opinion, threatened to be overthrown, so long as there is nothing more than a mere persistence in a course on the part of the enemy, long ago initiated, and even now only intensified and strengthened; thus solving, as I did, the thousand sensations, rumors, and accounts that poured in upon me during my whole stay in Alexandria.

I have been enabled to infuse the same confidence into the minds of the leading citizens of the place, to have secured their confidence, and to {p.787} have left them for the present tranquil and firm; whilst at the same time I have provided to organize the few troops in that extreme outpost; to provide for strengthening the same for the present up to about one thousand men; to establishing my communications in every direction, and thence to these headquarters; to throw myself in connection with various persons and sources of information at Alexandria; to inform myself as correctly as possible as to the number, efficiency, movements, and animus of the enemy, and by every means in my power to urge on such an organization, drilling, and discipline of the troops of that post as would best prepare them for the trying position they occupy.

In coming here, sir, I find myself, as upon my first arrival in Alexandria, “with naked hands.”

Colonel Jones, fortunately assigned to me as assistant adjutant-general, is the first Army officer to report for duty within my command. He promptly arrived in Alexandria last evening, and is with me here to-day. He will know what to do with his department, but I want an assistant quartermaster-general, a chief of the medical department, an ordnance officer, a chief of military engineering of talent. I had heretofore insinuated a preference in this last connection. I want arms. I am expecting from fifteen hundred to two thousand guns from Harper’s Ferry, when they shall be able to fit them up from the wreck of that place. I want a chief of artillery; I want powder; two or three batteries of field artillery (6-pounders), with caissons, ammunition, complete for service, &c.

My part, now will be to rally the men of the fine country around me, to establish camps of instruction, to wit: Leesburg, Warrenton, headquarters, and at or near Dangerfield, in supporting distance of Alexandria. I want camp equipage for the various encampments above indicated.

In regard to Harper’s Ferry, that most important strategic point on my left, and in connection with which I have not yet been able to place myself in a satisfactory attitude and connection owing to the lack of telegraph communication; of continued rail; for want of fall understanding with the chief of command at that position; for want of the requisite and reliable information of all the various circumstances and conditions affecting the present military state of things at, that post.

I have, since my arrival here, indicated the plan of sending Assistant Adjutant-General Jones, by rail, to-morrow, to that point, to obtain all such information, and to report to me accurately and fully the present condition of things there with as little delay as possible.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Potomac Department, Commanding.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 7.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 28, 1861.

Col. Thomas J. Jackson, Virginia Volunteers, having been assigned to the duty of mustering into service volunteers at Harper’s Ferry and to the command of that place, Maj. Gen. Kenton Harper, of the Virginia, Militia, now in command there, and the militia troops under him, are relieved from duty until further orders. Great credit and commendation is due to General Harper and his Command for the alacrity with which they came to the defense of that part of their State.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT. Adjutant-General.

{p.788}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 29, 1861.

Maj. A. LORING, Commanding Volunteers, Wheeling, Va.:

MAJOR: You will muster into the service of the State such volunteer companies as may offer themselves, in compliance with the call of the governor, take command of them, and direct the military operations for the protection of the terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on the Ohio River, and also that of the road. It is desirable that the business operations of the company and peaceful travel shall not be interrupted, but be afforded protection. Maj. F. M. Boykin, jr., has been directed to give protection to the road in the vicinity of Grafton. You will place yourself in communication with him, with the view to cooperate, if necessary. You are requested to report the number of companies you may muster into the service, the state of the arms, condition, and all the circumstances connected therewith.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 29, 1861.

Lieut. Col. JOHN MCCAUSLAND:

You will proceed to the valley of the Kanawha, and muster into the service of the State such volunteer companies (not exceeding ten) as may offer their services, in compliance with the call of the governor; take the command of them, and direct the military operations for the protection of that section of country. Your policy will be strictly defensive, and you will endeavor to give quiet and assurance to the inhabitants. It has been reported that two companies are already found in Kanawha County, Captain Patten’s and Captain Sevann’s, and that there are two in Putnam County, Captain Becket’s and Captain Fife’s. It is supposed that others will offer their services. The number of enlisted men to a company, fixed by the Convention, is eighty-two. You will report the condition of the arms, &c., of each company, and, to enable you to supply deficiencies, five hundred muskets, of the old pattern, will be sent. I regret to state that they are the only kind at present for issue. Four field pieces will also be sent you as soon as possible, for the service of which you are desired to organize a company of artillery. The position of the companies at, present is left to your judgment, and you are desired to report what points below Charleston will most effectually accomplish the objects in view.

I am, sir, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 29, 1861.

ANDREW TALCOTT, Esq., Colonel, Engineers:

SIR: You will proceed up James River, to the vicinity of Burwell’s Bay, and select the most suitable point which in your judgment, should be fortified, in order to prevent the ascent of the river by the enemy. {p.789} Lay off the works and leave their construction to Lieut. C. Ap R. Jones, Virginia Navy, who will accompany you. You will then proceed to the mouth of the Appomattox, and there perform the same service, selecting some point below the mouth of that river, supposed to be old Fort Powhatan. Captain Cocke will take charge of the construction of this work. Be pleased to give the above-mentioned officers such instructions as they may require in the construction of these works, and report what you shall have done.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, VA., April 29, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General, Virginia Army, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that there are three light artillery batteries now together at the artillery barracks, Baptist Seminary, viz: Randolph’s (of six pieces, called the Howitzer Battery), Cabell’s (four pieces of light artillery), and Latham’s (four pieces of light artillery). Two pieces will be added to Randolph’s battery, he having two hundred and twenty-five drilled men in his company. I propose that these two pieces should be Parrotts rifled cannon, as being more nearly the weight of Randolph’s howitzers, which are of the Dahlgren pattern.

I have to request that the battery of rifled cannon (Parrotts), now in charge of Captain Walker, and some forty men, not mustered into service, and now at Fredericksburg, Va., be ordered to the artillery barracks near this place, and, after turning over their cannon and implements, that Captain Walker’s company (if it can be made up to its proper complement) be received into the artillery service and drilled, so as to be ready for service with any battery that may be prepared for it.

Randolph’s battery, being divided into two batteries, of four pieces each, both under his command, will thus (with the cadet battery) make six batteries, of four pieces each, which should be housed immediately. I have to request, therefore, that three hundred and fifty-six horses be purchased without delay for mounting these companies, and that the Quartermaster-General should be directed to send them out to the artillery barracks (as they may be called for by requisitions of the captains, approved by the proper authorities), and to furnish, also the necessary halters, riding-saddles and bridles, picket-rope, girths, horse-blankets, horseshoes, and forage; also, that the Ordnance Department be instructed to furnish such batteries of light artillery with their harness and caissons complete, and battery wagons and forges, as may be required from time to time by requisition, and to purchase at once the running-gear of as many wagons as can be conveniently turned into caissons, for the service of such pieces as are or may be mounted.

The following is the estimate of horses for each battery, subject to such modifications as experience may suggest, viz: Randolph’s Dahlgren howitzers, with two rifled guns attached, 84 horses; Cabell’s light battery, of four pieces, 68 horses; Latham’s light battery, of four pieces, 68 horses; rifled battery, of four pieces, at Fredericksburg, 68 horses; cadet battery, of four guns, at the fair grounds, 68 horses. Total for six batteries, 356 horses.

For the purpose of assisting in drilling these companies, I request {p.790} that ten cadets, of the higher classes, be detached and ordered to report to me for temporary duty. They will be borne on the provision return of one of the companies, and arrangements will be made for messing and quartering them comfortably. I recommend that the cadet battery be turned over to me also, to be prepared for the field and for the purposes of drill. I request, also, that as many artillery officers (late of the U. S. Army) as can be spared be ordered to report to me for duty. At present I have no staff officers of any description.

There are field pieces enough in the State for more than twenty companies, or two regiments. Taking that as a basis, and deducting six batteries (the horses of which have been estimated for above), there will be required for the remaining batteries, if six horses to a piece be used, 952 horses; if four, 616 horses. Should any of the batteries be of 12-pounder guns and 24-pounder howitzers, which I would recommend to a limited extent, then the estimate would be increased proportionately.

There is at the camp of the cadets one rifled gun (Parrott), without carriage. I think it ought to be sent to the artillery barracks. Colonel Gillam offered it to me, and also informed me that Sergeant Rapwtsay, an experienced ordnance sergeant, was at my service, and recommended him strongly to me. I should like to have him ordered to report to me at once. I am also informed that the cadets have sixty-five artillery sabers, which I desire to get, as one of the companies of artillery has not an arm of any kind with which to arm themselves, even as sentinels.

As the making of harness for artillery seems to be a slow operation, from the scarcity of mechanics, I would respectfully recommend that a pattern of the artillery harness be sent to each of the considerable towns on the lines of the railroads, where they can be manufactured. Some carriages might also be procured with more rapidity in this way, as well as tents, which the artillery companies, that have reported, are in want of.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers.

[Indorsement.]

APRIL 30.

Approved (except the adding of Parrott guns to Randolph’s battery) and respectfully forwarded.

J. E. JOHNSTON, Major-General, Virginia Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 30, 1861.

Maj. F. M. BOYKIN, JR., Virginia Volunteers, Weston, Va.:

You are desired to take measures to muster into the service of the State such volunteer companies as may offer their services for the protection of the northwestern portion of the State. Assume the command, take post at or near Grafton, unless some other point should offer greater facilities for the command of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the branch to Parkersburg. It is not the object to interrupt peaceful travel on the road or to offer annoyance to citizens pursuing their usual avocations; {p.791} but to hold the road for the benefit of Maryland and Virginia, and to prevent its being used against them. You will therefore endeavor to obtain the co-operation of the officers of the road, and afford them, on your part, every assistance in your power. You will also endeavor to give quiet and security to the inhabitants of the country.

Maj. A. Loring, at Wheeling, has been directed, with the volunteer companies under his command, to give protection to the road, near its terminus, at the Ohio River, and you will place yourself in communication with him, and co-operate with him, if necessary.

Please state whether a force at Parkersburg will be necessary, and what number of companies can be furnished in that Vicinity. You are requested to report the number of companies you may muster into the service of the State, their arms, condition, &c., and your views as to the best means for the accomplishment of the object in view.

To enable you to supply any deficiency in arms in the companies, two hundred muskets, of the old pattern, flintlocks, will be forwarded by Colonel Jackson, the commanding officer at Harper’s Ferry, to your order, from whence you must take measures to receive them and convey them in safety to their destination, under guard, if necessary. I regret that no other arms are at present for issue.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 30, 1861.

General WALTER GWYNN, Commanding Virginia Forces, near Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: In the report of Col. Andrew Talcott, describing the, defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth, there is no mention of any projected work designed to prevent the ascent of the Nansemond River, by which it seems that attacking parties might approach the navy-yard from the West. Are defenses necessary in that quarter? It is desirable, so far as possible, to regulate the labor you may require in all your departments by the wants of the several departments, and to direct it to the best advantage, so as to limit the expense as much as possible.

Very respectfully,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., April 30, 1861.

Col. C. DIMMOCK, Ordnance Department:

Major-General Lee directs that, with the knowledge of General Richardson, you will forward, in addition to the two hundred flint-lock muskets for the volunteers of Kanawha Valley, four iron 6-pounder cannon, dismounted, and twenty rounds of ammunition, and axles for the carriages, if they can be spared.

Very respectfully,

JOHN M. BROOKE, Lieutenant, Virginia Navy.

{p.792}

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RICHMOND ARMORY, April 30, 1861.

General J. E. JOHNSTON, Virginia Volunteers:

SIR: On inquiry from the armorer here, I find we have on hand the following arms: Altered muskets, 1,500; U. S. flint-muskets, 6,000; English muskets, 300; Sharp’s carbines (rifled), 93; Harper’s Ferry rifles (sword-bayonets), 300; Virginia altered rifles, 250; flint-rifles, 300; U. S. altered rifles, 50; revolvers of all kinds, 170; flint-pistols, 400.

I have the honor to remain, general, your obedient servant,

JNO. S. SAUNDERS, Captain, Virginia Volunteers.

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MONTGOMERY, May 1, 1861.

Governor JOHN LETCHER, Richmond, Va.:

I have received no reply to my dispatch of the 26th of April, relative to the military force of Virginia, its organization and disposition. Until this information is received, it is impossible for the President to determine in what manner he can best execute the convention between your Commonwealth and this Government, by which that force was made subject to his control.

L. P. WALKER.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, May 1, 1861.

General Lee will give instructions to call out volunteers to the extent that may be necessary for the defenses at Harper’s Ferry.

JOHN LETCHER.

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RICHMOND, May 1, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Arrangements have been made to call out, if necessary, 50,000 volunteers from Virginia, to be rendezvoused at Norfolk, Richmond, Fredericksburg, Alexandria, Harper’s Ferry, Grafton, Kanawha, Parkersburg, and Moundsville. Convention has authorized a provisional army of 10,000. Our troops are poorly armed. Tolerable supply of powder; deficient in caps.

JNO. LETCHER.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 1, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. K. SMITH, C. S. A., Lynchburg, Va.:

Three regiments from Tennessee, two from Alabama, two from Mississippi, and one from Arkansas, in all eight regiments, to concentrate at Lynchburg.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.793}

–––

Extracts from the proceedings of the Advisory Council of the State of Virginia.

WEDNESDAY, May 1, 1861.

Present, John J. Allen, president; Francis H. Smith? M. F. Maury, and. Robert L. Montague.

...

A telegram from Governor Harris, of Tennessee, stating that the telegram from the governor of Virginia of 22d April, asking how far Tennessee could be relied on for co-operation, had been received, and that at the same time he had received a telegram from the Secretary of War of the Confederate States, asking him to send three regiments to rendezvous at Lynchburg to aid Virginia, and informing him that the troops sent should be mustered into the service of the Confederate States and armed and provisioned at Lynchburg. Governor Harris says, further, that the troops are ready to go to Lynchburg if they can be armed and provisioned there, but that it sent they will desire to continue as troops of Tennessee, so as to be subject to recall if they are wanted at home.

Advised unanimously that the following telegram be returned in answer to Governor Harris:

Since telegram of 22d of April Convention has formed provisional agreement with Confederate States, placing troops of Virginia under control and direction of President of Confederate States. Those from Tennessee should be subject to same rule, and at Lynchburg can be provided for as troops of Virginia by Colonel Langhorne. Advise him.

...

JOHN J. ALLEN. FRANCIS H. SMITH. M. F. MAURY. RO. L. MONTAGUE.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 1, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: Under authority of the governor of the State, you are directed to call out volunteer companies from the counties in the valley adjacent to Harper’s Ferry, viz, Morgan, Berkeley, Jefferson, Hampshire, Hardy, Frederick, and Clarke, including the troops you may muster in at Harper’s Ferry, not counting five regiments of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, and two batteries of light artillery, of four pieces each. The average number of enlisted men in each company will be eighty-two, and the troops will be directed to rendezvous at Harper’s Ferry. You will select, as far as possible, uniformed companies with arms, organize them into regiments under the senior captains, until proper field officers can be appointed. You will report the number of companies accepted in the service of the State under this authority, their description, arms, &c. Five hundred Louisiana troops, said to be en route for this place, will be directed to report to you, and you will make provision accordingly.

You are desired to urge the transfer of all the machinery, materials, &c., from Harper’s Ferry, as fast as possible, and have it, prepared in Winchester for removal to Strasburg, whence it will be ordered to a place of safety. The machinery ordered to this place must be forwarded with dispatch, as has already been directed. The remainder will {p.794} await at Strasburg further orders. All the machinery of the rifle factory, and everything-of value therein, will be also removed as rapidly as your means will permit. If the troops can be advantageously used in the removal of the machinery, they will be so employed. It is thought probable that some attack may be made upon your position from Pennsylvania, and you will keep yourself as well informed as possible of any movements against you. Should it become necessary to the defense of your position, you will destroy the bridge across the Potomac. You are particularly directed to keep your plans and operations secret, and endeavor to prevent their being published in the papers of the country.

I am, sir, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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Extracts from the proceedings of the Advisory Council of the State of Virginia.

THURSDAY, May 2, 1861.

An application from the governor of Missouri, communicated verbally by a special messenger, for arms and ordnance and for drawings of machinery, &c., necessary for their manufacture was brought before the council.

Advised unanimously that the governor of Missouri be supplied with copies of all the drawings at our command, but for the present it is out of our power to loan arms or ordnance stores.

...

The council unanimously advise that the governor send a special agent to the legislature of Maryland, to assure them of the sympathy of Virginia, and to say that should the legislature think proper to commit the power and authority of the State of Maryland, in co-operation with Virginia and the Confederate States, in resistance to the aggressions of the Government at Washington, then and in that case Virginia will afford all practicable facilities for the furtherance of such object, and will place such arms at the disposal of the Maryland authorities as she may have it in her power to give; and, further, that the governor report to President Davis informing him of this action on the part of the State.

...

JOHN J. ALLEN. FRANCIS H. SMITH. M. F. MAURY. RO. L. MONTAGUE.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 2, 1861.

General P. ST. GEORGE COCKE:

GENERAL: The commanding general has to-day ordered two hundred flint-lock muskets, with fifty rounds of ammunition for each, to be Sent without delay to Alexandria, for the troops in and around that point. You are requested to notify the officer in command of the fact.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

{p.795}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 2, 1861.

Brigadier-General COCKE, Virginia Volunteers:

GENERAL: You were telegraphed this morning to place Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor or other experienced officer in command of the troops in and about Alexandria. The general directs that he, be instructed to take measures to secure the guns, ammunition, and provisions, and to, unite with the officers of the railroad companies in securing all the rolling stock of their roads, and in effectually breaking up the roads themselves, should he be driven by force from that point.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 2, 1861.

Major-General GWYNN, Commanding Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: I am instructed by Major-General Lee to say that, in consequence of rumors of a contemplated attack upon Norfolk, he directs the removal, as soon as possible, to a place of security, of such material-copper, lead, zinc, &c.-as may be of importance to the State and not essential to the service of your post.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN M. BROOKE, Lieutenant, Virginia Navy.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 2, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

SIR: I send herewith copies of instructions to Brigadier-General Ruggles, commanding on-my left. [?] Also a copy of the report of Lieutenants Maury and Smith, C. S. Navy, in regard to the condition of the Northern forces in Washington and on the Potomac, in connection with our designs upon a certain point. I concur in the correctness, in the main, of their (M. and S.) views of that condition, and instruct Brigadier-General Ruggles accordingly. I also gave General Ruggles general outline instructions, as asked for by himself in other connections. You will please aid us both in organizing, in the manner indicated, should you approve our views, or else instruct me how you would have their views and designs modified.

Very respectfully, your most obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosures.]

HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, May 2, 1861-7 a. m.

General RUGGLES, Fredericksburg, Va. :

After consultation with Lieutenants Maury and Smith, of the Navy, I find the time is not yet when we should unmask our designs upon a certain point, or when we are in force sufficient to enter fully upon that {p.796} enterprise, in the very face of the enemy, now probably fifty thousand strong at Washington, Annapolis, and the Potomac River. The heavy guns should doubtless be held ready in your rear, and in mine until we shall be, ready, on both hues of operations, to converge, unmask, and force on that enterprise in the face of any odds that can be brought against us. Strengthen your position, therefore, with men, munitions, and heavy ordnance, while I shall do the same. As to your front, cover it with the “eyes and cars of an army”-cavalry-as best you may. Observe the enemy; gather intelligence; keep at your outposts lines of vedettes and couriers; gather, therefore, all the cavalry you can in your district, without infringing on mine; strengthen yourself in infantry and field artillery; drill, organize, equip, discipline, and generally get ready to converge with me when the time shall come; keep yourself in regular, prompt, and speedy communication with my headquarters, through all media-rail, wire, and courier; report to Assistant Adjutant-General Jones from time to time the numbers, description, and general condition of all forces under your command, and how located or distributed.

Very respectfully, your most obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

CULPEPER COURT-HOUSE, April 29, 1861.

General P. ST. GEO. COCKE, Commanding on Line of Potomac, Culpeper Court-House, Va.

SIR: In obedience to your order we have conferred upon the subject of placing a battery at the point indicated in your instructions, and have the honor to make the following report:

To place this battery a large supporting force will be necessary, and as the Federal Government has now in Washington 7 as we believe, twenty or twenty-five thousand troops, and means of transporting four or five thousand in a few hours to any point on the Potomac, we consider a movement of that kind at present injudicious. We would respectfully suggest that the two 8-inch guns, ammunition, &c., now in Alexandria be removed to this or some other point on the railroad, where they would be in a safer position.

We are, respectfully, your obedient servants,

WM. L. MAURY, WM. TAYLOR SMITH, Lieutenants, State Navy.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 2, 1861.

Brigadier-General COCKE, Alexandria, Va.:

GENERAL: Your communication of this date, inclosing one to General Ruggles and one from Lieutenants Smith and Maury, State Navy, have been received. Captain Lynch, State Navy, has been sent to examine the defensible points of the Potomac, and when anything, based upon his report, has been definitely determined upon, you will be duly informed of it. Colonel Terrett, Virginia volunteers, will be ordered to report to you, when you will be able to put him in command at Alexandria in the place of Colonel Taylor.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

{p.797}

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ORDNANCE, DEPARTMENT, Richmond, Va., May 2, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

SIR: Captain Carter, of this department, has just returned from Harper’s Ferry, and reports that a large portion of the machinery and all the materials are still unmoved. I am so impressed with the importance of securing this property, that I report these facts for the information of the General-in-Chief. If more expedition be not made, may it not be recaptured?

I am, very respectfully,

O. DIMMOCK, Colonel of Ordnance.

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PETERSBURG, May 2, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Reliably reported enemy will occupy Alexandria. Large force in Washington. Maryland overwhelmed, and reaction there against us. Confusion in our own councils in Richmond. Extremely important President Davis be there.

ROGER A. PRYOR.

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RICHMOND, May 3, 1861.

By the Governor of Virginia.

A PROCLAMATION.

The sovereignty of the Commonwealth of Virginia having been denied, her territorial rights assailed, her soil threatened with invasion by the authorities at Washington, and every artifice employed which could inflame the people of the Northern States and misrepresent our purposes And wishes, it becomes the solemn duty of every citizen of this State to prepare for the impending conflict. These misrepresentations have been carried to such extent that foreigners and naturalized citizens who but a few years ago were denounced by the North and deprived of essential rights have now been induced to enlist into regiments for the purpose of invading this State, which then vindicated those rights and effectually resisted encroachments which threatened their destruction. Against such a policy and against a force which the Government at Washington, relying upon its numerical strength, is now rapidly concentrating, it becomes the State of Virginia to prepare proper safeguards. To this end and for these purposes, and with a determination to repel invasion, I, John Letcher, governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, by authority of the Convention, do hereby authorize the commanding general of the military forces of this State to call out and cause to be mustered into the service of Virginia, from time to time, as the public exigencies may require, such additional number of volunteers as he may deem necessary.

To facilitate this call the annexed schedule will indicate the places of rendezvous at which the companies called for will assemble upon receiving orders for service.

{p.798}

Given under my hand, as governor, and under the seal of the Commonwealth, at Richmond, this third day of May, 1861, and in the eighty-fifth year of the Commonwealth.

JOHN LETCHER.

By the governor:

GEORGE W. MUNFORD, Secretary of the Commonwealth.

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Extracts from the proceedings of the Advisory Council of the State of Virginia.

FRIDAY, May 3, 1861.

...

Judge Cooke, the special messenger from the governor of Missouri, having again appeared before the council and urged what he believed to be the extreme importance, in the present juncture of affairs in that State, of a favorable response to the application presented by him yesterday, at least so far as may secure the delivery to him at the Portsmouth navy-yard of the heavy ordnance asked for:

Advised unanimously that General Gwynn be instructed to furnish, upon the order of the governor of Missouri, the heavy ordnance called for in his requisition, provided that the order can be filled without detriment to the public service at Norfolk, in all twenty-two pieces, ten 24 and 18-pounder siege guns, four 8-pounder howitzers, six 8 or 10-inch mortars, and two 8-inch columbiads.

...

JOHN J. ALLEN. FRANCIS H. SMITH. M. F. MAURY. RO. L. MONTAGUE.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 3, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding State Forces, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: So soon as it was ascertained that a considerable body of troops was to be assembled at Lynchburg, Va., the Secretary of War directed Lieut. Col. E. K. Smith, of the cavalry, to proceed to that city in command, and sent with him Maj. H. L. Clay, assistant adjutant-general, and Capt. Thomas G. Williams, commissary. This course was adopted without any knowledge of an intention on your part of sending an officer of the State forces there. As there, may be some conflict of authority should both commanders remain, it is respectfully suggested that the State officer be withdrawn, and that Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, who is personally known to you, be left in charge.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 3, 1861.

General P. ST. GEORGE COCKE, Alexandria, Va.:

GENERAL: Under the authority of the governor of Virginia, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are hereby authorized to call out {p.799} and muster into the service of the State volunteer companies from the counties of Alexandria, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, Rappahannock, Culpeper, Madison, Greene, Orange, Albemarle, Nelson, Amherst, Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig. The troops from the first five named counties may be directed to rendezvous at Leesburg and Warrenton, as you may find most advantageous. Those from the five next named at Culpeper Court-House; those from Albemarle, Nelson, and Amherst at Charlottesville; the remainder at Lynchburg. The whole number of companies thus called into service, including those now in the service of the State and under your command, will not exceed ten regiments of infantry and rifles, two of cavalry, and eight companies of artillery. You will organize them into regiments, associating, as far as possible, companies from the same section of the State, and place them temporarily under such officers as may be available until their proper field officers can be appointed by the governor. It will be necessary to send officers to the respective rendezvous, to muster them into the service, and it is hoped that you will be able to rapidly organize the whole force. You are desired to report as soon as practicable the number of companies mustered into the service of the State, their arms, condition, &c. You will give directions to the mustering officers to select from the companies that offer those that are best armed and instructed and give promise of efficient service.

Very respectfully, &c.

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 3, 1861.

Maj. Gen. W. GWYNN, Commanding at Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: Under the authority of the governor of Virginia, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are hereby authorized to call out and muster into the service of the State volunteer companies from the counties of Norfolk, Nansemond, Princess Anne, Southampton, Greensville, and the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, not exceeding, with the State troops already in the service and under your command, six regiments of infantry and artillery and four companies of cavalry. You will organize them into regiments, associating, as far as possible, companies from the same section of the State, and place them temporarily under such officers as may be available until their proper officers can be appointed by the governor. It is hoped that you will be able rapidly to organize the whole force, and, with the troops from Georgia, be prepared by land and water to defend your position. Should your force be inadequate, please report the fact 5 and, if the cavalry authorized be unnecessary, You can substitute for them an equal number of infantry or artillery companies. You are desired to report as soon as possible the number of companies mustered into the service of the State, their arms, condition, &c.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.800}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 3, 1861.

Maj. Gen. W. GWYNN, Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: I am instructed by Major-General Lee, referring to his communication of the 2d instant in relation to the removal to a place of safety of such materials, &c., of importance to the State, now at Norfolk, to say that he, desires also the removal of such of the following articles as are not required for the defense of Norfolk, viz: powder, shot, cannon, pikes, and shells. As there is a deficiency of arms in the cavalry, some pikes might be usefully employed in that service. The president of the Danville Railroad Company has offered the means and appliances of transportation.

Very respectfully, &c.,

JOHN M. BROOKE, Virginia Navy, Acting Aide-de-Camp.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 3, 1861.

Col. W. B. TALIAFERRO, Gloucester Court-House, Va.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that you have been appointed colonel of Virginia volunteers. Your commission will be forwarded by the governor. If you accept the position, you are desired to take command of the troops ordered to Gloucester Point, to defend the passage of York River. Maj. P. R. Page has been previously directed to muster into the service of the State, in compliance with the call of the governor, such companies of volunteers as may offer their services.

A battery is now under construction at Gloucester Point, in charge of Captain Whittle, Virginia Navy, with whom you are desired to cooperate in its construction and defense.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 3, 1861.

Col. C. Q. TOMPKINS, Charleston, Kanawha County, Va.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that you have been appointed colonel of Virginia volunteers. Your commission is herewith forwarded to you. If you accept, you will take command of such troops as may be called out in Kanawha under the proclamation of the governor.

Lieut. Col. John McCausland has been previously directed to muster into the service such companies as may volunteer under the call of the governor. You will take measures to secure the safety and quiet of that county. Report what point you will occupy for the purpose.

Four field-pieces, 6-pounders, and some muskets, have been sent to the Kanawha Valley, subject to the order of Lieut. Col. John McCausland.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant General.

{p.801}

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NORFOLK, VA., May 3, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding:

SIR: I am in receipt of telegraphic dispatches of this date, signed by Charles E. Talcott, superintendent of the Richmond and Danville Railroad, L. E. Harvie, and one from yourself, referring them to me. I feel confident I can hold the Navy-yard against any force now apprehended; but, in order to insure its defense, there should be five thousand troops collected here as soon as possible.

WALTER GWYNN.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, May 3, 1861.

Respectfully submitted for the information of his excellency Governor Letcher.

Five thousand volunteers, including those now in service at Norfolk, have been called out to-day. In addition, the Georgia and Alabama regiments are ordered there.

R. E. LEE, Major-General.

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[HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, May 3, 1861.]

Maj. H. B. TOMLIN, Richmond, Va., (King William Court-House):

MAJOR: I have the honor to inform you that you have been appointed major of Virginia volunteers. Your commission will be forwarded to you by the governor. Should you accept, you are hereby authorized, under the proclamation of the governor of Virginia, of the 3d instant, to call out, from the counties of King William and New Kent, two companies of infantry or rifles and one company of artillery.

It is designed to place at West Point, King William County, a battery (from four to six guns), to prevent the ascent of hostile vessels, and guard the terminus of the railroad. The troops you have been ordered to collect are for the protection and defense of this battery. It will be constructed as soon as the proper officer can be obtained for the purpose, and you are desired to take post at that point, and do all in your power to forward the objects in view, and give instruction and discipline to the troops. You will report the number of companies mustered into the service, arms, condition, &c.

Very respectfully, &c.,

THOS. J. PAGE, Virginia Navy, Acting Aide-de-Camp.

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RICHMOND, May 4, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Threatening demonstrations to recover Norfolk navy-yard made necessary to divert the Georgians at Weldon for Norfolk.

JNO. LETCHER. {p.802}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 4, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding Virginia Volunteers, Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: The letter addressed to you, of this day’s date, was erroneous. You will therefore destroy it, and, instead of extending your call for volunteers to the counties of Page, Pendleton, and Warren, as therein directed, extend it to the counties of Shenandoah, Page, Warren, and Rockingham, limiting the number of troops to that specified in letter of the 1st instant.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 4, 1861.

Maj. A. LORING, Wheeling, Va.:

MAJOR: The authority given you to call out volunteers in the service of the State, by my letter of the 29th ultimo, has, by the proclamation of the governor, of the 3d instant, been confined to the counties of Tyler, Wetzel, Marshall, Ohio, Brooke, and Hancock, and you will act accordingly.

Very respectfully, &c., your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 4, 1861.

Col. GEORGE A. PORTERFIELD, Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: You are directed to repair to Grafton, Taylor County, Virginia, and select a position for the troops called into the service of the State, for the protect-ion and defense of that part of the country. It is desired to hold both branches of the railroad to the Ohio River, to prevent its being used to the injury of the State. You must, therefore, choose your position with this view, that you may readily re-enforce troops on either branch. Maj. A. Loring, at Wheeling, has been directed, with the volunteer force under his command, to give protection to the terminus of the main road at the Ohio River, with whom you will communicate and co-operate. You will also place a force on the Parkersburg Branch, at such point as you may select, under a suitable officer, with necessary orders for his guidance. Maj. F. M. Boykin, jr., of the Virginia volunteers, who will act under your orders, has been previously authorized to call out volunteers from that section of country, and you are authorized, under the proclamation of the governor, of the 3d instant, to extend the call to the counties of Wood, Wirt, Roane, Calhoun, Gilmer, Ritchie, Pleasant, and Doddridge, to rendezvous at Parkersburg, and to the counties of Braxton, Lewis, Harrison, Monongalia, Taylor, Barbour, Upshur, Tucker, Marion, Randolph, and Preston, to rendezvous at Grafton.

It is not known what number of companies will offer their services but it is supposed that a regiment, composed of infantry, riflemen, and {p.803} artillery, may be obtained for the Parkersburg Branch; a similar force for the main road, near Moundsville, and three regiments for the reserve, near Grafton; and you are authorized to receive into the service of the State that amount of force. You will report the number of companies mustered into the service, their condition, arms, &c.

Two hundred muskets have been sent to Colonel Jackson, commanding at Harper’s Ferry, to the order of Major Boykin, which will be distributed under your orders, and you will cause proper receipts to be taken from the captains of companies for, the security of the State. More arms, &c., will be forwarded to you on your requisition. It is not intended to interfere with the peaceful use of the road, and you are desired to obtain the co-operation of its officers and agents in the accomplishment of the purpose of the State, and, on your part, to aid them in its management as much as possible.

Second Lieuts. J. G. Gittings and W. E. Kemble, of the Provisional Army of Virginia, have been ordered to report to you for duty.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 4, 1861.

General DANIEL RUGGLES, Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: Under the authority of the governor of Virginia, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are hereby authorized to call out and muster into the service of the State, volunteer companies’ from Fredericksburg, the counties of Stafford, Spotsylvania, and Caroline, to rendezvous at Fredericksburg; and from the counties of King George and Westmoreland, to rendezvous at King George Court-House. The whole number of companies thus called, including those already in the service of the State and under your command, will not exceed two regiments of infantry and riflemen, two companies of artillery, and two companies of cavalry. A portion of this force will be assigned to the defense of the terminus of the railroad at Aquia Creek and adjacent country, and the remainder held for the defense of such points on the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers as may be necessary, or hereafter designated. You will organize the troops into regiments, associating together, as far as possible, companies from the same section of the State, and place them temporarily under such officers as may be available until their proper field officers can be appointed by the governor. It will be necessary to appoint officers to muster the troops that may assemble at the respective rendezvous, and you will report, as soon as practicable, the number of companies received into service, their arms, condition, &c. It is hoped that you will rapidly organize the whole force, and the companies that are best armed and instructed from among those that offer will be selected for the service.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

–––

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 16.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 4, 1861.

All volunteer troops from the State of Georgia in and about Richmond {p.804} are ordered to repair, without delay, to Norfolk, and report to Major-General Gwynn.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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NORFOLK, VA., May 5, 1861.

Major-General LEE:

If the Alabama troops, or any portion of them have arrived at Richmond, send them to this point, to General Gwynn.

JNO. LETCHER.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 5, 1861.

Maj. Gen. W. GWYNN, Commanding, &c., Norfolk, Va.:

SIR: Twenty-five thousand rounds of musket ammunition have been ordered to you, on your requisition for one hundred thousand. It is all that can be spared for the present. You have powder and lead, which is all we have here, and the general desires that you take immediate steps for preparing your own ammunition, as we are doing.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, May 5, 1861.

Commissioned by the governor, with the sanction of the council, confirmed by the Convention, in the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from the 21st April, 1861, and placed in command of all the military troops and defenses on the Potomac border of the State, I proceeded, in company with Brigadier-General Ruggles, my second in command, from Richmond, he to take up his headquarters at Fredericksburg, whilst I should take position in front of Washington, and, in connection with the commanding officer at Harper’s Ferry, on my left, thus cover and defend our Potomac border against invasion from the North.

After visiting Alexandria, and making the necessary observations and arrangements at that post, I proceeded to take up my headquarters at this place on Sunday morning, April 28.

The governor’s proclamation of the 3d instant, declaring that “the sovereignty of the Commonwealth of Virginia having been denied, her territorial rights assailed, her soil threatened with invasion by the authorities of Washington, and every artifice employed which could inflame the people of the Northern States to misrepresent our purposes and wishes, it becomes the solemn duty of every citizen of this State to prepare for the impending conflict, and authorizing the commanding general of the military forces of the State to call out and cause to be mustered into the service of Virginia, from time to time, as the public exigencies may require, such additional number of volunteers as he may deem necessary”; and the commanding general, following up the proclamation {p.805} of the governor, having ordered me to call out and muster into the service of the State volunteer companies from the “counties of Alexandria, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, Rappahannock, Culpeper, Madison, Greene, Orange, Albemarle, Nelson, Amherst, Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig; the troops from the first five counties to rendezvous at Leesburg and Warrenton; those from the five next named at Culpeper Court-House; those from Albemarle, Amherst, and Nelson at Charlottesville; the remaining at Lynchburg,” the whole will be organized into regiments of rifles or infantry, cavalry and artillery, and be placed temporarily under such field and other officers as may be available, until their proper field officers can be appointed by the governor.

Officers will be sent to the respective rendezvous to muster these troops into service and rapidly to organize the whole force.

Therefore, I call upon the brave men within the geographical limits above indicated to respond instantly to this demand upon their patriotism in defense of all that is held sacred and dear to freemen. Men of the Potomac Military Department, to arms! The once peaceful capital of the United States is now the great rallying point of the armed military power of the North! The Constitution of your country, the sovereign rights of your State, truth, justice, and liberty, are all ignored and outraged amidst the brutal and frenzied cry of the North for force, force!

At this moment hosts of armed men profane by their insolent presence the city, the grave, and the memory of Washington, whilst an unbroken stream of thousands in arms violate the soil of Maryland and murder her citizens in their march to re-enforce and occupy the capital.

And for what? The capital has never been threatened; it is not now threatened. It is beyond and outside the limits of the free and sovereign State of Virginia.

The North has not openly, and according to the usage of civilized nations, declared war on us. We make no war on them; but should Virginia soil or the grave of Washington be polluted by the tread of a single man in arms from north of the Potomac, it will cause open war. Men of the Potomac border, men of the Potomac Military Department, to arms! Your country calls you to her defense. Already you have in spirit responded. You await but the order to march, to rendezvous, to organize, to defend your State, your liberties, and your homes.

Women of Virginia! Cast from your arms all cowards, and breathe the pure and holy, the high and glowing, inspirations of your nature into the hearts and souls of lover, husband, brother, father, friend!

Almighty God! Author and Governor of the world; Thou source of all light, life, truth, justice, and power, be Thou our God! Be Thou with us! Then shall we fear not a world against us!

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding Potomac Department.

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MONTGOMERY, May 6, 1861.

Governor JOHN LETCHER, Richmond:

Do you desire this Government to assume any control over military operations in Virginia? If so, to what extent?*

L. P. WALKER.

* Answer not found.

{p.806}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Col. P. ST. GEORGE COCKE, Commanding Virginia Forces, Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

COLONEL: You are desired to post at Manassas Gap Junction a force sufficient to defend that point against an attack likely to be made against it by troops from Washington. It will be necessary to give this point your personal attention.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Col. JUBAL A. EARLY, Rocky Mountain, Franklin County, Va.:

COLONEL: You are directed to repair to Lynchburg, Campbell County, Va., and to take command of the troops that will be mustered into the service of the State at that point by Lieut. Col. D. A. Langhorne. You will organize these troops into regiments, associating, as far as possible, troops from the same section of the State. The troops from the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig are to be united distinct from those of the other counties, except so far as may be necessary to complete their organization. Place them under such officers as may be available, until their proper officers are appointed by the governor. You are requested to organize, instruct, and prepare the whole force for service at as early a day as possible, and to report, as soon as possible, the number of companies mustered into the service of the State, their arms, condition, &c.

I am, respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding Volunteers, Harper’s Ferry, Va. :

COLONEL: I consider it probable that the Government at Washington will make a movement against Harper’s Ferry, and occupy the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad with that view, or use the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal for the transportation of troops. You are desired to watch these avenues of approach, and endeavor to frustrate, their designs. On receiving certain intelligence of the approach of troops it will become necessary to destroy the bridge at Harper’s Ferry and obstruct their passage, by the canal as much as possible. You might make some confidential arrangements with persons in Maryland to destroy the Monocacy railroad bridge and draw the water out of the canal, should there be assurances of the enemy’s attempt to make use of either.

You are authorized to offer the payment of $5 for each musket that may be returned of those taken possession of by the people in and about Harper’s Ferry.

{p.807}

It is advisable that you establish some troops at Martinsburg, or other more advantageous point, if your force will permit. I desire that you will report the amount of your present force and the number of volunteers that will probably respond to the call of the governor from the counties indicated in his proclamation.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Lieut. Col. D. A. LANGHORNE, Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: Under the authority of the governor of Virginia, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are hereby authorized to call out and muster into the service of the State volunteer companies from the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, Craig, Giles, Mercer Tazewell Wise, Buchanan, McDowell, Smythe, Wythe, Pulaski, Montgomery, Carroll, Floyd, Patrick, Henry, and Franklin, to rendezvous at Lynchburg, Campbell County, not to exceed five regiments of infantry and riflemen and one regiment of cavalry. You will organize them into regiments, associating together, as far as possible, the troops from Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig, and associate the troops from the other above-named counties together, as far as possible, with reference to the sections of the State from which they come. Col. J. A. Early has been directed to take command of the troops as mustered. Place them under such officers as may be available, until their proper field officers can be appointed by the governor, and, in event of his absence, you will perform this duty until his arrival. It is hoped that the whole force will be rapidly organized, and you are requested to report, as soon as possible, the number of companies mustered into the service of the State, their arms, condition, &c., and make arrangements for their provision, accommodation, &c.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Col. D. RUGGLES, Virginia Volunteers, Fredericksburg, Va..

COLONEL: Captain Lynch, of the Navy, has been instructed to use the four guns first intended for Mathias Point to protect the approaches to Fredericksburg from the Potomac. You are instructed so to dispose of the force under your command as to aid, to the extent of your power, in this purpose. Measures must be taken to destroy the railroad approach to wharf, &c., if our troops should be driven by force from its terminus, in such an effectual manner that they cannot be opened again by the enemy without great delay.

I am, sir, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

{p.808}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Lieut. Col. D. A. LANGHORNE, Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: In my letter to you of this date you were directed to muster the volunteer companies from the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig distinct from the troops coming from the other counties named in my letter. The reason of this is, that Col. P. St. G. Cocke had already been ordered to muster the troops from these five counties into the service of the State, and to send an officer to Lynchburg for that purpose, and they are designed to serve in his division. The order to Colonel Cocke to send an officer to Lynchburg to muster the troops from these counties will be countermanded, and, though mustered into service by you, they will be considered as a part of the troops intended for Colonel Cocke’s line, who will order them to some point on his line, after you notify him that they have been mustered into service.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., Hay 6, 1861.

Lieut. Col. JOHN ECHOLS, Union, Monroe County, Va.:

COLONEL: Under the authority of the governor of Virginia, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are hereby authorized to call out and muster into the service of the State volunteer companies from the counties of Pendleton, Augusta, Pocahontas, Monroe, Highland, Bath, Rockbridge, Greenbrier, and Alleghany, to rendezvous at Staunton, in Augusta County. The whole number of companies thus called into service will not exceed two regiments of infantry and riflemen. You Will organize them into regiments, associating together, as far as possible, troops from the same region. Place them under such officers as are available, until their proper field officers can be appointed by the governor. It is hoped that you will be able rapidly to organize the whole force, and you are requested to report as soon as possible the number of companies mustered into the service of the State, their arms, condition, &C.

I am, respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. BRIGADIER-GENERAL COMMANDING, Norfolk, Va., May 6, 1861.

Maj. Gen. ROBERT E. LEE, Commanding Forces of the State of Virginia:

GENERAL: I have received your communication of the 3d instant,* and am happy to assure you that, while there was some difference of opinion between Flag Officer French Forrest and myself in regard to the extent of my command over the munitions and stores of the navy {p.809} yard, as well as in other parts of my command, there has been, and ,still [is], the most cordial co-operation in all measures intended for the common defense, not only between Commodore Forrest and myself, but between all the officers of the Army and Navy in this command. As an illustration of this, I may mention that one of the most important posts of my command, viz, Fort Norfolk, is under the command of Capt. Arthur Sinclair, of the Navy, including all the land forces stationed at that post.

The immediate occasion of the communication of Commodore Forrest, of which I sent you the copy, was the act of Captain Fairfax, ordnance officer, in taking possession without my knowledge of the whole supply of percussion caps within my control, the greater part of which, I understood he was about to send off to Richmond under an order from Colonel Dimmock, which would have left my whole force inefficient. Besides which, I had not been able, notwithstanding my repeated requests, to get any sufficient information as to the quantity of munitions and stores in the navy-yard, which information was indispensable to the proper discharge of my duties. Under these circumstances I thought it best to send that communication to Commodore Forrest with a view to the prevention of further embarrassments and misunderstandings. I must add that I have not yet been able to get the inventory of the munitions and stores in the navy-yard, nor has the commodore made any reply to that part of the above-mentioned communication. I trust, however, that your communication will remove all doubt upon the point of difference above indicated.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WALTER GWYNN, Brigadier-General, Commanding Forces in Norfolk Harbor.

* Not found.

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DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 6, 1861.

General LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

GENERAL: I assumed command of this post on Monday last, soon after my arrival here. Since that time I have been busily occupied organizing the command and mustering the troops into service. I send herewith a report of the strength for May 4.* To-morrow I will give you a more detailed account of the forces, equipments, &c. All the troops have been mustered into service, except some companies on detached service. I have occupied the Virginia and Maryland Heights, and I am about fortifying the former with block-houses of sufficient strength to resist an attempt to carry them by storm. Whenever the emergency calls for it, I shall construct similar works on the Maryland Heights. Thus far I have been deterred from doing so by a desire to avoid giving offense to the latter State. If you have an experienced engineer officer, I hope that you will order him here, if you have no duty for him elsewhere. There are four 6-pounder guns here without caissons. I respectfully request that you will send the caissons, and also two 6-pounder batteries and two extra 12-pounder howitzers, all fully supplied with ammunition, horses, equipments, and everything necessary for being turned over to companies now waiting for then). Reliable information has been received that the Federal troops are at the Relay House. As {p.810} four thousand flints have been found here, I have taken the responsibility of ordering the one thousand flint-lock rifles from the Lexington Arsenal, and also ten barrels of musket and ten barrels of rifle powder, as in my opinion the emergency justified the order. Should the Federal troops advance in this direction, I shall no longer stand on ceremony. In addition to the cavalry stationed at Point of Rocks, I this morning ordered two 6-pounders to the same position. The enemy, from good authority, are about four thousand strong in the neighborhood of Chambersburg. About two-thirds of the machinery from the musket factory has been removed from here. This morning Mr. John Ambler, the quartermaster in Winchester, informed me that the merchants were paying double freights, and were thus securing all the transportation. To prevent the consequent delay of the machinery, I directed him to impress the wagons. He also notified me that the baggage cars from Strasburg were employed in carrying flour from the valley to New York, and that every barrel would be required for our use. To remedy this evil, until the subject could be referred to you, and also to secure the transportation for the machinery, I directed him to impress the cars. About four hundred and eighty Kentucky volunteers are here without arms, and stand greatly in need of them. I directed some old arms to be issued to them, but they refused to receive them. I refer the subject to you, with the hope that something may be done towards arming them. The material is good. My object is to put Harper’s Ferry in the most defensible state possible, and hence feel it my duty to give the best arms to the Virginia troops, as the others may at any time be ordered off. The news from the northwest shows great disaffection, especially in Ohio County.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., May 6, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Volunteer Forces, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to transmit, for the consideration of the general commanding the forces, the report of Maj. Thomas H. Williamson, chief engineer of the State, respecting the proposed battery at Mathias Point, the substance of which has been already communicated by mail and telegraph. I am making every possible preparation for the prosecution of the work. There is very little probability of executing it without threatened or real molestation, for which, of course, I shall endeavor to be prepared.

I also transmit a report of Major Williamson, made of a reconnaissance directed by me on assuming the command at this station. I regard the Aquia Creek Landing and the preservation of the steamer George Page as of secondary importance, except in the moral influence, necessarily involved in the endeavor to protect a point regarded important by a community unused to the chances and vicissitudes of war. It is difficult as a position to defend, being easily turned by the Potomac Creek, and exposed to disaster from an attack in the rear. It has served its purpose of drawing attention from the two important points on the Potomac supposed to control its navigation, and which, when occupied, will render a battery at this place of little importance.

{p.811}

I am without camp equipage and field artillery (Captain Walker’s company excepted), and request the general’s early consideration of the subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Form.

[Inclosures.]

FREDERICKSBURG) VA., May 4, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to your verbal orders, I have examined Mathias Point, on the Potomac, and the shores of the Rappahannock to its mouth, with the view of selecting proper points for batteries, to prevent the enemy passing up those rivers, when we think proper to do so. Mathias Point is a bluff headland, twenty feet above the water, and while I was there a wax steamer passed the point and showed me the channel. I also made inquiries of persons who were recommended to me by the gentlemen in the neighborhood, and learned from them that the extreme distance from the shore to the farther side of the channel is not over three-quarters of a mile, and that a vessel would be in that range at that distance for one mile. I would recommend at Mathias Point a semicircular sunken battery, on the side next the river, for ten heavy guns, and an intrenchment, with a strong profile and plan, on the land side. Should the enemy attempt to land on the point between Gambo Creek and the Potomac, or go up Machodoc Creek to land, with a view of attacking the fort, a detachment would be required at that point to prevent their landing.

After examining Mathias Point, I proceeded across to the Rappahannock River and examined a point called Bristolmine Creek. The bluff in the intersection of this creek with the river is high (sixty-five or seventy-five feet), and commands the river completely, both up and down; and the guns of a battery at this point would cover the ground inland all around. The ridge between Bristolmine and Machodoc Creeks falls suddenly towards the valley of the Mattox Creek, and this sink extends about fifteen miles down the neck between the Potomac and the Rappahannock, and is completely overlooked from the ridge, so that no force could land below and march up the country without being observed from many points on the ridge. There are two roads passing up this ridge; one by Millville, at the head of Rosier’s Creek, and the other at the head of Bristolmine Creek. The intervening ridge is covered with a dense forest, and the roads through it could be easily obstructed, should the enemy attempt (which is not likely) to pass through it. Detachments at Millville, and at the road at the head of Bristolmine Creek, would be in good positions to watch the country below, And to offer resistance to their march. This line of defense, in conjunction with forts at Mathias Point and the White House, which would prevent the enemy using the Potomac, would protect the railroad communication with Richmond on the east side, and keep up the line to the South, through the Carolinas, as well as the nature of the ground and the very extensive line will admit, from Jamestown to the White House.

At your request I accompanied Commander Lewis down the Rappahannock River to its mouth. The points lowest down the river where batteries would be effective in preventing the passage of vessels are at Lowery’s and Accokeek Points, about seven miles below Tappahannock. The channel does not exceed three-quarters of a mile from these points, {p.812} and a small redoubt, with five or six heavy guns on each point, would close the passage to any vessels that are likely to attempt it.

Respectfully submitted.

THOS. H. WILLIAMSON, Major of Engineers, Virginia Army.

Brigadier-General RUGGLES.

FREDERICKSBURG, VA., May 6, 1861.

Since writing the above, at the request of Captain Lynch, and by your verbal directions, I have been to Mathias Point, and measured the distances of the opposite shores of the channel from the Point, and find the far side of the channel five thousand eight hundred feet, and the near side two thousand three hundred and thirty feet, which makes the width of the channel three thousand four hundred and seventy feet.

Respectfully submitted.

THOS. H. WILLIAMSON, Major of Engineers, Virginia Army.

Brigadier-General RUGGLES.

(NOTE.-The U. S. Coast Survey chart of Potomac River will explain this report.)

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Extract from a letter addressed to Capt. D. N. Ingraham by Capt. W. F. Lynch.

I am given to understand that the intention of erecting a battery at Mathias Point is not abandoned. Although, after sounding the channel off that point, I expressed, in my report, the opinion that a cross-fire from it upon a steamer, at a distance of a mile and a quarter, for the space of about five minutes, would be a waste of ammunition, yet I am ready to obey any order upon the subject; and, in pursuance of the intimation I have received, respectfully ask what guns can be furnished for that position? It was originally designed to mount twelve 8-inch guns there and a like number at the White House. To the latter place I gave the preference.

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RICHMOND, May 6, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commander-in-Chief

SIR: I desire to be informed as to the course to be pursued by me in the event of a ship of war of the United States attempting to pass the batteries on Gloucester Point when they shall be erected and in condition for service.

Is the attempt to be resisted, or shall I await the institution of more decisive hostilities on the part of the United States authorities?

This political question I desire to have decided, and ask your instructions on the subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. TALIAFERRO, Colonel Volunteers, Commanding Gloucester Point.

{p.813}

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. Richmond, Va., May 7, 1861.

Maj. Gen. ROBERT E. LEE, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: You will assume the command of all the volunteers, or other forces from other States, who have or may hereafter report for duty or tender their services to the State of Virginia, until orders are received from the President of the Confederate States in reference to the same.

JOHN LETCHER.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 7, 1861.

Col. P. ST. COCKE, Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

COLONEL: The general commanding is in want of information from you as to the strength and organization of your command, and begs that you will supply him with it at the earliest moment. The return due on the 1st instant, by General Orders, No. 4, has not been received. The general desires particularly to know with what force you can take the field, provided any movement is made against you from Washington; how it would be composed, officered, and what service could be counted on from it.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, May 7, 1861.

To SECRETARY OF WAR:

Major Shivers received orders from Governor Letcher to-day to move on Harper’s Ferry with four companies of my regiment five hundred men, which arrived last night, and had made preparations to move tomorrow morning. I have just arrived with two hundred and twenty-six men. Two companies yet behind. There are satisfactory reasons for postponing this movement. I have countermanded the order, not being subject to Governor Letcher’s orders, and wait instructions from War Department. Shall I obey Governor Letcher and proceed when my regiment is complete? Climate of Harper’s Ferry will affect my men’s health, which is one of the reasons referred to.

A. G. BLANCHARD, Colonel Louisiana Regiment.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 7, 1861.

Col. J. B. BALDWIN, Inspector-General:

COLONEL: Under authority of the governor, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are authorized to call and muster into the service of the State volunteers from the counties of Pittsylvania, Halifax, Charlotte, Mecklenburg, Brunswick, Grayson, Nottoway, Prince Edward, Appomattox, Buckingham, Louisa, Hanover, Goochland, Powhatan, Cumberland, Henrico, Amelia, Fluvanna, and the city of Richmond, to rendezvous at Richmond, not to exceed seven regiments of infantry and riflemen, one regiment of cavalry, and six batteries of artillery, of four {p.814} pieces each, including those that have already been accepted into the service from said counties. The companies, after being admitted into the service of the State, will be organized into regiments and those from the same section, as far as practicable, united . As fast as mustered into service they will be ordered to report to the commander of the camp of instruction near Richmond.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 7, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

GENERAL: I forward herewith a statement Of the strength of my command at this post, of the deficiency of arms, ammunition, and accouterments.*

The deficiencies I respectfully request may be supplied at the earliest practicable period, as I wish to put the post in as defensible a condition as possible. I have finished reconnoitering the Maryland Heights, and have determined to fortify them at once, and hold them, as well as the Virginia Heights and the town, be the cost what it may. For this purpose I would urge the necessity of giving me an ample supply of good arms, and such disciplined troops as you can spare (though it should swell the number here to nine thousand five hundred or ten thousand men). Two pieces of field artillery (12-pounders) should be placed on the Virginia Heights, and a larger number of 6-pounders on the Maryland Heights. Heavier ordnance, in addition to the field pieces referred to in yesterday’s letter, could be advantageously employed in defending the town. The heights west of Bolivar must be strengthened. I would be more than gratified could you spare the time for a short visit here, to give me the benefit of your wisdom and experience in laying out the different works, especially those on the heights. I am of the opinion that this place should be defended with the spirit which actuated the defenders of Thermopylae, and, if left to myself, such is my determination. The fall of this place would, I fear, result in the loss of the northwestern part of the State, and who can estimate the moral power thus gained to the enemy and lost to ourselves? The commissary department here is in a suffering condition, and will continue so, unless the estimates are complied with. All the cadets you can spare from Richmond are needed here.

The enemy are in possession of the Relay House, and permit no freight cars to come west. Personal baggage is searched. At Grafton the cars have been broken open by the Republicans, upon the suspicion that, they contained arms. I dispatched a special messenger this evening to Baltimore, for the purpose of having the arms which Virginia furnished Maryland returned to us, and I trust that the scheme will be so carried out as to elude the vigilance of the enemy.

The pressure of office business here is so great as to induce me to retain Maj. T. L. Preston, of the Virginia Military Institute.

Mr. Burkhart, who is in charge of the rifle-factory, reports that he can finish fifteen hundred rifle-muskets in thirty days. I have, in obedience to the orders of Governor Letcher, directed the rifle-factory machinery to be removed immediately after that of the musket factory. My object {p.815} is to keep the former factory working as long as practicable without interfering with its rapid removal.

An unarmed company, in Harrison County, has offered its services, and I design arming it at Grafton. With prudent management I hope to assemble a number of companies at that post from the northwest, and for this purpose I have been corresponding with reliable gentlemen in various parts of that section of the State. Major Boykin was here yesterday on his way to Grafton, where I hope he will not long remain without a command.

I would respectfully recommend that the money for which estimates have been made by the quartermaster and commissary be turned over to them at once, and, if practicable, that it be deposited in a Winchester or Charlestown bank. They have been forced to use their private credit, that of the State being insufficient.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond Va., May 8, 1861.

GEORGE MASON, Esq., Spring Bank, Alexandria, Va.:

SIR: I am instructed by Major-General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of May 5, respecting the defenseless condition of your neighborhood. General Lee is not insensible to the dangers to which your own and other unguarded neighborhoods in the State are exposed, and no one laments more deeply than he does that the available resources of the State do not enable him to give such efficient protection as he desires to every portion of the Commonwealth. He has instructed the commanding officers that every neighborhood shall be protected, as far as possible, by the troops stationed in it; but the limited resources of the State and her pressing exigencies render it necessary that the people in each locality should take such measures as are in their power to guard against marauding parties and do what they can for their own protection. The formation of home guards, arming and drilling them, and, by concerted signals, to collect the guards of adjacent neighborhoods in time of danger, to resist the sudden attack of small marauding bands of the enemy, are among the means of defense adopted by the inhabitants of the country bordering on Chesapeake Bay and the lower rivers, and are recommended for the consideration and adoption of yourself and your neighbors. He cannot but hope, if war is to be waged against us, that reason and the opinion of mankind will at least induce our enemies to conduct it in accordance with the rules that prevail among civilized nations.

I am, &c.,

JNO. A. WASHINGTON, Aide, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 8, 1861.

Col. WILLIAM B. TALIAFERRO, Comdg., &c., Gloucester Point, Gloucester Court-House, Va.:

COLONEL: In reply to your letter of the 6th instant, asking instructions as to the course to be pursued in the event of an attempt on the {p.816} part of the enemy to pass the battery at Gloucester Point, you are directed, on the approach of a vessel of the enemy, and when she shall have gotten within range, to fire a shot across her bows. Should this not deter her from proceeding on you will fire one over her; and if she still persist, you will fire into her. Should the fire be returned, you will capture, her, if possible. Similar orders have been issued to the naval officer commanding battery.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 8, 1861.

Brig. Gen. D. RUGGLES, Commanding, Fredericksburg, Va:

GENERAL: I am instructed by Major-General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of communications from Maj. T. H. Williamson, engineer, Virginia Army; Lieut. H. II. Lewis, Virginia Navy, and W. H. Kerr, brigade inspector Virginia volunteers, in relation to fortifying Aquia Creek.* The general commanding desires me to say that the object in view is the defense of the avenues of approach to the terminus of the railway, rather than the protection of the few vessels at Aquia Creek; that the instructions given by him with reference to this matter were based up on the report of Captain Lynch, Virginia Navy. You will therefore, being on the spot and in possession of the facts requisite to a proper disposition of the works and the troops under your command, exercise your judgement, in connection with that of Captain Lynch, with reference to the defense of the avenue of approach to the terminus of the railroad and the general protection of that country.

The importance of erecting batteries at Mathias Point is apparent; but from the report of Captain Lynch, which represents the necessity of supporting such a movement by a larger force than you had at your disposal, it was considered advisable to employ the guns originally intended for that point in the defense of the approaches to Fredericksburg by rail or river.

Very respectfully,

J. M. BROOKE.

* See Williamson and Lewis to Ruggles, April 24, p. 778.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 8, 1861.

Col. A. G. BLANCHARD, C. S. A.:

COLONEL: I have been directed by the governor of Virginia to take charge of the troops of the Confederate States until otherwise directed by the President. I desire your regiment to repair to Norfolk and report for duty to General Gwynn.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.817}

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 12.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 8, 1861.

Col. John B. Magruder, of the Provisional Army of Virginia, is assigned to the command of the Virginia forces in and about this city. He will execute the duties assigned to his predecessor by General Orders, No. 3, current series. Colonel Magruder will select from his command a suitable officer to perform the duties of assistant adjutant-general.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 8, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT:

SIR: In accordance with orders received from the general-in-chief, to post at Manassas Junction sufficient force to defend that point against any attack likely to be made against it by troops from Washington, I immediately ordered the Powhatan troop of cavalry to march from this place this morning, to join Capt. J. S. Green’s company, now at Amissville, Rappahannock County, and to proceed together to Manassas Junction, where there are two (raw, undrilled, ununiformed, and armed with the altered musket) Irish companies, lately sent out from Alexandria, and which I had ordered to be held and drilled at Manassas Junction. We will endeavor to use these companies. I have also ordered one section (two pieces) of Captain Kemper’s artillery, (the only part of his battery at all available as foot artillery, and that rendered available by doubling upon the two pieces the horses and ammunition he had for the four pieces), which I shall also take along to the same point. The Powhatan troop of cavalry and the section of artillery are absolutely all of the force at all available at this time at this place. I have telegraphed back to Charlottesville for two companies of riflemen to be dispatched to this point, and learn from Lieutenant-Colonel Fry that I will get but one, and that not until this evening.

Looking to Lynchburg, I learn that the armed companies of that place are now in Richmond, under Colonel Garland. If so, I trust, sir, they will be immediately dispatched to the command at Manassas.

We have no ammunition of any kind, except the limited supply sent forward to Alexandria. I shall gather in as fast as possible the armed companies that have not been mustered into the service throughout my department (if any there be besides those referred to), and concentrate them here at Manassas and Alexandria, as occasion may require.

From three to five thousand muskets or rifles should be immediately forwarded to this point for the use of this command; thence to be drawn for arming companies, as mustered into service. Some place will be provided as a magazine at this point. The powder, balls, munitions, equipments, and all ammunition whatsoever required for at least five thousand men, should be immediately prepared and forwarded to this place.

The city of Alexandria situated as it is, in the re-entering curve of the river opposite to Washington, on the convex side of that carve, is a point difficult to hold, in case the enemy shall have any designs upon it in the present weak condition of our forces. The enemy, by proceeding below, to Fort Washington or Mount Vernon, may turn the position, take it in the rear, and cut off its communication, and so by advancing {p.818} over the bridges from above the enemy may, by short lines, turn and get in the rear of that place. In order to prevent such a disaster there should be, obviously, outside of and behind Alexandria, a force sufficient to throw out outpost guards, radiating upon the possible lines of advance of the enemy, to protect that place in the rear, and thus to support and cover the little force now held in Alexandria, and prevent its capture or annihilation. With such an arrangement the force in Alexandria could return, without danger of being surprised, and find support in falling back upon the force in its rear. But I have absolutely nothing at present out of which to constitute such a supporting force in rear of Alexandria. As soon as I can collect the means, or you shall send them to me, I shall endeavor to make the best use of them to this end.

Very respectfully, your obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding Potomac Department.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, May 8, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT:

Your order of May 7, this moment received, stating that “The general in command is in want of information from you as to the strength and organization of your command, and begs that you will supply him with it at the earliest possible moment. The return due on the 1st instant by General Orders, No. 4, has not been received. The general desires particularly to know with what force you can take the field, provided any movement is made against you from Washington; how it would be, composed, officered, and what, service could be counted on from it.” I have to say in reply that, coming to this command with “naked bands” and in my plantation dress, arriving in Alexandria on the morning of the 22d of April, I have had everything to do towards organization, with extremely limited means of accomplishing anything. It has been entirely impracticable, in consequence of the want of my proper staff, until very recently, to initiate the means of obtaining the regular, formal, and full company returns and other returns which would show the strength and organization of the weak, unorganized, and widely-scattered force under my command.

The assistant adjutant-general, since his appointment and entrance upon duty, has taken the most active steps to accomplish the objects desired by the commanding general. Those steps will be persevered in. Such partial returns as I have been able to obtain from time to time from captains, both in regard to number of men, arms, and ammunition, and general equipment, have been forwarded to the headquarters at Richmond, and will be found on file there.

The assistant adjutant-general, Jones, has this morning left me, by my order, under the pressing emergency of sending the only experienced officer of the army at my command to march with the Powhatan troop this moment en route for Manassas Junction, to assist in collecting, establishing, and organizing at that point the force that I may be able to command, to carry into effect the order of the general-in-chief, received yesterday, to occupy and hold that point against any probable attack of the enemy. I propose to follow myself to-morrow with such other forces as I can gather, going “by rail” to the same point, and {p.819} thus to effect a contemporaneous arrival at Manassas Junction. This necessary absence of the assistant adjutant-general from these headquarters, together with the yet unorganized state of the general staff and the inexperience of many of the captains of many of the companies, will yet cause some delay in making regular army returns.

I beg, however, that the general-in-chief will have collated from my dispatches and reports from the beginning the information therein imparted in this connection, and which may thus furnish him with an approximate estimate and exhibit at least of the available forces heretofore and now at my command.

In order to facilitate the accomplishment of this object, I win here briefly indicate from the best sources I possess the present character and disposition of what available force I have. (See statement inclosed.)

Very respectfully,

PHILIP ST. GEO: COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding Potomac Department.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, May 8, 1861.

Company E, Sixth Battalion, Capt. S. H. Devaughn, 100 men in all, 50 muskets, .58 caliber; no ammunition.

Company H, Sixth Battalion, Capt. M. Marye, 69 men in all, 50 muskets, .58 caliber; no ammunition; in Alexandria now.

Company G, Sixth Battalion, Lieut. A. Herbert, 88 men in all, 54 muskets, .69 caliber; no ammunition; in Alexandria now.

Company, Fairfax Rifles, W. H. Dulany, captain, 51 men armed, and have 940 cartridges; Fairfax Station.

Company, Washington Volunteers, Captain Sherman, 113 men, unarmed and ununiformed; no ammunition; here.

Company, Richardson Guards, Capt. J. Welsh, 80 men, 1,000 caps and cartridges and equipments; Madison Court-House.

Company, Home Guards, J. Latouche, 100 men, flint-lock muskets, Caliber .69; in Alexandria; no equipments or ammunition.

Two companies, Irish, now at Manassas Junction, with altered muskets; no equipments or ammunition.

Company, Captain Porter, now here., 74 men, unarmed and unequipped; no ammunition.

Company, artillery, Capt. Del. Kemper, 86 men, 4 brass 6-pounders, 35 sabers, 67 rounds fixed ammunition, and 25 loose ball; now here; part leave to-morrow for Manassas.

Company, Powell’s troop of cavalry, in Alexandria, 53 men.

Company, J. Shac Green, troop of cavalry, in Amissville, 64 men; will be at Manassas to-morrow.

Company, M. Dulany Ball, troop of cavalry, equipped; now in Alexandria.

Company, W. H. Payne, troop of cavalry; now in Warrenton, holding public property.

Company, John F. Lay, troop of cavalry; left for Manassas Junction to-day; well equipped with ammunition; several have no uniform or pistols.

Two companies in Charlottesville not yet reported.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.820}

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HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., May 8, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Volunteer Forces, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have, the honor to report, for the information of the commanding general, that I located a battery at the Aquia Creek Railroad Landing this morning, and placed it under the charge of Maj. T. H. Williamson, Engineers, for completion.

In the absence of Captain Lynch, of the Navy, for whom I have dispatched a messenger, I have directed Captain Thorburn to put the guns in position and make the necessary preparation for service. It is my expectation that the battery will be in a measure completed within forty-eight hours. Measures will be taken to give the requisite protection.

I respectfully recommend that a battery of four 32-pounders be established on the Rappahannock River, at Bristol Mines or Tappahannock, with as little delay as is practicable.

I transmit a memorandum of a statement made yesterday by Messrs. John T. Washington and John H. Stuart, of King George County, Virginia. Measures were taken immediately by dispatching mounted men to intercept and recover the slaves supposed to have escaped, but thus far without satisfactory results.

Repeated applications have been made to me from counties bordering on the Rappahannock on both sides, along the Northern Neck, for instructions preliminary to enrollment as volunteers, from the fact, doubtlessly, that they were within my original jurisdiction. I am instructed by General Cocke to embrace my original limits until further orders.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General Volunteers, Commanding Forces.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., May 7, 1861-4 p. m.

Statement of Mr. John T. Washington, of Hampstead P. O., King George County, Virginia.

That he was one of the patrol on last night, 6th instant, starting on duty about 10 p. m., with some six or seven others, and that upon his return home the following morning, about sunrise, he discovered that five of his negro men had packed up their clothing and absconded, and, from some tracks he discovered, thinks they moved in the direction of Fredericksburg.

Upon making inquiries he found that Mr. John Hill Stuart had missed two of his negro men, Dr. A. B. Hooe, two of his, Mr. Custis Grymes two of his, Mr. H. M. Tennent two of his, Mr. Quisenberry one of his, Mr. John H. Washington two of his, and Mrs. Virginia Washington two of hers.

The above-named persons were all whom he had an opportunity of hearing from, and as they all had missed some of their negroes, he infers that his neighbors generally have suffered.

Mr. Washington also stated that the patrol visited seven estates upon the night of the 6th instant, and that upon six of the estates they saw but one negro man each and upon the other but two negro men.

JOHN T. WASHINGTON. JOHN H. STUART.

{p.821}

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GLOUCESTER POINT, VA., May 8, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I assumed command at this post at 7 o’clock yesterday evening. I hastened to assume the command from the fact that I learned, on my way from Richmond, that the howitzer battery under Lieutenant Brown, acting under the orders of Captain Whittle, of the Virginia Navy, had resisted the approach of the steamer Yankee and driven her back, after the firing of some ten or twelve rounds on either side. I immediately ordered out the volunteer forces of the county, amounting to some two hundred and fifty men, to re-enforce the battery and prevent a landing of the enemy in boats. These troops had not been mustered into the service of the State, and no force beyond a small guard had been stationed at this place. Major Page, mustering officer, will muster in three, companies to-day. I have now subsistence for four hundred men for thirty days, and will erect huts for the troops this evening. I have to urge that you will order to this point some effective sea-coast guns, for the small battery of 6-pounder guns now here will prove of small consequence in resisting an attack upon this place by a naval force of much importance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. TALIAFERRO, Colonel, Commanding.

[Indorsements.]

This letter came to me unsealed. I presumed that I might read it. I know not on what authority Colonel Taliaferro says that the firing at Gloucester Point was authorized by me. This is an entire mistake.

Your obedient servant,

WM. C. WHITTLE, Captain, Virginia Navy.

Maj. Gen. LEE, Commander-in-Chief, &c., Richmond, Va.

Six 9-inch guns are now on York River, and three 32-pounders win be sent in a day or two. The firing by the howitzer battery was not directed by Captain Whittle.

S. BARRON, Captain, Virginia Navy.

The firing was not directed by Captain Whittle. The major-general has expressed, through me, his disapproval of the firing at such a distance.

S. BARRON.

Six 9-inch guns now at the river. There will be three 32-pounders for West Point to-day or to-morrow.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 9, 1861.

Col. P. ST. GEORGE COCKE, Commanding Potomac Division:

COLONEL: I am instructed by Major-General Lee to inform you that Colonel Preston and Colonel Garland, with eleven companies under their command, have been ordered to report to you at Culpeper. Three {p.822} thousand flint-lock muskets and sixty thousand rounds of cartridges have been ordered to be sent.

Very respectfully, &c.,

JNO. M. BROOKE, Virginia Navy, Acting Aide-de-Camp.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA. FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 9, 1861.

Col. JUBAL A. EARLY, Commanding, &c., Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: Col. R. C. W. Radford, Virginia volunteers has been directed to report to you for duty. You will assign him to the command of the troops from the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig (which you were directed to keep united and distinct from those of the other counties by letter of 6th instant), and ,direct him to proceed with them as soon as possible, and report to the commanding officer of the troops between Culpeper Court-House and Alexandria or on that line,

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 9, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: I have received your letter of the 6th instant, and am gratified at the progress you have made in the organization of your command. I hope some of the field officers directed to report to you will have arrived and-, entered on their duties. In your preparation for the defense of your position it is considered advisable not to intrude upon the soil of Maryland, unless compelled by the necessities of war. The aid of its citizens might be obtained in that quarter. I regret I have no engineer of experience to send you. You will have to rely upon your judgment and the aid of the officers with you. I have directed that four 6-pounder guns be forwarded to you as soon as possible, and two 12-pounder howitzers, with a supply of ammunition and equipment for firing, will be sent to you at once. There are no caissons. Horses, wagons, and harness will be procured near you by an agent of the quartermaster’s department, sent for the purpose.

Captain Pendleton’s company of artillery from Lexington will Join you as soon as possible, with such field pieces as it has. Flour and provisions for use of the troops must be secured. In other respects it is not designed to embarrass the legitimate commerce of our citizens.

I have directed that one thousand muskets, obtained from North. Carolina, be sent to you, to aid in arming your command and to respond to requisitions that may be made upon you by Colonel Porterfield. Your requisitions upon the staff department at headquarters, as far as possible, will be filled.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.823}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 9, 1861.

Maj. WILLIAM E. JONES, Virginia Volunteers, Abingdon, Va.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to inform you that you have been appointed major in the Virginia volunteers. Under the authority of the governor, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are directed to call out and muster into the service of the State volunteer companies from the counties of Washington, Russell, Scott, and Lee, to rendezvous at Abingdon. The whole number of companies so called into service must not exceed two mounted companies and eight companies of infantry and riflemen. You will proceed to organize them into a regiment, and make arrangements for their instruction, subsistence, &C. You will report, as soon as possible, their number, condition of arms, &c., and hold them in readiness for prompt movement. To aid in their armament five hundred of the best arms for issue will be sent to you, which you will distribute, at your discretion, taking the proper receipt, &c., from each captain for the security of the State.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 9, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT:

I send herewith a copy of the orders under which I assumed command of officers of all grades on the line of the Potomac, along the entire boundary of the State as marked by said river, holding commission as brigadier-general of volunteers, by authority of the governor and council, and confirmed by the Convention.

Very respectfully, your most obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Brigadier-General, Commanding Potomac Department.

[Inclosure.]

RICHMOND, VA., April 21, 1861.

The council of state, in absence of the governor, directs that officers of all grades on the line of the Potomac shall obey the orders of General P. St. George Cocke, who has been assigned by the governor to the command of that section of the military operations of the State bounded by said river.

By order of the council of state:

JOHN J. ALLEN, President of the Council.

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DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, May 9, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commander Virginia Forces:

GENERAL: If this place is attacked, we may expect the enemy to make a free use of rifled cannon, in addition to field artillery, and possibly larger caliber.

{p.824}

The object of this letter is to state that Colonel Thomas, adjutant general of Maryland, has placed at my disposal the ordnance from the Virginia navy-yard en route for Baltimore via this place, and to request that you will, should it meet with your approbation, send a competent ordnance officer, with sufficient force and means, to mount such pieces as I may designate.

I am, general, your most obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Colonel Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Division.

P. S.-There are about 2,200 Federal troops at the Relay House, others beyond Baltimore, and about 4,000 near Chambersburg, Pa. I have occupied the Maryland Heights with the Kentuckians and one company of infantry from Augusta County, making about 500 in all.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Col. P. ST. GEORGE COCKE, Virginia Volunteers, Culpeper Court-House, Va.

COLONEL: It is very important that the volunteer troops be organized and instructed as rapidly as possible. I know you are doing all in your power towards that object. It is desired that you attach to the battalions or regiments, as formed, as soon as possible, the field officers who have been or may be directed to report to you from the same region with the companies, place them at such point or points as you think best, with capable instructors, and press forward their instruction and equipment. The regiments under Colonels Garland and Preston were designed for Manassas Junction. You are requested to send them there, and as company and field officers are available which might properly be assigned to them, to forward them to the respective regiments. That the troops may be prepared for field service, it is desirable that they be removed from the towns and placed in camp, where their instruction may be uninterrupted and rigid discipline established. Officers and men will sooner become familiar with the necessities of service, and make their preparations accordingly. It is impossible at this time to furnish tents, but unoccupied buildings might possibly be obtained or temporary plank huts established. I beg you will adopt the best plan in your power to prepare the men for hard, effective service.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 7th instant, by Major Massie, has been received. Orders have been given to fill your requisition for arms, ammunition, and accouterments as far as possible. In addition to the guns that you were advised yesterday would be sent to you, I have directed two 32-pounders, with navy carriages, and a supply of ammunition, &c., to be forwarded to you. They will be in charge of Lieutenant Fauntleroy, {p.825} roy, {p.825} of the Navy, who is ordered to report to you, and I hope will be useful in defending your post.

Your intention to, fortify the heights of Maryland may interrupt our friendly arrangements with that State, and we have no right to intrude on her soil, unless, under pressing necessity, for defense. I had hoped that her own citizens would have relieved us of that question, and you must endeavor to give to the course you may find it necessary to pursue the appearance of its being the act of her citizens. At all events, do not move until actually necessary and under stern necessity.

I have directed the companies ordered to rendezvous at Staunton to be sent to you as soon as mustered into the service, and I hope you will receive a large accession of troops under the authority extended to you. Several officers of experience have been sent to you, and I shall endeavor to send some cadets. I know, from the spirit with which you are animated, that you will leave nothing undone to insure the defense of your post and the security of your command. You will not neglect, therefore, the instruction of the troops, who ought to be constantly practicing their military exercises and prepared in every way for hard service. Every rifle that you can finish will be of advantage, but it will be necessary to send off that machinery as soon as the musket factory is removed. I have directed the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments to send funds, if practicable, to the assistant quartermaster and commissary at your post.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of May 9th has just been received. The guns you refer to, intended for Maryland, have, I understand, been stopped by the governor. I wrote you to-day that two 32-pounders had been ordered to you. I fear you may have been premature in occupying the heights of Maryland with so strong a force near you. The true policy is to act on the defensive, and not invite an attack. If not too late, you might withdraw until the proper time. I have already suggested to you the probability of the use of the canal as a means of carrying ordnance and munitions from Washington to use against you. In that event it would be well to cut the supply dams to prevent its use. Ten cadets have been ordered to report to you, in addition to the ten now there.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, RICHMOND, VA., May 10, 1861.

To the COMMANDING OFFICER, Lynchburg, Va.:

By dispatch of this date I have directed a detachment of one thousand troops, either of Confederate State troops or Virginia volunteers, {p.826} to be sent to report to Colonel Jackson at Harper’s Ferry. I desire two regiments more, if efficient men can be obtained, to be sent to the same point as soon as practicable. Report what troops will have been sent in compliance with these orders, composition, arms, &c., and under what officers. The detachment may be composed of Virginia or Confederate State troops, as you may deem best for the occasion.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Lieut. Col. JOHN ECHOLS, Virginia Volunteers, Staunton, Va.:

COLONEL: It is desired that you send the troops you were directed to muster into the service of the State at Staunton to Harper’s Ferry, by companies, as fast as mustered in, with their descriptive list, to Colonel Jackson, without waiting to organize them into regiments, with such arms as they may have. You will report the companies sent, their number, condition of arms, &c., to these headquarters.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Col. GEO. H. TERRETT, Provisional Army of Virginia, Alexandria, Va..

COLONEL: In forwarding Special. Orders, No. 39, I take occasion to say that, while pursuing a strictly defensive policy, it is necessary that you should be vigilant, have your troops at or near points where they may be needed, and urge forward their instruction and preparation with all the means in your power. For this purpose it will be necessary to remove them from the towns, if possible, and establish them in camps, where their constant instruction and discipline can be attended to. They will the sooner become familiar with the necessities of service, and be better prepared for its hardships. It will be impossible to furnish tents at this time, but it is hoped that unoccupied buildings or temporary plank huts might be obtained where needed. At Manassas Junction, where it will be necessary to establish a portion of your command to secure the road to Harper’s Ferry, some preparation of this sort will be needed. Colonel Garland’s and Colonel Preston’s battalions (the first consisting of four and the second of seven companies) have been ordered to that point, to report to you. These battalions will be increased to regiments as companies from their districts, arrive, which will be forwarded to you by Colonel Cocke. You will give them the necessary orders and add such re-enforcements as you think proper. The troops near Alexandria will be kept in readiness to move whenever necessary, will afford such protection to the town and neighborhood as their number will permit, And you will endeavor to take measures to allay unnecessary excitement, and not to provoke aggression.

{p.827}

An early report of the condition and resources of your command is desired. Requisitions upon the staff departments here will be filled as far as possible, and, for articles admitting of no delay you are authorized to call on Colonel Cocke.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 10.

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond Va., May 10, 1861.

The following telegraphic dispatch has this day been received, and is published for the information of all concerned:

MONTGOMERY ALA., May 10, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE:

To prevent confusion, you will assume the control of the forces of the Confederate States in Virginia, and assign them to such duties as you may indicate, until further orders, for which this will be your authority.

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

Officers of the Confederate States Army now serving in Virginia will accordingly report (by letter) to the adjutant-general of the Virginia forces their present stations, the nature of the orders under which they are acting, and, if in command of troops, their numbers and organization.

By command of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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GRAFTON, VA., May 10, 1861.

General R. E. LEE:

SIR: Being pressed for time and deeming it necessary to communicate with you at once, I wrote from this point on the 7th instant, giving my views hastily as regards the best policy to be pursued in order to carry out my instructions. I am fully confirmed in the opinions there given, as I have since had an opportunity of posting myself by visiting some of the adjacent counties. The feeling in nearly all of our counties is very bitter, and nothing is left undone by the adherents of the old Union to discourage those who are disposed to enlist in the service of the State. I find that organizations exist in most of the counties pledged to the support of what they term the Union. We have various rumors about forces being sent from Ohio and Pennsylvania for the purpose of holding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Grafton. I have no doubt from the confidence and bearing of the Union men in and around here that they are expecting aid from some quarter.

While I deem it absolutely necessary for us to hold this point immediately, I think it impracticable to undertake it with the very small force which could be gotten here soon.

I see no other alternative than to send forces from the east for the present. This section is verging on a state of actual rebellion, and many men who are true and loyal to the State are afraid to leave their families among men who recognize as a leader John S. Carlile, who openly proclaims that the laws of the State should not be recognized.

{p.828}

If forces are sent, I think we should have at least one battery. I think five hundred men will be sufficient to quell any disturbance which might arise if a smaller force were sent.

As regards the necessity of a force at Parkersburg, I am clearly of opinion that troops should be assembled there immediately. I most respectfully commend to your consideration the name of Judge W. L. Jackson, formerly second auditor and afterwards lieutenant-governor of the State, as a suitable person to appoint to the command at that point. Judge Jackson is a gentleman of very great personal popularity, not only with his own party, but with those who are diametrically opposed to him politically, and I am satisfied could exert more influence towards conciliating than any other gentleman who could be appointed. I consider it unnecessary to say more of the judge, as he is known throughout the State to be devoted to the interest of Virginia, and will stand by her to the last extremity. I have recently had a conversation with him, and he will accept the command if tendered him.

I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANCIS M. BOYKIN, JR., Major, Virginia Volunteers.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 39.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

I. To facilitate the organization and instruction of the troops, Col. D. Ruggles, of the Provisional Army of Virginia, will take command of those called into service from the counties of Stafford, Spotsylvania, Caroline, King George, Westmoreland, and take measures for the security of those counties, and those upon the Rappahannock below Fredericksburg.

...

IV. Col. T. J. Jackson, Virginia volunteers, will command the troops at Harper’s Ferry, those called from the counties to rendezvous at that place and those directed to rendezvous at Staunton.

...

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Col. DANIEL RUGGLES, Provisional Army of Virginia, Fredericksburg, Va.:

COLONEL: In carrying into effect Special Orders, No. 39, you are desired to use, all the means in your power to advance the instruction and discipline of your command. For this purpose you will place the troops at or near points where they will probably be needed, and it is hoped, as it will be impossible to furnish tents at present, that you may procure buildings, or erect huts or plank sheds, for their protection, which will enable you to remove them from the towns, accustom them to the necessities of service, and enable them to prepare for it. You must establish rigid discipline, and endeavor to place with each command competent officers as instructors, though they may be of inferior rank to the respective commanders. I know that officers and men are inspired {p.829} with proper zeal, and you will have only to lead and direct it. As regards the water defenses, you are desired to consult freely with the naval officers charged with that subject, and give them all the aid in your power. Your operations will be strictly defensive.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Lieut. Col. D. A. LANGHORNE, Virginia Volunteers, Lynchburg, Va.:

SIR: The number of troops from Virginia now assembling at Lynchburg may become so large as to render it inconvenient for you to provide for them. You are therefore authorized to order to report to Colonel Cocke, at Culpeper Court-House, such companies from the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig as may be organized and able to move, and to this city such from the remaining counties of your district as are similarly situated. Report these instructions to Colonel Early on his arrival.

I am, sir, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS CABELL’S BATTERY, Gloucester Point, May 10 [?], 1861-9.30 a. m.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER:

SIR: Yesterday, about 1 o’clock p. m., an armed steamer approached our battery, coming within the range of two or three miles. We sprang to our guns, and were ready for action as soon as it was manifest that the steamer was coming up the river. We all expected an attack, but she turned and proceeded down the river, and dropped anchor near its mouth. Another ship or steamer was also in the distance. During the night there was a vigilant lookout. This morning four ships or steamers passed beyond the first steamer, proceeding rapidly from north to south. About 8 o’clock this morning the attacking steamer weighed anchor and left the river. You can draw your own conclusions as well as I can of the purpose of the enemy.

I regard this point as next in importance to Fortress Monroe. I hope I may say that I am acquainted at least with the commercial wants of the State. It is, in my opinion, invaluable, both for military defense and the commercial necessities of the State. Let its importance not be underrated. This point properly secured, and no effectual blockade can continue; no ships can pass up York River; no attack can be made on Richmond, except by long land marches. If you could see the place, you would be satisfied of its great importance. To allow it to be lost would be a fatal error. The force here, consisting entirely of volunteers, are prepared to defend it to the last extremity. They are perfectly aware of the strangeness and peril of their situation, but though “there is plenty of danger, there is no fear.” But if I am correct in regard to the importance of retaining this position, though the necessities of the State would not permit more men to be sent for the support of the few here, yet that force should be promptly sent for the protection of the present and future fortifications here. Blind as {p.830} Lincoln and Cabinet appear to be, they must see the importance of taking this place. A land attack by a large force would probably do this. We would dispute every inch of ground with them; but however valiant our defense, it would not repay the loss of this place. I believe it can be easily defended from a land attack. Access from our rear is over ground perfectly level, and mostly open. The enemy must march through a space not over a mile or mile and a half wide. Defend this by a rude fort of logs even, and it would greatly contribute to our defense. It will require a much larger force to do this. But the plateau in the rear of this is the most beautiful as well as extensive field for drill I have ever seen. A brigade could well maneuver upon it. Send down, therefore, some of your raw troops of infantry, and let a school of instruction be placed here.

The Federal troops may land below, but they must pass through the level interval or over Sarah’s Creek. They cannot pass Sarah’s Creek without boats, and its defense is very easy. I have not time to say more.

Please submit this to General Lee and the governor and council. Let the public not hear of it till the plan is executed.

Excuse haste and the excitement of a camp life, and the errors of composition produced by constant interruptions and camp tables.

Respectfully, yours,

H. C. CABELL, Captain, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 11, 1861.

Maj. F. M. BOYKIN, JR., Grafton, Va.:

MAJOR: Your letter of the 7th has just been received, and I regret to learn that the prospect of assembling the Virginia forces at Grafton is so unfavorable. You must persevere, however, and call out companies from the well-affected counties, and march them to Grafton, or such other point in that vicinity as you may select. Four hundred rifles and some ammunition have been ordered from Staunton to Major Goff, Virginia Volunteers, at Beverly, Randolph County, who has been directed to communicate their arrival to Colonel Porterfield, and take his directions as to their disposition. You can by this means arm certain companies and prepare them for service, preparatory to receiving those from Harper’s Ferry. I do not think it prudent to order companies from other parts of the State to Grafton, as it might irritate, instead of conciliating the population of that region. On Colonel Porterfield’s arrival at Grafton communicate this letter to him.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

P. S.-Major Goff has been directed to assemble some troops in his vicinity for the protection of the arms and their safe conveyance to the point required.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 11, 1861.

B. M. JONES, Esq., Danville, Va. :

SIR: I am instructed by Major-General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of May 9, respecting the construction of a railroad {p.831} from Keysville, on the Richmond and Danville Road, to Clarksville, on the Roanoke, whereby an additional railroad connection would be had between Richmond and States to the south of Virginia. As a military road at this time, General Lee thinks it would be both desirable and important to have the road which you propose constructed, as it would afford not only an additional means of communication between Richmond and the South, but, in the event of obstruction on one road, the other might be kept open for travel and transportation. Contingencies might occur to render this a matter of the highest importance, and he would therefore be pleased to see the road made. But while he regards it as desirable, he thinks, from the information he has of the financial condition of the State, it would not be proper just now to divert the money required for the work from other objects.

I am, &c.,

JNO. A. WASHINGTON, Aide to General Lee.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 11, 1861.

Col. Wm. B. TALIAFERRO, Commanding, &c., Gloucester Point, Va.:

It is very important that the battery at Gloucester Point be pushed forward as fast as possible. All the labor necessary for its speedy completion must be devoted to it, and every facility in your power afforded to the engineer engaged in its construction.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, S. C. VOLS., C. S. ARMY, Richmond, Va., May 11, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT , Adjutant-General Virginia Forces, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: In pursuance of Orders, No. 13, headquarters Virginia Forces, but recently called to my attention, I have the honor to report that, as brigadier-general, C. S. Army, Provisional Forces, I am in command of two regiments of South Carolina volunteers, numbering, in the aggregate, upwards of fifteen hundred. Camp at present near the reservoir. I was ordered by the governor of South Carolina to report to Governor Letcher, who directed me to report to Major-General Lee.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. L. BONHAM, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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MANASSAS JUNCTION, VA., May 11, 1861.

Col. DANIEL RUGGLES, Commanding at Fredericksburg, Va.:

SIR: Being about to gather troops at this point, and to hold it strongly, it would seem necessary that prompt measures should be taken to bring about a close connection and strategic co-operation between your movements {p.832} and my own. My general line of operations is very much in the direction of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad while yours would be, in the present attitude of the enemy, through Aquia Creek to Dumfries and Occoquan. Our lines would thus converge upon Alexandria and the enemy’s position beyond. The line of the Potomac to the mouth of the Aquia, flanking your line, as indicated, as well as mine, at least as far back as this point, it is exceedingly important that we should have strong outposts at Aquia, Dumfries, and Occoquan, at either of which places the enemy could enter and land by boats, and take me in flank and your own position in front. By establishing a strong force at these points indicated, we shall prevent surprise, hold the enemy in check along the Potomac, which flanks this line of operations from here to Alexandria, while we shall, at the same time, hold ourselves in position by a connected chain of posts for reciprocal support and intelligence and for prompt cooperation. In order to effect the objects indicated in general terms above, you will place at Dumfries a detachment, consisting, if practicable, or as soon as it may be practicable, Of at least one battalion of infantry (rifles would be best), one section (two guns) of rifled cannon, Walkers battery, and a troop or two of cavalry, while a similar force should be placed at Occoquan as soon as it may be practicable to do so.

I am well aware of the difficulties you may have in fulfilling literally these commands in this incipient stage of organization of your force. I must, therefore, trust to your discipline to do whatever may be practicable for the present, to be followed up as future circumstances may allow. The troops from Prince William, now at Dumfries and Occoquan, and any other troops that may be there, will remain at those posts, respectively, and be strengthened as circumstances will allow to do so, as above indicated. This post will be promptly put in connection with Occoquan by outposts, pickets, vedettes, and patrols, and it would be exceedingly desirable to establish a similar unbroken chain of communication between Occoquan, Dumfries, Aquia, and Fredericksburg.

Very truly, &c.,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE.

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DIVISION HDQRS., Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 11, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE:

GENERAL: The precautions mentioned in your letter of the 6th instant have been under consideration for some time, and some of them have been taken; others are progressing as rapidly as the circumstances admit of. Arrangements are complete for a desperate defense at Point of Rocks. I have troops also at Berlin, Shepherdstown, and Martinsburg. Marylanders, with artillery, are opposite Shepherdstown, and have threatened us there to such an extent as to induce the officer stationed there to call on me for artillery; and though I can poorly spare it, yet, under the circumstances, I must comply. Previous to receiving your letter I had authorized the payment of $5 for the best arms, and graded pieces below that. My report for yesterday* will show the strength of the command. I can get enough volunteers from the counties named to swell the force to probably four thousand five hundred; but they are without arms, accouterments, and ammunition. Please send me five thousand good muskets and rifles, with complete equipments. {p.833} Also full equipments for three hundred cavalry, and an additional light battery more than those called for in my last. Make this the depot for the northwest. Grafton should be occupied at once. Col. J. M. Bennett will deliver this to you, and give important information respecting the northwest, The quartermaster, Mr. John A. Harman, of this post, should not be removed, if it can possibly be avoided, Please have him appointed and retained, if practicable. I had difficulty in inducing him to remain; but, if the appointment be sent to him, I think he will continue here.

Please to forward the arms at once, and all troops and supplies destined for Harper’s Ferry. I respectfully request they may be sent at once. Have no fear of this place being surprised.

Your most obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

* Not found.

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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, Adjutant-General’s Office, May 11, 1861.

Upon the occurrence, of any emergency, which in his judgment may require it, or upon the order of Major-General Lee, General-in-Chief, Maj. Benjamin S. Ewell, of the active volunteer force, is authorized to call out any portion of the militia of the line or the volunteers of the Sixty-eighth Regiment, James City, for the protection or defense of the county. He will please report to General Lee what number and description of additional arms may be necessary for the purpose.

By command:

WM. H. RICHARDSON, Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 9.}

HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., May 11, 1861.

I. In conformity with instructions from the headquarters of Virginia forces, volunteer companies of infantry and riflemen will be received into the service of the State for the period of one year from April 25, 1861, from the counties of Richmond, Northumberland, and Lancaster, preparatory to instruction, at or near the court-houses of the respective counties, or such other points as may be designated; and also companies of volunteers, organized and armed as above specified, will be received in the counties of Essex and Middlesex for the same period of service, for instruction, in the vicinity of Tappahannock and Urbana. Companies of volunteer artillery and cavalry already organized, armed, and equipped according to law will be reported by their captains in person or by mail directly to these headquarters for special instructions.

II. The companies of volunteers presenting themselves are expressly enjoined to conform in every essential particular in their organization, armament, and equipment to the requirements stated in the instructions for mustering volunteers into service, from Inspector-General Baldwin, dated April 30, 1861, for which application may be made directly to the inspector-general of the State or to the inspector at these headquarters quarters. As companies are reported organized by their captains at these headquarters, or at such other points as may be designated, an {p.834} inspector will be directed at an appointed time to muster them into the service of the State.

III. The policy of the State, as clearly indicated by the proclamation of the governor and the ordinances of the Convention, is to rely mainly on the organized and disciplined volunteer forces, in conjunction with the Provisional Army of Virginia. The readiness with which the people of this department have responded to the call for volunteers induces the hope that, save upon the emergency of actual invasion, the militia will not be called out; but, should that contingency arise before precise instructions are, communicated, full reliance will be placed on the bold hearts and strong arms of a united people to make each house a citadel, and every rock and tree positions of defense, thus efficiently aiding the organized forces, by communicating by telegraph and concentrating by railway at the endangered point in such numbers as to sweep from our borders the insolent invaders. Called to command a border district of Virginia, now threatened with invasion and subjugation by a lawless tyranny, which, over a violated Constitution, would march to conquest and carnage, it is esteemed not less the post of honor than of danger. Brave and loyal men of that district which has given to freedom a Washington, Madison, Monroe, Lee, Mercer, and others, whom, both in camp and council, the world has recognized as among the noblest defenders of constitutional liberty, you are called upon to rally for the defense of your homes and firesides; your wives and children; the ashes of your mighty dead; the freedom purchased by your fathers’ blood, and the soil and sovereignty of your proud old Commonwealth. Give force and efficiency to your patriotic ardor by the aid of discipline and organization; substitute prudence and policy for passion, and by your devotion to liberty, regulated by law, vindicate before the nations your claim to exercise the inalienable right of self-government.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Colonel, Provisional Army, Commanding Virginia Forces.

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HEADQUARTERS, Gloucester Point, Va., May 11, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that the condition of the defenses at this place has greatly improved since my last communication. Two heavy 9-inch guns have been placed in position at the water battery at the extremity of the point, and we have the means of preventing a landing from boats, as the work and the shore line are protected by the field guns of Captains Cabell and Brown’s batteries. Two additional 9-inch guns have been sent here this morning, and will be placed in battery with all dispatch.

I have directed the quartermaster to erect hats on the most economical plan, for the accommodation of the troops, which work is making much progress, and I hope to be at least able to protect the whole command from the weather by this evening.

Major Page has mustered into the service two companies of infantry, numbering one hundred and fifty-eight men, and one of artillery, numbering ninety men, which is the whole force yet mustered from the counties of King and Queen and Gloucester. Believing it necessary to concentrate as many men as possible here, on the evening of the 7th I ordered here a company of cavalry, and have retained them until this time. I have thought it advisable to direct Major Page to muster this {p.835} troop into service, as the character of the country to be defended renders it necessary to have the co-operation of a small cavalry force to act, as scouts and vedettes, the more particularly to give confidence to the people along the shores and creeks, who are apprehensive of forays. This muster has not yet been completed, and, should you regard this force as unnecessary, they can be discharged from service, with but small loss for their support during the limited time they have served.

I would respectfully suggest that a force be stationed at Yorktown and batteries erected there. I understand that Major Ewell is in command of a battalion on that side of the river, and that my command is limited to this. I have not had any official communication with him, and desire to be advised of the fact of the extent of his command. I would suggest that his headquarters be established at Yorktown, so that we could co-operate.

I have I in conclusion, to say that I have not received from the headquarters of the Army, or any other source, an order or official communication of any kind, with the exception of your letter of the 8th instant, and the order assigning me to duty, which was exhibited to me in Richmond. I presume the derangement of the mails has been the cause of this, and I ask that copies be forwarded to me, via West Point.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. TALIAFERRO, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 12, 1861.

Col. J. A. EARLY, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding, &c., Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: Yours of the 9th instant is at hand. Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne has been instructed to call out and muster into service five regiments of infantry or riflemen, and one of cavalry, from the counties for which Lynchburg was appointed the rendezvous by the governor’s Proclamation of the 3d instant. One thousand percussion muskets, with equipments and ammunition, as far as they can be supplied, will be sent to Lynchburg for such companies as may come there unarmed. To the cavalry companies, which may offer themselves unarmed, it is recommended to provide themselves with double-barreled shot guns, buck-shot cartridges, and pistols. The supply of cavalry arms and equipments here is nearly exhausted. It is left with Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne to determine the proportion of companies to be drawn from the different counties of his district. If the cavalry companies cannot get arms, they will have to be mustered in as infantry or riflemen.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 12, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. GWYNN, Commanding Virginia Forces, Norfolk, Va, :

GENERAL: I am gratified to learn that all your preparations for defense are so well advanced. It is important for you, now being prepared {p.836} against any immediate attack, to review your lines of defense, strengthen, improve, and enlarge them, as necessity and opportunity may permit, and apply all your means and use every exertion to the instruction and discipline of your men, and prepare them for hard and active service. With this view, they should be placed at or Rear the points where their services will be required in case of an attack and be prepared and habituated to the necessities of service. Is the revetment of Fort Norfolk sufficiently protected by earthern-covered ways, and are the parapets of all your redoubts sufficiently thick and high to resist heavy shot and protect the men within? If not, they had better be strengthened and every measure taken to give confidence and security to the men.

In the fabrication of musket cartridges at this point we are now obliged to use coarse powder for want of musket powder. As you have a large amount of cartridges on hand, you are desired to send ten barrels of musket powder, as soon as possible, to Colonel Dimmock, at this place. Telegraphed to this effect to-day.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 12, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: I have just received your letter of the 11th instant, by Colonel Bennett. I am concerned at the feeling evinced in Maryland, and fear it may extend to other points; besides opposite Shepherdstown. It will be necessary, in order to allay it, that you confine yourself to a strictly defensive course. I presume the points occupied by you at Point of Rocks, Berlin, and Shepherdstown are on our side. I am glad to hear that volunteers are assembling. Over two thousand arms have already been sent to you, and one thousand more have been ordered this evening. If you only expect to receive sufficient volunteers to swell your force to four thousand five hundred men, I do not see how you can require five thousand arms, as you must now have nearly three thousand armed, besides the three thousand arms, above mentioned, ordered to you. We have no rifles or cavalry equipments. The latter may use double-barreled shot-guns and buck-shot if no better arms can be procured. I will see to the quartermaster. I fear no field battery can be sent you besides that now preparing. The Fourth Regiment Alabama troops, from Lynchburg, have, gone to you, and I have ordered two others from the same point. Ammunition has also been ordered to you. You know our limited resources, and must abstain from all provocation for attack as long as possible.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 13, 1861.

Col. P. ST. GEORGE COCKE, Comdg. Virginia Forces, Hdqrs. Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

COLONEL: I have just received your letter of the 12th instant, and hasten to give such explanation as I can of the circumstances to which {p.837} it refers. Your change of rank has resulted from the action of the Convention. Before the termination of its session an ordinance was passed requiring all appointments in the military service by the governor to be submitted to the Convention for confirmation. The Convention also determined, as I have understood, to reduce the number of the higher grades in the service, which resulted in the renomination by the governor, by and with the advice of the council, of several officers for appointments to grades one degree lower than those to which they had been originally appointed. General Gwynn’s, General Johnston’s, General Ruggles, yours, and others were of this number. Another ordinance of the Convention gave to officers of the Provisional Army rank above, those of the volunteer forces of the same grade, and subjected them to duty with the volunteers until required for service with the Provisional Army. Colonel Ruggles and Colonel Terrett having been appointed in the Provisional Army, it was incumbent on me to recognize their rank. It therefore became necessary to change your command, which I did with regret. Of the circumstances attending it I supposed you were cognizant, as the action of the Convention, I think, occurred before your last visit to this city.

When Colonel Jackson was sent to Harper’s Ferry, it was to muster into service the companies there assembled, with a view of organizing a force as rapidly as possible to hold that point. Hence he was not directed to report in person to you on his route, as that would have occasioned delay, though it was well understood that Harpers Ferry was embraced within your command. At the present time, as well as for the reasons given in Special Orders, No. 39, it was deemed advisable to give to the commander at Harper’s Ferry command of that station, without reference to any other question. I hope you will perceive, from the foregoing explanation, which has been necessarily brief, that the change in your command was dictated by necessity and not by choice. In assigning the officers within your former district to their present posts, I was guided entirely by the convenience of the service and a desire to hasten the organization of the troops. It is temporary, and designed to meet the exigencies of the occasion. As to yourself, I desired to have the benefit of your knowledge of the troops and officers called from the extensive country assigned to you, in their organization and equipment, and hoped the service would be as agreeable to you as I believe it will be beneficial to the public. Recognizing as fully as I do your merit, patriotism, and devotion to the State, I do not consider that either rank or position are necessary to bestow upon you honor, but believe that you will confer honor on the position. In the present crisis of affairs, I know that your own feelings, better than any words of mine, will point out the best course for you to pursue to advance the cause in which you are engaged, and to promote the interests of the service, which you have so much at heart, and will leave to the voice of your fellow-citizens to assign to you the position you deserve.

I am, with high respect and esteem, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, Major-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 13, 1861.

Maj. F. M. BOYKIN, Grafton, Va. :

MAJOR: Your letter of May 10 has been received. On the 11th instant I wrote to inform you that four hundred rifles were ordered to be {p.838} sent to the care of Major Goff, Virginia volunteers, at Beverly, Randolph County, subject to the directions of Col. George A. Porterfield. Six hundred rifles, in addition to the four hundred of which you were already notified, have been ordered to be sent from Staunton to the care of Major Goff, Virginia volunteers, at Beverly, which will be subject to Colonel Porterfield’s orders. I regret to hear of the difficulties mentioned in your letter of mustering troops at and in the vicinity of Grafton, but hope that by perseverance you will overcome them. Major Goff has been directed to muster troops in Randolph and adjacent counties, and it is hoped he will be enabled to obtain a sufficient number for the purposes mentioned in your letter, as it is deemed unadvisable to send troops from the east for the present.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 13, 1861.

Brigadier-General GWYNN, Commanding, &c., Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 10th, requesting authority to call into service an additional cavalry company, has been received. It was supposed that four mounted companies would be sufficient for the service at Norfolk, as their duty would be mainly vedette. Your water communications and system of signals, it was hoped, would enable you to lighten that service. It is an expensive force, difficult in that region to forage, and should not be increased beyond the actual necessities of the service. Should another company, however, be indispensable, you are authorized to call it out. It may be proper for you to keep in mind that there are no cavalry arms here for issue; so, unless it be already provided with arms, it cannot be equipped.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 14, 1861.

Gov. JOHN B. FLOYD, Abingdon, Va.:

Can you get in a brigade of your mountain riflemen with their own tried weapons? Proceed as far as you can. Answer by telegraph.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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ABINGDON, May 14, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS:

I can raise the brigade, and will begin instantly.

J. B. FLOYD.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 14, 1861.

Lieut. Col. B. S. EWELL, Commanding, &c., Williamsburg, Va.:

COLONEL: I have heard that two hundred mules were landed at Old Point on Saturday, the 11th instant, and some horses previously. I {p.839} should be, glad if you could ascertain from any of our friends about Hampton the truth of this report, and also make arrangements with some, reliable person in Hampton to keep you advised of what is going on in the neighborhood of Hampton, and also at Old Point. Should you deem any of it of sufficient importance, I request to be informed of it. I hope you will call out all the volunteers from the counties within your jurisdiction, give them the necessary orders as to their duties, and urge forward their instruction and equipment as soon as possible.

I will send to Yorktown, via West Point, on the 16th instant, three companies of infantry and one of artillery, to protect the battery to be erected at that place. It is desired that you place yourself in communication with the officer commanding, and give him all the advice and facilities in your power.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 14, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. GWYNN, Commanding, &c., Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: I have understood that two hundred mules were landed at Old Point Comfort on Saturday last, and some horses previously, with baggage wagons. I desire you, if you can, to ascertain the truth of this report, and whether any preparations are there being made for movements on land. I hope you are urging forward as fast as possible your land defenses, securing a sufficient quantity of ammunition for all your arms, small as well as large, both for immediate act-ion and for a protracted defense, and making every other needful arrangement in case of an attack. Your field batteries should be provided with horses and a fall equipment for field service, and the men thoroughly instructed. The authority requested in your letter of the 10th instant, to call a cavalry company into service, in addition to the four now on hand, if you deem it necessary, is granted.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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NORFOLK, VA., May 14, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

The force under my command is about six thousand. Four thousand more are needed, and should be ordered here as soon as possible. No response as yet has been made to the call of the governor or myself. The troops ordered here should come well armed and equipped, and with camp equipage for the Virginia and foreign troops now here, and for troops which have been called into service from Virginia, as well as for deficiencies in the camp equipage of foreign troops which may be ordered here. There are required two hundred wall tents and four hundred common tents.

WALTER GWYNN.

{p.840}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 14, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. GWYNN, Commanding, &c., Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: Your telegram of the 14th instant has been received. On the 3d of May I was gratified at receiving your report, stating your confidence in holding the navy-yard with five thousand troops. I made arrangements to provide you with six thousand, and hoped, by the call for additional volunteers, under the proclamation of the governor of the 3d instant, that this number would be increased to a larger amount. I have no more available troops at this time to send you, but it is hoped that; with the troops you have and additional volunteers you will receive, you will be able to maintain your position, to accomplish which you must organize your troops and advance their instruction as speedily as possible. There are no tents here for distribution.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 14, 1861.

Col. T. J. JACKSON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

COLONEL: I am very much concerned at the condition of things and the failure to procure volunteers for the service of the State in the country west of you. One thousand stand of arms and some ammunition will be sent to-morrow, under the charge of a troop of cavalry, from Staunton to Beverly, Randolph County, for the use of Colonel Porterfield. This troop is to collect together volunteers from the well-affected portions of the country through which it passes. If your condition is such as to allow it, I would like you to send some aid to Colonel Porterfield; but I am unwilling for you to send a man, if by so doing you endanger yourself in the least. Re-enforcements are being sent to you.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond Va, May 14, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. K. SMITH, Commanding Confederate States Troops, Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: The commanding general instructs me to say to you that if there are any regiments of Confederate States troops now under your command in Lynchburg which are ready to take the field, he desires you to send them to this city, where they will find provision already prepared for them by Maj. W. L. Cabell, of the Quartermaster’s Department, C. S. Army. If you have none fit for immediate service, you are instructed to forward them from time to time, by battalions or regiments, under their proper field officers, as soon as you can prepare them for such service, but not to exceed in all three regiments. He requests to be duly notified as often as you send them forward.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

{p.841}

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 14, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

SIR: I report, for the information of the General-in-Chief, that I returned to this place on Sunday morning, the 12th instant, from Manassas Junction, where I had gone to examine the position and the country around, and to make arrangements for gathering a force there for the defense of the place. My observations of the country were mainly directed towards the Potomac, on the right flank, and I find the head of tide, at Occoquan, approached within eighteen miles of Manassas. Mr. John Grant, my acting engineer and topographical draughtsman, was sent forward with a guide, to examine the roads towards Occoquan, while I myself rode over the most direct road, to a point where it crosses the Occoquan River, seven or eight miles to the right of Manassas Junction. Mr. Grant subsequently pursued this latter road to the village or landing of Occoquan, the head of tide, and I can report that the country upon these routes, covering the right flank of the position at Manassas Junction, is quite favorable for defensive operations, the same being broken or undulating, covered with dense forests of second-growth pines or of original oak, except here, and small fields or farms, the roads very narrow (mere ditches), and everywhere such as to render artillery and cavalry of our enemy on the march of little use to him, while the cover of forests, hills, and ravines make a fortress for brave men and riflemen in which to carry on the destructive guerrilla warfare upon any marching columns from that side. Nevertheless the proximity of the Potomac River, on that side, from Manassas Junction to Alexandria, will ever require extreme vigilance and precaution to cover the right of that line from flank attack at other points, where the ways may be more open and inviting.

The force that I have been enabled to assemble thus far at Manassas Junction consists of a detachment of artillery, under Capt. D. Kemper, with two 6-pounders; Capt. W. H. Payne’s company, numbering 76 men; Capt. J. S. Green’s company, numbering 57 men; Captain Hamilton’s company, numbering about 60, and two Irish companies, numbering, respectively, 54 and 58, and Colonel Garland’s force, arrived Sunday, consisting of 490 men. Altogether, about 830 men. Also Captain Marr’s company, 88 Warrenton Riflemen. Total, 918. The Powhatan Troop, under Captain Lay, has been ordered back here, and will arrive to-day.

Should Colonel Terrett make Manassas his headquarters, he will doubtless go on to strengthen it with forces to be gathered within the large and populous district assigned to his immediate command. I have advised Colonel Terrett, through a letter yesterday, addressed to him, not to leave Alexandria himself until he shall be well satisfied that his next in command there will be a man of cool, firm, and otherwise able character, to hold that important outpost so long as it be possible for brave men to hold it.

The General-in-Chief may be assured that I will make all practicable efforts to bring about the speedy assembling, mustering into service, organizing, drilling, and disciplining of the volunteers on my whole line, and to draw from this source as rapidly as possible, to strengthen the main positions on this line-a line which even now remains almost wholly open to the enemy, should he decide to march with any force upon it. Indeed, it would seem highly expedient, in view, of the now openly acknowledged and accepted state of war on the part of the {p.842} Confederate Congress, that this line, hitherto left wholly to its own feeble resources, and directly in front, as it is, of the enemy’s massed force at Washington, should immediately be put in an adequate attitude of defense by such exterior aid or re-enforcements of Southern troops as have been heretofore withheld from this line, while they have been concentrated at Richmond, Norfolk, and Harper’s Ferry, leaving absolutely at the mercy of the enemy the town of Alexandria, the gallant little band which now holds that post, and the whole system of railroads which, debouching from Alexandria, penetrates this noble country to its very heart, connected with the valley and strategically with Harper’s Ferry, and thus laying bare the very vitals of the State to a deadly attack or to a stunning blow. Verbum sap. The hour for closing the mail is at hand, and the General-in-Chief will pardon the imposition of this. Germane subjects will be pursued in the next following dispatch.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COOKE, Colonel, Commanding Potomac Department.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 14, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

SIR: I communicate herewith a paper for the information of the General in-Chief, which may have a significance of some interest just at this juncture. I would also communicate to the general that I was yesterday informed by Major Brent, Virginia volunteers, and direct from Alexandria, that the enemy is prolonging himself along the canal, and has already reached Monocacy with his advanced post, which point is at the junction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad with the canal, so that already Colonel Jackson’s vedettes may be in sight of the enemy. Some of my cavalry being without pistols, I would be glad if they could be provided with lances.

Very respectfully, your most obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Colonel, Commanding Potomac Department.

[Inclosure.]

WASHINGTON HOME GUARD OF CAVALRY, May 13, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel TERRETT, Commanding Post at Alexandria, Va.:

My vedettes of Saturday and Sunday reported “that, while upon their station, clear the Aqueduct, at Georgetown, at noon of each day, they were fired upon from Georgetown, the balls striking the trees near them, forcing them to change their position, when the firing was repeated upon their new position.” To-day, with five men, selected and well armed, I proceeded upon the tow-path, on the Aqueduct, to the middle, when I summoned the corporal of the U. S. guard, and demanded an explanation of the firing. He stated that it was not from his men. His orders were to stop supplies, suspicious persons, and to act upon the defensive. I then sent a messenger to the mayor of Georgetown, demanding an explanation of him. Received in reply, through superintendent of police, that the corporate authorities would punish {p.843} the offenders if found out; that my complaint had been brought before the military commandant, and that all ball-cartridges would be taken from the troops quartered in Georgetown. The mayor offered me an escort and protection if I would visit Georgetown for more explicit explanation, but I considered that received as sufficient.

Submitted by

E. B. POWELL, Captain.

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AQUIA CREEK LANDING, VA., May 14, 1861-7.10 a. m.

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: The steamer Mount Vernon is within three hundred yards of the batteries. Steamer Pocahontas is within two miles. Please send re-enforcements immediately.

GEO. H. PEYTON, Lieutenant, in Command.

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GRAFTON, VA., May 14, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces, Richmond:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that in compliance with orders of the 4th instant, which failed to reach me in time for earlier action, I arrived at Grafton at an early hour this morning. The officers directed to report to me are not present; nor is there any volunteer or other force here. I will at once proceed to ascertain the whereabouts of Major Goff’s command, which I hope to find soon, and will then endeavor to unite with one or more companies, with which I will return and take position in or near this place. On account of the sparseness of the population here, it will be difficult to get the various companies to act in concert.

After my return I would desire as soon as possible to be re-enforced by a detachment of not less than two hundred and fifty men and a few pieces of artillery, if they can be spared from the command at Harper’s Ferry.

The loyal citizens of this section much need and should have all the protection the State can give them.

There is great disaffection in this and the adjoining counties, and opposition to the lawful action of the State authorities is certainly contemplated.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. A. PORTERFIELD, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers.

P. S.-Please direct my letters to Fetterman, one mile distant from Grafton, and the only post-office in this county to which letters can be sent with safety.

G. A. P.

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HEADQUARTERS GLOUCESTER POINT, May 14, 1861.

Lieut. Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: ... I wish to obtain information from headquarters as to the character and extent of my authority under the law of Virginia as commanding officer at this post.

{p.844}

There are at this place three tenements, owned and inhabited by citizens; these houses are necessary for the accommodation of the sick and for depots for quartermaster’s and commissary stores. These citizens refuse to leave them or to rent them to the government for any reasonable sum.

I have no hospital yet established, and there is Ro means of providing other hospital accommodations than those afforded by huts, and it is essential to have a ventilated building for this purpose, and it is important to have control of all the tenements within the limit of our lines. I believe an exorbitant rent would be charged, and perhaps a spirit of resistance to military interference would prevent the possibility of renting at any price.

I ask instructions as to the powers I possess under the law.

An armed vessel of the United States steamed into York River yesterday, and approached within some three miles of our works. She did not, however, venture to approach nearer, but seemed to be engaged in sounding the channel at the mouth of the river. No boats were sent out, from her and no attempt made to land troops; other steamers of the enemy have been observed in Mobjack Bay and just without the mouth of York River.

Our water battery is now armed with three 9-inch guns, and the men have been constantly instructed in the working of the guns by Capt. T. J. Page, of the Navy.

Should the enemy land in force on this side of York River, either on the York or the waters of Severn, it would be necessary to resist them with a much larger force of infantry than that now at this post.

There are but two infantry companies here, and the light batteries are without horses.

For so small a command as there now is here, and I see no probability of its being increased materially for some time, I beg to suggest the necessity of fortifying the land approaches in our rear, and I ask that, should it meet the approbation of the general commanding in chief, a military engineer be ordered here to plan and lay out the works.

I have found it entirely impossible, from the absence of all accommodations for the troops and from the constant detail of almost the entire strength every day for work in landing and placing in position the heavy guns, to effect a proper organization, or to devote much time to drill or instructions.

No blank forms have as yet been received, and I ask that you will forward them. I have no blank requisitions, and suppose it is unnecessary to forward a requisition. I will send receipt if necessary.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. TALIAFERRO, Colonel, Commanding Post.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 15, 1861.

Brig. Gen. JOS. E. JOHNSTON, C. S. A., Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: Having been appointed a brigadier-general in the Army of the Confederate States, you have been assigned by the War Department to the command of the troops near Harper’s Ferry. In proceeding to that point the Secretary of War directs that you take Lynchburg in your route, and make arrangements there for sending forward to Harper’s {p.845} Ferry such force as you may deem necessary to strengthen your command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 15, 1861.

Col. P. ST. GEORGE COCKE Commanding, &c., Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

COLONEL: I have received your letter of the 14th instant, and am gratified at your arrangements for the defense of Manassas Junction, and the favorable account you give of the country towards the Potomac for defensive operations. I hope, by a judicious use of its natural obstacles, that the march of a hostile column will be much embarrassed. I have to request that you will endeavor to fill up Colonel Garland’s and Colonel Preston’s regiments from the companies that will report to you, as desired in my letter of the 10th instant, and as soon as you are able to form other regiments that you will send such re-enforcements to Manassas Junction as in your judgment may be necessary or as may be requested by Colonel Terrett. Please direct the troops you may send to the Junction to report to Colonel Garland, and place them under Colonel Terrett’s orders. I beg leave also to request that you will give to Colonel Terrett the benefit of your information and advice respecting the troops and country in which he is operating. It is desired to strengthen that whole line as rapidly as the organization of troops will admit, to resist any attack from the forces at Washington. Hitherto it was impossible to concentrate an adequate force for the defense of Alexandria, an abortive attempt at which would, in my opinion, have had no other effect than to hazard the destruction of the city. The posts at Norfolk and Harper’s Ferry, which seemed to be first threatened, being in some measure fortified, our resources can now be applied to your line of operations. Should an advance be made on Colonel Terrett, or an intention be manifested to seize the Manassas Junction, you are desired to sustain Colonel Terrett with your whole force.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 15, 1861.

Col. GEORGE H. TERRETT, Alexandria, Va.:

COLONEL: I have requested Colonel Cocke to fill up Colonel Garland’s regiment, stationed at Manassas Junction, from companies called by him into the service of the State, and, as soon as he can organize other regiments, to send such re-enforcements to that point as he may deem necessary or you require. It will be necessary for you to give particular attention to the defense of that point, and to organize your force in front of it, to oppose, as far as your means will allow, any advance into the country from Washington. It is not expected possible, with the troops at present under your command, that you will be able {p.846} to resist successfully any attempt to occupy Alexandria, but you may prevent the extension of marauders into the country and the advance of troops on the railroad. Should you discover an intention to seize the Manassas Junction, you will notify Colonel Cocke, who will advance to sustain you, and you will, with his and your whole force, oppose it. It will be necessary to watch the approaches on your right from the Potomac, as the distance from Occoquan, which point may be reached in boats, is not more than eighteen or twenty miles from Manassas Junction. You are again requested to urge forward the organization and equipment of your troops, and to see that your officers labor diligently at the instruction and discipline, and be prepared to take the field at any moment.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 17.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 15, 1861.

The following order from the governor and council (having been communicated to the commanding general of the Virginia forces, with his excellency’s instructions to carry it into effect) is published for the information and guidance of the Virginia troops, viz:

IN COUNCIL, May 15, 1861.

In order to secure a full and fair expression from the voters of the State as to the ordinance of secession, the council unanimously advise that polls be opened at the various places of encampment, according to the terms of the seventh section of the schedule accompanying the ordinance of secession, for the purpose of taking upon said ordinance the votes of the qualified voters of the State who are in the military service; said votes to be held over, and, in case the military exigencies of the service of the State on the fourth Thursday in this month (the day appointed in the schedule for taking the vote throughout the State) be such as to make a vote by the army and navy, or any portion thereof, impracticable on that day, to be returned to the Convention for its action: Provided, however, That the vote herein recommended shall not supersede the vote on the fourth Thursday in the month (where it may be practicable to have it taken on that day), the vote herein advised being precautionary. It is further advised that orders be at once issued to the commanding officers at the aforesaid encampments to have the polls opened and the vote taken as soon after the receipt of the order as practicable.

From the minutes

P. F. HOWARD, Secretary of the Council.

All officers commanding troops from the State of Virginia will accordingly take measures, upon the receipt of this order, to take the vote of such troops, in conformity with the terms of the seventh section of the schedule accompanying the ordinance of secession.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS POTOMAC DEPARTMENT, Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 15, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Commander-in-Chief:

SIR: I. In my dispatch, which I had the honor to make on yesterday, I addressed myself to the consideration of the great importance of this my central line of operations through Culpeper, Manassas, Alexandria, &c. I endeavored to impress upon the mind of the General-in-Chief {p.847} the exceedingly feeble means of defense as yet gathered upon this line, notwithstanding the exertions that have been and that are being made. I showed how easy it would be to take Alexandria in reverse, thus to paralyze and capture the little force there, to advance upon Manassas, where there are at present scarcely a thousand men, seize the whole section of railroad, and thus be able to pour their masses like an avalanche over this fine region, and by using the Manassas Gap Road to turn the positions of Harper’s Ferry and Winchester, take them in rear, and isolate them effectually. In order to prevent results so disastrous, the General-in-Chief will pardon me if I urge upon his consideration what I conceive to be the great importance of immediately massing troops, first at Manassas and next at Winchester, in support of Harper’s Ferry. If at this moment we had eight or ten thousand well-appointed men of all arms at those points, respectively, they would not be too many to enable us to play an equal game with the enemy, who at this moment doubtless has forty thousand men in and about Washington and from fifteen to twenty thousand at Harrisburg and Carlisle; all to be concentrated upon Harper’s Ferry or to be precipitated along this line whenever he shall decide to commence invasion. It is obvious, sir, with a strong corps d’armee at Manassas, and at least a division at Winchester, these two bodies being connected by a continuous railway through Manassas Gap, there should be kept all times upon that road ample means of transportation. These two columns-one at Manassas and one at Winchester-could readily co-operate and concentrate upon the one point or the other, either to make head against the enemy’s columns, advancing down the valley, should he force Harper’s Ferry, or, in case we repulse him at Harper’s Ferry, the Winchester supporting column could throw itself on this side of the mountains, to co-operate with the column at Manassas and all that can come up in the rear of this line, to hurl back the invader, should he attempt to march beyond the Potomac upon Virginia’s soil.

II. I have every reason to believe that the officers recently appointed and assigned to the work of enlisting and mustering into the service volunteers in the geographical bounds of this central line of the Potomac Department, are exerting themselves with great zeal and energy, and that in the course of a few weeks they will raise and send forward a large portion, if not all, of the ten regiments of infantry, two of cavalry, and one of artillery I was authorized to raise within these limits. In the mean time it may be well for the General-in-Chief to consider what other means, more immediately available, he can throw upon this line, to provide against a possible early invasion of our Potomac border.

I remain, general, very respectfully, your most obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE, Colonel, Commanding Potomac Department.

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STAUNTON, May 15, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE:

SIR: I reached here this afternoon in charge of three hundred troops from Monroe, Greenbrier, and Alleghany, forming two infantry and two rifle companies. Three of the companies are entirely without arms, and the other, an infantry company, has only some fifty-five flint-lock muskets, in bad order. The companies are not yet fully uniformed and I will have to detain them here for three or four days for the purpose of completing their equipment, which is to be done at the expense of their {p.848} respective counties. In the mean time I shall be glad to know if I must send on to Harper’s Ferry those companies which are entirely unarmed. Three of the companies are raw and undisciplined, although the material of which they are composed is very fine.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. ECHOLS, Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers.

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QUARTERMASTER’S OFFICE, VIRGINIA FORCES, Staunton, May 15, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN LETCHER, Governor of Virginia:

DEAR SIR: By direction of Major-General Lee, I will start to-day the arms, &c., intended for the Northwest, under escort of Capt. F. F. Sterrett’s company of cavalry. I have also, in furtherance of the plan concurred in by Col. F. H. Smith, ordered Capt. Felix H. Hull, who is now here, to proceed at once to Highland and gather two hundred men, including his company, to accompany Captain Sterrett’s command. I have further issued the following orders: to Captain Moorman, of Pendleton, to repair at once to Monterey with two hundred men, if possible, including his company; to Captains Stover and McNeil, of Pocahontas, to repair to Huttonsville, each with one hundred and fifty men, if possible, including his company; they severally to unite their commands with Captain Sterrett’s and proceed to Beverly. I have ordered Colonel Goff, of the last-named place, to collect the volunteer forces of Randolph and such other force of men as he can gather, and I have directed each and all of these officers to bring with them such supply of arms and ammunition as they could without delay procure. I now respectfully invite you to issue at once to Colonel Goff, or such other person as may seem good to you, such orders and directions, with regard to this expedition in aid of the Northwest, as may appear expedient. My aim is that it shall reach its destination (Grafton, if thought proper) at least by the day of election; at this last point it will be in communication by rail with Harper’s Ferry and may from thence be re enforced or vice versa.

I shall also send with the expedition at least a wagon load of bacon, to avoid a possibility of a want of provisions.

Hoping that my action in this matter may meet with your approval, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. G. HARMAN.

[Indorsement.]

GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, May 15, 1861.

Referred to General Lee for his information and such action as he may direct.

By order:

S. BASSETT FRENCH, A. D. C.

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WINCHESTER, VA, May 15, 1861.

General ROBERT E. LEE, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: I returned yesterday from Harper’s Ferry, where I spent two days, as a deeply interested, however unskilled, observer of military affairs in this quarter. I am glad to say, so far as I could tell, {p.849} that things appeared to be fast assuming the aspect of good military organization, and officers and men cheerful and buoyant. I spent the evening and night at Colonel Jackson’s headquarters, and even my limited observation there confirmed the general tone of all around him, that all were in good hands under his command. You will doubtless have better sources of information than could be opened to a wayfarer, but the immediate and daily intercourse between Harper’s Ferry and Baltimore, although the pregnant source of countless rumors, yet there are occasional items of intelligence which, when put together, may not be unworthy of consideration; and although you are doubtless kept fully advised by Colonel Jackson, yet I venture to throw in my mite.

The Federal troops being now in full possession of Baltimore, with the railroads leading to it, north and east, from Pennsylvania, and the spirit of resistance in Maryland overpowered, for the time at least, it is considered that the Federal Army will be gradually extended, and in force, westward along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It has been said in the papers, I know not whether on authority, that Governor Letcher has some scruple or doubt about occupying the mountain heights in Maryland opposite to Harper’s Ferry. Of course I did not inquire of Colonel Jackson, nor do I know, what counsels prevail on this point. I learned at the Ferry, in general conversation, that some four or five hundred Virginia troops occupied those heights, and it was said that preparation was making to fortify or intrench them. That whichever power holds those heights commands the town of Harper’s Ferry none can doubt; and there is as little doubt that a small body intrenched and fortified there, well and appropriately armed, could hold it against a far superior force. All this, however, is better known to you than to me. I want to speak only of our right to fortify and hold those heights, whether Maryland protest or no, putting aside the law of necessity and its sanctions. If Maryland were suo jure, and a friendly contiguous power, the occupation of her territory by forces hostile and menacing to Virginia give the clear right in public law to Virginia to occupy her territory too, so far as necessary for self-protection; a right not to be questioned under existing circumstances by Maryland or any other power. But Maryland is not suo jure; she remains one of the United States, a power now foreign to Virginia, and in open and avowed hostility to us. Occupying her territory, therefore, is only occupying territory of the enemy; nor is it invasion in the proper sense of that term, because the occupation is defensive and precautionary only, and not for aggression, and will cease as soon as the enemy withdraw from Maryland.

I have another suggestion to make, because of the disaffected condition of portions of the northwestern part of Virginia pervaded by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a highway owned and controlled by Marylanders, who are now in complete subjection to the Federal power. It seems important to me that a sufficient military force of our State should be exhibited and retained along that road, at important points west of Harper’s Ferry, and at least as far as the western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains; and as two such points I would indicate Piedmont, in Hampshire County, and Grafton, in Taylor County. The preservation of this road, I should presume, will be all important to the Federal power, and of correlative importance to us to have it in our power-if unable to hold it, to break it up at points where it will be impracticable to restore or repair it in any convenient time. The numerous tunnels through the mountains, the numerous bridges across the rivers and streams, and especially the expensive and complicated {p.850} viaduct along the Cheat River, in the Alleghany Mountains, furnish abundant places for such irremediable damage, provided we are in advance of the invaders. Nor would any large force be required, provided it was well distributed and under competent commanders.

I pray you to receive as my excuse for these, perhaps, intrusive suggestions, the deep and anxious interest we all have in the great stake at hazard in Virginia.

Very respectfully, and truly yours,

J. M. MASON.

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HEADQUARTERS Fredericksburg, Va., May 15, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: In reply to the inquiry of the General-in-Chief of the 14th instant I have the honor to report that I have given the subject of the defenses of the river counties particular attention, and that the following points embrace my, conclusions, viz:

1st. That those counties are greatly exposed to predatory inroads, and constitute an important portion of our line of defense.

2d. That there is a deficiency of arms and ammunition in those counties generally, for purposes of local defense.

3d. That the best method of supply and distribution is to arm such volunteer companies as may be thoroughly organized and mustered into the service of the State. (Please see General Orders, No. 9, of the 11th instant, and copy of a letter, of this date, to a committee of gentlemen from Lancaster County, Virginia, connected with this subject.) To insure proper accountability, receipts of captains of companies mustered into service should be taken for all arms and accouterments.

4th. The establishment of camps of instruction at one point in each county, and, as nearly as practicable, in exposed districts.

5th. I also respectfully recommend that the militia be ordered to hold themselves in readiness for service, in their own defense, at all times, while engaged in their own avocations, and without expense to the State.

6th. I have furnished sixty muskets, one thousand ball-cartridges, and some hundred and twenty flints, on the requisition of the committee from Lancaster County, for Captain Robinson’s company, which will soon be mustered into the service of the State.

I have deemed it expedient to muster in two companies in that county, as a basis on which the militia may rally, in the event of invasion, as well as to preserve the tranquillity of the community.

These companies, and an equal number from each of the neighboring counties, will probably be required to make up two regiments of infantry and riflemen in the district I command, for the active service of the field.

Should the plan thus far pursued (supposed to be in conformity with the commanding general’s views) not correspond with the existing policy, I shall hope to receive early information, so as to adopt an approved rule of action.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Colonel, Provisional Army, Commanding Forces.

{p.851}

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ENGINEER OFFICE, Richmond, May 15, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

In obedience to your order of Saturday evening last, my attention has been given to the defense of this city.

Three topographical parties are now in the field, and by Thursday I expect the examination will be sufficiently advanced to enable me to locate and lay out such defensive works as will give employment to all the laboring force at the disposal of the city authorities.

The examinations made in person have brought me to the conclusion that four or five strong redoubts on points to be selected well in advance of the city limits will afford all the protection required at this time, and be fully within its means to construct and of the State to defend them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ANDREW TALCOTT, Engineer, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES. Richmond, Va., May 16, 1861.

Col. GEORGE H. TERRETT, Provisional Army of Virginia, Comdg., &c., Alexandria, Va.:

COLONEL: In reply to your inquiries, by telegraph, in relation to persons from Maryland desiring to pass over the roads, to offer their services to the State, I am instructed by the commanding general to say that you can offer them service in your command and muster them in if they accept it.

I am, sir, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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LYNCHBURG, VA., May 16, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General, Virginia Forces:

COLONEL: I arrived here this morning, and have assumed command of the Virginia volunteers mustered into the service of the State at this place. It was not possible for me to get here sooner, as I was compelled to make some preparation to enable me to go into the service. I find that Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne has mustered into the service two companies of cavalry, one from Lynchburg and the other from Bedford; also, seven companies of infantry, two from Lynchburg, two from Bedford, two from Botetourt, and one from Floyd. Two companies reached here this evening from Roanoke, and will be mustered into the Service to-morrow: The company of cavalry from Lynchburg, commanded by Capt. John S. Langhorne, has sabers, but no other arms. The company of cavalry from Bedford, commanded by Capt. William R. Terry, has about fifty sabers, leaving twenty odd without any arms, and those having sabers have no other arms. Three companies, belonging to the Twelfth Brigade of Militia, were reported by the adjutant-general of the militia as armed. The infantry companies have no arms whatever, and I imagine that there are no companies in the counties for which this place is the rendezvous which are armed. I know such {p.852} is the case in the Twelfth Brigade, composed of the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Franklin, Henry, and Patrick. All the armed companies were ordered into the service by the governor some time since. If, therefore, five regiments of infantry and riflemen and one of cavalry are mustered into the service at this place, and they are armed here, it will be necessary to have sent here near five thousand stand of muskets and rifles, and the same number of sets of accouterments, and about one thousand arms for cavalry, and the like number of sets of accouterments. Some of the companies already here have knapsacks, but most of them are without them, and those likely to come hereafter will be entirely unprovided in that particular. There are not quite enough tents, of an inferior quality and make, for the troops that are here, and no suitable material is to be found at this place for making more. There are not enough mess-pans and camp-kettles for the troops that have been mustered into service, and the assistant quartermaster, Captain Gilmer, informs me that he has orders from the head of the Quartermaster’s Department to make no contract for the manufacture of any articles without orders from headquarters. There are several establishments here in which mess-pans, camp-kettles, and canteens can be manufactured, and I suggest that orders be given to that effect. If knapsacks cannot be furnished from Richmond, the men can make out pretty well by rolling up their clothes in their blankets and wrapping pieces of coarse cloth around them; and there are several large tobacco factories, which are idle, and can be procured as quarters for the troops, so that if arms can be furnished we can get along. If there are plenty of good flint-lock muskets they will do very well if percussion muskets cannot be furnished to all.

I find matters here in quite a confused state, owing to the inexperience of the officers of all the departments. Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne has made no apportionment of troops among the counties to rendezvous here, and, in fact, has made no call, specifying the number to be received at this place. He has merely given notice, in the papers, that he would muster into service volunteer companies from the counties designated. This has produced a good deal of uncertainty and confusion. I do not wish this to be considered as a complaint against Colonel Langhorne. It results from his entire want of experience in such matters. I am satisfied he has been endeavoring to discharge his duty faithfully; but I would very respectfully suggest that it is rather out of the usual course to intrust to a mustering officer, of inferior rank, so large a discretion in regard to calling out volunteers. It strikes me that a call stating the number of regiments to be received here and the number and kind of companies to be raised in each county would facilitate the business very much. Some of the counties, as, for instance, Henry, Patrick, Carroll, Giles, Mercer, Tazewell, Wise, Buchanan, and McDowell, are remote from the lines of railroad, and cannot be communicated with very expeditiously; and, therefore, it is important that the call upon them should be definite. I would also suggest that it is not likely that there will be more cavalry companies from the counties east of the mountains except the two already mustered and one from Franklin unless, perhaps, one may be raised in Campbell. The counties west of the Alleghany must be relied on to furnish the remainder of the companies required to make out a regiment. Colonel Radford has reported, and he would prefer having command of the regiment of cavalry, and I think it would be better to give it to him, as he will, in all likelihood, be the only colonel that will be available who has had experience as a cavalry officer. I do not understand exactly the {p.853} last orders in regard to the troops from Campbell, Bedford, Botetourt, Roanoke, and Craig (letter from Major-General Lee, of May 9). Am I to organize a regiment out of said troops, and give Colonel Radford the command of it, or shall I give him command of the whole, including the cavalry companies, and order him to report with them to Colonel Cocke? Shall I send off said troops before they are armed, or wait for their arms?

Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne informs me that he received instructions to send Captain Moorman’s company (called the Beauregard Rifles) to Richmond, to be armed. The order, however, has been mislaid, and, as he may have misunderstood its tenor, and the instructions are inconsistent with the orders to me to send the troops from Campbell, &c., to Colonel Cocke, I have thought proper to wait for further orders, which, for dispatch, can be sent by telegraph, if the company is to be sent to Richmond.

A Mr. Eugene Carrington has exhibited to me an order from Major Ficklin, quartermaster, appointing him transportation agent here, and directing all orders for transporting troops, &c., from this place to emanate from him. I had thought that the quartermaster here would have control of the arrangements for transportation from this point, but I confess I am little acquainted with such matters, and I submit whether the appointment by Major Ficklin of a transportation agent here (while there is a quartermaster here) is regular.

I hardly think much can be done in the way of arming cavalry companies with double-barreled guns in this region. A number of the men have not got them, and have not the means of purchasing them if they were to be had.

You will pardon the length of this letter, but I thought it better to embrace all the matters about which I want instructions, and about which it is necessary to communicate with you, in one letter than several.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. EARLY, Colonel, Volunteers, Commanding at Lynchburg, Va.

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WILLIAMSBURG, VA., May 16, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

SIR: A reply to your communication of the 14th instant, as well as to the reference to me of Colonel Mallory’s letter of the 13th, directed to Governor Letcher, is contained in the following statement:

Immediately on my return here, learning that Yorktown had been threatened by a U. S. steamer, and that a creek, a short distance below, had been entered by a barge, filled with men, with as little delay as practicable I sent the Irwin Guard, to protect, to the extent their strength would allow, the citizens of the town and county near; and, on the same day, went there myself. After careful inquiry, I came to the conclusion that no landing was contemplated or had been, and that the alarm was groundless.

From Yorktown I went to Hampton, for the purpose of calling into service the volunteer force in the vicinity. On the road I was informed of the demonstrations (alluded to in the letter of Colonel Mallory) by the garrison of Fort Monroe, and, in consequence, determined to see Colonel Dimick, at present commandant of the fort, and ascertain, if possible, the cause of the encroachment. On the 14th (Thursday) I requested {p.854} and obtained an interview with him. He informed me that in taking possession of the spring west of Mill Creek he had no other object than to get water for his garrison, and that unless the safety (health) of his troops required an expansion of the area within the Government limits, for encampments, &c., he had no idea, under existing circumstances, of an aggressive movement. He frankly told me at the same time that he did not know in how short or long a time these circumstances might be changed. He laughed at the idea of violence being contemplated towards Hampton. He expressed great regret at the present state of things, and was kind and conciliatory. We agreed it would be better for the guards not to approach too close together. Accordingly I gave orders to the guards from Hampton not to go within half a mile of the fort. Judging from the means of information within my reach, and from what I saw and heard near the fort (I was not admitted beyond a point near the gate, on the outside), I have no hesitation in asserting that no mules or horses have been landed there in any numbers, and that the force is not sufficient, in any respect, to warrant the supposition of an invasion from that quarter. I shall endeavor to keep you informed of any important changes in the state of things around Fort Monroe.

While in Hampton I directed the formation of a camp of instruction and observation, within about three miles of the town, to be commanded by Major Cary. This camp will be the rendezvous of five companies, numbering about three hundred and twenty men. It is as well to say that this camp will not cost the State anything, the material being furnished by the county. The same is true of the camp near Williamsburg. Major Cary is instructed to maintain a system of patrols, and to keep pickets at the most important points and landings; also, to obstruct the roads, as far as is compatible with their use by the neighborhood.

In addition to the five companies, there are seven foot and one horse company (about 500 men) ready, or very nearly so, to be mustered into service. Of these 820 volunteers not more than 300 are armed, and of the 300, at least 150 have only flint-lock muskets. There ought to be four hundred percussion-lock muskets sent at once. As yet I have received but two hundred and fifty flint-lock guns, and a part of them cannot be used, being imperfect.

No further orders have been received by me respecting the militia. Colonel Mallory wishes to know who has the control of his regiment. The question as to my power to call them out ought to be settled. The post at Yorktown, I infer, is not under my jurisdiction. I shall, with pleasure, afford to the officer in command there all the aid I can. Are the approaches below Yorktown to be under the supervision of Major Montague, also?

As the quartermaster for this district has declined, allow me to remind you of Mr. Saunders, better qualified than any one else I know.

The adjunct professor of mathematics at William and Mary College has, for several weeks, been engaged in examining and surveying the county here for the defense, and it would be proper to give him an appointment in the civil engineering department of the State. The name of the gentleman is Snead. A half a dozen cadets could be most usefully employed in the camp of instruction here, and I respectfully ask that this number be sent.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. S. EWELL, Active Virginia Volunteers.

{p.855}

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GRAFTON, VA., May 16, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Army, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: In my last report I stated that I would first get possession of the arms consigned to Major Goff, and then try to collect a force and occupy this place. I accordingly sent a messenger to Major Goff at Beverly, about fifty miles distant, and proceeded to ascertain what force I could get, its condition, and the sentiment of the people in the counties of Taylor, Barbour, and Harrison. I also sent orders to the captains of companies, supposed to be armed, in the surrounding counties, to bring their companies immediately to a designated point, near Grafton, and there await my orders. The messenger from Beverly returned with the reply that nothing had been heard of the rifles, nor had Major Goff been informed that they were to be sent to him. This is a serious disappointment. Several companies in this vicinity are organizing and expecting to be furnished at once with arms and ammunition. I found a company organizing at Pruntytown, in this county, which will be ready to receive arms in a day or so. There is another at Philippi, in Barbour County; awaiting arms, and another in Clarksburg which will soon be ready. I have seen the officers of these companies. There are other companies forming in the surrounding counties, but all without arms and ununiformed. This force, when received, will not for some months be more effective than undisciplined militia. There are but two companies in this vicinity known to be armed. One of these, Captain Bogges’, at Weston, about forty-five miles distant, has the old flint-lock musket, in bad order, and no ammunition. The other, Captain Thompson’s, at Fairmont, twenty miles from this place, has a better gun, and some ammunition. These companies are now marching towards this point; are ordered to do so, at least. This is the only force on which I have to depend, and it is very weak, compared with the strength of those in this section who, I am assured, are ready to oppose me.

I have found great diversity of opinion and much bitterness of feeling among the people of this region. They are apparently upon the verge of civil war. A few bad men have done much mischief by stirring up rebellion among the people, and representing to them the weakness of the State, and its inability or indisposition to protect them, the power of the Government at Washington, and their willingness to give any aid required to resist the State authorities. I am too credibly informed to entertain doubt that they have been and will be supplied with the means of resistance. They and their accomplices have also threatened the property and persons of law-abiding citizens with fire and the sword. Their efforts to intimidate have had their effect, both to dishearten one party and encourage the other. Many good citizens have been dispirited, while traitors have seized the guns and ammunition of the State, to be used against its authority. Arms in the hands of disbanded volunteer companies have been retained for the same avowed purpose. The force in this section will need the best rifles. Those at Harper’s Ferry, which were injured by the fire, if fitted up, will do very well, as there will not be the same use for the bayonet in these hills as elsewhere, and the movements should be of light infantry and rifle, although the bayonet, of course, would be desirable.

I have the honor to be, yours, very respectfully,

GEORGE A. PORTERFIELD, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers.

{p.856}

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HDQRS. MARYLAND VOLS. SERVING IN VIRGINIA, May 17, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: Pursuant to instructions from Colonel Jackson, based upon a letter to me from Colonel French, aide-de-camp to his excellency Governor Letcher, I have this day assumed command of the Maryland volunteers in this State. Numbers of the men, and especially a large number of the most valuable of the officers, have gone to Richmond and other points in Virginia. As it is very desirable that all the Maryland men should be together, I respectfully request an order to be issued for them to report here, or at such other point as the General-in-Chief may designate. I can control about three thousand two hundred of active and generally well-drilled men from Baltimore and vicinity. Until better arms can be procured, I shall proceed to arm them with the flint lock muskets issued to Mr. T. Parkin Scott, of Baltimore, by Governor Letcher.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. J. THOMAS, Colonel, Commanding.

[Indorsement.]

There are some of the Maryland volunteers who object to serving under Colonel Thomas, and, in order to secure their services, I would suggest that they be mustered into the service of the Southern Confederacy, and that none, except those who muster into the service of Virginia be placed under the command of Colonel Thomas.

T. J. JACKSON, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding at Harper’s Ferry.

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ABINGDON, VA., May 18, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commander-in-Chief, &c.:

GENERAL: I respectfully inclose herewith a copy of the instructions under which I return to Virginia.* Debility compelled me to stop at this place. I expect to be in Lynchburg during Monday, and beg you to convey to me by telegraph any information you can communicate, which you think of interest to my command, especially in relation to supplies of ammunition and provisions. Should the contemplated conditions justify it, I request that the two officers named in the postscript (should it meet their own views) may be ordered to join me forthwith. The President intends to assemble an army near Harper’s Ferry. I suggested the proviso, because it seemed to me likely that Lieutenant-Colonel Pemberton might be at the head of the artillery of the State.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

* See Cooper to Johnston, May 15. 1861, p. 844.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 19, 1861.

Col. GEORGE A. PORTERFIELD, Commanding, &c., Grafton, Taylor County, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 16th instant is at hand. One thousand muskets and rifles and some ammunition have been sent from Staunton {p.857} to Major Goff and Lieutenant Chenoweth at Beverly, for the use of the troops under your command. Several hundred arms have also been sent, for the use of your command, to Colonel Jackson, at Harper’s Ferry. Several companies have been directed to go with the arms from Staunton to Beverly, and to gather strength as they passed along. It is hoped that a considerable force has, by this means, been gathered together, which will be increased by the arrangements which you have made.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 19, 1861.

JOHN T. SEAWELL, Esq., Gloucester Court-House, Va.:

SIR: Your letter of the 15th instant is in hand. The engineers who examined York River considered Gloucester Point the lowest available position for a battery for the defense of the entrance of that river. It is difficult to procure men enough to man the battery already erected, and, by increasing posts, this difficulty would be enhanced.

Colonel Taliaferro has been previously directed to muster the troops from the county of King and Queen into the service of the State, and to form a regiment at Gloucester Point of the troops from the three counties of Gloucester, Matthews, and King and Queen. It is hoped that sufficient troops from those counties will be obtained for the defense of their homes.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 19, 1861.

Col. WILLIAM B. TALIAFERRO, Commanding, &c., Gloucester Point, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 14th instant is in hand. I regret to learn that your force is so small, and request you to use every exertion to increase it. Under the authority of the governor, by his proclamation of the 3d instant, you are authorized to extend your call for volunteers to the county of Matthews. It is hoped that you will collect troops enough from the counties of Gloucester, King and Queen, and Matthews to form at least a regiment, to which your force should be extended. It is not desired to take private houses, unless the exigencies of the service imperatively require it. A proper hut can be erected for a hospital. There are no military engineers available for laying off the rear defenses you desire, and it is hoped that the naval officers and others with you will be able to perform the duty. It is probable that the laboring force in the neighborhood will be sufficient to perform the work required on these lines of defense. Blank forms, &c., have been directed to be forwarded to you from the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

{p.858}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 19, 1861.

Lieut. Col. GEORGE H. TERRETT, Commanding at Alexandria, Va.:

COLONEL Major-General Lee instructs me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of May 16.* It is very important to secure the rolling stock of the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad, but General Lee thinks it would be quite as much exposed to seizure by the enemy at any point on that road near Alexandria as in the town itself. If taken up that road for safety, it should be taken to Leesburg or its vicinity. General Lee thinks it would be better (if practicable) to obtain the co-operation of the Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire and the Alexandria and Orange Railroad Companies in the construction of a temporary track connecting the two roads, to run the cars of the Loudoun and Hampshire Road out on the track of the Orange and Alexandria Road at night, as a precautionary measure.

I am, &c.,

JNO. A. WASHINGTON, Aide-de-Camp.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES Richmond, Va., May 20, 1861.

Col. C. DIMMOCK, Ordnance Department:

COLONEL: Major-General Lee requests that you will send to Col. B. S. Ewell, at Williamsburg, four hundred original percussion muskets and five thousand rounds of ammunition. They are to be sent by the steamer to King’s Mill wharf.

Very respectfully, &c.,

JNO. M. BROOKE, Virginia Navy and Acting Aide-de-Camp, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 20, 1861.

Col. J. A. EARLY, Lynchburg, Va.:

SIR: In reply to your letters of the 16th and 17th instants,** the commanding-general now instructs me to say that he has this day ordered the Ordnance Department to forward to your address one thousand original percussion muskets, one thousand altered, and one thousand flint locks, and sixty thousand rounds of ammunition, to be issued by you to such companies of Virginia volunteers without arms as may be mustered in at Lynchburg, or arrive there already mustered in. The ten companies which you have reported may be organized into a regiment, to the command of which you may assign Colonel Radford, if they are the companies raised by him and reported to the governor. If they be not, you may assign Colonel Radford, or any other colonel, and field officers to them as may be deemed best, observing the rule as far as practicable to associate together companies and field officers from the same region of country. As soon as this regiment is organized and {p.859} armed, order it to report to the commanding officer at Culpeper Court-House. In regard to staff officers of experience, the general regrets to inform you that there are none to be had at present, and hopes that you will be able to instruct those you already have until they shall become useful.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

** Letter of 17th not found.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 20, 1861.

Lieut. Col. B. S. EWELL, Commanding, &c., Williamsburg, Va.:

COLONEL: I have received your letter of the 16th instant, in relation to your visit to Hampton, for the purpose of calling into the service of the State the volunteers from that region. Your report, in reference to affairs at Fort Monroe, is satisfactory, and it is hoped your arrangements for procuring information will be sufficient to secure intelligence of what transpires.

You will give orders to Major Cary, commanding the camp of instruction and observation, to attend rigidly to the instruction and discipline of the troops, to keep a strict watch on all military movements, and to keep you advised. He will endeavor to quiet the apprehension of the citizens, act strictly on the defensive, and be ready at all times to take the field, under such orders as he may receive from you. Four hundred percussion muskets, with a supply of ammunition, have been ordered to King’s Mill for you.

The battery at Yorktown, with those of Gloucester Point and West Point, is under the general charge of Captain Whittle, of the Navy. Major Montague is in command of the troops stationed there for their protection, &c. The troops and operations below Yorktown are under your control and direction. There are no cadets available for duty with you. It is hoped that some young officers, acquainted with military instruction, may be sent you. The general decides, as you will perceive by the inclosed paper, that no question of rank can arise between yourself and Colonel Mallory, who is not on service. You are in command of the Sixty-eighth and One Hundred and fifteenth Regiments of Militia, and invested with authority to call out such portions of those regiments as you may judge necessary to support the volunteer force.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 20, 1861.

Col. WM. B. TALIAFERRO, Commanding, &c., Gloucester Point, Va.:

COLONEL: As I see, from your letter of the 19th instant, that no increase to your force has been received, and, as I desire it to be augmented to a regiment of infantry, in addition to the cavalry and artillery now in service I have directed Capt. Thomas L. Preston to repair to Gloucester Point, with a view of aiding you in calling the volunteers into the service of the State from the counties of King and {p.860} Queen, Gloucester and Matthews. You are desired to send on this duty also Maj. P. R. Page, who will be accompanied by Captain Preston, and who will muster the troops into service that offer. Such arms, &c., as may be required for the troops at your post will be furnished on your requisition.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 21, 1861.

Col. J. A. EARLY, Commanding, &c., Lynchburg, Va.:

SIR: As fast as you issue arms and ammunition to the companies mustered in at Lynchburg by Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne, you are requested to send forward to Culpeper Court-House a sufficient number to form three regiments.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 21, 1861.

Hon. JAMES M. MASON, Winchester, Va.:

SIR: I have been gratified at the reception of your letter of the 15th instant, giving an account of your visit to Harper’s Ferry. I had hoped that the Maryland people would relieve us of the necessity of occupying the Maryland Heights. Colonel Jackson was directed to give to their occupation the appearance of its being done by the people of that State, and not to take possession himself till necessary; but the time has been left to his discretion which I am sure will be wisely exercised. There is no doubt, under the circumstances, of our right to occupy these heights.

Measures have been taken, more than three weeks ago, for securing the control of both branches of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and for throwing a force into the disaffected region of the State; to carry out which Major Loring has been sent to Wheeling to protect the terminus of the main road, and Colonel Porterfield has been sent to Grafton, with instructions to concentrate there three regiments, at Parkersburg one regiment, and at Moundsville one regiment. These measures having in part failed, several companies have been sent from Staunton to Beverly, with instructions to gather strength as they passed through the country for Colonel Porterfield’s command. By these means it is hoped that a considerable force has been concentrated at Grafton by this time, and loyalty in some degree engendered in the disaffected region of which you speak.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 21, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. K. SMITH, C. S. A., Lynchburg, Va.:

SIR: The commanding general has been informed that one thousand rifles are on their way to Lynchburg from Montgomery for the Tennessee {p.861} troops. As soon as they arrive he desires that they be forwarded to this place, where they will be issued to the troops for whom they are intended.

I am,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HARPER’S FERRY, VA., May 21, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: The force now assembled at this place and its outposts consists of the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Virginia Regiments; the Fourth Regiment from Alabama; two regiments from Mississippi; five companies of Virginia Artillery; eight companies of Virginia Cavalry; four companies of Kentucky Infantry, and some small detachments, amounting to seven thousand seven hundred men, of whom it may be said that seven thousand are available for active service in the field, well armed. On Sunday, the 19th, I inspected the Alabama regiment and the Third and Fourth Virginia. Yesterday it rained so continuously that nothing could be done. In the evening I visited the position opposite the Point of Rocks, distant twelve miles from this point, where Captain Ashby, of the Virginia cavalry, an excellent officer, is stationed, with two companies of cavalry, six pieces of light artillery, and a company of riflemen, together with some men from Maryland, only a part of whom are armed. His cavalry is employed in active reconnaissance of the surrounding country, and his artillery has complete command of the bridge crossing the Potomac, the piers of which are mined, and can be instantly destroyed, in case of necessity; in addition to which, he holds possession of the road at the Point of Rocks in such manner as to prevent the passage of a train.

I have not yet visited the Maryland Heights, where redoubts are now going up; but, from frequent conversations which I have had with Lieutenant-Colonel Duncan, the officer in charge of the work, I am convinced that but little more is necessary to render that part of the ground quite secure. Of this, however, and other subjects, I shall be able to give more definite information in a more detailed report.

The Maryland Heights being out of the question, the most probable line of approach would be by Hagerstown and Shepherdstown, making the attack from the northwest. But the precautions of Colonel Jackson have rendered such an approach a matter of great risk. At Shepherdstown we have the bridge, and the conformation of the ground is, I understand, all in favor of the resisting force. The troops here are all raw and inexperienced-wanting even in the first elements of the school of the soldier-and there is a great scarcity of proper instructors. Many of the captains are singularly ignorant of their duties. Guard duty is very loosely done; and, indeed, there is apparent on every side the mere elements of men and arms, without the discipline and organization of an army. There is a sad deficiency in clothing and in camp and garrison equipage; and I fear that the exposure to which the troops have recently been subjected in the cold, rainy weather will swell the list of sick, already large. To make up, however, for this loose state of things, so striking to the professional eye, it must not be forgotten that a fierce spirit animates those rough-looking men; and, if called upon, even now, to meet their enemy, I have no fear of the result of battle. There is a determination abroad among men {p.862} who have collected from far and near to give a summary chastisement to any force which may have the hardihood to invade the soil of Virginia. This spirit is invincible.

This afternoon I shall endeavor to reach the Maryland Heights. Tomorrow I shall finish my inspection of the troops, and will muster into the service of the Confederate States nine companies of Maryland volunteers, who are exiled from their State, and are here drawing rations, and are anxious to serve for the war.

On Friday or Saturday I will return to Richmond, visiting General Cocke’s command en route, and will then submit my report in full to Major General Lee.

I have not asked Colonel Jackson his opinion on the subject, but my own is that there is force enough here to hold this place against any attack which, under the existing state of affairs, may be contemplated.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. DEAS, Lieutenant-Colonel and Inspector-General, C. S. Army.

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WILLIAMSBURG, VA., May 21, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

SIR: The receipt of your communication of the 20th instant is hereby respectfully acknowledged. In a letter received to-day from Major Cary, there is the following: “It is evidently the purpose of Colonel Dimick to take possession of a portion of Virginia soil.” I think so too, if his garrison requires more space. I have prohibited a useless and hopeless resistance to this until Colonel Dimick is at least out of the range of the Old Point guns with the force that may accompany him. It is difficult to manage Hampton. The people are excitable and brave even to rashness, and are unwilling to seem to give way. It (Hampton) might, on the approach in force of the Federal troops, be evacuated by the military, and the remaining citizens ought to make terms, unless, indeed, it is made a second Saragossa. I doubt if, from the nature of the buildings, this could be done. For the adjutant of the, battalion here, I wish to appoint Prof. B. Taliaferro. He has not much military experience, but has great intelligence, is firm and cool, has industry and activity, and is to be depended upon. I prefer him to any one I know here, and ask authority to appoint him from the ranks, or else to have him elected a supernumerary officer of a volunteer company, that I may appoint him. There are no field pieces here yet. Excuse me for calling your special attention to this fact. Before knowing your intention to order troops to Yorktown, with Captain Meade’s assistance I adopted a line of defense on the land side, covering the road from Old Point, the Poquosin River, and, in fact, from every landing on the York River below Yorktown. The plan was to repair the redoubt built by the British for the defense of this or these roads, and to erect another small redoubt; both to be defended with field pieces. The two hundred and forty men now in Yorktown, for the defense of the battery of two guns, could not hold the place against a field battery, muskets not being able to cope in an open country with a well-appointed battery. This fact, or advice, is not stated to inform you, but as a mode of making known the necessities of the force at Yorktown. Major Montague and myself are on the most friendly terms, and, if you approve of it, I am perfectly willing to aid him in the repairing and {p.863} construction of the field works in question or to point out the plan. It is beyond doubt that the land approach to Yorktown is in greater need of protection than the water. If the defense of Yorktown had not been within my control, as it was before Major Montague was sent there, it would not be proper for me to write of it as I have done. Under the circumstances there is, I hope, no impropriety in addressing you on the subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. S. EWELL, Lieutenant-Colonel, Virginia Volunteers.

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NORFOLK, VA., May 21, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

Troops in large numbers are arriving at Fort Monroe. In order to man and properly protect the batteries, so many men are required, and so many points of attack are threatened, that I feel it my duty to call at once for an additional force of not less than four thousand men. I am informed that the governor of North Carolina would send me a large force. Can I call on him?

WALTER GWYNN.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 21, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

GENERAL: Since this place has been strengthened by additional troops and artillery, so as to give confidence to our people, there has been a manifest improvement in public sentiment in this county; but I regret to say that in Berkeley things are growing worse, and that the threats from Union men are calculated to curb the expression of Southern feeling. While I have been unwilling to diminish the force here, yet, for the purpose of checking the disloyalty there, I have ordered the regiment from Jefferson opposite to Williamsport. You speak of concern at the want of alacrity on the part of companies west of here. This is partly due to their unarmed condition and want of a secure place of rendezvous. If no better plan is practicable, I would suggest that a force destined for the northwest be assembled, ostensibly for the defense of this part of the State, at Winchester, or some point near here, and that the moment that the governor’s proclamation announces the ratification by the people of the ordinance of secession, such troops be put in the cars, as though they were coming to this place, but that they be immediately thrown into the northwest, and at once crush out opposition. This force need remain there only for a short time, until the local ones could be armed. You will pardon me for urging promptness in what is to be done for that section of the State. Any want of this may be disastrous.

I send herewith a letter from Captain Shriver, of Wheeling, who has been on a visit here. I wrote to Colonel Garnett that Colonel Huger had gone on to Richmond, for the purpose of procuring whatever may be necessary for the efficiency of the heavy batteries; but I regret to learn that he has been delayed by sickness on his way. Should he not reach Richmond before this letter, please forward a large supply of ammunition for ten 24-pounder guns, if it can be spared. Should Colonel {p.864} Huger be prevented from reaching Richmond soon, I hope you will, if available, send me a practical ordnance officer. I have been depending on Colonel Huger for mounting and rendering efficient the heavy guns, with the exception of those intrusted to Lieutenant Fauntleroy.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant

T. J. JACKSON, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.

P. S.-I have about ninety thousand percussion caps.

[Inclosure.]

HARPER’S FERRY, VA., May 19, 1861.

Colonel JACKSON, Commandant, Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

At this time there is between three and four hundred Federal troops stationed upon the fair grounds on Wheeling Island, Ohio County, Virginia. They have been regularly sworn into the service of the U. S. Government by Colonel Oakes, who has been in the city of Wheeling for some time past expressly for that purpose. These troops have been furnished with arms by the U. S. Government at the request of citizens of the counties of Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, and Marshall, for the express purpose of resisting the authorities of the State of Virginia. At this time A. W. Campbell, of the city of Wheeling, by a published authority from Governor Dennison, of Ohio, will not permit citizens of Wheeling to ship provisions in any quantities over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

Yours, truly,

DAN. M. SHRIVER.

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ENGINEER’S OFFICE, Richmond, Va., May 21, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

SIR: The examinations preparatory to commencing work for the defense of this city are far enough advanced to enable me to select the sites for two redoubts on the cordon it is proposed to occupy. The first will be on the eastern side of Marion Hill, commanding the road leading up the river, and the country generally to the eastward; the second will be on high ground, near Tuder & Co.’s nursery, and quite near to the ravine of Gillies Creek. It is proposed to make the redoubts of sufficient capacity to contain garrisons of six hundred men. For a more perfect defense of the tongue of land between James River and Gillies Creek some two or three small redoubts are needed, in consequence of the irregularities of the ground, which is much cut by abrupt ravines. I do not propose commencing them immediately. The two principal redoubts may be ready for a laboring force on Thursday next, if you approve the foregoing suggestion. On the accompanying tracing the locations are indicated by the letter R in red. As soon as the lines of the works are traced on the ground, a requisition will be made for the ordnance required for arming them. The topographical examination between Gillies and Shockoe Creeks is not sufficiently advanced for continuing the cordon around that section, but it is believed that works can now be laid out, so as to give full employment to all the available labor at the disposal of the city authorities.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ANDREW TALCOTT, Engineer.

{p.865}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 95.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 21, 1861.

...

II. Col. John B. Magruder, of the Provisional Army of Virginia, is placed in command of the troops and military operations on the line to Hampton. He will establish his headquarters at Yorktown, take measures for the safety of the batteries at Jamestown Island and on York River, and urge forward the construction of the defenses between the heads of College and Queen Creeks, in advance of Williamsburg. The orders heretofore given to Lieut. Col. B. S. Ewell, Virginia volunteers, are referred to him for execution. Lieutenant-Colonel Ewell, with the troops under his command, will be stationed at the defenses in front of Williamsburg, and Major Cary on or near the Southwest Branch of the Back River, where it is crossed by the main road from Hampton. Authentic information of what occurs at Fort Monroe, and the operations of the U. S. forces, if important, will be forwarded to headquarters. Col. L. G. De Russy, with his regiment of Louisiana volunteers Col. D. H. Hill, with his regiment of North Carolina volunteers, and Col. T. P. August, with his regiment of Virginia volunteers, will report to Colonel Magruder for service under his command.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 22, 1861.

Brig. Gen. M. L. BONHAM, C. S. A.:

GENERAL: In the execution of the orders with which you have been furnished, relative to the command of the Alexandria line of operations, I need not call the attention of one as experienced as yourself to the necessity of preventing the troops from all interference with the rights and property of the citizens of the State, and of enforcing rigid discipline and obedience to orders. But it is proper for me to state to you that the policy of the State at present is strictly defensive. No attack, or provocation for attack will therefore be given, but every attack resisted to the extent of your means. Great reliance is placed on your discretion and judgment in the application of your force, and I must urge upon you the importance of organizing and instructing the troops as rapidly as possible and preparing them for active service. For this purpose it will be necessary to post them where their services may be needed and where they can be concentrated at the points threatened. The Manassas Junction is a very important point on your line, as it commands the communication with Harper’s Ferry, and must be firmly held. Intrenchments at that point would add to its security, and, in connection with its defense, you must watch the approaches from either flank, particularly towards Occoquan. Alexandria in its front will, of course, claim your attention as the first point of attack, and, as soon as your force is sufficient, in your opinion, to resist successfully its occupation, you will so dispose it as to effect this object, if possible, without appearing to threaten Washington City. The navigation of the Potomac being closed to us, and the U. S. armed vessels being able to take a position in front of the town, you will perceive the hazard of its destruction, unless your measures are such as to prevent it. This subject, {p.866} being one of great delicacy, is left to your judgment. The railroad communications must be secured, however, and their use by the enemy prevented. In the absence of tents or vacant houses, you will have to erect temporary plank sheds for the protection of your men.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 22, 1861-9 a. m.

General GWYNN:

Call on the governor of North Carolina for the force you require to the full extent. Two hundred laborers are on the way to you.

R. E. LEE.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES Richmond, Va., May 22, 1861.

Col. GEORGE H. TERRETT, Commanding, &c., Alexandria, Va.:

COLONEL: Unless you can devise some better plan for securing the rolling stock of the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad than that suggested to you in my letter of the 19th instant, I desire you to adopt it, and give directions that a track be laid from the depot of the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad to the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, in Union street, or some other more convenient point, by which this rolling stock can be carried to a place of safety on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad when not wanted for use on its proper road, and confer with presidents and directors of said roads as to perfecting this connection, which will not only be useful for the above purpose, but afford convenient transportation from one road to the other.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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GLOUCESTER POINT, VA., May 22, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: On my arrival here I presented your letter to Colonel Taliaferro, and soon had a conference upon the object of my visit. This place is literally without defense against a land attack. A force of five hundred men, landed within a day’s march, with even a feint by water, could take, by prompt movements, every gun. Mr. Clarke, the engineer here, is appointed by Colonel Talcott, and does not consider himself under the command of Colonel Taliaferro. This want of concert prevents unity of action and concert of measures. I could not therefore, without authority from you, urge the citizens to send laborers here to be directed by Mr. Clarke. His time and attention are much required by the works now in progress. I leave at once for Matthews County, in company with Major Page, where one or two companies are reported as organized.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOS. L. PRESTON.

{p.867}

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HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., May 22, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: I have the honor to state, for the information of the commanding general, that I have not been able to push the organization of volunteer companies forward with sufficient rapidity to make up a force of sufficient strength (under discipline) for our sole reliance, in the event of an attack on our Potomac coast, within a brief period of time.

I am under the necessity of manning the batteries by companies of volunteers, in consequence of the ineffectual efforts of the naval officers to enroll men for that service; and, indeed, I have been obliged to perform work on those batteries by detail for the want of laborers. It is to be observed that Captain Walker’s battery has not, therefore, thus far (in spite of the united efforts of the captain and myself), been put in readiness for the field, being deficient in men and equipments, and this is the only field battery in the department.

The above-noted employments, in connection with the necessity of covering the batteries and the avenues of approach to this city, have absorbed my volunteer force to such an extent that, if attacked by the enemy in great numbers, re-enforcements will be necessary; say at least one thousand well-disciplined volunteers and a field battery.

If occasion demands, I propose telegraphing to you for such force (well supplied with ammunition) the moment it is apparent that it will be needed, to repel actual invasion, with the confident hope that it will be sent.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Colonel, Provisional Army, Commanding Forces.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 109.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 23, 1861.

I. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Huger, of the volunteer forces of Virginia, is assigned to the command of the troops in and about Norfolk and its dependencies, and will relieve Brig. Gen. Walter Gwynn.

II. Brigadier-General Gwynn, after turning over his command and giving all information that may be useful to his successor, will report in person to the commanding general of the Virginia forces at Richmond.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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Report of Inspection made at Harper’s Ferry, Va., by Lieut. Cot. George Deas, Inspector-General C. S. Army.

MAY 23, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General, &c., Richmond, Va.:

The force at this time assembled at Harper’s Ferry and its outposts consists of five regiments from Virginia, two regiments from Mississippi, one regiment from Alabama, eight companies of Virginia cavalry, one battalion from Maryland, one battalion from Kentucky, five companies {p.868} of artillery, and a naval battery, amounting, in the aggregate, to about eight thousand men, of whom about seven thousand three hundred are able to go into combat, well armed. The five regiments of infantry from Virginia have good arms, but are very deficient in cartridge-boxes, belts, and ball-screws. The Alabama regiment is well appointed, has brought its tents and camp equipage, and is well clothed. Arms in good order. The two regiments from Mississippi have with them their tents and camp equipage, but are not satisfied with their arms, which are chiefly of the old flint-lock musket altered into percussion. As usual with troops of this description, they all want rifles. They were informed that, for the present, they must rest contented with such arms as it was in the power of the Government to give them. One of these regiments (the Eleventh), under the command of Colonel Moore, is very superior to the other (the Second), under Colonel Falkner. The latter is badly clothed and very careless in its appointments. The officers are entirely without military knowledge of any description, and the men have a slovenly and unsoldier-like appearance. The other regiment seems to take much pride in its appearance, and is endeavoring to improve itself by military exercises. All the infantry regiments are drilled daily in the school of the soldier and company, and valuable assistance in this respect is received from the young men who have been instructed at the military school at Lexington. But there is no ground in the immediate vicinity upon which the maneuvers of a large battalion can take place, consequently there is a lamentable want of knowledge of the first principles of formation into line and the changes of front and breaking into column. There are no regular regimental parades established, upon which to form quickly, in case of alarm. The Virginia regiments are only partially supplied with tents, and the main body of them are quartered in houses in the towns of Harper’s Ferry and Bolivar. Crowded together, as they necessarily are, I fear that utter confusion must be the consequence of any sudden movement. I speak, of course, only of the present. Undoubtedly a proper course of instruction must produce its good effects, and it is to be hoped that a steady improvement will take place. The attention of General Johnston has been called to these important points.

The artillery companies are drilled in the school of the soldier, without arms. There are no artillery horses, and therefore there is no such thing on the ground as light artillery. There are but four light pieces with Captain Pendleton’s company at Bolivar, at which the men are instructed in the manual of the piece. There are six guns with Captain Imboden’s company at the Point of Rocks. At this place also Captain Ashby is stationed, with two companies of cavalry and two hundred infantry, his total force amounting to four hundred men, one hundred and thirty-three horses, and six guns. His two positions are immediately at the bridge crossing the Potomac from the Point of Rocks and at the Potomac Forge half a mile distant. His cavalry covers the country for twenty miles to his rear, while his attention is immediately given to the line of railroad from Baltimore, which passes the Point of Rocks on the Maryland side. I am quite confident that, with the vigilance which is exercised by Captain Ashby, no enemy can pass the point which he is directed to observe. Should he be assailed from his rear, say by way of Leesburg, he could easily cross the bridge and retreat upon Harper’s Ferry; and in doing so destroy the bridge, the piers of which are already mined for such a contingency.

The naval batteries, under Lieutenant Fauntleroy, are placed on the northern and southern salients of the village of Harper’s Ferry, and {p.869} envelope with their fire the whole of the town of Bolivar and the approaches by the immediate banks of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers. There are at this time but two 32-pounders in position in each battery on plain platforms, and the guns on ship’s carriages. It is intended to increase the number of guns in each battery to six. These batteries would be very formidable in resisting an attack upon the town of Harper’s Ferry.

The cavalry, under Lieut. Col. J. E. B. Stuart, is in very good condition, and quite effective. Their arms are a small-sized revolver and a saber; no carbines. The horses are good, and all the men ride well. They are made exceedingly useful in the duties of scouts and vedettes, covering a considerable extent of country to the front.

The hospital department is very deficient in every respect. There are a few beds in the general hospital, but there is no provision whatever made for the care of wounded men, in the event of an engagement taking place. Requisitions for medicines and for hospital stores have been made on the surgeon-general at Richmond, and he is now earnestly endeavoring to supply the wants of this department at Harper’s Ferry. The general state of health in the regiments was good, and there was no epidemic of any kind. Exposure to many cold, rainy nights had caused some severe colds among the men from the extreme South, and there were some cases of the ordinary camp diseases, but nothing very serious.

The clothing of the troops is not abundant, and, in the regiment from Mississippi, under Colonel Falkner, almost every necessary is wanting. They seem to have come away from home without making proper preparations in this respect, and, indeed, it would seem that they expected to receive on their arrival in Virginia all the appointments of a soldier. Fortunately the approach of warm weather will obviate the necessity of a full supply of clothing for these men; otherwise they could not enter upon a campaign in their present condition. I recommend an early attention on the part of the proper officers to this important subject of clothing.

In regard to camp and garrison equipage, so much is required that I do not consider it necessary to enter into particulars. From what I can learn of the deficiency of such articles in the adjacent country and even in Richmond, it will be necessary for the Quartermaster’s Department to cause everything of the nature referred to to be made, and this should be done at once. The supplies of subsistence are abundant, except in the item of bacon. There is plenty of beef, and a large quantity of flour on hand, enough to last many months. In view of the defense of the immediate position at Harper’s Ferry, there is now there an ample force for that purpose. The enemy can make no successful attack, either by the way of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad or by the Maryland Heights, both of which approaches can easily be defended. The principal direction by which an attacking force would move would be by crossing the Potomac from eight to fifteen miles above by fords which are known to be practicable, and then, moving circuitously, come in by the roads leading to the northwestern approach to the Ferry. The troops moving out could meet the enemy in several good positions, and, if forced back by superior numbers, could yet take up their lines on the edge of the town, and, with the assistance of the artillery, could defy and beat back five times their numbers with perfect ease.

Under the existing state of affairs, that is, with the means at hand, for offensive operations coming from Baltimore or Pennsylvania, Harper’s Ferry may be looked upon as perfectly safe. But if the war is to {p.870} assume much larger proportions, it might be possible for the enemy to shut up our force now assembled there, and, with superior numbers, pass on with a heavy force and occupy the valleys beyond, in Western Virginia. If this should ever be suspected to be the plans of the enemy, of what use would it be to hold on to Harper’s Ferry? In such a state of affairs, it would be much better to abandon the Ferry altogether, remove the machinery, destroy the buildings, blow up the bridge, and move out into the valleys, and thus maneuver against the advancing enemy; in addition to which a force should be sent at once up the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to blow up the tunnels, and burn the bridges on Cheat River, and otherwise cause such damage to the road as to render impossible the passage of a force from Wheeling or Parkersburg.

I inclose a small sketch of the position at Harper’s Ferry, the various roads in the vicinity being marked by red lines.

The major-general commanding will understand that a report of this nature, being that of raw volunteers, just arrived (from long distances in several cases), is not of so minute a character as it would be with troops of better training and of more experience in war.

Respectfully submitted.

GEO. DEAS, Lieut. Col., and Insp. Gen. C. S. Army.

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WILLIAMSBURG, VA., May 24, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Commanding Virginia Forces:

SIR: The inclosed letter was received by me this morning from Major Cary. It seemed to be so important that I immediately started for this place. There has been a large accession of force at Old Point. (For the details see the inclosed report of Major Cary.)* Finding, on my arrival here, that Major Cary had gone to Old Point to see General Butler, and considering it better for me to be present at the interview, I followed, and was, after getting in proper form within the pickets of the Federal troops, unceremoniously dealt with; was taken prisoner and marched into the fort. By the kindness of Colonel Dimick a release was at once given, and I returned directly to Williamsburg. I thought it best to order the destruction of the bridge across Hampton Creek. I have given such general directions in other respects as conform to your orders.

Respectfully,

BENJ. S. EWELL, Lieutenant-Colonel, Virginia Volunteers.

* See p. 35.

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MAY 24, 1861-7.15 p. m.

[Col. J. B. MAGRUDER:]

SIR: I regret to inform you that Lieutenant-Colonel Ewell was taken prisoner at Fort Monroe; under what plea I pave not been able to understand. I had requested an interview with Major-General Butler (now in command) this morning, which was granted at 3.30 p. m. My main object was to ascertain how far he intended to take possession of Virginia soil, in order that I might act in such a manner as to avoid {p.871} collision between our scouts. I could only gather from him that it was “a military necessity” for him to occupy our land for an encampment, and that he could only say that, if he was not interfered with by bodies of armed troops, he would molest no one. He indicated his determination to take possession of anything which he might deem necessary for his use. In accordance with these principles he has taken three of Colonel Mallory’s negroes, which he has refused to give up on application. I dispatched to Colonel Ewell a detailed account of a reconnaissance which they made on yesterday to this place.* They marched a regiment of about eight hundred men, supported by a battery of six brass pieces, and perhaps a still further reserve. I presume Colonel Ewell has forwarded it to you. They are now encamping, or rather apparently selecting their ground, about three-fourths of one mile distant from this place. I demanded of General Butler that he should see into the reason of Colonel Ewell’s arrest, which he promised me, just as he left (when for the first time I heard of it), that the matter should be attended to. If he is not released in the morning I shall make a more formal demand under a flag of truce. As it will take my messenger nearly all night to reach the river connection in the morning, I must bring this to an abrupt close, craving your indulgence for its desultory character.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. CARY, Major Artillery, Virginia Volunteers.

P. S.-Lieutenant Cutshaw will give detailed information in regard to the invasion yesterday.

* See p. 35.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 24, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I forward herewith copies of correspondence between General J. E. Johnston, of the C. S. Army, and myself. Major Whiting has taken charge of the defenses.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Col. Virginia Vols., Comdg. at Harper’s Ferry, Va.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HARPER’S FERRY, VA., May 24, 1861.

Colonel JACKSON, Virginia Forces:

COLONEL: Will you oblige me by having the inclosed order copied and distributed to the different regiments?

Very respectfully,

J. E. JOHNSTON.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

ORDERS, No. -.]

HARPER’S FERRY, VA., May 24, 1861.

In obedience to the orders of the Secretary of War, the undersigned assumes the command of the troops at and in the vicinity of this place.

Maj. E. E. McLean, C. S. Army, will take the direction of the operations of the Quartermaster’s Department; Maj. W. H. C. Whiting those of the Engineer Corps.

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army. {p.872} [Inclosure No. 3.]

HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. E. JOHNSTON, C. S. A.:

GENERAL: I have the honor of acknowledging the receipt of your note of this morning, requesting the publication of an order, as coming from you, assuming the command of this post, in obedience to the orders of the Secretary of War, and directing Maj. E. E. McLean, C. S. Army, to take the direction of the operations of the Quartermaster’s Department, and Maj. W. H. C. Whiting those of the Engineer Corps. Until I receive further instructions from Governor Letcher or General Lee, I do not feel at liberty to transfer my command to another, and must therefore decline publishing the order. Meanwhile I beg you to be assured that it will give me pleasure to afford to yourself and to the other officers named every facility in my power for obtaining appropriate information relating to the post and departments of the service connected with it.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Col. Virginia Vols., and Comdg. at Harper’s Ferry, Va.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES Richmond, Va., May 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. M. L. BONHAM, Comdg. Manassas Junction, Va.:

GENERAL: Colonel Moore’s regiment (seven companies) of Virginia volunteers has been ordered to join you to-morrow, and an additional battery of artillery. If strong defensible positions can be found on Bull Run Creek, or in advance of it, it is advised that they be also occupied and strengthened; but the position of Manassas Junction, being of great importance to us, must be secured by all means in your power.*

...

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

* Matters of detail omitted.

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RICHMOND, VA., May 24, 1861.

General BONHAM, Manassas Junction, Va.:

Send an express to Colonel Hunton, at Leesburg, to destroy all the bridges of the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad as far down towards Alexandria as possible, and to keep you and General Johnston advised of the movements of the enemy towards Harper’s Ferry.

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Brigadier-General BONHAM, Commanding, &c., Manassas Junction, Va.:

SIR: Major Williamson, now on engineer duty on the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, has been ordered by telegraph to report to you. {p.873} With his practical knowledge of engineering, and the assistance of Lieutenant-Colonels Ewell, Jordan, and Jones, all capable men, it is believed that you will be enabled to adopt judicious means of defense for your position. An additional regiment of infantry will be sent you tomorrow. Be pleased to make formal requisitions on the proper departments for whatever may be necessary for your command, and forward them to this office. As soon as practicable, the commanding general desires a statement of the circumstances under which Ball’s dragoons were captured, as mentioned in your telegraphic dispatch.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Col. C. DIMMOCK, Ordnance Department:

COLONEL: Send four hundred original percussion muskets, forty rounds of ammunition for each, and sixteen thousand caps to General Bonham, at Manassas Junction, as soon as possible.

By order:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant. General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 24, 1861.

Lieut. Col. JOHN MCCAUSLAND, Buffalo, Va.:

SIR: Your requisition for harness for a battery of artillery and for ammunition has been received. The Ordnance Department has been instructed, as far as practicable, to supply the ammunition, and to send it to the care of Maj. M. G. Harman, at Staunton, who has been instructed to adopt the safest and most expeditious means of sending it to you. You will confer with him by letter as to the best means of doing this. It is believed that suitable harness can be made or purchased in the valley. If good, strong wagon-harness can be made or purchased, you are authorized to direct the quartermaster to buy it for you. There is none to be had here immediately. You will report what can be done in this respect. Send a copy of this communication to Colonel Tompkins, commanding, &c.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 24, 1861.

Col. GEORGE A. PORTERFIELD, Commanding, &c., Grafton, Va.:

COLONEL: I have just received your letter of the 18th instant, and regret that you have been unsuccessful in organizing the companies of volunteers that you expected. By this time the companies from Staunton must have reached you; also one from Harper’s Ferry, and I hope that the true men of that region have been encouraged to come out into the service of the State. I will write to the commanding officer of {p.874} Harper’s Ferry to give you all aid in his power, and I hope you will spare no pains to preserve the integrity of the State, and to prevent the occupation of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad by its enemies. In answer to your inquiry as to the treatment of traitors, I cannot believe that any citizen of the State will betray its interests, and hope all will unite in supporting the policy she may adopt.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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FREDERICKSBURG, May 24, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

Request General Lee to send me one thousand well-disciplined volunteer infantry, and one battery of mounted artillery for field service. Reply by telegraph. Details will be given by mail. No enemy has landed in my department.

D. RUGGLES, Colonel.

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HEADQUARTERS, Fredericksburg, Va., May 24, 1861.

General R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: I have, the honor to state, in answer to the communication from the commanding general of the forces, dated the 13th instant, that I cannot spare the two companies from Richmond (Captains Wise’s and Cunningham’s), without irreparable injury to the service for some time to come. These companies, under the command of Colonel Cary, are now (in conjunction with other forces) covering the Potomac batteries and avenues of approach, becoming acquainted with the character of the district and its natural defenses, thus rendering their services indispensable.

I have also to state (on information) that the officers and men in said companies are anxious to remain here, to be incorporated with a regiment about being organized. Their return to Richmond, it is said, would give the greatest dissatisfaction, and very probably break up these fine companies.

The receipt this morning of private advices from Washington warrants the belief that the enemy contemplate striking a blow without much further delay. Under these circumstances, as I am not able to place a sufficient force for the protection of the upper border of Stafford County, from which, if a landing is once effected, a flank movement will endanger the efficiency of the Aquia Creek battery, and as the force for covering the battery on the Potomac Creek is not of sufficient strength to do full justice to the position, I respectfully recommend that one thousand well-disciplined volunteers be sent here, with a battery of four rifled or smooth-bore field guns for immediate service. With this re-enforcement I shall hope to prevent the enemy from effecting a landing or advancing before additional force may be concentrated against him.

I respectfully represent that a successful debarkation of the enemy on this part of the Potomac coast would in all probability drive a large portion of the population from between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, possessing themselves of a large amount of supplies, (necessary for the support of the people and our forces), and thus carry {p.875} demoralization and alarm throughout the State, from the fact that a successful invasion of our soil had been effected. The position of the enemy once attained between the Potomac and the Rappahannock Rivers, a fertile region, filled with supplies and resources, would, from its natural advantages, become a most important possession, from which it would be difficult to dislodge him.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Colonel, Provisional Army, Commanding Forces.

MAY 25TH.

P. S.-The possession of Alexandria by the enemy exposes the left flank of my line to his approach, and to protect which I am now making preparations.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Col. BENJ. S. EWELL, Commanding, &c., Williamsburg, Va.:

COLONEL: I am instructed by Major-General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st instant, and to inform you that he approves of your views respecting the defense of Hampton. Adjutants of battalions or regiments must be appointed from the lieutenants belonging to the battalion or regiment. They cannot be taken from the ranks. If Mr. Taliaferro is elected a lieutenant of one of the companies under your command General Lee will request the governor to commission him, and you can then appoint him your adjutant. Field pieces have been sent to Colonel Magruder at Yorktown. General Lee has not heard whether the lines are begun at Williamsburg. Will you please to inform him if they are under way and what progress has been made in their construction? No time should be lost in completing these works. They are of great importance, and a large force should be employed on them. You are requested to inform him what force you have working on these lines, and, if insufficient, whether you cannot increase it from the neighboring country. Colonel Magruder has been written to upon this subject.

I am, &c.,

JNO. A. WASHINGTON, Aide-de-Camp, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

General BENJ. HUGER, Comdg. Virginia Forces, Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: I wish to call your attention to the condition of Craney Island. It is the first point that will arrest the passage of a vessel to Norfolk; it is the most exposed and the least prepared for defense. I cannot urge upon you too strongly the necessity of putting it in good condition. More troops should be ordered there, and laborers, if practicable. If laborers cannot be obtained, the troops must work at the trenches at that point and all others within your lines of defense. A North Carolina regiment will leave here to-morrow for your post.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.876}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 24th instant* has just been received. I understand there is no cavalry at Fort Monroe, no baggage wagons, and but one company of light artillery. I do not think an immediate movement by land may be expected, but I wish you to be prepared for any emergency. According to reports in this office, there must be three companies of cavalry under your command. I will order to you five more. We have no wagons yet for service with troops in the field. It is supposed that you will find no difficulty in procuring wagons and teams in the neighborhood, as many persons in that section of the country engaged in the wood trade, which is now suspended, must have them on hand. You will please see what arrangements you can make for hiring or purchasing the same through your quartermaster, and let him make a report to the chief quartermaster at this place.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* See p. 36.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: Two 12-pounder brass pieces have been directed to be sent you at Yorktown, which may be applied to the land defenses either below Yorktown or Williamsburg, as you may deem best. Two 8-inch columbiads are also sent to you at Yorktown, and, if not wanted for the water defense, they had better be applied to the land either there or at Williamsburg. I again urge upon you the necessity of the line of defenses between the heads of Queen and College Creeks, about which Colonel Ewell his already received instructions. Colonel Ewell had better be directed to apply all the force he can procure to the erection of those lines. Captains Rives and Meade, of the Engineer Corps, are on duty in the peninsula, and subject to your orders. Should the lines below Williamsburg not have been surveyed and laid out, they had better be put at it directly.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, Major-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Col. WM. B. TALIAFERRO, Commanding Gloucester Point, Va.:

COLONEL: Colonel Talcott will direct Captain Smith, of the Engineer Corps, now at West Point, to take charge of the construction of the battery at Gloucester Point. He will be subject to your orders for the general purposes of defense, but will conform to the instructions of Colonel Talcott as regards the plans and details of the work. You are desired to urge forward the completion of all the batteries, both for the water and land defense, for which purpose it will be desirable for you {p.877} to collect as large a force of laborers as you can. It is hoped that, by the united exertions of yourself and Captain Preston, more troops shall be collected from the counties of Matthews, Gloucester, and King and Queen. We have no troops here to send you.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 25, 1861.

Hon. L POPE WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: Being very much embarrassed in furnishing the troops which have been called into service by the State of Virginia with arms, ammunition, and the necessary accouterments, on account of the limited supply and the small size of our arsenal and workshops, I beg leave to suggest that the troops ordered to this State may come provided with arms, ammunition, cartridge-boxes, knapsacks, haversacks, and all other necessary equipments, and that their organization be as complete as practicable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HARPER’S FERRY, VA., May 25, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

COLONEL: Subsequent to mailing to you yesterday the communication in which I refused to recognize General J. B. Johnston’s authority to assume command here, I was furnished with the following indorsement on an application:

Referred to General J. E. Johnston, commanding officer at Harper’s Ferry.

By order of Major-General Lee:

JOHN A. WASHINGTON, Aide-de-Camp.

Immediately on receiving this information I complied with General Johnston’s request, and published his order assuming command.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON, Colonel Virginia Volunteers.

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YORKTOWN, VA., May 25, 1861.

Maj. J. B. CARY, Commanding near Hampton:

SIR: I have not been able to see Colonel Ewell since my arrival here. We learn from Mr. White, a member of your troop, that you are probably at Back River, and that you have been joined by a company of rifles and one of artillery, the latter with two or three pieces. If so, you must be very careful not to be cut off by a larger party getting in your rear. It would be difficult for you to bring off your pieces if the enemy got in your rear. You will therefore keep mounted sentinels at night at or near Newport News wharf, on your right, and at all the proper points on your left; and should you discover a design to cut you off, you must withdraw in time to prevent it. It would be very desirable {p.878} to have the artillery drawn by horses or mules. Ordinary wagon harness will answer, and the people of the country ought to furnish the horses. If you cannot get the horses you will lose your pieces; if the enemy choose to send a force up James River much larger than yours. I therefore think that you had better send your artillery to Hood’s Mill, about ten miles from here. Place it strongly there, protected by your rifles, and keep your cavalry, as usual, in sight of Fort Monroe. In this way you would show front to the fort, and place your guns and rifles in safe connection with this point.

I have established an express to Richmond from here. Please send me your dispatches by one of your mounted men whenever you observe anything worth communicating, and I will forward it to General Lee by the special express. I will be down to see you as soon as I arrange affairs here.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER.

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YORKTOWN, VA., May 25, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: I found the battery of heavy guns progressing slowly. The time at which the negroes were promised to return to their masters having arrived, they were discharged by the engineer. I have ordered four hundred men of the command to be set to work to-morrow morning on this battery, and as soon as I can select the defensive positions towards the interior, which will be to-morrow morning, I shall commence the intrenchments there and prosecute them vigorously. Colonel Ewell has returned. I have not yet seen him.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER.

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HEADQUARTERS HAMPTON LINE, Yorktown, Va., May 25, 1861.

Col. T. P. AUGUST:

SIR: Colonel Magruder directs that you remain at Williamsburg until further orders, prepared to move at any moment with your regiment, with rations, &c., prepared. He also requests that yourself and Colonel Ewell come over and see him; also, that you send directly the horse, saddle, bridle, &c., that was sent down with your regiment, to be turned over to me for the use of the assistant adjutant-general’s department.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. A. THORNTON, First Lieutenant, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FREDERICKSBURG, VA., May 25, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT:

I have just learned that Captain Lynch is about withdrawing two of the heavy guns from the Aquia Creek Battery, without substituting others, with the view of removing them to Potomac Creek Bridge. This change does not conform to my conviction as to the best use of these {p.879} guns. The Potomac Bridge can be turned in any direction, and I am preparing for its destruction when necessary. It is my hope to keep the enemy from Landing, and keep communication open with the land.

Please answer.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Colonel, Provisional Army.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. M. L. BONHAM, Commanding, &c., Manassas Junction, Va.:

SIR: In reply to your inquiries of the 24th instant, I inclose a copy of Special Orders, No. 39, of the 10th instant, which, with Special Orders, No. 95, of the 21st instant, and the schedule to the governor’s proclamation of the 3d instant, contain all orders that have been issued in relation to the limits of your command. Special Orders, No. 95, gave you control of the troops at Culpeper Court-House, and, of course, of Colonel Ewell with them. On inquiry at the Exchange, I am informed that the “return” of troops on the Alexandria line has been forwarded to you. The commanding general desires to be informed, as early as practicable, of the exact extent to which the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad has been destroyed in the direction of Alexandria.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

[Inclosures.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 39.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

...

II. Col. G. H. Terrett, of the Provisional Army of Virginia, will take charge of the troops from the counties of Alexandria, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, and Fauquier, and the defense of those counties.

III. Col. P. St. George Cocke, Virginia Volunteers, will retain his headquarters at or near Culpeper Court-House, and organize into regiments as fast as possible the troops called out from the counties of Rappahannock, Culpeper, Madison, Greene, Orange, Albemarle, Nelson, Amherst, Campbell, Bedford, Roanoke, Botetourt, and Craig, assigning to their command the field officers placed at his disposal. He will direct the commands of Cols. S. Garland and J. F. Preston to repair to Manassas Junction and report for duty to Colonel Terrett.

...

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 95.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 21, 1861.

I. Brig. Gen. M. L. Bonham, of the C. S. Army, is assigned to the command of the troops on the line to Alexandria. He will post his brigade of South Carolina volunteers at the Manassas Junction, and establish his headquarters at that point or in advance, as he may find necessary. He will be guided by the instructions given to Col. George {p.880} H. Terrett, commanding at Alexandria, and to Col. P. St. George Cocke, at Culpeper Court-House, whose commands are embraced within his district, and are put under his control.

...

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 26, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: I have received your communication of the 25th instant. In reply, I would state that I do not think it advisable to receive the company of cavalry from Gloucester. The Varina Troop, Capt. Abner Aiken, and a company from Charles City County, have already been ordered to you. The insufficiency of forage, to which you have alluded, and the unsuitability of the country for the action of cavalry, densely covered as it is by woods and intersected by creeks, nearly render it necessary to diminish the number of companies which you were yesterday informed would be sent you. I request that you will inform me how many companies you will need and how many can be provided for, as it is impossible to send you forage from Richmond.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 26, 1861.

Col. DANIEL RUGGLES, Commanding, Fredericksburg, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 24th instant is at hand. The commanding general desires you to report what number of companies you have called out and mustered into the service in the lower counties of the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, what description of troops they are, and where they are now stationed. If after the arrival of the Second Regiment Tennessee Volunteers and the battery of four 6-pounders, you deem your force still insufficient to hold the enemy in check until other re-enforcements could reach you, it is suggested that you might draw from the counties before mentioned such companies as might be best spared from their present localities. If your mounted force is not already sufficient, and the service of Captain Cauthorn’s company is deemed indispensable, you can muster it into service.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 26, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT Adjutant-General Virginia Forces, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: I respectfully transmit herewith a statement of the amount of ammunition on hand.

The quantity in possession of the troops does not exceed twelve or fifteen rounds, the force in this vicinity being about five thousand two {p.881} hundred men. The statement includes what is still in the Ordnance Department, and is exclusive of the twelve or fifteen rounds issued. I respectfully suggest the importance of instant measures to send an additional supply as soon as possible. There is scarcely half enough here for an action.

We are observing the river from Williamsport to the Point of Rocks, at least thirty miles. Our force is too small, however, to prevent invasion by an enemy strong enough to be willing to attempt it. To hold this point and observe the river above the Point of Rocks would require fifteen or twenty thousand men. This position can be turned easily and effectively from above and below. After turning it, an enemy attacking in the rear would have decided advantage of ground against so small a force as our present one. Should the enemy cross the river the troops in this vicinity would be best employed in trying to retard his advance into the country. Their utter want of discipline and instruction will render it difficult to use them in the field. I beg to receive the views and instructions of the Commander-in-Chief in relation to the manner in which the troops under my command can best be used. I am procuring wagons to march, if necessary.

Captain Ashby, commanding near the Point of Rocks, was instructed by my predecessor to break the railroad whenever he found such a measure necessary for his defense. Those instructions were repeated by me. Captain Ashby reported this morning that in consequence of intelligence just received he was about to throw a mass of rock upon it, by blasting.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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Memorandum in relation to Harper’s Ferry.

[May 26, 1861.]

There is no danger of attack in front, but the position is easily turned by crossing the river above or below. The present force is not sufficient for defense against a superior one, attacking from the Virginia side. Relief, in case of investment, could not be furnished. Considered as a position, I regard Harper’s Ferry as untenable by us at present against a strong enemy. We have outposts at the Point of Rocks, near the ferry at Williamsport and the bridge at Shepherdstown, the extreme points being at least thirty miles apart. Our effective force, including those detachments and two others on the opposite heights, is about five thousand men, with one hundred and forty thousand cartridges and seventy-five thousand percussion caps. The only way in which this force can be made useful, I think, is by rendering it movable, and employing it to prevent or retard the enemy’s passage of the Potomac, and, should he effect the crossing, in opposing his advance into the country. This I shall endeavor to do, unless instructed to the contrary. Orders to provide wagons have been given. Cartridges have been made at the rate of font thousand per diem. I have directed increase of the force employed. Bullet-molds and cartridge-paper are wanting, and may not be procured.

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army. {p.882}

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 20.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 26, 1861.

The commanding officers at Richmond, Norfolk, Fredericksburg, and Harper’s Ferry, of the Alexandria line and the Hampton line, will be considered as commanding separate departments, in the sense of the sixty-fifth article of war, and are authorized to order general courts-martial.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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NORFOLK, VA., May 27, 1861-11.30 a. m.

Major-General LEE:

Seven steamers, with troops, have been and are now landing men at Newport News. Other steamers, with troops, arrived at Old Point this morning.

BENJ. HUGER.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Brigadier-General HUGER, Commanding, &c., Norfolk, Va.:

SIR: From the facts stated in your telegram received to-day I think it not improbable that the object of the troops which are landing at Newport News may be either to ascend Nansemond River to the town of Suffolk, or, if that river be too well protected for this, to cross James River to Burwell’s Bay, and thence, by land, to Suffolk, or some point of the railroad. The effect of either of these movements will be to cut off your communication with Richmond, and I take the liberty of calling your attention to this, as I know the pressure of the duties now upon you. I would recommend that you telegraph the governor of North Carolina to hasten the movements of those troops which are destined for Norfolk, Va., if they have not already arrived, and to recommend that he dispatch a sufficient force to Suffolk.

I am, general, with respect, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Lieut. JOHN M. BROOKE, Virginia Navy, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: You will proceed to Petersburg, and if the company from Fort Powhatan meets you there you will conduct it to Zuni, and endeavor to make temporary arrangements for its accommodation. You will give instructions to the commanding officer to guard the bridges over that river, and how to proceed in the event of the approach ,of the U. S. troops in force. Should the company not have reached Petersburg on your arrival, you will leave orders for it to follow to Zuni, where you will post it. If you find it necessary, you will continue to Norfolk and concert with the president of the road the best measures to be taken to guard it. After this, you will return to this point. You {p.883} are authorized to make a requisition upon the commanding general at Norfolk for any necessary articles which may be obtained at that place.

With respect, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

SIR: I have received information, by telegraph, to-day from Norfolk that the Federal troops are landing at Newport News. I deem it proper to inform, you of this, as it may be their intention to move on to Warwick Court-House, and thence, by the road, to Yorktown. Captains Cosby and Hood, of the Confederate Army, have been ordered to report to you for the purpose of instructing the cavalry troop.

I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Col. J. A. EARLY, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding, &c., Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: The commanding general instructs me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 26th instant,* and to express to you his satisfaction with the manner in which you repressed the difficulty among the companies under your command in relation to their arms. There are no cavalry arms here to issue, unless your companies would be willing to accept flint-lock pistols, of which we have only two hundred and ten.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,.

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Brig. Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: In a letter from Colonel Jackson, of the 21st instant, lately received, he speaks of the want of an ordnance or artillery officer at your post. There is none at present available, but Major Elzey, of the Confederate Army, has been ordered here, and I will endeavor to place him on duty with you. Meantime I have thought that the services of Colonel Jackson might be applied to the mounting and preparing the batteries for service. The proper defense of the country west of you and the command of the railroad through that region is deemed very important to the safety of your position, and it is hoped you will be able to take measures to maintain it, or prevent the use of the road to invaders of the State. It is thought probable that you might add to the comfort of your command by procuring, or causing to be procured, {p.884} at Winchester camp equipage for those companies said to be in want, and that arrangements might be made there for making cartridge-boxes, haversacks, &c.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Col. GEORGE A. PORTERFIELD, Commanding, &c., Grafton, Va.:

SIR: I have to inform you that I have ordered one thousand muskets, with a sufficient supply of powder and lead, to Beverly, escorted by Colonel Heck and Major Cowan. Any instructions you may have for Colonel Heck, address to him at Beverly. Colonel Heck has been instructed to call out all the volunteers that he can along his route.

I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Capt. B. RUFFIN, JR., Virginia Volunteers:

SIR: You will proceed with the company under your command to Burwell’s Bay, to watch the movements of the enemy, in order to give notice of his approach, should he land in that vicinity and attempt to penetrate towards the railroad. In that case you will immediately dispatch messengers to Suffolk and to Zuni, where the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad crosses the Blackwater. You will then keep in front of the enemy, to observe his motions and retard his advance. Should it be necessary to communicate with you, such communications will be sent through the Smithfield post-office.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

P. S.-Upon your arrival at Burwell’s Bay you will inform the officer commanding at Zuni, in order that you may act in concert.

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HEADQUARTERS Yorktown Va., May 27, 1861.

Colonel GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

SIR: I have just received, by a special messenger from Major Cary, the following dispatch: “The enemy are landing at Newport News. Five steamers are up James River. Destination unknown. Please send down cavalry immediately.” I have not a single horseman and cannot get one. A large force of cavalry, as I have stated before, seems to me to be absolutely necessary, to learn of the movements of the enemy. Major Cary is falling back with only thirty-five men, the rest of the troops being engaged in removing their families. The five steamers are reported by the express as being filled with troops. I am of the impression that this is intended to be an attack on our flanks.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding. {p.885} [Indorsement.]

Colonel GARNETT:

See if you can get some cavalry off to Colonel Magruder. Should an advance be made by Williamsburg, Randolph’s battery, with the others here, must be sent down. Send those artillery companies from Lynchburg to Craney Island and Jamestown.

R. E. LEE.

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HEADQUARTERS Yorktown, Va., May 27, 1861-3 p. m.

Colonel GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

SIR: I am instructed by Colonel Magruder to inform you that, although he had been positively assured by Major Cary that five steamers had proceeded up James River (destination unknown), they have not yet made their appearance at Grove Wharf or King’s Mill, and that, should they land at either of the above-mentioned places, his present force would be insufficient to resist them effectually. I am also instructed to inform you that for the want of cavalry he has been obliged to disorganize his artillery, in order that they may act as vedettes. Under any circumstances, though, you may depend upon this place being defended, and held for two or three days at least.

I am, very respectfully,

GEO. A. MAGRUDER, JR. Acting Aide-de-Camp.

P. S.-This is informal, but I have not time to correct it. Please excuse the informality.

J. B. M.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Major WILSON, Commanding, &c., Fort Powhatan, Va.:

Direct one company of infantry to proceed to Petersburg in time for the downward train to Norfolk to-morrow. It will receive orders on its arrival. Carry five days’ provisions.

R. E. LEE.

P. S.-Operator communicate by express.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 126.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

The volunteers from the State of Maryland, accepted into the service of Virginia, will assemble at Charlestown, Va., and be there organized into regiments by Col. Francis J. Thomas and instructed in their duties. This command will be under the orders of the commanding officer at Harper’s Ferry for service on that frontier.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

{p.886}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 127.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

The commanding officer of the cavalry camp at Ashland will select the four companies of his command best prepared for actual service in the field, and prepare them to move by railroad to Manassas Junction. Two of these companies will take the cars on Wednesday, at such hour and place as the railroad officers may appoint with the Quartermaster’s Department, and will be followed on the next day by the two remaining companies. The four companies will be placed under the command of Maj. Julian Harrison, Virginia volunteers, who will report to Brigadier-General Bonham on their arrival at Manassas Junction. They will be provided with at least one day’s cooked rations for the journey.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Yorktown, Va., May 27, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT:

SIR: The women and children have been passing here all day from Hampton, and Major Cary also is retreating on this place with about sixty-five men, out of some two hundred, which he had a day or two since-the remainder of his men being occupied attending to their retreating families. He left two pieces of indifferent artillery behind him within three miles of Hampton. I sent down for these to-night, and think they will be here, or at least in a place of safety by daylight. Since my last dispatch, which I sent through Colonel Ewell, further intelligence has-reached me, to the effect that a large body of troops, some two thousand five hundred or three thousand, perhaps exaggerated, marched out of Old Point by the head of Hampton Creek, the bridge by Hampton having been burned, passed through Hampton, and marched to Newport News and united with those who landed there to-day, making, by the smallest accounts, five thousand men. The statement with regard to the number of troops may be inaccurate, but from official reports, from Major Cary and otherwise, there is a very considerable body of Federal troops occupying that place, from which they can march to this place in one day with ease, or can reach this place more rapidly by landing their troops at Grove Landing, on James River, about eight miles from here, and over a road not easily defensible by inferior numbers. This landing is on my right and rear, being, as I said before, only eight miles from here and seven miles from Williamsburg, the distance from the latter place to this being twelve miles, and Williamsburg itself being northwest from us. Colonel Ewell reports to-day that he has only one hundred and eighty men under his command, and Colonel August, whom I left there because I saw that Williamsburg was very much exposed, has only between six and seven hundred men.

I shall urge upon Colonel Ewell your instructions in reference to the defenses between the heads of Queen and College Creeks, directing him to employ all the officers and soldiers of his command as laborers, all the troops here being employed night and day in this capacity. To-day he informs me that he has moved his force and that of Colonel August towards Grove Landing, keeping, however, I presume, his laborers employed upon, the defenses between Queen and College Creeks and in {p.887} front of Williamsburg. I have not had a moment’s time to examine the country farther than within the circumference of seven or eight miles. I therefore have not been to Williamsburg. I am perfectly satisfied, however, that if the enemy land in force at either of the places on the James River above mentioned and march upon Williamsburg, it will fall, unless strongly re-enforced, or unless I march to operate on his flank and rear while he is making the attack, in which case I should leave this point entirely uncovered and expose it to an attack in its rear from Fort Monroe. This place carried, Gloucester Point is commanded, and the enemy’s ships enter York River. In case of such an alternative, I should decide to defend this place to the last, unless I was satisfied that I could march upon the enemy, beat him, and return in time to meet an attack from the neighborhood of Fort Monroe. Anticipating before I left Richmond that the landing places below Jamestown Island would soon become insecure, I wrote from the depot to the Quartermaster-General a note, begging him to send some lighters of an appropriate kind to ply between Jamestown Island and the mainland on the road to Williamsburg, to enable the commanding general to throw rapidly into the latter place, if he thought proper, the necessary troops and supplies. I do not know if this has been done. It is absolutely necessary that the facilities of both rivers should be used to the utmost to carry on vigorously military operations in the country embraced between them. I know the troops are needed on every line, but I believe I cannot overrate the importance of preserving a numerical superiority of all arms over the enemy on the line of operations between this place and Jamestown, the lowest defensible points on the two rivers, while the works between Queen and College Creeks are being erected. I would respectfully represent, therefore, that the line from Yorktown to Jamestown be occupied by from eight to ten thousand men, and the defenses at the extremities-that is, at mouth of York River and Jamestown Island, be strengthened in every conceivable manner. I wanted Colonel Ewell to cause to be collected the most combustible materials at the wharfs at the landings below Jamestown Island, and to cause these wharfs to be burned whenever the enemy, in great force, makes an unmistakable demonstration to land. I close for fear of detaining the steamer. The second navy gun is in position, and I hope the third will be to-morrow night.

Major Cary and his command have just arrived, confirming the report of a large collection of troops at Newport News, and the presence, near that point, of a large fleet, destination unknown. I beg leave to call the attention of the General-in-Chief earnestly to the fact that there are but fifty rounds of ammunition for the navy batteries, the shells being without fuses, and, if four guns were mounted, there would be only about twelve rounds each. The navy officer reports a coil of heavy rope needed to make wads with. Please also direct one hundred rounds of ammunition to be sent for a 6-pounder gun, brought in by Major Cary, and one hundred rounds for a 12-pounder howitzer, likewise brought in by him. The formal requisition will be sent afterwards.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding Hampton Line.

{p.888}

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FALLS OF KANAWHA, VA., May 27, 1861.

Adjutant-General GARNETT, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have this moment an express from Lieutenant-Colonel McCausland, at Buffalo, dated yesterday, stating, “The Government has sent two hundred men to Gallipolis, and will have six hundred more there to-day. We are informed that they are intended to attack this camp. Send down all the troops you have.” In addition to this, reliable information reaches me that large numbers of troops are concentrating at Oak Hill twenty-three miles back of Gallipolis, and also at other places along the border. My idea is that these troops have been thrown into this proximity in order to overawe the loyal citizens of that region. For further particulars I beg leave to refer you to the bearer of this, Mr. David Kirkpatrick, a resident of this valley, and a well-informed man.

Very respectfully,

C. Q. TOMPKINS, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

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FALLS OF KANAWHA, VA., May 27, 1861.

Col. B. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

SIR: I avail myself of a few moments’ delay of the stage to explain more fully the nature of my communication this morning. I consider it of sufficient importance for the employment of a special messenger, and accordingly have instructed the bearer, Mr. Kirkpatrick, to convey this in person, and to telegraph from Staunton its import. I shall of course proceed to Buffalo as rapidly as possible. The idea is that the enemy intend crossing the Ohio River, to attack the camps at Buffalo. Unless they come in greatly superior force, we shall drive them back. On the other hand, if his numbers are large and the disaffection of the inhabitants strongly evinced, I shall take the most defensible position I may find, and rally the volunteers now in process of formation in the adjoining counties. Great excitement prevails in this region. The divided sentiment of the people adds to the confusion, and, except the few loyal companies now mustered into the service of the State, there are few of the people who sympathize with the secession policy. I send a special messenger (Mr. Kirkpatrick), because he is familiar with the whole of Ohio border, and can give you valuable information as to the resources, distances, &c. Mr. Kirkpatrick is reliable and intelligent. It is very desirable that Mr. Kirkpatrick should be the purveyor of some supplies for the troops which cannot be procured here. I beg that the quartermaster may be instructed to forward by him material for tents, three hundred blankets, five hundred cartridge-boxes (musket), and ten thousand percussion caps (rifle), &c.

In great haste, yours, respectfully,

C. Q. TOMPKINS, Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

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MAY 28, 1861.

Colonel GARNETT:

COLONEL: Direct Captain Barron to have his steamer ready for river service Send some troops to Jamestown, to protect that battery. The {p.889} Tennessee regiment might be used, if necessary. If you can, have boats to transfer the troops to the right bank of the river, in case of a movement on that side. Good lookouts must be kept up, to see what is doing, to gain accurate intelligence.

R. E. LEE.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 28, 1861.

[Col. GARNETT:]

COLONEL: I reported to you on the 26th instant, for the information of the Commander-in-Chief, that the troops under my command are observing the river from Williamsport to the Point of Rocks. I will now give what was then omitted-the precise disposition of these troops:

Colonel Allen is opposite to Williamsport, thirty miles above, with his own regiment, two companies of Colonel Hill’s, and a section of artillery. The position cannot be defended by such a force, the ferry at Williamsport being at the vertex of a horseshoe, five or six miles in length, having another at each heel. A company of cavalry and a section of artillery guard the bridge at Shepherdstown. There are two companies of infantry, two of cavalry, and six field pieces, with their men, at the bridge at the Point of Rocks, twelve miles below, and a company of cavalry at the Berlin Bridge, halfway to the Point of Rocks. Preparations have been made to break each of these two bridges and the railroad bridge here. It is more than forty miles from Williamsport to the Point of Rocks. A detachment of three hundred and fifty infantry occupies a point on the Maryland Heights, one and a half miles from the near end of the crest of the ridge, and two and a half miles from Harper’s Ferry. The crest of the ridge beyond the Shenandoah is guarded by two companies of infantry.

In the present state of the river no force that could be detached from this place could prevent its passage by an enemy. In a few weeks, or even days, when fords will be numerous, an army will be necessary to guard the Potomac above, as far as the western line of Berkeley. With this point occupied, as it is, some five or six thousand men, judiciously placed between Martinsburg and the line, and a reserve of about the same force within striking distance of each, invasion would be difficult. As matters now are, the enemy can easily seize Martinsburg, in the heart of a disloyal population, and nearer than Harper’s Ferry to Winchester.

If the Commander-in-Chief has precise instructions to give, I beg to receive them early. I have prepared means of transportation for a march. Should it be decided that the troops should constitute a garrison, this expense can be reduced.

Your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON.

P. S.-I submit a memorandum by Major Whiting, C. S. Engineers. {p.890} [Inclosure.]

HARPER’S FERRY, VA., May 28, 1861.

Consultation on the condition of Harper’s Ferry and its defenses reduced to writing.

The plan of the enemy, indicated by his movements, seems to be a cautious approach to, and entrance of, disaffected districts, securing his advance, if possible, by securing the sentiments of the people. In the district to the northwest of Harper’s Ferry these tactics will be the best he can follow, on account of known Union proclivities and the vicinity of the frontier.

Large bodies of troops are gathering at Carlisle and Chambersburg, the number already reported (probably exaggerated) being fifteen thousand. When ready to move they will occupy Martinsburg, crossing at Williamsport and Shepherdstown. Martinsburg is well known to be disaffected. His line, established from Martinsburg towards Shepherdstown, has an excellent base, and communications very difficult to interrupt by the Hagerstown and Cumberland roads, and very seriously threatens, not only Harper’s Ferry, with its present forces and conditions, but our whole line of operations. Martinsburg is nearer to Winchester than the Ferry, and access easy. Our holding Winchester is necessary to maintain the Ferry. To hold this post, then, either as a fortress, a point d’appui, or as a condition of the defense of the Virginia Valley, we require a force of from twelve to fifteen thousand men, of which two regiments should be cavalry. The force now at the Ferry (about five thousand effectives) might remain as at present, while the main body should be posted centrally, as at Burns’ Ford, on the Opequan, where a strong position might be selected, and, if necessary, defended by lines. The strengthening and re-enforcement of this force, as now constituted, seems to have ceased when most necessary. It is essential that supplies of ammunition (especially of equipments of shoes) should be forwarded in quantity, otherwise, without the arrangement designated, we are so deficient in ammunition that this force must, on the advance of the enemy, move out from the Ferry and maneuver, to prevent being shut up in a cul-de-sac.

The plan sketched above will absolutely force the enemy to very great delay and vastly extended preparations. It continually (by way of Leesburg and the eastern slope of the ridge) threatens the District of Columbia. If, however, he is beforehand with us (besides the present disastrous results), he gains what may take time, means, and men, on a similar scale, to recover.

Very respectfully,

W. H. C. WHITING, Major of Engineers.

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RICHMOND, VA., May 28, 1861.

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America, Goldsborough N. C.:

General Lee left for Manassas Junction this morning. Passengers just from there report all quiet. Fifteen hundred men from Fort Monroe were reported in Hampton yesterday, not molesting the people, but stealing property, &c. Ruggles, at Fredericksburg, reports that the enemy, in force, have landed six miles above Aquia. This is doubted, {p.891} but he will telegraph again. General Lee is expected to-morrow night. I send your dispatch to the governor.

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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MANASSAS, VA., May 29, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT:

Number of troops six thousand. Should be ten. Returned from Fairfax Court-House. All right.

R. E. LEE.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 29, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: In the absence of General Lee, who is on a hasty visit to Manassas Junction, I have requested Colonel Dimmock to send to your command with all practicable dispatch, one hundred thousand cartridges, five-eighths of them for smooth-bore muskets, and the remaining three-eighths equally divided between the minie musket and Harper’s Ferry rifle. In the absence of a requisition, specifying the caliber, I have adopted these proportions upon consultation with Lieutenant-Colonel Deas. Your letters will be submitted to General Lee as soon as he arrives, which will not, perhaps, be until to-morrow.

President Davis arrived this morning, and I shall submit your papers to him.

I am, sir, very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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WILLIAMSBURG, VA., May 29, 1861.

Col. JOHN A. WASHINGTON, Aide to General Lee, Commanding Virginia Forces:

SIR: The receipt of your communication, relative to the defenses of the peninsula formed by the York and James Rivers, is respectfully acknowledged. As to their state of forwardness, the works have not yet been fully planned by the engineers. One very important has been and is progressing rapidly. A large number of the hands (nearly or quite five hundred), including a part of the volunteer force, are at work. I see no occasion for further delay. I beg you to call the attention of the Commanding General to the fact that the force now here is not sufficient to repel a serious attack. If Yorktown, Jamestown, or the defenses below Williamsburg fall, the way will be open to Richmond. To defend them, more troops are necessary, well supplied with artillery. Colonel Magruder is well convinced of all this. So far as he has mentioned his opinions to me, his views coincide with mine, and thus I am more fully convinced of their correctness.

With high respect, your obedient servant

BENJ. S. EWELL, Lieutenant-Colonel, Virginia Volunteers.

{p.892}

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WILLIAMSBURG, VA., May 29, 1861.

Colonel MAGRUDER, Commanding Department:

SIR: There are, including the volunteers, five hundred men at work on the defenses below Williamsburg. There has been some delay, I think, in consequence of the necessity of allowing time to the engineers to complete their reconnaissance. These defenses will be pushed forward with all possible dispatch. Unless artillery is furnished to defend them with, I fear they will avail but little. There ought to be two light batteries at least. Now there is not a piece. Your immediate attention is asked to this.

Respectfully,

BENJ. S. EWELL, Lieut. Col., Comdg. Camp Page, near Williamsburg, Va.

[Indorsement.]

I recommend, most urgently, that the light batteries asked for by Colonel Ewell be furnished without delay. If they are sent mounted and without horses, harness, or caissons, they will answer. It is requisite that they should have a full supply of ammunition, assorted. They have applied for it formally, and have received the sanction of General Lee. With these remarks the letter of General Lee [?] is respectfully referred.

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

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NORFOLK, VA., May 29, 1861.

Major-General LEE, Richmond, Va.:

I am obliged by the size and position of my command to divide it into two, by the Elizabeth River, and assign the eastern division to Colonel Withers, and the western to Colonel Blanchard. Not having the requisite staff; I have to allow them to use acting appointments, without pay, to perform the duty. Such articles as they find it necessary to procure, I must order paid by the quartermaster here, Capt. J. A. Johnston, who, I am happy to inform you, has now entered upon his duties. The law of Virginia gives volunteers an allowance in money for clothing; but, as the men are not paid, the volunteers, especially those from distant States, can get no clothing, as they have no money to procure it with. I will have to get for them the articles which are absolutely necessary, and have the amount advanced deducted from their pay. I find officers here without means of procuring provisions. I will have to ration them, or give them means to buy food, and deduct it from their pay. I mention these necessities, that you may, if you think proper, cover such cases by a general order. The Federal forces seem establishing themselves at Newport News. They have landed some ordnance and many stores. All the transport steamers have left but one.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Brigadier-General.

{p.893}

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HEADQUARTERS, Yorktown, Va., May 29, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: I sent to Hampton for the two pieces left by Major Cary’s command, and succeeded in bringing them up. I sent last night a detachment of light artillery, acting as cavalry, to bring up some spades, shovels, &c., with a large quantity of rope, &c. They have arrived. I hope to be able to leave here to-morrow, with some cavalry and light artillery, to protect the people near Hampton at least, and would like to take down my command of infantry, except three companies of the Virginia battalion, if I thought that troops from Richmond could be sent to Williamsburg, and between that place and this. I do not like to leave Yorktown exposed to be taken from Grove Landing. I am anxious to attack, to make the enemy stay within his own immediate neighborhood. Lieutenant Thornton, who is now sick, is my acting assistant adjutant-general. He has had no experience. I have nobody but my nephew, Mr. Magruder, who is a citizen, and Mr. Stanard, who is a private. Captain Lambert, assistant quartermaster, is at Williamsburg, where a quartermaster ought to be stationed. I must have an efficient one here. The whole of my time nearly is occupied in doing other people’s duties. I merely speak of this, as it prevents me from being as useful as I desire. I think that Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson, if he could be spared, would be of great service here.

There is corn and long forage enough in the lower part of the peninsula and about here for one thousand horses, as I am informed by Major Cary, Virginia volunteers. He knows the country. The defenses here and at Williamsburg and vicinity are progressing rapidly.

More troops are necessary at Williamsburg, and between that place and this, or rather facing Grove Landing. All the property of the citizens near Hampton, except that of Union men, will fall into the hands of the enemy, except also that which I can cause to be saved. To-day, for the first time, I have had the use of cavalry. Captain Douthat marched forty-seven miles yesterday, and joined me last night at 11 o’clock. I send him to-night near Hampton, with Captain Brown’s artillery, to protect the people, save their property, and, if possible, to cut off some of the enemy. The number of Federal troops at Newport News is probably between five and ten thousand, as they were landing troops from Monday, perhaps half the daylight, till after dark on Tuesday. There are no vessels there this morning. I do not think there are more than five thousand men at the most. I shall probably go down in person to-night or to-morrow morning.

This place has been most carefully examined by me as to its capabilities of defense, at a distance or near, and I am satisfied that it cannot be taken by any number of men that can be brought against it, if it is properly intrenched and defended by a sufficient number of men; that is, as long as the mouth of the river is secured by the batteries on this side and on Gloucester Point, which I think will be the case when all the guns are in position that are contemplated. There are here, of all arms, two thousand five hundred and four officers and men. I left Colonel August’s regiment at Williamsburg because I saw that it (Williamsburg) was unprotected. Two regiments of infantry, in addition to the present force, would make this place I think perfectly safe. Since I last wrote, it has been greatly strengthened. Two regiments of infantry, more if possible, should be sent to Williamsburg. I have invited the magistrates of the adjacent counties to meet me here this afternoon, at 5 o’clock, to have all the wagons in the counties collected, and to be {p.894} sent down, under cover of a large detachment, to bring up property, and to send to Lieutenant-Colonel Ewell and myself one-half of all the negroes in their counties, to fortify the different points, while this expedition is going on near Hampton.

I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding Hampton Line.

P. S.-Captain Lambert, assistant quartermaster, and Captain Meade, of the Engineers, have arrived.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond Va., May 30, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.

SIR: While at Manassas I made the following arrangements of light troops: A corps of observation, of cavalry and infantry, has been established, under Colonel Ewell, in advance of Fairfax Court-House, the right extending towards Occoquan, the left to the Leesburg road. Col. Eppa Hunton, commanding at Leesburg, has been ordered to have an advance post at Dranesville, and to extend his scouts down the Alexandria and Leesburg roads, to communicate with Colonel Ewell. He is to inform you of any movement of the U. S. troops, in the direction of Leesburg, tending to threaten your rear, through Captain Ashby, at Point of Rocks. In the event of such a movement, should you deem it advisable, and should you be unable to hold your position, I would suggest a joint attack by you and General Bonham, commanding at Manassas, for the purpose of cutting them off. I have given full verbal explanations to Capt. Thomas L. Preston, who leaves Richmond to-morrow, to join your command.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 30, 1861.

Brig. Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: A supply of caps are reported on their way from Nashville. As soon as they arrive the Ordnance Department has been ordered to send you eighty thousand. There are none here. The Arkansas regiment of volunteers has been ordered to report to you. Will start tomorrow. The letter from your commissary, calling for money, has been referred to the Commissary General of Subsistence. Our means of manufacturing ammunition are wholly insufficient, while calls for it are pressing in from all quarters.

I am, sir, very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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NORFOLK, VA., May 30, 1861.

General R. E. LEE:

We have the Merrimac up, and just pulling her in the dry-dock.

F. FORREST, Flag Officer.

{p.895}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 30, 1861.

Col. F. H. SMITH, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: I submit below the information you ask for the council. It is, of course, not strictly correct, though I think it is not far out of the way. It is impossible to get returns from these volunteers:

Norfolk, no returns, 7,000 conjectured; Jamestown Island, no returns, fifteen companies, 1,050; Williamsburg and Yorktown, no returns, 3,500 Gloucester Point, no returns, 600; West Point, 250; Richmond, including Ashland and the Confederate States troops, 5,500; Fredericksburg, including counties on the lower Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, number not known, 2,700; Manassas Gap, no returns, 6,000; Leesburg, no returns, 500; Harper’s Ferry, excluding Maryland troops, not known, and excluding Point of Rocks, 5,500; Grafton, no returns, 1,000 conjectured; Kanawha Valley, no returns, 1,100; Abingdon, no returns, 500 conjectured; Lynchburg, no returns, 1,000 conjectured; besides a few companies supposed to be at Staunton, Charlottesville, &c. Total, 36,000.

I am, sir, very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond Va., May 81, 1861.

Col. W. B. BLAIR:

SIR: The troops in the Kanawha Valley are under the command of Col. C. Q. Tompkins, whose headquarters are at or near Charleston. There are at present only five hundred men in service. It is desired to have about sixteen hundred, if they can be raised.

I am, sir, very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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Memorandum for General Lee.

HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 31, 1861.

Intelligence was brought me this morning, from a gentleman residing near Hagerstown, that 1,600 troops arrived in Chambersburg on Tuesday and 5,000 yesterday, making, with the 3,500 there before, 10,100, with plenty of artillery (quantity unknown), many wagons and horses. A note was shown me yesterday, written in Hagerstown on Wednesday afternoon, by a woman, in which it, is said that such a force is to move to the Potomac (with baggage wagons) from Chambersburg through either Hagerstown or Greencastle.

In another note (from an officer of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), it is said that large forces are to enter Virginia somewhere between Cumberland and Hagerstown to meet Ohio troops. The Northern papers confirm this.

An officer of the railroad told me here that news of the occupation of Grafton by U. S. troops is brought by telegraph. We can learn nothing from the west, nor beyond the range of persons specially employed. Should the enemy cross the river above, we cannot learn when the Ohio troops join them, nor in what numbers.

{p.896}

This place cannot be held against an enemy who would venture to attack it. Would it not be better for these troops to join one of our armies, which is too weak for its object, than be lost here I They are not equipped for the field. The only means of transportation, besides the railroad, are wagons impressed in the neighborhood. Should these troops be ordered elsewhere, please indicate any objectionable [?] route.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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SUFFOLK, VA., May 31, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

An attempt is being made, under my orders, to bring one or two steamboats (to act as tugs or transports) into the Nansemond River. I think it will be successful. I have here (besides my two Maryland companies) a regiment from North Carolina and two troops of cavalry, and have been ordered by General Huger to take command of the forces in this district. On good authority, I believe the landing at Newport News to be a sanitary measure, and the enemy’s forces there do not exceed thirty-five hundred men. If I may be permitted, and the troops in Yorktown can co-operate with me, I think I can (say two nights hence) cross the James River and strike him a blow, and then retire. I respectfully ask the general’s advice.

FRANCIS J. THOMAS.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 31, 1861.

Col. FRANCIS J. THOMAS, Commanding, &c., Suffolk, Va.:

SIR: In reply to you telegram of to-day, I am instructed to state that you can prepare the transports, so that they may be ready for any emergency. You must not, however, make the attack at present, unless completely prepared for success. It is necessary, before doing so, that there should be a sure and complete co-operation between the forces on both sides of the James River, and that there should be a most perfect knowledge of the number and position of the U. S. troops.

I am, sir, with respect, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 149.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., May 31, 1861.

General G. T. Beauregard, of the C. S. Army, is assigned to the command of the troops in the Alexandria line. He is referred to the orders heretofore given to his predecessors in that command for the general direction of operations.

By order of Major-General Lee:

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

{p.897}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 1, 1861.

General JOSEPH B. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: I received, on my return from Manassas Junction, your communications of the 26th and 28th ultimo, in reference to your position at Harper’s Ferry. The difficulties which surround it have been felt from the beginning of its occupation, and I am aware of the obstacles to its maintenance with your present force. Every effort has been made to remove them, and will be continued, but with similar necessities pressing on every side you need not be informed of the difficulty of providing against them. The arrangements made and positions taken by the troops under your command are judicious, and it is hoped that sufficient re-enforcements can be sent you to enable you to occupy your present point in force and carry out the plan of defense indicated in your communications. Great reliance is placed on your good judgment, the skill of your officers, and the ardor of your troops, and should you be attacked by a force which you may be unable to resist at all points and, to keep beyond the frontier, you must move out of your position and destroy all facilities for the approach or shelter of an enemy. Concentrate your troops, and contest his approach step by step into the interior.

With a view of making your column movable, the Quartermaster’s Department was ordered, some weeks ago, to provide all the wagons they could, and I was informed that agents were sent to the country east and west of the Blue Ridge for the purpose. The little use for wagons, save for farming purposes, makes their collection difficult; but by the efforts of the Quartermaster’s Department and the means you have taken it is hoped you may be provided.

Ammunition has been sent to you. The supply was necessarily limited, in consequence of the calls from other points. Can you make arrangements to provide an auxiliary amount for your command?

I have informed you of the military arrangements east of the Blue Ridge. A large force is now collecting in front of Alexandria, and General Beauregard has been sent to command it. Its presence will make the enemy cautious in approaching your rear south of the Potomac, and in that event I hope you will receive timely intelligence, through the light troops under Colonel Ewell, extending to the Leesburg road. Should such a movement be made, as was suggested in a previous letter, you are expected to use your discretion as to the best mode of meeting it.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 1, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: In answer to your letter of the 31st ultimo, received by Col. H. A. Edmundson, I have to state that, since my letter to you of this morning, I have directed all the available companies at Staunton to proceed to Harper’s Ferry and to report to you for duty. The First {p.898} Tennessee Regiment, now at this place, Colonel Turney, has also been directed to report to you as soon as practicable. With this re-enforcement, and such as you may be able to obtain from the valley, you may probably hold your position and prevent the passage of the Potomac by hostile troops until further troops can reach you. I think that no troops from Ohio have yet reached Grafton, as a special messenger from Colonel Porterfield reports the contrary, and that certain bridges on the Parkersburg road had been burned. Some little time must therefore elapse, in all probability, before a movement can be made against you from that direction. Information of the movements of troops in that direction might be obtained from friends in that region. Should you, however, be opposed by a force too large to resist, I can only repeat what is contained in my letter of this morning, viz, destroy everything that cannot be removed which may be of advantage to the enemy. Deprive them of the use of the railroad, take the field, and endeavor to arrest their advance up the valley.

I am, general, with great respect, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 1, 1861.

Col. DANIEL RUGGLES, Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

SIR: Your telegraphic dispatch of yesterday to the governor of the State, for ammunition for Captain Walker’s battery, was referred to the General Commanding, and the Ordnance Department has been instructed to supply it as far as practicable. The General regrets to have to remind an officer of your experience of the propriety of adhering to the usages of the military service in relation to official communications. Your application for ammunition should have been sent for his action. He feels constrained to call your attention also to the necessity of economizing the ammunition issued to the troops. The straitened means of the State are taxed to the last degree to provide for the first wants of the troops in this respect. As understood by him, the recent exchange of shots between your batteries on the Potomac and the enemy’s vessels could have no other result than to waste ammunition and to expose our condition and the strength of the batteries, which was probably the object of his visit.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., June 1, 1861.

Colonel GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

COLONEL: I respectfully transmit herewith Colonel Allen’s last report, and a paper in relation to affairs near Grafton, for the information of the General Commanding-in-Chief.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army. {p.899} [Inclosure No. 1.]

HEADQUARTERS FIRST INFANTRY, Camp Johnston, Va., May 31, 1861.

Brigadier-General JOHNSTON:

SIR: I have the honor to report the following information, just obtained:

The Federal troops concentrated at Chambersburg number thirteen thousand. The advance guard, of three thousand, left there at 1 p. m. for Hagerstown, where they will encamp to-night, from which force vedettes are to be thrown into Williamsport. Two companies are said to have been sent towards the river above (point not known), supposed to be at a ford. From the accompanying map you will see our position. The ford northwest of camp is susceptible of good defense. The one opposite Williamsport can be protected without difficulty by the enemy, if they have artillery.

The communication in pencil is from a perfectly reliable source. I would wish positive instructions, and, if to make a stand, re-enforcements. My line of defense is too extended for my present force. Owing to disaffection in Captain White’s cavalry, they are not as efficient as they should be, and incompetent to guard the river.

Your most obedient servant,

J. W. ALLEN, Colonel, First Infantry.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

MARTINSBURG, VA., – –, 1861.

According to the best information to be obtained here, Colonel Porterfield left Grafton last Monday, with his command, of about one thousand five hundred men. He went to Philippi, in Barbour County, where he probably awaits re-enforcements, expected from the valley. The U. S. troops from Wheeling, to the number of about two thousand, arrived at Mannington (forty miles west of Grafton) last Monday, and stopped to repair two small railroad bridges which had been destroyed near there. The repair of the bridges could not detain them over three or four days. Nothing definite is known here about the U. S. force advancing from Parkersburg to Grafton, but some of the railroad bridges on that line are believed to have been destroyed. There was no military force of either side at Grafton on Wednesday at 4 p. m.; but some of the Union men of the neighborhood were gathering there, with such arms as they could get at home.

The above information, meager as it is, is all that we have, and is reliable as far as it goes. The bridges between this and Cumberland should by all means be burned (especially the bridge over the Potomac proper). Small bridges are but a small hinderance, in point of time, to an army, and recollect the railroad is to be the means of precipitating the immense body of men from Ohio and west of Ohio, who are to occupy our Virginia. Only important bridges will present obstacles, as to time, of any material value. West of Cumberland there are also important bridges, but I fear they are in the hands of Union men, and a little force would be required.

[No signature.]

{p.900}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 2, 1861.

Lieut. Col. B. S. EWELL, Williamsburg, Va.:

I am instructed by General Lee to inform you that there will be sent to Jamestown Island to-morrow eight field guns (6 and 12 pounders) for the works now being constructed under your superintendence below Williamsburg. The commanding officer at Jamestown has been instructed to transport these guns at once to the neck of land, from which place you will remove them to the works for which they are intended. I suppose you will have no difficulty in this matter, the destruction of the wood trade, in which I learn your people have been largely engaged, having caused a large number of idle teams.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 2, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. HUGER, Commanding, Norfolk, Va.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 31st instant, in relation to officers of the C. S. Army and of the Provisional Army of Virginia, under your orders, I am instructed to say, as to the latter, that they were sent to you to be entirely at your disposal, and you are authorized to employ them in any manner in which you may think they can be made useful to the service. You will receive information respecting the officers of the C. S. Army as soon as it can be referred to the proper authority.

I am, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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YORKTOWN, VA., June 2, 1861.

[Col. GARNETT ?]:

SIR: I have just returned from a reconnaissance of the country between this point and the neighborhood of Hampton and Newport News, and have received the most accurate information. There are about nine thousand troops at both places. They are generally in a most disorganized state. Troops are, however, arriving daily. Dr. Cuyler informs Col. Carly S. Jones that no movement would be made until there were fifteen thousand troops at Fort Monroe and Newport News together. This, he supposed, would be within ten days. I am pushing forward the defenses here, and hope to be fully prepared.

I designed an expedition to dislodge the Federal troops from Newport News, which I was informed was almost in a defenseless state as to fortifications; but the regiment from Virginia, under Colonel August, was not ready to take the field, for want of shoes and other necessaries, and I ascertained at the last moment that the position of the troops at Newport News was much stronger than I had been led to believe. I therefore gave it up, and substituted for it one of reconnaissance, and to afford some relief to the frightened people of the country near Hampton. I found that the country was rich in supplies for horses, and that the presence there of two companies of cavalry and one of sharpshooters with a small gun would afford all the protection necessary to induce the {p.901} farmers to remain and finish the cultivation of their crops. I shall send three companies there very soon.

There is some difference of opinion here as to the rank of Colonel Hill, of the North Carolina regiment, and myself. I think I rank him, but am of the impression that it is a subject of some feeling on his part. He has, however, obeyed my orders so far, and I presume will continue to do so. I have been obliged to do almost all the duties of the staff myself until now, when I have the services of Captain Cosby and Captain Lambert, assistant quartermaster, the latter wholly without experience. I hope in a few days to have a more perfect organization.

I do not think we shall be attacked by troops coming from Fort Monroe by land over the Peninsula, but that if attacked it will be by sea and by land (from Grove Landing) at the same time. The steamer is waiting. I hope to be able to write more fully to-morrow.

I am, very respectfully,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 3, 1861.

Brig. Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

SIR: I have received your letter of the 1st, inclosing report from Colonel Allen and a paper in relation to affairs near Grafton. In reference to the last, the latest reports received from Colonel Porterfield are more favorable than the report from Colonel Allen. A party has been ordered to secure the road at Cheat River and east of it, which I hope will effectually prevent its use. As regards Harper’s Ferry, its abandonment would be depressing to the cause of the South, and I have thought it possible that you might detach a portion of your force towards Martinsburg, the occupation of which or a point on the Opequan, would strengthen your posts in front of Williamsport and at Shepherdstown. In addition to the First Tennessee Regiment, a regiment from Georgia has been ordered to join you.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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DEPARTMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, VA., PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES, Camp Pickens, Va., June 3, 1861.

His Excellency President JEFFERSON DAVIS, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: I arrived here on the 1st, at 2 p. m., and immediately examined the site of this encampment and the place of its proposed defenses. The former is an open country, traversed by good roads in every direction, without any strong natural features for the purposes of defense, and without running water nearer than three miles, except a few small springs at half that distance. The plans of the works are good, but too extensive to be finished in less than two or three weeks, and cannot be garrisoned with less than from three to four thousand men. As this position can be turned in every direction by an enemy, for the purpose of destroying the railroads intended to be defended by {p.902} it, it becomes a question whether these works could be held more than a few days when thus isolated.

I have reconnoitered closely several of the fords on Bull Run and one on Occoquan Run (about three miles from here), which offer strong natural features of defense; but they are so numerous and far apart that only a much larger force than I have here at my command (say not less than from ten to fifteen thousand men) could hope to defend them all against a well-organized enemy of about twenty thousand men, who could select his point of attack. I must therefore either be re-enforced at once, as I have not more than about six thousand effective men or I must be prepared to retire, on the approach of the enemy, in the direction of Richmond, with the intention of arresting him whenever and wherever the opportunity shall present itself, or I must march to meet him at one of said fords, to sell our lives as dearly as practicable. Badly armed and badly equipped as my command is at present, with several of its regiments having but one or two field officers and having hardly any means of transportation, it would be expecting too much that I could meet with success the Northern foes that are preparing to attack us within a few days with all the advantages of arms, numbers, and discipline. I beg, however, to remark that my troops are not only willing, but are anxious, to meet the enemies of our country under all circumstances.

I remain, dear sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

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HEADQUARTERS YORKTOWN, VA., June 3, 1861.

Colonel GARNETT:

SIR: There are now here, at this post, including officers and men, sick and extra duty, about three thousand four hundred. Colonel Ewell has only about four hundred. I shall station at or near Grove Landing two companies, to fall back upon Colonel Ewell’s command, and at Blow’s Mill, four miles this side of Grove Landing, and on the road to this place also two companies, both infantry. I shall also detach a company of rifles from Hampton to that part of the country, and two companies of cavalry, as I stated yesterday. This will make our force about three thousand here, but will leave Colonel Ewell much exposed. As to calling out the militia, this country is so thinly populated that it cannot be depended on. Colonel Ewell, who is with me now, thinks that it will amount to one hundred and fifty men, all told, and these not effective, and not to be relied on. The reason of this, Colonel Ewell says, is that there are many disaffected men in Elizabeth City and the lower part of York County; many also being obliged to stay at home on account of the occupation of the country by Federal troops. A large accession of force of infantry and artillery ought, therefore, to be made to this command, in order to secure the line from Jamestown Island and to York River-at least four thousand more. Our lines here are very extended. Our outward right flank defenses are nearly completed. We have a breastwork connecting the old English fort with the head of the ravine, which latter is in front of our position. The old fort protects our left. The navy battery has three guns mounted; a fourth will be in position in a day or two. The work itself has been inclosed. I think it labor thrown away upon it, as, if our other positions were carried, we could not find shelter in this inclosed work for one-third of our men. As the plan was arranged before {p.903} I came down, I did not interfere. It is intended to strengthen our left by making works which will require regular approaches, if we have time. When once strongly fortified, I shall always be able to defend this work, at least until an army from the interior can raise the siege by beating the besiegers. We expect to be very strong by the end of this week. While this is going on, abattis will be thrown across many of the roads leading to this place, only two being left open for public use, and defenses will be thrown up at all favorable points. The axemen, to make the abattis for exterior defense, go out to-morrow.

I have directed Captain Meade to state how many additional guns he considers necessary for the defenses about to be erected and those now in existence, and how many men will be required to man the various works. I will forward it to the General-in-Chief as soon as made out. I shall be able to supply corn and hay to all the cavalry from this part of the country, if wagons can be sent to me. There are very few about here. I have made a requisition for fifty. Instead of waiting for the whole number, I request that as many as can be obtained be sent, with drivers and teams of course. Tents are absolutely necessary for troops acting in the field. The cavalry, with the exception of Douthat’s company, have no tents, and the houses here are all occupied. I have directed the assistant quartermaster to-day to get boards from a steam saw-mill about seven miles above this place, with which to build sheds for mules and horses. Requisitions for tents for the Third Virginia Regiment are in the hands of the Quartermaster’s Department, and approved, but they have none. Not more than one-third of the force works on the defenses; the rest are drilling. Colonel Ewell has been directed by me to cause the men under his command to work at the defenses intrusted to him, and also to employ, or impress, if necessary, as many negroes as he requires for this purpose.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF FREDERICKSBURG, Fredericksburg, Va., June 3, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: I received last evening the General’s views respecting my telegram to Governor Letcher of the 31st ultimo. The views expressed are admitted, on general principles, as correct. The General is not probably aware of the return through my office, on the morning in question, if my memory serves me, of the requisition of Captain Walker for ammunition, made some days previously, without having been filled, on the ground of an omission to state the amount of ammunition on hand. I have been informed also that the General was then absent at Manassas Junction. As I approached the scene of action that morning the firing had become rapid and heavy, and there was reason to believe that a crisis was rapidly approaching. Under these circumstances I wrote the telegram, and instructed a clerk, sent to Fredericksburg for that purpose, to send it to the governor, and also to your office. I had been authorized, on entering on duty, immediately on the secession of the State, to communicate directly with the governor on matters deemed by me of material importance. The effort to sustain our cause and to supply Captain Walker’s rifled guns was thus accomplished, enabling me to carry under my personal charge a full supply of ammunition for it upon the field in the midst of the action on Saturday.

{p.904}

Military commanders, I have found from an experience not very limited (and to which the General has been pleased to refer), sometimes sacrifice forms to impending necessities. On the subject of the expenditure of ammunition, the General has not been more solicitous as to its economical use than I have constantly been. Thus far it is well known that the naval batteries are under the exclusive command of the naval officers, and I have had only to assist in locating them, to furnish the men and most of the materials to build them, and (when erected) to man and protect them at all times, much to the prejudice of my volunteer organization, and have never ordered the firing of a single gun from one of them.

I have reason to regret that the General should have, apparently, judged as to the character of our operations from information possibly derived from irresponsible sources. I trust that the General will believe that, so far as depends upon myself personally, I shall make the best use of such force and material as may be furnished me and as I can raise and collect.

It is to be observed that, although our forces have not suffered, I should not be willing, trusting to rumor and observation, to assure the enemy so readily for loss sustained.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DANIEL RUGGLES, Colonel, Provisional Army, Commanding Forces.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 4, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: Colonel McDonald, who will hand you this letter, will exhibit to you a communication addressed to him by direction of the President, and I am instructed to suggest that you co-operate with him in furthering the important object in view to the extent that your judgment will enable you to act.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 4, 1861.

Col. ANGUS W. MCDONALD, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: You will proceed to Harper’s Ferry, and report to General Joseph E. Johnston. With such troops of horse as he can spare from his command and such as you may raise as have not yet been mustered into service, you will then with this force proceed to the Cheat River Bridge, and if practicable destroy the same, and as much of the road, bridges, and tunnels as you can accomplish.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.905}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINlA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 4, 1861.

Col. J. A. EARLY, Lynchburg, Va.:

COLONEL: In reply to your communication of the 2d instant, I am instructed to state that there are no cavalry sabers or pistols of any kind here, and your request cannot, therefore, be complied with.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General.

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SHEPHERDSTOWN, VA., June 4, 1861.

Brigadier-General JOHNSTON:

SIR: I have intelligence from the other side up to 3 p. m. yesterday. No Federal troops at Hagerstown, Boonsborough, or at any other point in the valley. At Chambersburg there are said to be some ten or twelve thousand men, though my informant believed that their number was exaggerated.

A true friend from Maryland, living three miles from this post, came over last night with information that on Sunday a prominent Republican, of Washington County, Maryland, named Cook, accompanied by a Pennsylvanian, in citizen’s dress, were at Mercersville, about three and a half miles above this place, and at other points along the canal above that point, engaging boats and scows, to be used in passing the river. Cook said to one of the persons, from whom he obtained a ferry-boat, that, in the course of the next week, there would be twenty or twenty-five thousand men thrown into Virginia upon this line; that they proposed to cross the river at three points, viz, Mercersville, Slackwater Dam No. 4, about six miles above this, and at Williamsport; and that the three columns would concentrate at a point on the railroad not far from Kerneysville. There is a great congregation of canal and ferry boats at Slackwater Dam No. 4, with which they could speedily bridge the river at that point. I have a large ferry-boat secured on our side in Dam No. 4, with which I can cross over twenty-five or thirty men at a time. The enemy’s boats have no other guard than their hands on board and some canal hands, perhaps one hundred and twenty men in all. I think, with my company, I could, if desirable, destroy all of the boats by crossing the river in the night and burning them.

I obtained two kegs (twenty-five pounds each) of powder from Maryland on yesterday. I have more of the article now than I have immediate use for. I shall, however, continue to procure all that I can. Please direct me where to send it. If desired, I can forward it to Winchester. There is a good macadamized road from here to that place. If not already known to you, allow me to call your attention to a ford across the river at (just below) the mouth of Antietam Creek, four and a quarter miles below this point. It is a good ford, and is now passable, and the approaches on either side very good. My force of cavalry is too small to enable me to guard it.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

RO. L. DOYLE, Captain, Third Virginia Infantry, Commandant of Post.

{p.906}

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LYNCHBURG, VA., June 4, 1861.

R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General:

A telegram from Dublin Depot was received here last night by Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne, by a person just from Parisburg, Giles County, stating that a large force from the northwest was advancing on Lewisburg. This morning the following telegram was received by him from the same place:

Last night’s dispatch is confirmed by special messenger this morning. Ten thousand Northern troops and twelve hundred horse are now in Fayette County, making forced marches for the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. We want assistance. From their position they can reach the road in three days.

JAMES J. HABOCK, CHARLES F. DOUTHAT, Carriers.

I send the dispatch for what it is worth. I cannot believe there is any truth in it. The country from which it comes has been very much stampeded with false rumors of insurrection on the line of the Virginia and Tennessee Road. To allay excitement, I would suggest that a special messenger be sent to Lewisburg by the Central Railroad.

J. A. EARLY, Colonel, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, June 4, 1861.

General J. B. FLOYD, Abingdon, Va.:

A dispatch from Colonel Early at Lynchburg states that a large force, ten thousand Northern troops, twelve hundred horse, by hard marches are pushing for the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, and advancing through Fayette County to Lewisburg. Send reliable information as far as can be obtained. Press forward organization of brigade of riflemen, and, if report is true, call out all available force and protect railroad.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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RICHMOND, June 4, 1861.

General J. B. FLOYD, Wytheville, Va.

Four regiments-three from Mississippi and one from Alabama-have been ordered to proceed to this place via Knoxville, subject, however, to be stopped by you at Dublin Depot, should the news of invasion telegraphed by you to the President be confirmed, and this will be your authority to stop these troops and all others passing that route, should you deem it necessary. Commanding officers will so regard your order. One thousand muskets, with ammunition, have been ordered to Dublin Depot to your address. Acknowledge by telegraph.

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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RICHMOND, June 5, 1861.

General BEAUREGARD, Manassas Junction, Va.:

Send a messenger by the train to Strasburg, there to telegraph the following order to General J. E. Johnston, at Harper’s Ferry, viz:

Send a detachment to Bath, with means and authority to take the arms now in charge of Col. Sam. Johnson, and remove them to place of safety.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

{p.907}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 64.}

ADJT. AND INSPR. GEN.’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 5, 1861.

...

IV. Brig. Gen. T. H. Holmes, Provisional Army, will proceed to Fredericksburg, Va., and assume command of the troops in that vicinity.

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, Camp Pickens, June 5, 1861.

To the good People of the Counties of Loudoun, Fairfax, and Prince William:

A reckless and unprincipled tyrant has invaded your soil. Abraham Lincoln, regardless of all moral, legal, and constitutional restraints, has thrown his abolition hosts among you, who are murdering and imprisoning your citizens, confiscating and destroying your property, and committing other acts of violence and outrage too shocking and revolting to humanity to be enumerated. All rules of civilized warfare are abandoned, and they proclaim by their acts, if not on their banners, that their war-cry is “Beauty and booty.” All that is dear to man, your honor, and that of your wives and daughters, your fortunes, and your lives, are involved in this momentous contest.

In the name, therefore, of the constituted authorities of the Confederate States, in the sacred cause of constitutional liberty and self-government, for which we are contending, in behalf of civilization and humanity itself, I, G. T. Beauregard, brigadier-general of the Confederate States, commanding at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, do make this my proclamation, and invite and enjoin you by every consideration dear to the hearts of freemen and patriots, by the name and memory of your revolutionary fathers, and by the purity and sanctity of your domestic firesides, to rally to the standard of your State and country, and by every means in your power compatible with honorable warfare to drive back and expel the invaders from your land. I conjure you to be true and loyal to your country and her legal and constitutional authorities, and especially to be vigilant of the movements and acts of the enemy, so as to enable you to give the earliest authentic information to these headquarters or to the officers under my command. I desire to assure you that the utmost protection in my power will be extended to you all.

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., June 6, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Commander-in-Chief, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I had the honor to receive your letter of the 3d instant by the last mail. My object in writing each of the several communications in relation to this command, was to ascertain exactly the manner in which the Government wishes it to be used, no instructions having {p.908} been given to me. Do these troops constitute a garrison or a corps of observation? If the former (which your letter of the 3d implies somewhat), it is to be considered that our only defensible position has a front of nearly two miles; that the supply of ammunition is not more than sufficient to repel one vigorous assault, and that the position could not then be evacuated, as the enemy would be nearer than ourselves to the only line of retreat-that through Loudoun. If as a corps of observation, it will have a task which the best troops would find difficult, for the enemy north of us can find crossing places too numerous for this force even to observe, and, while watching them, it is likely to be cut off by the troops from Ohio, who you know are commanded by a man of great ability. The operations of these troops and those from Pennsylvania will no doubt be combined. A retreat from the presence of an enemy is the most difficult of military operations to the best troops. To very new ones it is impossible. It would very soon become a flight.

You say that “the abandonment of Harper’s Ferry would be depressing to the cause of the South.” Would not the loss of five or six thousand men be more so? And, if they remain here, they must be captured or destroyed very soon after General McClellan’s arrival in the valley. Might it not be better (after the troops here have delayed the enemy as long by their presence as they prudently can) to transfer them to some point where they may still be useful?

We have, according to the statement of the Master of Ordnance, about forty rounds of ammunition, besides eighty-two thousand five hundred cartridges, just received, which makes an addition of about four rounds, as there are with them but twenty-two thousand five hundred caps.

Notice of the arrival of the Tennessee regiment in Winchester is just received. The colonel informs me that they are without percussion caps.

Our troops are not equipped for a campaign. More than two regiments are without cartridge-boxes. Most of them having-traveled by railroad, use trunks and valises, instead of knapsacks, and few are provided with shoes fit for marching.

With money I could have obtained more caps probably. I have not thought it worth while to provide a supply of provisions out of proportion to that of ammunition.

I offer these opinions for what they are worth, thinking it my duty to present them to you, and being anxious to conform closely to whatever general plan of operations has been determined upon. I beg you, therefore, to let me understand my position.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 6, 1861.

Brig. Gen. HENRY A. WISE, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Having been appointed brigadier-general of Provisional Forces, you will proceed, with the force placed at your disposal, by the most speedy route of communication, to the valley of the Kanawha. You will, by such means and agencies as may be within your control, rally the people of that valley and the adjoining counties to resist and repel {p.909} the invading army, which is reported to be on its march towards Lewisburg, which may as probably be directed towards the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, by any of the various routes between that indicated in the valley of the Big Sandy River. You must needs rely upon the arms among the people to supply the requisite armament, and upon their valor and knowledge of the country as a substitute for organization and discipline. If there be any who have arms beyond their power or will to use you can take them with such arrangement as the case may indicate for future settlement. As your transportation will of course be very limited, and the service of such character as will indicate the lightest practicable train, the troops must be taught to rely upon the supplies of the country, but not be permitted to take them except through officers authorized for that purpose, and they should be instructed always to make prompt payment, or to give such receipts as will insure early and adequate remuneration. All officers commanding separate parties should be instructed to unite with the greatest vigilance and closest scrutiny the highest regard for the personal and property rights of all with whom they may come in contact, save the common enemy of the State, towards whom the rules of war, as known to civilized nations, will be applied.

The imperfect information possessed of the force and objects of the enemy do not permit specific instructions either as to your line of operations or the movements to be made. You must exercise a sound discretion, so that all your efforts may tend to the result of repelling the enemy if possible, and if not, of checking him as near the border of our territory as may be practicable. If the disparity of numbers should be very great, your defensive positions will for the present necessarily be retired to the mountain passes, and sorties against the enemy should always be so made as to embarrass and delay his movements without hazarding the loss of detachments from your command, teaching them to wait until you have the means to strike a blow which shall be effective. The several officers of experience who have been directed to report to you will be assigned by you to such duties as the necessities of the case may require.

General Floyd, who has been appointed a brigadier-general, has been specially charged with the protection of the line of the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. It may well occur that a junction of your forces may become desirable, in which event each should exhibit his letters of instructions to the other, so that you may cordially co-operate to attain the common object of both. In the event of such a junction and whilst serving together, General Floyd, being senior by commission, will, according to the Rules and Articles of War, command the whole.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

JUNE 10, 1861.

P. S.-Such volunteers as may be engaged for your command and sent forward to Lewisburg within the next twenty days will be there mustered into service by companies and their transportation paid to that point, it being understood that these volunteers are not to be taken from any of the organized regiments or companies now in the service of the Confederate States.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.910}

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 7, 1861.

Maj. M. G. HARMAN, Commanding at Staunton, Va.:

MAJOR: Your letter of June 6 has been received,* and I desire to express my approbation of your conduct in forwarding re-enforcements of men and supplies of arms, ammunition, provisions, and clothing to Colonel Porterfield, at Beverly.

Brig. Gen. R. S. Garnett has been appointed to the command of the troops at Beverly and in that region, and will proceed there at once. All the troops that can be spared from this point will be forwarded as fast as practicable to General Garnett, and it is hoped that these, in addition to the forces now there and those which can be hereafter raised in that region, will form an adequate force for the protection of the northwestern part of the State.

I am, very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* See p. 69.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 7, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 6th instant. The importance of the subject has induced me to lay it before the President, that he may be informed of your views. He places great value upon our retention of the command of the Shenandoah Valley and the position at Harper’s Ferry. The evacuation of the latter would interrupt our communication with Maryland, and injure our cause in that State. He does not think it probable that there will be an immediate attack by troops from Ohio.

General R. S. Garnett, C. S. Army, with a command of four thousand men, has been directed to Beverly, to arrest the progress of troops towards the Shenandoah Valley. Col. Angus W. McDonald has also been sent to interrupt the passage of troops over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It is hoped by these means that you will be relieved from an attack in that direction, and will have merely to resist an attack in front from Pennsylvania.

An effort will be made to send you cartridge-boxes and knapsacks for the two regiments that are without them, and also an additional supply of ammunition. Greater mobility might be given to your forces by directing their surplus baggage, trunks, valises, &c., to be returned home or sent to some place of safety. Another regiment from Georgia has been ordered to report to you, viz, Colonel Gartrell’s. It is hoped that you will be able to be timely informed of the approach of troops against you, and retire, provided they cannot be successfully opposed. You must exercise your discretion and judgment in this respect, to insure, if possible, your safety. Precise instructions cannot be given you, but, being informed of the object of the campaign, you will be able to regulate its conduct to the best advantage.

I am, general, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.911}

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HEADQUARTERS FORCES OF VIRGINIA, Norfolk, Va., June 7, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Forces of Virginia:

SIR: The great difficulty of communicating with and supplying our batteries on the Nansemond River has retarded the work on them, and been of serious inconvenience to us. I determined to put a small steamer on the river, and on the night before last Capt. A. Sinclair took the small steamer Roanoke, which Commodore Forrest had chartered and put at my disposal. Captain Sinclair ran her in very handsomely, without being discovered by the guard-boats of the enemy, and she is now on the river; and, in connection with the railroad to Suffolk, puts us in easy communication with all the batteries on the Nansemond River.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 25.}

HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 8, 1861.

By the Governor of Virginia.

A PROCLAMATION.

The delegates of the people of Virginia, in Convention assembled, having by their ordinance passed-April 25, 1861, adopted and ratified the Constitution of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, ordained and established at Montgomery, Ala., on February 8, 1861, and the State of Virginia having been, by an act of the Confederate States, passed May 7, 1861, admitted as a State into the Confederate Government, and the President being, under the Constitution of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States and of the militia of the several States when called into the service of the Confederate States:

Now, therefore, I, John Letcher, governor of Virginia, by and with the advice and consent of the executive council, do hereby transfer to the authorities of the Confederate States, by regiments, all the volunteer forces which have been mustered into the service of Virginia, and do order a like transfer, by regiments, battalions, squadrons, and companies, of all volunteers or militia, as the same shall be formed, and their services may be required.

I further hereby transfer to the authorities of the Confederate States the command of all the officers, seamen, and marines of the Provisional Navy of Virginia, for service in the Confederate States.

I do further order that all officers of the Virginia service now on duty in any of the departments of the staff continue to discharge their respective functions, under the direction and control of the President, until otherwise ordered; and that all quartermaster’s, commissary, and medical stores belonging to the State and in charge of said officers, to be turned over for the use of the Confederate States, upon proper receipts for the articles turned over, to be forwarded to the accounting officer for settlement. All moneys in charge of any of the departments will be forthwith returned into the treasury of the State.

{p.912}

I do further order all the Provisional Army of Virginia to respect and obey all lawful orders emanating from the President, or those commanding under his authority, and that the same may be incorporated, in whole or in part, into the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, at the pleasure of the President.

I do hereby authorize the use of all public property, munitions of war, &c., captured from the United States, the machinery at Harper’s Ferry excepted, by the President or those acting under his authority, for the common defense.

Given under my hand as governor, and under the seal of the State, at Richmond, this 6th day of June, A. D. 1861, and in the eighty-fifth year of the Commonwealth.

By the governor:

[SEAL.]

GEORGE W. MUNFORD, Secretary of the Commonwealth.

In compliance with the foregoing proclamation, the command of the military and naval forces of the State of Virginia is transferred to the Confederate States. All officers of said forces will obey the orders they may receive from the heads of the War and Navy Departments, respectively. Officers of the staff will receive their instructions from the chiefs of the several branches of the Confederate States Government.

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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LYNCHBURG, VA., June 8, 1861.

Col. R. S. GARNETT, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

COLONEL: I received your dispatch to-day, and answered it in the same way, but imperfectly. There is no company of cavalry here fully armed. Two companies have double-barreled shot-guns, bought by their counties, but no sabers, and are but beginning to drill. There are two companies tolerably well drilled, with forty or fifty sabers each. One has no guns and the other a few. There are two other companies, one of which has about forty sabers and a few guns, just commencing to drill. There are about a hundred flint-lock pistols, which have been gathered from old companies. A number of sabers, of old patterns, have also been collected. All the companies want cartridge-boxes and cap-boxes. I have sent off to Henry County for some sabers and pistols which I am informed are there. All the companies here are well mounted, and would make fine companies if there were arms for them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. EARLY, Colonel, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Bethel Church, Va., June 8, 1861.

Colonel GARNETT:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I received official intelligence, on the 6th instant, from Major Montague, in command at this point, that this position, held by three companies Virginia volunteers, two howitzers, and two troops of cavalry, was about to be turned by a force from Newport News, as well as one up the Poquosin River. I ordered Colonel Stuart, in command of four companies of Virginia volunteers, {p.913} at that moment prepared to march, to Blow’s Mill and Grove Landing, and Colonel Hill’s regiment of North Carolina volunteers to proceed at once to meet the enemy at the point threatened. This movement I intended to have made, at all events, on the following day. Colonel Hill met the command of Major Montague at the Half-way House, the latter having retreated, after consultation with his officers, from this position. Colonel Hill dispatched Major Montague’s command to guard the Poquosin River, and proceeded with his regiment and two pieces of artillery to occupy and fortify this place. Colonel Stuart, in obedience to orders from me, proceeded to the bridge, on the Newport News road, which enters the York two miles above the Half-way House, and destroyed the bridge over the stream at that point, and blockaded all the country roads above it, thus rendering it almost impossible to turn this position without a march of at least twenty miles. On the same evening (the 6th) I inspected Colonel Stuart’s work, and slept at the Half-way House.

On the 7th I reconnoitered the Poquosin River and roads leading to it on this side, occupying the remainder of the (lay in devising means to supply the force here with provisions and forage.

The next day (yesterday) I arrived here, and found that the works under Colonel Hill had advanced very rapidly. In the course of these operations several collisions took place between our scouting parties and those of the enemy very creditable to our troops and citizens. Three of the latter, on horseback, met with nine of the enemy on foot, and an exchange of shots resulted in our killing one, wounding another, and taking a third prisoner. I remember the names of but two: Mr. Scott, of Texas, and Mr. Ben. Phillips, of Elizabeth City.

Previous to the arrival of Colonel Hill at this post, Captain Werth, of Virginia volunteers, then in command, proceeded to Newport News, with a small body of horsemen, for the purpose of reconnoitering. Being at the head of his men, he found himself in the enemy’s lines before he was aware of it, and, coming suddenly upon a working force consisting of a commissioned officer and over twenty privates, he killed the commissioned officer and one private with his revolver, and the rest fled into camp, crying out, “The Virginia Horse! The Virginia Horse!” The troops encamped on the outside of the trenches rushed into them in confusion, amid which he retired to his command and returned home. Since then Newport News has been re-enforced by at least one thousand men.

Yesterday, at 1 o’clock, I received a note from Colonel Hill, stating that a considerable body of Federal troops were advancing towards his post. The cavalry having been temporarily withdrawn to the Half-Way House for forage, I immediately dispatched the Hampton Troop, Captain Phillips, to report to Colonel Hill, and proceeded to this place in person. On my arrival here I found that Colonel Hill had dispatched a portion of Company F, North Carolina regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Lee, and a howitzer, under Major Randolph, and another detachment of Company E, same regiment, under Major Lane, and one howitzer, under Lieutenant Wight, by different roads, to attack, and, if possible, cut off this party. The Federal troops were robbing a house when the detachment first named came in sight of them. They fled, about eighty in number. Our party gave chase. Not being able to overtake, Major Randolph discharged his howitzer into them, which appeared to take effect. They fled in great confusion, after having fired several shots, leaving one soldier, who was made prisoner, and who is now in camp. In the mean time, our other detachment, under Major Lane, met with a party of Federal troops, upon whom they fired, with what effect was not {p.914} known, and made one prisoner, who is also in our camp. Both of these belonged to the New York volunteers. In further explanation of this affair, I inclose an extract of a note just received from Captain Werth, on picket guard. He says:

The Rev. Mr. Adams came from Hampton last night. He saw one cart-load of wounded carried into Hampton last night, and two more carried in his buggy, which had been impressed for the occasion. A Colonel Pierce had command of the marauding party, three hundred strong. Mr. Adams learned in Hampton, from the officers, that Hampton was to be made a strong military post in one or two days. The enemy are much excited, and swear vengeance against the Virginians for their impudence.

I inclose a note in pencil from a perfectly reliable source. I omitted to state that, in place of Colonel Stuart’s, I ordered Colonel August’s whole regiment to proceed to Grove Landing, and to fortify at once strongly, in such a way as to protect his musketry and make a landing extremely difficult. Several regiments of troops ought to be in that neighborhood immediately. Grove Wharf is held ready to be destroyed, but it will take some time to effect it thoroughly. In mean time I would respectfully suggest that several steamers, loaded with provisions, wagons, harness, mules, ammunition, and men, be ordered to that point and landed, and that Mr. Haskins, who I believe is the owner of many steamboats, be directed to have one far down the river, to watch the enemy while these operations are being effected, and that as soon as they are concluded orders direct from headquarters be sent to Colonel August to burn the wharf immediately and effectually.

This command has been on the point of starvation here, on account of want of transportation. The means of transportation are absolutely necessary to enable me to keep the field. I can scarcely support this small command, and am exceedingly anxious to have the Louisiana and Georgia regiments in a similar position to this on the Warwick road. During last night I had a bridge built and thrown over Back River, to enable me to get at the enemy more easily. I hope to have another one in front of Hampton in a few nights. Both to be destroyed as occasion may require.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding Southeastern Department.

[Inclosure.]

WINDER’S, VA., June 9, 1861.

Colonel MAGRUDER:

I did not return from Hampton last night till after 11 o’clock. From all I could learn, I am satisfied that Hampton is within a few days to be occupied as a military post by the Federal troops. Probably the affair of yesterday may hasten this event. That the town is strongly guarded every night, and that during the night all is quiet, but during the day, particularly yesterday, all sorts of plundering was going on, both in town and country; that Colonel Duryea has been superseded by Brigadier-General Pierce; that no protection or right of ingress or egress, in relation to Hampton, would be allowed to any but those who would take the oath of allegiance to the United States. This, in a nut-shell, is about the amount of the information I gained. I learned also from a Captain Wilson that it was in contemplation soon to attack Yorktown with forty thousand men. I could ascertain no suspicion of a military position below Yorktown. I heard nothing of a naval attack at York.

{p.915}

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 67.}

ADJT. AND INSPR. GEN.’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 8, 1861.

...

III. Brig. Gen. R. S. Garnett, Provisional Army, will proceed to Staunton, and assume command of the troops to operate in Northwestern Virginia.

...

By command of the Secretary of War:

JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CAMP MASON, Leesburg, June 9, 1861.

Lieut. Col. THOS. JORDAN, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Inclosed please find a memorial from a committee on behalf of the citizens of this county, asking for additional forces for the defense of this point. If it is the design of the military authorities to defend this portion of Virginia, then it is very important that additional forces should be concentrated here. I feel very sensibly the importance of this fertile country to the subsistence department of our army and that of the enemy. Besides, if a good force be placed here, it will cut off the enemy from one of the routes to Harper’s Ferry. I earnestly second the wishes of the petitioners, and ask that at least twenty-five hundred men be sent here.

I have just learned from reliable information that there are ten canal-boats in Georgetown loaded with provisions and ammunition. I am assured from a clergyman who has been across the river that this information is reliable. With the additional-force asked for we would probably be able to cut to pieces any force that they may send up, under the impression that we have only a few hundred men here. Send the force asked for if the exigencies of the service will allow it.

I have no information of any movement of the enemy on this side the river.

Your dispatch was received to-day in regard to tearing up railroad and burning the ties. Will you inform me whether I am to put the troops here at that work and stop their drill? The guard duty here is very heavy, and if a force has to be detailed for the purpose indicated it will break up our drill, which is very important to our raw, undisciplined troops. Your orders shall be obeyed.

Very respectfully,

EPPA HUNTON, Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

LEESBURG, VA., June 9, 1861.

Col. EPPA HUNTON:

The undersigned, a committee in behalf of the citizens of Loudoun County, respectfully represent that it is our impression, in which we believe you concur, that the military force at Camp Mason, under your command, is totally inadequate to the protection and defense of this portion of the State of Virginia, which we are assured is attractive to the enemy, for the following reasons:

1st. We border upon the Potomac River, which forms our boundary {p.916} for thirty miles, upon which there are not less than thirteen fords and ferries. Leesburg, the county seat, is within four miles of the nearest crossing. We are within thirty miles of Washington City, whence we can be approached by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which runs parallel with the Potomac River, and by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at the Point of Rocks.

2d. We are a large wheat and corn growing country, with heavy crops of the former now nearly matured. There are not less than twenty thousand cattle now being grazed in the county, a large proportion of which are fat and ready for market, and at least one thousand of these are upon the flats of the river. This is exclusive of the dairy stock, hogs, sheep, &c. There are large amounts of flour, bacon, and grain of last year’s growth. A very important item must not be omitted; that is, a large stock of the finest horses, suited to cavalry and artillery service.

We deem it well worthy of serious consideration that there is a large Union element in Loudoun, and that it is the policy of the Federal administration to intervene in their behalf. In view of these considerations, and of the fact that the Federal papers have frequently spoken of Leesburg as an eligible position for a camp for the Federal forces, by reason of its healthfulness and the productiveness of the surrounding country, we feel it highly important that a force of troops shall be immediately stationed here sufficient to successfully repel invasion, and respectfully beg that you will exert your influence to attain this end.

Respectfully,

THO. W. EDWARDS ET AL.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 10, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

SIR: The sentiments ascribed to many of the inhabitants of the towns in Virginia on and near the Potomac border may render it important to place them, for a time at least, under close surveillance.

I am instructed to state that Mr. James M. Mason, who, from his residence in that quarter of the State and intimate knowledge of its inhabitants, can probably best advise you, has been instructed by the President to indicate to you such points as in his judgment should be placed under such care, and it is the wish of the President that Mr. Mason’s suggestions in this regard should be considered by you, and, so far as consistent with your judgment and authority, that you place it in his power to give them effect.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 10, 1861.

General T. H. HOLMES, Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: It is probable that, realizing the inutility of cannonading the batteries at Aquia Creek with smooth-bore guns, the naval force {p.917} of the United States will hereafter employ rifled cannon, of large caliber, at long range. It is reported that such means will be employed. It is therefore advisable that the batteries should be rendered as secure as possible by the application of some such means as were so successfully employed at Charleston. Railroad-iron, laid at an angle of about thirty degrees with the horizon, on the exterior slope, the upper ends not projecting above the exterior crest, would probably answer the purpose. If such an arrangement can be made, you are authorized to procure the iron and apply it where in your judgment it may be required.

It is not unlikely that for the attack of these batteries the enemy will provide himself with iron-plated vessels. In this event the shots from the batteries should be so directed as to strike the water short of but near the vessel, so that after the rebound they might strike below any eave which may be presented near the water line and at right angles to her sides. The accompanying sketch* expresses the idea herein contained.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 10, 1861.

Col. EPPA HUNTON, Commanding, Leesburg, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 8th instant has been received, and it is hoped that you have accomplished the destruction of the bridges upon the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad, and otherwise rendered the road unserviceable to the enemy. Unless any of the rolling stock can be transferred to the Orange or Manassas Railroad, it must be destroyed immediately. Should it not already be demolished, the gondola and flats must not be permitted to fall into the hands of the enemy.

Lieut. Col. C. C. Cocke has been ordered to duty with your regiment. General G. T. Beauregard is in command of all the forces in Prince William, Fairfax, and Loudoun, through whom you should make your reports, and from whom you will receive instructions. Your fetter of the 8th has been referred to him for his information and action. It is necessary to destroy the navigation of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, to prevent its being used by the enemy, and you will take measures to do so effectually, by cutting the dams at Seneca and Edwards Ferry, and blowing up the Monocacy Aqueduct.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 10, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: In answer to your letter of the 9th instant, just received, I take pleasure in expressing my gratification at the movements and dispositions that you have made, and hope that you may be able to {p.918} restrict the advance of the enemy and securely maintain your own position.

On the day of my return to Richmond forty-two wagons were ordered to be sent you. Twelve were sent day before yesterday, twelve on yesterday, twelve more will be sent to-morrow, and the others as soon as possible.

As you are aware that it is probable, when an effort is made to attack you, it will be both by land and water, I take this occasion of urging upon you the importance of pressing the construction of the batteries for water and land defense.

Yours, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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MILL POINT, POCAHONTAS COUNTY, VA., June 10, 1861.

President JEFFERSON DAVIS:

DEAR SIR: Having the best interests of our country at heart, and having taken an active part in the welfare of this county from the first appearance of danger to the present hour, I feel confident you will hear me. While I have no doubt of-the success of the South in casting off the Northern yoke ultimately, I must say that this is the last appeal from me, at least for the protection of this section-this county and Greenbrier-that I ever expect to makes and I very much fear that it is already too late for you to prevent our being overrun to some extent, perhaps totally. Our interests have no doubt been cared for, but there has been too little energy at work, and the view has been a short-sighted one. Three weeks since it would have been quite an easy matter to have taken possession of all Western Virginia, except Wheeling, and perhaps that also; but now it is very doubtful if twenty thousand of the best-armed men we have in the State will do it. The few troops we have had out there have had no other effect than to gather in a still stronger force of the enemy, and they are doing their best to carry off and destroy everything upon which a large army can subsist, having entire control of all the railroads and almost the whole country. If not driven back soon, we have no hope of anything being left to support our army now or hereafter, and you will find it next to impossible to take provisions for an effective force a distance of one hundred or one hundred and fifty miles, on common road wagons, from the Central Railroad. Two weeks since this thing was not half so gloomy. In less than two more we shall be overrun, unless there is a far greater force than we have any knowledge of being sent us. The enemy is now within a few hours’ march of our county lines. We have no force at all beyond Huttonsville, and a great part of it far this side-some on the Parkersburg and some on the Marline Bottom roads. Our force all told is not more than from twelve hundred to two thousand. The last account we had from them was on the 7th. They were not more than half armed, and had not ammunition sufficient for more than one round to the man. I sent fifty miles to Covington, and only got seventy-five pounds of powder, but no lead. We have got some fifty pounds of old lead pipe, &c., which we sent on this morning, with powder. I wish I could tell you our situation.

Our county is loyal to the South; only thirteen votes against secession; population less than four thousand. We laid a war levy of $15,000. Have sent out four volunteer companies, and in all nearly five hundred {p.919} soldiers out of about six hundred and fifty militia. There are not men sufficient left to raise our crops or save our harvests. We have urged our governor time after time, again and again, to grant us arms, ammunition, and men. Our wants are this hour still further than ever from being supplied. Last night at 11 o’clock we started a special messenger to the governor or yourself, which is the fourth time we have done so. The enemy still advancing, our danger increasing, our arms and men nearly all gone from the county, no ammunition nor hopes of getting any in time to stay the enemy, we have done all that we can do up to this hour. Will you help us? Can you help us in time? One short week, and I fear it will be too late. Many of our best families have their carriages in readiness to move; many more are having their wagons prepared. All that can go I fear will soon be on the move. Then woe to those who are left. Nothing but destruction awaits our houses and barns. Our waving fields of grain and grass, our thousands of cattle, they will soon possess. On my own grass I have from one hundred and fifty to two hundred head of good beef cattle. I have no hope of anything being saved unless you can send on a large force at once.

It seems there has been no one capable of managing the business out northwest. They have suffered themselves to be routed and robbed of everything, or nearly so, and stripped of ammunition and clothes. Provisions could still be had in the Randolph Valley if the enemy were removed. One of our officers told me on yesterday that there was no question but an army of twenty-five thousand men could be provisioned for a considerable length of time out there. Many large farmers would willingly give all they have. The coming harvest is promising, and will soon be ripe.

Our enemies declare they are determined to take Pocahontas and Greenbrier. This our officers told me this morning, and this will take them to the top of the Alleghany Mountains.

I have now, Mr. President, in a homely manner, tried to tell you a few stubborn facts, and it does seem to me that our case is a hard one. I have three sons in the Army. Two of them came home from the West for this purpose. I have spent all my time for more than a month past trying to aid, and took one trip to Richmond, and now I am done writing. I will take my rifle, shot-gun, pistol, and cutlass, relying upon the God of battles, and go to meet the enemy.

Ask Col. Paul McNeil, in Convention, if you doubt one assertion.

Respectfully, yours,

JOHN H. RUCKMAN.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 11, 1861.

General B. HUGER, Commanding, &c., Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: The preparations which are understood to be making at Old Point Comfort indicate an early movement of the U. S. troops. While so many points are threatened, it is difficult to say which may be attacked. Great vigilance and alacrity will, therefore, be required at every point, to prevent surprise. The first of the water defenses that will be reached in approaching Norfolk will be those at Sewell’s Point and Craney Island. During my visit at Norfolk these points were in a weak condition and feebly garrisoned. I hope the defenses have {p.920} been completed and provided with sufficient garrisons. Each should be commanded by an intelligent and active officer, and of some experience. I hope there are many in your command. The batteries at both places should be provided with works, to prevent their being taken in reverse.

Should the enemy desire to cut oft your communication with Richmond, the possession of the battery at Pig Point would become important to them. Its defenses should, therefore, be looked to, and every arrangement made to prevent its surprise and capture. The troops that I have endeavored to collect at Suffolk, being prepared for service, under an efficient officer, may enable you to hold command of the railroad and prevent its destruction. Should a movement be made upon that point, information should be immediately communicated, if possible, to Weldon and this city, that troops may be concentrated from these points and Norfolk to oppose it. It is thought probable, from the conduct of the enemy at other points, that when an attack is made it may be expected at the dawn of day. Every preparation should, therefore, be made at night for such an event.

The officer commanding the troops near Hampton has been directed to watch the movements of the enemy encamped at Newport News, &c., and should preparations for their embarkation be discovered, to press upon them, with a view both of retarding their embarkation and of retaining as large a force as possible in their camp. No great reliance can be placed upon this operation, however, unless it can be discovered that the batteries on York or James Rivers are not to be attacked, as the security of the batteries will have to be attended to by the troops on that line.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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LLOYD’S, VA., June 12, 1861.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, &c.:

MY DEAR SIR: Since I left Richmond I have been thinking of the rumor that the real attack upon Richmond would be made from the Rappahannock River. Whether the plan has been laid I know not; but I fear it is feasible, and, as you cannot be acquainted with the topography of the country, I will say why I think it practicable. The only defense to bar the passage of our steamers on the Rappahannock, up to the head of tide, is a little fort (Lowry), which is now being erected, about thirty miles from the mouth of the river. This fort is four and a half miles below Tappahannock, the county seat of Essex. Should an army be landed a little below the fort, it would cost but little to silence it, and then the whole Rappahannock Valley would be thrown open to the hostile fleet. This valley abounds in supplies of food, and is thickly populated with negroes. From Tappahannock to the junction of the Central with the Fredericksburg and Richmond Railroad, in Hanover, is a distance of from twenty-five to thirty miles. The obstacles to the march are mainly to be found in the Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers. The Mattapony, where it would be crossed on the route, is so narrow and shallow as to present a military obstacle of small importance. The Pamunkey, near the junction, is fordable, except at high water. Both have wooden bridges, but these might be burned. Once at the junction, an invading army might take either of two railroads, and reach Richmond {p.921} in a run of twenty miles; or it might, by a march of forty miles, upon the Central Railroad, put a strong force at Gordonsville, the junction of the Lynchburg and Alexandria Railroads, and cut off the communications of our Manassas Gap army. The last could not be re-enforced from the south or west, except from the valley, through the Manassas Gap Railroad; nor with the Hanover Junction in the hands of an enemy, could Richmond be re-enforced, except from the south side of James River. As a strategic point, would not Hanover Junction be more valuable to an enemy than Harper’s Ferry itself? Indeed, would not its possession secure Harper’s Ferry? In what way can this be prevented at the least cost in men and money? I answer as follows:

About eighteen or twenty miles below Fort Lowry, and eight or ten miles below Urbana tone of the reputed places of her sound debarkation), is a point from which the channel can be commanded. I forget the name of the point, but the Coast Survey chart (to be found in Richmond) will show it, and Lieutenant-Governor Montague, who lives in that county, can describe it. I am told that this chart proves that a fort at this point, in Middlesex, on the south side of the river, and one opposite to it on the north side would command the channel completely. Indeed, no vessel could pass up at a greater distance than one and a quarter miles from the Middlesex Point, which is within the range of rifled cannon. This being done, the enemy (if they landed with a view to a march upon Hanover Junction or Richmond) must land below the fort, which is below Urbana.

Now, at Urbana is Urbana Creek (a deep creek), bounded by marshes, which runs to within two or three miles of the Dragon Swamp, a military obstacle of the first class. A part of this distance of two or three miles was densely wooded ten years ago, and I suspect that not more than half of it is as yet cleared. On such a neck of land a small force could retard the advance of an army long enough to assemble in sufficient strength to resist it. The length, too, of the march would be thus increased some thirty miles to the junction and fifteen or twenty miles to Richmond. There would also be another advantage in these lower forts. Nearly the whole valley of the river and most valuable oyster beds would be protected. These oyster beds, without these forts, lying below Fort Lowry, will be in the enemy’s hands. I know that there are some difficulties in throwing up these forts. Our steamers are in the river, but still, with a covering force, and with even a small covering force, it could be done, I presume.

On the northern neck side, the three lower counties of Richmond, Lancaster, and Northumberland could easily furnish one thousand men, without taking away the men from Fredericksburg. On the southern side the counties of Essex, Caroline, King and Queen, and Middlesex could furnish twelve or fifteen hundred men without robbing any of the present forts. The men on the southern side, if placed under the command of a regular officer (such a man as Major Heth is described to be), and aided with a battery, would not only cover the fort on the Middlesex Point, but would, perhaps, resist the march of an army between Urbana Creek and the Dragon Swamp long enough to procure re-enforcements, through steamers from Fredericksburg (where there are two steamers), also to scour the country along the line of march. Unless this covering force could be commanded by a good officer, and a “regular,” it would not be of much assistance; but under a good commander it might be relied upon.

I know it is presumptuous in me to offer military counsel. No man could know less of such matters. But there are topographical details {p.922} with which you could not be acquainted, and so much hangs upon the defensive measures now being taken that I have ventured this letter, although I feel that your time is too important to be wasted on idle suggestions.

If you will show this letter to General Lee, I think he will confirm my topographical description of the country.

Whether the strategic importance of the Hanover Junction be such as I suppose, and whether the march upon it be as practicable as seems to me, both you and he can judge far better than I can; but I cannot be mistaken in supposing that the subject is worthy of your attention and study.

I ought to add to this letter (although it is already a long one) that, notwithstanding Fort Lowry, troops could be landed on the Rappahannock at not more than thirty-five miles from the Hanover Junction.

Very truly and faithfully, your friend,

R. M. T. HUNTER.

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HEADQUARTERS, Harper’s Ferry, Va., June 12, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Commanding:

GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 10th instant informing me that two regiments from Lynchburg have been ordered to report at Harper’s Ferry. Permit me to urge most respectfully the importance of equipping the troops ordered to this place before putting them en route. Ammunition and means of transportation cannot be obtained here. Without them, additional troops only make this command more helpless. Before the arrival of the Tennessee and Georgia regiments, our supply of ammunition and means of transportation were far too small. The further division makes us no more able to fight, and unable to march. It is much to be regretted, I think, that the Tennessee regiment was admitted into the service. It is without accouterments, instruction, or subordination.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Richmond, June 13, 1861.

General BEAUREGARD, Comdg., &c., Manassas Junction, Va.:

MY DEAR GENERAL: Colonel Jones delivered to me your letter of the 12th instant,* and, as suggested by you, I conversed with him of the matters to which it related. Your information may be more accurate than we possess in relation to the purpose of the enemy, and I will briefly reply to you on the hypothesis which forms the basis of your suggestions.

If the enemy commences operations by attack upon Harper’s Ferry, I do not perceive why General Johnston should be unable, even before overwhelming numbers, to retire behind the positions where the enemy would approach him in reverse. It would seem to me not unreasonable to expect that before he reached Winchester, the terminus of the railroad in his possession, the people of the fertile and populous valley {p.923} would rise in mass to aid him in repelling the invader. But suppose it should be otherwise, he could still, by retiring to the passes on the Manassas Railroad and its adjacent mountains, probably check the progress of the enemy, and prevent him from either taking possession of the valley or passing to the rear of your position. We hope soon to re-enforce you to an extent equal to the strength you require by the junction of General Johnston, and I cannot doubt but that you will agree with me that you would then be better circumstanced to advance upon Alexandria than if General Johnston, by withdrawing from the valley, had left the enemy the power to pass to your rear, to cut your line of communication, and advance to attack you in reverse while you were engaged with the enemy in front.

Concurring fully with you in the effect which would be produced by possession of Arlington Heights and Alexandria, if your rear is at the same time sufficiently covered, it is quite clear that, if the case should be otherwise, your possession, if acquired, would be both brief and fruitless.

To your request that a concerted plan of operations should be adopted, I can only reply that the present position and unknown purpose of the enemy require that our plan should have many alterations. I have noticed your converging lines upon Richmond, and it can hardly be necessary to remind you that we have not at this time the transportation which would enable us to move upon those lines as described. Should the fortune of war render it necessary to retire our advance columns, they must be brought mainly upon railroads, and that of Harper’s Ferry would come by your present position. It would therefore be a necessity that General Johnston’s columns should make a junction with yours before yours retired; but I have not anticipated the necessity of your retreat, and have struggled rather to increase your force, and look hopefully forward to see you enabled to assume the offensive. Had I been less earnestly engaged in providing for yours and other commands, I should have had the pleasure of visiting you before this date.

Two regiments have been sent forward, neither of which had reached you at the date of your letters, and you will soon receive further re-enforcements. They are not trained troops, but I think they are better than those of the enemy, and the capacity which you have recently exhibited successfully to fight with undisciplined citizens justifies the expectation that you will know how to use such force as we are able to furnish.

Very truly,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

* Not found.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 13, 1861.

Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

GENERAL: The opinions expressed by Major Whiting in his letter to you, and on which you have indorsed your concurrence, have been duly considered. You had been heretofore instructed to exercise your discretion as to retiring from your position at Harper’s Ferry and taking the field to check the advance of the enemy. It is to be inferred from the papers now transmitted that you have considered the authority given as not equal to the necessity of the case-that you must needs {p.924} retire before the enemy was present, or otherwise that you would be unable to avoid capture, and would not be permitted to fight in retreat. In all the directions which have been given to you you will not have failed to perceive that, relying equally on your sound judgment and soldierly qualifications, it was intended that you should judge of the necessities of your condition and of the means best adapted to answer the general purpose of the campaign. As the movements of the enemy could not be foreseen, so it was impossible to give you specific directions, and the cause of the country could only be confided to one who, like yourself; was deemed entirely competent to decide upon events as they arose.

We have no reliable information that the enemy is at Cumberland, and had hoped that he could not so soon be able to reach that point. We had not anticipated that he could turn your position without your being apprised of it in time to make your movements conform to that fact. As you seem to desire, however, that the responsibility of your retirement should be assumed here, and as no reluctance is felt to bear any burden which the public interests require, you will consider yourself authorized, whenever the position of the enemy shall convince you that he is about to turn your position and thus deprive the country of the use of yourself and the troops under your command, to destroy everything at Harper’s Ferry-the bridge across the Potomac, platforms, and trestle work included-which could serve the purpose of the enemy, and retire upon the railroad towards Winchester, carrying with you all the rolling stock and destroying the road behind you. Should the people of Winchester and the surrounding valley rally to your aid in such numbers as to enable you to resume active operations, you will avail yourself of the first opportunity to attack the enemy, and endeavor to drive him from his purpose of invasion, and to do as much else as possible. The ineffective portion of your command, together with the baggage and whatever else would impede your operations in the field, it would be well to send without delay to the Manassas road.

Should you not be sustained by the population of the valley, so as to enable you to turn upon the enemy before reaching Winchester, you will continue slowly to retire to the Manassas road, upon some of the passes on which it is hoped you will be able to make an effective stand even against a very superior force. To this end it might be well to send your engineer to make a reconnaissance and to construct such temporary works as may be useful and proper.

The position of Harper’s Ferry, as has been heretofore stated, is deemed valuable because of its relation to Maryland and as the entrance to the valley of Virginia, the possession of which by the enemy will separate the eastern and western sections of the State from each other, deprive us of the agricultural resources of that fertile region, and bring in its train political consequences which it is well believed you cannot contemplate without the most painful emotions. If, therefore, much reluctance has been exhibited to a retirement from your position, you will not fail to appreciate the motives which have led to it. Should you move so far as to make a junction with General Beauregard, the enemy would be free immediately to occupy the valley of Virginia and to pass to the rear of Manassas Junction; so that, unless the proposed attack upon Alexandria should be prompt and successful, you would soon be cut off both from re-enforcements and supplies until an army could be sent large enough to defeat that before which you had retired, and you know too well our condition to render it necessary that you should be informed that this could hardly be done before the enemy could make a {p.925} conjoint attack upon you by his armies both front and rear. Troops are now coming forward from the Southern States, and it is to be expected that within a week General Beauregard’s position may be re-enforced by troops equal in number to that which is reported as the effective portion of your command. If you have until then covered the valley of Virginia, General Beauregard may thus with more probable success advance upon Alexandria than by the junction of your command with his by surrendering the valley of Virginia to the enemy. It is not expected that you will believe that mere numbers will give you strength, yet it is hoped that the people fighting for their homes and their liberties, with even a small number of instructed troops, may enable you to operate successfully against such forces as are opposed to you; and it is but justice to add that the greatest confidence is placed upon your capacity to inspire others with the soldierly qualities you have so often exhibited, and that the most unlimited confidence is reposed in you both as a commander and a patriot. For these reasons it has been with reluctance that any attempt was made to give you specific instructions, and you will accept assurances of the readiness with which the freest exercise of discretion on your part will be sustained.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General.

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HEADQUARTERS VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 13, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: I have had the honor to receive your communication of the 10th instant,* and I take pleasure in expressing my gratification at the gallant conduct of the troops under your command and my approbation of the dispositions made by you, resulting, as they did, in the rout of the enemy. I have referred your letter to the President of the Confederate States, that he may be fully informed of the operations so successfully conducted by you and of the recommendations you have seen fit to make.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* Report of action at Big Bethel, p. 91.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 13, 1861.

Hon. J. M. MASON, Winchester, Va.:

SIR: The President has sent to General Johnston to send an officer to Winchester (Colonel Jackson suggested), to raise the people to resist the enemy, said to have advanced to Romney. Your assistance to that end is desired.

General Johnston finds himself unable to maintain his position at Harper’s Ferry, but the President still hopes, if compelled to retire by the enemy passing to his rear, that he will fall back upon the people of the valley, assembled in such force as to enable him to assume the offensive, and perhaps to crush the invading column.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.926}

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HDQRS. DEP’T. OF NORTHWESTERN VIRGINIA, Yeager’s, 24 miles south of Huttonsville, Va., June 13, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General C. S. Army:

SIR: I overtook Colonel Heck’s command at this point to-day, seven hundred and fifty strong, with four pieces of cannon. I shall reach Colonel Porterfield to-morrow. Accounts from the front are not very encouraging, very contradictory; but, as the information, in my judgment, is not reliable, I will defer giving you details until I reach Huttonsville, and can get something authentic. The condition of things is due to the want of proper officers to conduct the reconnoitering. The cavalry of this region is entirely raw; the officers without experience or confidence. The purpose of this letter is to beg, urgently, that three or four officers of experience, to conduct reconnoitering parties, may be sent me at the earliest possible moment.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Brigadier-General.

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RICHMOND, VA., June 13, 1861-1.30 p. m.

Col. R. C. W. RADFORD, Lynchburg, Va.:

Use your discretion in sending cavalry companies to Manassas by rail or road. Lose as little time as possible. There are here no arms for cavalry of any kind.

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE VIRGINIA FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 14, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN LETCHER, Governor of Virginia:

SIR: The defensive works about Richmond are progressing so slowly, from the want of laborers, that I think it proper to call your attention to the subject, that you may submit it to the city council for their consideration and action. I beg leave, also, to suggest that all available persons in and about Richmond be organized for the defense of the city; that they provide themselves with such arms as each can procure, and that arrangements be made for the fabrication of suitable ammunition. These are intended as precautionary measures, which can better be made now than upon the eve of the emergency, should it arise.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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WINCHESTER, VA., June 14, 1861.

General WILLIAM H. RICHARDSON, Adjutant-General Virginia Militia:

GENERAL: At 10 o’clock this morning I issued an order dismissing the militia which I had called into service. I did so in consequence of the retreat of the enemy from Romney and the arrival at this place of several regiments of the Confederate forces. In dismissing the militia, I repeated the order for frequent drilling, and for holding themselves in {p.927} readiness for service at a moment’s warning. The militia obeyed the call to arms with great alacrity and with considerable unanimity. I have directed the proper rolls, &c., to be prepared and returned.

We received no arms from the State or Confederate States authorities. About one-third of the militia who turned out had no arms at all; the others had their own, or such as they could procure.

Very respectfully,

JAMES H. CARSON, Brigadier-General Sixteenth Brigade, Virginia Militia.

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YORKTOWN, VA., June 15, 1861.

General R. E. LEE:

SIR: As I am left in temporary command of this post, I hope that I will be pardoned for making a few suggestions. The enemy is burning for revenge for his total rout at Bethel Church. There can be no doubt that he will attempt to take this point either by a night surprise or by a regular siege. We are totally unprepared for either alternative. The development of our lines is so great that they cannot be manned by less than six thousand troops. Now we have no siege guns at all. Our forces are now divided between Bethel Church, Grove Landing, and Williamsburg. We are therefore liable to be beaten in detail with our present weak force, and the York line may be lost at any moment. At this time there are scarce three thousand men in Yorktown, and our lines cannot possibly be defended with fewer than six thousand. Permit me, then, to urge that more troops may be sent here, and that some dozen siege guns be mounted in our batteries. I understand that the Rifle Rangers from Florida are exceedingly anxious to come here, and, as they are all experienced hunters, their services would be of great value to us.

With great respect,

D. H. HILL, Colonel First Regiment North Carolina Volunteers.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 15, 1861.

His Excellency JOHN LETCHER, Governor of Virginia:

SIR: Agreeably to your request, I submit a statement of the military and naval preparation for the defense of Virginia, from the period of her separation from the U. S. Government to the date of transfer of the military operations of the State to the Confederate Government. Arrangements were first made for the establishment of batteries to prevent the ascent of our enemy by hostile vessels. As soon as an examination was made for the selection of sites, their construction was begun and their armament and defense committed to the Virginia Navy. Preparations were also begun for receiving into the service of the State volunteer companies, and for organizing, arming, and equipping them. Mustering officers were appointed, rendezvous established, and provision made for their subsistence and shelter. The primary estimate of the number of troops, of all arms, required, based upon the points to be defended, amounted to fifty-one thousand men. The estimated quota of each portion of the State has been furnished, except from the western {p.928} section. Arrangements were made for calling out the volunteers from the western section at the same time and in the same manner as from the eastern section, but as yet it has been feebly responded to.

Complete returns from the troops in the field have not, and, from the nature of things, cannot for some time be received; but, from the best source of information within our reach, the number of Virginia troops is about 35,000. This amount probably falls below the real number, for, referring to the report of the Colonel of Ordnance, it will be seen that he has issued 2,054 rifles and carbines and 41,604 muskets, in addition to pistols and sabers to the cavalry. Thirteen thousand arms have also been issued from Lexington, making a total of 56,658. Seven thousand of those from Lexington and several thousand from the arsenal at Richmond have been issued to troops from other States; but as many of the Virginia companies, supposed to be about 5,000 men, were armed and equipped when received into the service of the State, should the number of unarmed companies from other States not differ materially from the number of armed companies of the State, the number of Virginia troops in the field may be assumed to be about 40,000. When it is remembered that this body of men were called from a state of profound peace to one of unexpected war, you will have reason to commend the alacrity with which they left their homes and families and prepared themselves for the defense of the State. The assembling of men, however, was not the most difficult operation. Provision for their instruction, subsistence, equipment, clothing, shelter, and transportation in the field required more time and labor. Ammunition of every kind had to be manufactured. The carriages of the guns for river, land, and field service had to be made, with the necessary implements, caissons, battery wagons, &c. One hundred and fifteen guns for field service have thus been provided, from which twenty light batteries, of four gulls each, have been furnished, with the requisite horses, harness, &c.

For the defense of James River, two batteries and two steamers have been provided, mounting, altogether, forty guns, ranging in caliber from 32-pounders to 8 and 9 inch columbiads. Arrangements are also in process for mounting sixty guns, of different weights, on the defenses around Richmond, and a naval battery of 6 to 12 pounder howitzers is in process of organization.

On York River three batteries have been constructed, mounting thirty guns, of caliber similar to the guns on James River.

Sites for batteries on the Potomac have also been selected, and arrangements were in progress for their construction; but the entire command of that river being in the possession of the United States Government, a larger force is required for their security than could be devoted to that purpose. The batteries at Aquia Creek have only been prepared. Twelve guns are in position there.

On the Rappahannock River a four-gnu battery of 32 pounders and. 8-inch columbiads has been erected.

Six batteries have been erected on the Elizabeth River, to guard the approaches to Norfolk and the navy-yard. They mount eighty-five guns, 32-pounders and 8 and 9 inch columbiads.

To prevent the ascent of the Nansemond River and the occupation of the railroad from Norfolk to Richmond, three batteries have been constructed on that river, which will mount nineteen guns.

The frigate United States has been prepared for a school-ship, provided with a deck battery of nineteen guns, 32-pounders and 9-inch columbiads, for harbor defense. The frigate Merrimac has been raised {p.929} and is in the dry-dock, and arrangements are made for raising the Germantown and Plymouth.

In addition to the batteries described, other works have been constructed for their land defense, exceeding, in many instances, the works on the batteries themselves. An extensive line of field works has been erected for the security of Norfolk on the sides towards the bay. Redoubts for the same purpose have been constructed at Jamestown Island, Gloucester Point, Yorktown, and across the neck of land below Williamsburg. I have confined myself to a general narration of operations, and for the details refer you to the reports of several chiefs of staff.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FREDERICKSBURG, Fredericksburg, June 15, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: Since my arrival here I have made careful reconnaissance of the coast, and sought in every way possible to possess myself of the enemy’s movements and intentions. There is no evidence of a disposition on his part to land in this vicinity, and I am obliged to think that the force here is unnecessarily large. To all appearances the Federal forces will be directed against Manassas Junction and Harper’s Ferry. If those places fall, this position will be unnecessary, as he will have opened for himself a more direct route to Richmond. I beg therefore respectfully to suggest that after leaving a sufficient guard for the batteries, say 500 men, it will be better for me to march with the great body of my command to Manassas, or some other point where they can be made available, to resist the first great onslaught of the enemy. It may be the time for this move has not yet arrived, and my only object now is to inform you that if you agree with me in opinion as to the enemy’s intention, I can at very short notice march from here with three regiments of volunteers and two batteries of artillery.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

TH. H. HOLMES, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP LONG MEADOW, June 15, 1861.

General COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 13th.

I know myself to be a careless writer, and will not, therefore, pretend to have expressed clearly the opinions I wished to have put before the Government. I am confident, however, that nothing in my correspondence with my military superiors makes me obnoxious to the charge of desiring that the responsibility of my official acts should be borne by any other person than myself.

I had the honor yesterday to report to the President the removal of {p.930} the troops from Harper’s Ferry and other matters authorized in your letter just received.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 16, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 14th, directed to General S. Cooper, has been received. The result of your examination of the James River is different from the conclusion arrived at by the engineer and naval officers to whom that duty was assigned. They supposed that a battery at Day’s Point would not command the passage of James River, and therefore established it at Jamestown Island. A battery at Day’s Point was considered to be advantageous in other respects, but, as it would require a larger covering force for its security than could then be assigned it, its construction was necessarily postponed. Since the concentration of troops at Suffolk has become possible, arrangements have been commenced for its erection, and it is hoped it will not be too late for the benefit proposed.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 16, 1861.

To the COMMANDING OFFICER YORKTOWN, VA.:

Col. D. H. Hill’s letter of the 15th instant has been received. The advantage to the enemy of his possession of Yorktown will be sufficient to induce him to adopt every means to take it. It is hoped that every precaution will be adopted to prevent its being carried by surprise. Should it be besieged, measures will be taken for its relief. There are no siege guns at present available for your post. Re-enforcements will be sent to Yorktown as rapidly as the arrival of available troops at this point will permit. Should the works at Yorktown be too extensive for defense by the troops now there, it will be advisable, if possible, to contract the lines, so as to render them defensible by the force you can command for that purpose.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEP’T. OF NORTHWESTERN VIRGINIA Laurel Hill, 12 miles beyond Beverly, June 16, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

SIR: I have the honor to report that the troops under my command now occupy this pass and the pass over Rich Mountain, leading to Buckhannon. These troops consist at present at this place of a regiment of Virginia volunteers, organized by him [?] yesterday at Huttonsville, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson, Captain Shumacker’s {p.931} battery of artillery, Captain Anderson’s half battery (two pieces), and one company of cavalry. The Buckhannon Pass is occupied by one regiment of infantry, a half battery, and a company of cavalry. I made a forced march by night to reach these passes, in consequence of having heard that the enemy were moving from Philippi to Buckhannon. I presumed his object to be to get possession of the two passes, and thus shut up my force in the valley of Beverly, Huttonsville, &c.

The other troops in rear have not yet arrived. Major Williams, on engineer duty, reported this afternoon, but I doubt whether anything can be done for this pass. It is not so formidable as I had been induced to suppose, and would present no difficulty to good light infantry.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Yorktown, Va., June 16, 1861.

Col. S. COOPER, Adjutant-General C. S. Army:

SIR: I have the honor to state that the Louisiana regiment, numbering 800 men, and the Zouaves, numbering about 500, with Major Cary’s battalion of some 250 men, are at Bethel; that Colonel August’s regiment of Virginia volunteers, 600 strong (effectives), and the regiment of local troops which I have organized under the name of Peninsula Guards, ten companies, about 600 men, under Lieutenant-Colonel Ewell are all at or linear Williamsburg, say 1,300 men; there are here 2,700 effective men; making in all 5,550 effective men. This is not enough; 4,500 more troops are necessary to secure this line, and fifteen heavy guns. There are at Norfolk, I am informed, many 32-pounders on navy carriages. They would answer here very well. The enemy will come on this line provided with heavy siege guns. Now we have time, if the 32-pounders from Norfolk can be ordered and sent, to put them in position, and to foil the enemy in every attack. Many are needed for this place and Williamsburg also. If the enemy lay siege to this fort and those before Williamsburg with heavy siege guns and men armed with the long-range muskets, it will be impossible to hold either with light field pieces and common muskets. We are now strong enough to prevent being stormed, I think, provided our lines are filled with men, which is not the case now. The heavy guns are absolutely necessary, and without loss of time. So are men. Four more regiments, of one thousand effective men each, or five regiments of the ordinary strength, with the heavy guns asked for, would put anxiety to rest as to a successful attack on Richmond from this quarter. I have here asked for the smallest number. I again ask the attention of the headquarters of the Army to the fact that no fuses are furnished the shell for the navy battery here, and that the amount of ammunition for that battery is ridiculously small (forty-seven rounds, without fuses, to each gun). I sent a good fuse-maker to Captain Barron the other day-Anderson-who has been employed at Fort Monroe in the ordnance department for many years.

I cannot too urgently press upon the consideration of the headquarters the immediate necessity of having the heavy guns from Norfolk or elsewhere at this place. The defense of Richmond is here at Williamsburg and Jamestown, and the men and guns are necessary to that defense. {p.932} I have stationed four companies of Colonel August’s regiment at Grove Wharf, with one piece of artillery, with orders to fortify (breastwork and an intrenchment for one gun) immediately. Same at King’s Mill. Also one company on the King’s Mill road, at Tetter’s Neck, and another on Spratley’s farm. A redoubt will be built at once, which will command the King’s Mill Landing, and one at Spratley’s farm, which will enfilade the shore between King’s Mill and the Grove. This latter must be furnished with two columbiads, which I have to request may be forwarded to Jamestown, care of Captain Rives, Engineers, with their carriages, ammunition, &c. I proceed to Bethel to-day.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 17, 1861.

General T. H. HOLMES, Dep’t. of Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: In answer to your letter of the 15th instant, addressed to General S. Cooper, I have to state that, until the plans of the enemy are more clearly disclosed, it is not considered advisable to reduce the force in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, lest that place might fall into their hands, and thus open a short and convenient line to Richmond. It is, however, desired that you keep your command in condition to move at any point when required, leaving a sufficient force to maintain the batteries. It has been stated to me that troops have been stationed at Mathias Point, Colonel Brockenbrough commanding, and that their position is unmasked and unprotected. It was designed to occupy this point with a battery, for the purpose of commanding the passage of the Potomac. Not having sufficient troops to secure it, its construction was postponed, and the guns have been applied, I presume, to other points. If your force is sufficient, I would suggest the project of its erection be resumed. Captain Lynch, of the Navy, had the matter in charge, and is informed of the circumstances of the case. Everything should be prepared, before breaking ground, for its rapid construction, and troops sufficient for holding it at the spot.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, VA., Manassas Junction, June 17, 1861.

Col. W. B. BATE, Comdg. at Camp Jackson, Brooke’s Station, Stafford Co., Va.:

COLONEL: As it would be important to re-enforce the troops under my command as soon as practicable should the enemy advance from Alexandria, I have to suggest that you obtain the approval of General Holmes and of the Secretary of War to your throwing forward your regiment (two would be preferable) and a battery to my support. A good position for them to occupy would be Brentsville, a few miles southeast of here, where they would protect my rear, and be prepared also to act against any force of the enemy attempting to land at Quantico Creek or even at Aquia Creek.

{p.933}

I have already informed General Holmes, through his aide, Colonel Lacy, of the necessity of establishing a battery and supporting force at the mouth of the former creek, but I am unable to do so at present for the reason given above; hence I would be happy to have him do it if in his power. I would suggest also the necessity of establishing immediately a telegraph station near your headquarters and another near those of Lieutenant-Colonel Green, at Camp Chopawamsie, near Evansport, so as to be in telegraphic communication with this place, via Richmond, for a most thorough and perfect concert of action must exist between our different military departments to insure victory to our arms and success to our glorious cause.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-What has become of the portable hot-shot furnace I sent to General Lee from Charleston for the defense of the Potomac? It ought to be at Aquia Creek. I beg you to send a copy of this letter, through General Holmes, to the Secretary of War, with such remarks as both may wish to add to it.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT, Brooke’s Station, June 18, 1861.

I disagree with General Beauregard as to the propriety of detaching any part of this command.

The point designated by him is entirely out of reach of Aquia Creek. If this command is relieved, it should be on the supposition that there is no danger to be apprehended of an invasion from near here, and in that event nearly the whole command should be sent.

Respectfully forwarded.

TH. H. HOLMES, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Norfolk, Va., June 17, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Forces, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have had reports for a week past that the Lincoln forces were putting artillery on the Ripraps. I presumed at the time it was to prevent small vessels from passing to the southward of it.

On Saturday afternoon the command at Sewell’s Point was surprised by a rifled shell passing just over the battery, and exploding some hundred yards beyond. Some eight or ten shells were fired, but no others fell so near the battery. Some went near the camp of the Georgia battalion, near half a mile distant. Time distance from the Ripraps to the battery is about three and five-eighths miles. I immediately ordered a lighter load of railroad iron sent down, and commenced work, securing the magazine and battery from the effect of these shells, and, as it is a long shot, the men will learn to dodge them. I am pushing on the work of fortifying the battery. The shells proved to be 32-pounder caliber, of Sawyer’s pattern, flanged projectile, covered with composition metal, and having a concussion fuse. They did not fire at all yesterday (Sunday). Last evening I received a report that a small propeller was lying {p.934} near the Ripraps, and presume it was bringing a supply of ammunition for this gun. I shall secure the work, and expect to hold it, as there is safety in a long shot, and every round must cost them $10 or $12.

There was an arrival of troops in a steamer yesterday at Old Point. They were landed on the farms near Hampton. Last evening a steamer took a load of men from Newport News to Fort Monroe.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS CAMP BUNKER HILL, June 17, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: On the morning of the 16th intelligence was received, apparently reliable, that no enemy is advancing on Romney, and that the large body of troops collected near Hagerstown would cross the Potomac yesterday. The troops under my command were therefore directed to this point, on the road from Hagerstown to Winchester, the main route from Maryland into the valley of Virginia. We are twelve miles in advance of Winchester. My only hope from this movement is a slight delay in the enemy’s advance. I believe his force to be about 18,000; ours is 6,500. Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, commanding our small body of cavalry, sent me intelligence last night that the Federal troops encamped yesterday afternoon about eight miles from Martinsburg (seventeen miles from this place) on this road.

I will endeavor to conform as nearly as circumstances may permit to the instructions received from you on the 15th. The want of ammunition has rendered me very timid.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier. General, C. S. Army.

P. S.-Colonel Thomas, who will deliver this to you, goes to expedite a supply of ammunition for small-arms. We have about thirty rounds.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 18, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Comdg. U. S. Forces, Camp Bunker Hill, Twelve Miles from Winchester, Va.:

SIR: Yours of the 17th instant this day delivered by Colonel Thomas, and the ammunition will start this evening under his charge by a special train. In the letter to you of the 15th, if the instructions seemed to you specific, be assured it was only intended to respond to the desire manifested in the letter communicated by you, and both then and theretofore and now the fullest reliance was placed in your zeal and discretion, and you are expected to act as circumstances may require, only keeping in view the general purpose to resist invasion as far as may be practicable, and seek to repel the invaders whenever and however it may be done. In order that all disposition may be made to meet your wants it is necessary that you should write frequently and fully as to your position, and the movements which may be contemplated by you. Since the date of my last letter to you re-enforcements have been steadily sent forward to the camp at Manassas Junction, {p.935} and others will be added to that force and to yours, as the current of events may determine us to advance on one line or the other. Should we not be able to assume the offensive with prospects of success the war must for a time remain one of positions, and active operations be carried on against small detachments and lines of communication. If the enemy should advance boldly, the latter operations will become to you more easy and to him more injurious. It is needless to tell you that we are poorly supplied with disciplined troops and with transportation for maneuvering in the field, and you will therefore readily understand why we have not sought to accumulate in your command before receiving requisitions from you and before being in a condition to instruct you to advance.

Our information here-much less perfect than your own-has not led to the conclusion that a main attack was now contemplated upon your line of operations, but we have not failed to observe indications of a purpose to make such attack hereafter-probably not before affairs in Western Virginia remove the apprehensions of the enemy as to popular resistance in that quarter. We have, however, endeavored to use the limited means at control so as to meet the contingency of attack either by way of Harper’s Ferry or by Alexandria, as the case might be, should either occur before we were ready to shift the campaign to suit our own views. The advance upon Romney was most probably only intended to capture the arms which had been placed there, and a painful rumor is in circulation here that this was near being effected by surprise, on account of the neglect to have scouts and pickets on duty sufficiently far in advance to gain timely warning of the approach of an enemy. You will in the manner which you may deem most effective enforce upon all the troops under your command the necessity of the greatest vigilance and activity on picket and reconnoitering duty. If the inhabitants of the valley have rallied with spirit to your standard, you will no doubt find among them men well suited to the duty of scouts and guides. As far as it may be practicable you will seek to strip the country which may be possessed by the enemy of those things which may be most available to him, especially horses suited to the military service and herds of beef cattle. If it be possible to do so, it is desirable that the gun-stocks, gun-barrels, tilt-hammers, &c., which have not been removed from Harper’s Ferry should be brought away and sent forward for our use elsewhere.

Re-enforcements will be sent to you of such character and numbers as you may require and our means will enable us to afford; and here I would enforce upon you the necessity of communicating promptly all reliable information which you may obtain in relation to the enemy. The reports which we receive from other than official sources are so often incorrect that no action can possibly be based upon them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 18, 1861.

Lieut. R. R. CARTER, Commanding Confederate States Steam-tender Teazer:

SIR: It is desired that the Confederate States steam-tender Teazer shall unite with the batteries at Jamestown Island in defense of James {p.936} River, and be employed in obtaining intelligence of the movements of hostile vessels and the landing of troops on either side of the river. It is important that you particularly watch the landings in the vicinity of Grove Wharf, on the left bank, and Stonehouse Wharf, on the right bank, below Jamestown, and endeavor to give notice to the troops on either bank. A body of infantry guard the former point, and a troop of cavalry, commanded by Captain Ruffin, patrol the country about Burwell’s Bay, to convey intelligence to the troops at Suffolk. It is suggested that you establish a system of signals, as a means of communication with the troops, and take every precaution not to jeopardize the safety of your boat by proceeding too far beyond the protection of the guns of the batteries. You will report to the commanding officer of Jamestown Island, to whom a copy of your orders will be sent.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 18, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: A requisition has just been made for eight 32-pounders, of twenty-seven cwt., and four 42-pounder carronades, for the defense of the land approaches to Yorktown; also for four boats, for service in York River capable of transporting four or five hundred men each. These will be sent as soon as possible to Captain Whittle, at West Point, who will forward them to Yorktown. If Captain Whittle should think it expedient to do so, he is authorized to send to Yorktown the guns that are intended for Gloucester Point, and to replace them when the above-named requisition is filled, if they are not wanted immediately at Gloucester Point.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 18, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding Yorktown, Va.:

COLONEL: Your letter of the 16th instant, addressed to General S. Cooper, Adjutant-General, C. S. Army, reporting the position of the troops under your command and the number of effective men, has been received. It always has been the intention to send additional troops to the Yorktown district as fast as they became available, and this arrangement will be continued until a sufficient number is obtained. As regards the guns which you report necessary for the land defense at Yorktown, they also have been forwarded for that and contiguous points as fast as they could be provided. I cannot learn of any requisition having been made by you for ammunition for the water batteries, but I take pleasure in informing you that fifty shells, properly fused, were forwarded to you yesterday. The laboratory at this point is so small that it does not furnish facilities for rapidly making fuses. More shells with fuses can, however, be sent you if desired.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.937}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 18, 1861.

EDMUND T. MORRIS, Convention of Virginia:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 18th instant,* I have the honor to state that I consider it very important to the military operations within Virginia that proper and easy connections of the several railroads passing through or terminating in Richmond or Petersburg should be made as promptly as possible. The want of these connections has seriously retarded the operations so far, and they may become more important. All the guns, ammunition, &c., from Norfolk, on reaching Petersburg, have either to be transported across the Appomattox to the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, or forwarded to the Richmond and Danville Railroad, and to be again transported at Richmond. The transportation of troops has also been delayed in the same manner. I have previously urged the connection of the roads within the cities of Richmond and Petersburg, and hope it may now be established.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 18, 1861.

Hon. WILLIAM C. PARKS, Grayson County, Virginia, Convention of Virginia:

SIR: In answer to your letter of the 18th instant,* I regret to state that the supply of arms available for arming the volunteers of Virginia for service in the field is so limited that at present I am unable to comply with your request. I have suggested to the governor a method of procuring some flint-lock muskets of the old pattern, which, if successful, I hope will furnish the means of giving arms to your county and others that are much in want.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS NEAR WINCHESTER, June 18, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: In writing by Colonel Thomas yesterday I reported myself on the road hence to Martinsburg and twelve miles from this place. Since then I have encamped within four miles, and have just selected a position for the 12 batteries covering the route from the west and northeast. There are eight heavy guns here, which, with the military of the town and country, ought to enable us to hold out against any probable force which can be expected, provided ammunition shall be furnished, especially caps, which I am told are now made very expeditiously in Richmond. These troops have not a supply for half an hour’s fighting. I beg you to direct that efforts may be made to supply this want, which makes me overcautious, perhaps.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

{p.938}

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HEADQUARTERS, Bethel Church, June 18, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjt. Gen. C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I now occupy this post with the Second Louisiana Regiment, the Zouaves, to which I have attached the York and Warwick companies, two batteries of artillery, and some cavalry, and that the Georgia regiment is so placed in our rear as to be able to watch the Poquosin River, to fall back upon Yorktown, or to support Bethel.

Yesterday a flag of truce was borne by Mr. Butler, aide-de-camp to General Butler, who was accompanied by Mr. Winthrop, brother of Major Winthrop (who was also on the staff of General Butler), and was killed on the 10th. The object was to ask the body of Major Winthrop. I had it disinterred and escorted by a detachment of artillery and a troop of dragoons to a farm-house beyond our works, where it was delivered to Mr. Butler with military honors to the deceased.

One of our vedettes, Private Prior, was cut off the day before yesterday, and killed. A lieutenant of Captain Adams’ company of horse was shot in the leg by a picket of the Georgia regiment. I had directed a bandeau of white to be worn by our forces, but the Georgians had it not. The wound, though severe, is not considered mortal. Badges prescribed are worn now by the Georgians, and I hope no mistake of this serious nature will again occur.

I requested in a letter from Grove Landing that Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, Fifteenth Virginia Infantry, might be appointed colonel, and ordered to report to me. I have attached the York and Warwick companies to the Zouaves, partly in order to give the battalion a colonel. In fact, the captains of the Zouaves called upon me in a body, and stated that they would be obliged to resign and serve as privates unless something was done, their lieutenant-colonel being, though a brave and good man, entirely without energy or the faculty to command. Whilst reminding them of the impropriety of their course, I saw that they were actuated by no ill or ignoble feeling. I ordered them here, under the command, of course, of their lieutenant-colonel, and they obeyed promptly; but I am most anxious to have a colonel for this battalion-a man of some knowledge of his profession, and firmness-and I have learned it would not be distasteful to Lieutenant-Colonel Coppens himself, who will still be lieutenant-colonel. Please let this be done with as little delay as possible.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT NORTHWESTERN VIRGINIA, Beverly, June 18, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

SIR: As already reported, I have four companies of cavalry under my command. I find that beyond Laurel Hill and the Buckhannon Pass there are so many country by-roads and cross-roads that this force is not quite sufficient to keep my command properly guarded. I therefore request that I may be supplied at the earliest practicable moment with two companies of well-armed and well-instructed cavalry.

The force which I found here is in a miserable condition as to ammunition {p.939} and equipments. As regards the latter, they are actually suffering. Many are without blankets, and I may say nearly all without tents. The nights are cold, and there is much rain in this mountainous region. Sickness is therefore to be apprehended. In addition to this, they are obliged to carry their ammunition in their pockets, and that which escapes the rain is ruined by the perspiration of the men and the wearing out of the paper cartridges. I asked before leaving Staunton for one thousand cartridge-boxes, but I suppose it will be some time before I shall see them. I shall ask to-day for five hundred tent flies, as it will take too much time to make tents. I simply want something to protect arms and ammunition from rain.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Brigadier-General.

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RICHMOND, VA., June 18, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Virginia:

GENERAL: I have been ordered by Col. D. H. Hill, temporarily in command at Yorktown, to see you in reference to a letter recently written by him requesting re-enforcements and that some heavy guns should be sent for the interior lines at Yorktown. At present there are in Yorktown, besides the field pieces of my battalion, four columbiads in the water battery, two brass 12-pounders, one 12-pounder navy howitzer, and two iron 6-pounders. The interior lines are very extensive, not less than three-quarters of a mile in length, to some extent commanded by the heights north of the morass, which are too extensive to be occupied, and on the east there is a level, open country, traversed by the roads from Hampton and Wormley’s Creek, favorable to the erection of batteries by the enemy. To render the place tenable, if attacked by a force with a siege train, I respectfully submit that we should have at least twelve heavy guns, eight of them to be mounted on the eastern lines three on the southern, and one on the western, to command the road from Williamsburg. I find that Captain Ingraham, the Chief of the Naval Bureau of Ordnance, can supply us with eight 32-pounders of twenty-seven hundred weight, and four 42-pounder carronades with navy carriages. These guns are well suited to our purposes, the former firing round shot and shell effectively, and the latter firing grape shot for short ranges, such as are to be found on the northern lines, facing the morass. Captain Ingraham can also furnish four boats, capable of transporting four or five hundred men, which will be very useful in preserving the communications between Yorktown and Gloucester Point. I respectfully ask permission to receive these guns and boats. Two of the guns are at Gloucester Point and two at West Point; but Captain Whittle authorizes me to say that they are not ready for them at either place, and that he should prefer seeing them mounted at Yorktown.

The Secretary having given me an order for thirty-six horses, to supply the loss of eight in the action of the 10th instant, to mount four men for each of the six navy howitzers in my battalion, to mount two chiefs of caissons, and to furnish two spare horses for the two batteries, I respectfully ask a detail of a non-commissioned officer and eighteen men to carry the horses to Yorktown. General Fauntleroy informs me that he can furnish the men without inconvenience.

I also inclose a requisition upon the Ordnance Bureau for thirty-six halters and twenty-six riding saddles and bridles for the horses above {p.940} mentioned, &c., and a requisition for transportation on the Quartermaster-General.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, &c.,

GEO. W. RANDOLPH, Major of the Howitzers.

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COUNCIL CHAMBER, June 18, 1861.

GENERAL: I send you an extract from the report of Gen. W. H. Richardson, adjutant-general of Virginia, dated April 17, 1861, which shows the number of armed volunteers in Virginia at that time:

I remain, very respectfully,

FRANCIS H. SMITH.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE Richmond, June 19, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding C. S. Forces near Winchester, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter of 18th instant just received. A large supply of ammunition for your command left here this morning, including eighty thousand percussion caps. An additional supply will be forwarded to you by to-morrow morning’s train. Every effort will be made here to support and sustain you to the extent of our means. All that is asked is to be informed promptly of your wants.

The movements of the enemy indicate the importance he attaches to the position of the valley of Virginia, and that he has probably seen the power he would acquire, if left free to do so, by advancing as far as Staunton, and then distributing his force so as to cut off our communication with the West and South, as well as to operate against our Army of the Potomac by movements upon its lines of communication, or attacking upon the reverse, supplying himself at the same time with all the provisions he may acquire in the valley of the Shenandoah, and enabling him to dispense with his long train of transportation from Pennsylvania. Everything should be destroyed which would facilitate his movements through the valley.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS Yorktown, Va., June 19, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS:

SIR: Our vedettes reported this morning the enemy marching in force via Warwick Court-House. We being at Bethel, this, if true, would cut us off from Yorktown. I immediately marched for Yorktown, carrying with us such baggage as the wagons which I had (seven in number) {p.941} permitted, and sent an express to Colonel Hill to order out a regiment at the junction of the York and Warwick roads to stop the enemy, while we took him in rear. He has not yet made his appearance, and we are in the works, but we hear of him in the neighborhood, and I have sent cavalry to feel him. General Butler has called for a re-enforcement of ten thousand men. Please send all you can spare, with plenty of ammunition.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER Colonel, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 19, 1861.

Hon. R. M. T. HUNTER, Lloyd’s, Essex County, Va.:

SIR: Your communication of-the 12th instant, to his excellency the President of the Confederate States, has been referred to me. I have the honor to reply that my attention has been frequently and earnestly called to the subject of the defense of the Rappahannock, both as regards Essex and the surrounding counties. The battery at Lowry’s Point seemed to be most advantageous at first for the defense of Fredericksburg, because it was at the narrowest and most difficult portion of the channel, and because it could be best defended by the guns that were available. It was desired to place the battery as near the mouth of the river as possible, and attention was particularly directed to Gray’s Point and Cherry Point; but it was found that the distance was so great as to require guns of heavy caliber, not then available, and works of such size as to be difficult of construction and protection. Those points were therefore abandoned. Recently the project for the construction of batteries at those points has been received, and a proper officer has made examinations to that effect. As soon as means can be provided the works will be commenced; but in the mean time it is desired that the measure be kept secret.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 20, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 19th instant has been received. Your explanations of the object for which a force has been stationed at Mathias Point is satisfactory; but I think it would be better if the troops would keep themselves concealed from the enemy, and especially refrain from firing into ships, as I am informed has been done. As your force is not sufficient for the protection of the battery at Mathias Point, its erection, for the present, must be postponed; but I desire you to keep its establishment in view, as it is proposed to place one there when circumstances will permit. Your arrangements as to the hospital at Fredericksburg and the appointment of Surgeon McClanahan are approved.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

{p.942}

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HEADQUARTERS NORTHWESTERN VIRGINIA, Laurel Hill, Va., June 20, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen. C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I wrote to you yesterday from Beverly in relation to two additional companies of cavalry, but I am constrained to recur to the subject again to-day, to urge upon you the necessity of great dispatch in forwarding them to me. During the last two days the enemy have evinced great activity and boldness in pushing their scouts to within two or three miles of my position, on the approaches to it, and it has quite worn down my small cavalry force (two companies at this point) in watching and checking their movements. The force is too small to enable me to push heavy scouts as far to the front as I desire. My scouts have had one or two partial encounters with those of the enemy, in which we have captured one of their men and two horses, and have killed one man and wounded others; but the service is too hard on the men and horses. The enemy are reported to be six thousand strong in Philippi, and about four thousand strong in Grafton, with six pieces of artillery (two rifled) at the former place; but these numbers vary very much. I do not think that they have more than seven thousand at Grafton and Philippi together. As I must keep one or two pieces of artillery in each of the passes now held by me, I hope it may not be deemed unreasonable if I ask two additional pieces. Could I get rifled pieces? Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram’s regiment will reach me to-morrow. Colonel Ramsey’s regiment of Georgia volunteers is two days behind Colonel Pegram.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. GARNETT, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Yorktown, Va., June 20, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

SIR: Having learned from the vedettes stationed on the Warwick road yesterday morning at 7 o’clock that a large body of the enemy was seen by himself and others on that road as high up as Lee’s store, nearly equidistant with our troops, after deducting the distance from that place to our position, and learning from Captain Levy, Louisiana volunteers, whom I had sent in the night before with a flag to General Butler, that there was every indication of an expedition of some magnitude being on foot, I determined to march without delay to this post, and, if the enemy had preceded me, to attack him in his rear. With tins view, I sent a dispatch, by night express, to Colonel Hill, commanding at Yorktown, directing him to place one of his regiments about two miles in front of his works, and at the junction of the York and Warwick roads, by which the enemy, if he arrived before Yorktown before we did, would be obliged to pass. I intended to attack him there, but, having sent fresh vedettes to Warwick Court-House and Lee’s store, I found that a strong party of the enemy had marched out early in the morning to procure horses, mules, &c, The embarrassment of operating on the Peninsula with a weak force before a strong one is that, if you want to verify a report of a vedette, your force is cut off; and the important point to be defended at all hazards is in danger. This marching {p.943} and countermarching, however, not being understood, fatigues and dispirits the troops. Still, it must be done, as the enemy must be kept in his trenches and fortifications. I had no wagons with me except three loaded with provisions, and had to leave the cooking utensils, some few tents, and the extra rations of our men on the ground. I reasoned that, if the force of the enemy turned out to be large, and an attacking party on Yorktown, I should be in time to recover it by this course; if small, I could easily send for the articles left. I have already most of them here, and the rest will be here to night.

I shall continue to occupy the lower part of the country-Bethel and neighborhood-but must construct some intrenchments, both on the Poquosin River and on the Warwick road, before making a move with an infantry force.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Colonel, Commanding.

P. S.-I have the honor to request that Captain Stanard’s battery, now at the Baptist College, be sent to me, as the erection of intrenchments on the Warwick and Poquosin roads makes it necessary that I should have more field pieces.

Respectfully,

J. B. M.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 28.}

HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 20, 1861.

On several occasions bodies of our troops have been surprised by the enemy under circumstances highly discreditable to the service, and the general commanding is therefore compelled to notice these occurrences in a public manner, and to enjoin upon all a more careful attention to the subject of outposts and vedettes. It is impossible that a surprise can take place if a due vigilance is exercised, and outposts and sentries are well established on the approaches to any given point, and strictly perform their duty. From some of the camps information is received that the troops have wasted their ammunition in the most reckless and shameful manner. Such intelligence is almost incredible, yet it is nevertheless true. One man has been killed and a number wounded by this abominable practice. The general hopes that there are not instances of this nature other than those which have been reported to him, and that the troops generally will pay regard to the importance of carefully handling their arms and economizing their ammunition, so vitally important at all times.

By command of General Lee:

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 20.}

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, Manassas Junction, Va., June 20, 1861.

The following is announced as the organization of the First Corps of the Army of the Potomac, which, for convenience, will be the designation of the troops of this command:

I. The First Brigade will consist of Gregg’s, Bacon’s, Kershaw’s, and {p.944} Cash’s regiments, South Carolina volunteers, Brig. Gen. M. L. Bonham commanding.

II. The Second Brigade, commanded by Brig. Germ. R. S. Ewell, Provisional Army of the Confederate States, will be formed of Seibels’ and Rodes’ regiments of Alabama volunteers, and Seymour’s regiment Louisiana volunteers.

III. The Third Brigade will consist of Jenkins’ regiment of South Carolina volunteers, and Featherston’s and Burt’s regiments of Mississippi volunteers, Brig. Gen. D. R. Jones, Provisional Army, Confederate States, commanding.

IV. The Fourth Brigade, Col. G. H. Terrett, Provisional Army of Virginia, commanding, will be formed of Moore’s, Garland’s, and Corse’s regiments of Virginia volunteers.

V. The Fifth Brigade will consist of Cocke’s, Preston’s, and Withers’ regiments of Virginia volunteers, Col. P. St. George Cocke, Virginia volunteers, commanding.

VI. The Sixth Brigade, Col. J. A. Early, commanding, will be formed of Early’s and Kemper’s Virginia volunteers, and Sloan’s regiment of South Carolina volunteers.

VII. The several commanders of brigades thus announced will organize their general and personal staff, as far as practicable, without delay, and will make the necessary returns and reports direct to these headquarters.

VIII. In the absence of any of the special brigade commanders, the senior colonel present will assume command of the brigade.

By order of Brigadier-General Beauregard:

THOMAS JORDAN, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, June 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. H. A. WISE, Lewisburg, Greenbrier County, Virginia:

SIR: Agreeably to wishes expressed in your letter of the 16th instant, a field piece, with ammunition, has been forwarded your command. A company of artillery, with field pieces, it is understood, is now being enlisted here for your command, and if it is completed to the number required by law will be mustered into service, and, with its battery, be sent forward. Captain Cunningham’s Company (F) was ordered on the 8th instant to repair to this city and report to you. It has, however, but recently arrived here, under some misapprehension of the order by the captain, who reports that the company has never been mustered into service, and that the men will decline the muster if required to proceed under the orders so soon.

As Capt. H. M. Mathews can be spared from the duty in which he is at present engaged he will be ordered to report to you. Three other officers will be directed to join you.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. CHILTON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

{p.945}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Commanding Harper’s Ferry District:

GENERAL: Your communication of the 12th instant has been duly received. In relation to the two regiments sent you, one from Georgia and one from Tennessee, the commanding general instructs me to say that these two regiments were selected by the President to be added to your command because they were thought to be fully equipped and in a good state of discipline. They were sent from Lynchburg, and did not pass through this city. He is grieved at your report of the inefficient state of the Tennessee regiment, but trusts that ere this a better state of things has been inaugurated.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, June 22, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON:

MY DEAR GENERAL: I congratulate you on the brilliant movement of Colonel Vaughn’s command. To break the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was essential to our operations, and if the bridge at Cheat River and the Grand Tunnel could be destroyed, so as to prevent the use of that railroad for the duration of the war, the effect upon public opinion in Western Virginia would doubtless be of immediate and great advantage to our cause.

If the enemy has withdrawn from your front to attack on the east side of the mountain, it may be that an attempt will be made to advance from Leesburg to seize the Manassas road and to turn Beauregard’s position. The recent effort to repair, the railroad from Alexandria to Leesburg may have been with such intent. In that event, if your scouts give you accurate and timely information, an opportunity will be offered you by the roads through the mountain passes to make a flank attack in conjunction with Beauregard’s column, and, with God’s blessing, to achieve a victory alike glorious and beneficial.

We continue to send forward re-enforcements to Manassas Junction. On Monday and Tuesday a battalion of light artillery will go forward, and every effort is made to reach a condition which will enable our forces to shape the campaign by assuming the offensive.

I wish you would write whenever your convenience will permit, and give me fully both information and suggestions. Colonel Thomas recently undertook to explain to me your wants as one authorized to speak for you, and to-day Mr. Staples communicated his impression of your views, necessities, and wishes. I am sure you cannot feel hesitation in writing to me freely, and trust your engagements will permit you to do so frequently.

With earnest wishes for your welfare and happiness, I am, very truly, your friend,

JEFFERSON DAVIS, {p.946}

HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 22, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

GENERAL: I am instructed by General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated the 20th instant, reporting your movements from Great Bethel to Yorktown, under the supposition, from information derived from your vedettes, that the enemy had moved against the latter in force. The general suggests that you will employ none but the most reliable men for the delicate and important service of vedettes, so as to avoid the chances of false information in respect to the enemy, such as that which caused your sudden march on the 19th instant. The general also wishes you to provide always a sufficient number of wagons for the troops held in advanced positions, so that, in the event of a rapid movement, transportation may be at hand at any moment.

Respectfully, &c.,

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, Nashville, June 22, 1861.

Governor LETCHER, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I am in receipt this morning of a letter from Colonel McKee, of the Louisville Courier, who has from time to time communicated such information as he thought would be of service to me, in which he incloses a letter from a friend of his in Cincinnati, dated June 19, in which he states as follows:

Two regiments of Indiana troops (the Eighth and Tenth) have just arrived here (Cincinnati) to-night en route for East Tennessee via Western Virginia. The information as to their destination I have confidentially from a colonel of one of the regiments I am well acquainted with, and believe this information, which I took some pains to pump from him, correct. The presence of the contemptible traitor seems to confirm it. I suppose you have means of communicating with the Tennessee leaders, and if, as I do, you consider the above item of any importance, by all means convey it to them as soon as possible. These men go to Marietta to-night, and to-morrow will be in Western Virginia. They, with several other regiments, are to co-operate with Brownlow and Johnson men. These two regiments are hardy-looking men and well armed.

I have to-day addressed a similar communication to General Floyd, Wytheville, Va.

S. R. ANDERSON, Major-General.

[Indorsement.]

JUNE 24, 1861.

DEAR SIR: I have this moment received this letter, and as it is important I send it to you.

I am, truly,

JOHN LETCHER.

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MANASSAS, VA., June 22, 1861.

President JEFFERSON DAVIS:

The enemy appears to be aiming at Leesburg. I have sent another regiment there. Cannot Calhoun’s battery, at Charleston, with the horses, be ordered there forthwith?

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

{p.947}

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, Manassas Junction, Va., June 23, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that, in consequence of the large re-enforcements I have lately received, I have divided my forces into six brigades, as per inclosed statement,* and commenced a forward movement to protect my advanced position at Centreville, Fairfax Court-House, and Sangster’s Cross-Roads, and also to be within striking distance of the enemy, whose advance positions seem to be at and to the rear of Falls Church (seven miles from Alexandria), where they have five regiments (First and Second Connecticut, First and Second Ohio, and Sixty-ninth New York), one troop of cavalry, and one light battery. They have also four companies at Annandale.

My advanced forces (three brigades of three regiments each) occupy the triangle represented by Mitchell’s Ford (Bull Run), one regiment; Centreville and a point half way to Germantown, one brigade; Germantown and Fairfax Court-House, one brigade; at the crossing of Braddock’s old road with the Fairfax Court-House and Fairfax Station roads, one regiment; at the latter station, one regiment and one battalion, and at Sangster’s Cross-Roads, one battalion. All these positions are in easy and short communication with each other and with these headquarters. Most of my cavalry is with the advance, scouting, reconnoitering, &c. One light battery is at Fairfax Court-House with General Bonham’s brigade, and another is to be sent to Centreville to act with Colonel Cocke’s brigade. I unfortunately have none to spare for my other brigades. I have thrown eight miles in advance of the latter town or village one battalion of infantry and two companies of cavalry to observe the country towards the Potomac and the movements of the enemy in that direction. As already reported to the Department, one regiment (Sloan’s South Carolina) has been ordered to Leesburg, to assist Col. E. Hunton in the defense of that important position. I regret much my inability to send him some artillery.

I must call the attention of the Department to the great deficiency of my command in ammunition, not averaging more than twenty rounds in all per man. If I were provided with the necessary materials, molds, &c., I think I could establish here a cartridge manufactory which could supply all our wants in that respect. Could not a similar arrangement be made at all hospital depots, State arsenals, penitentiaries, &c.? To go into battle each soldier ought to be provided with at least forty rounds of cartridges, and not less than sixty rounds in reserve.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* See General Orders, No. 20, p. 943.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. R. S. GARNETT, Commanding, &c., Laurel Hill, via Beverly, Va.

GENERAL: Your letters of the 18th and 20th instant, addressed to General S. Cooper, have been received. Two companies of cavalry from Ashland, Captains Smith and Flournoy, the same selected by yourself when here, have been ordered to report to you without delay. All the {p.948} equipments and ammunition which can be provided for you will be sent with the four companies of infantry belonging to Colonel Fulkerson’s and Colonel Pegram’s regiments on Wednesday morning next. I will endeavor also to forward by them tents and blankets. Two six-pounders, with ammunition and harness, if possible, will be sent with the same command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON Commanding Army of the Shenandoah, Winchester, Va.:

SIR: Brigadier-General Meem has informed Governor Letcher that he has authority from you to raise two regiments from the Third Division of Virginia Militia, and the governor requests to be informed whether such is the case. This inquiry is now submitted to you for your reply at your earliest convenience. If certain allegations in respect to the general’s habits and daily condition, which have been made to General Lee, are correct, he certainly would not be a fit person for this responsible duty. In addition to this, also, it is believed that the population from which these regiments would be taken is by no means loyal to the cause of Virginia in the present state of affairs.

Very respectfully, &c.,

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., June 24, 1861.

Colonel MYERS, Chief Quartermaster, &c.:

General R. S. Garnett, commanding the Army of the Northwest, in a letter of the 18th instant represents that his command is suffering much for want of blankets and tents, the nights being cold and there being much rain in the mountainous region where he now is. Will you inform me how many tents and blankets can be furnished? I wish them sent on Wednesday morning next, with several companies, who will leave then to join General Garnett’s command.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, June 24, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: I was informed yesterday by a person just from Baltimore, and strongly recommended to me by a friend in that place for his principles and means of information that General Patterson’s troops are {p.949} still occupying Hagerstown and Williamsport, the main body being in the former place, and six or eight thousand men under General Cadwalader in the latter.

He says that General Patterson has been corresponding with the authorities of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in relation to repairing the road, and talks of occupying Harper’s Ferry. Should he do so with less than ten or twelve thousand men, an equal force attacking him would have the advantage of ground.

Colonel Jackson, who is in the neighborhood of Martinsburg to support the cavalry which is observing the enemy has, according to his instructions, destroyed all the rolling stock of the road within his reach. I have directed him to have such of the large stock of coal as the inhabitants require sold to them, and accounts to be kept of the sales, and the proceeds to be used in purchasing provisions in the neighborhood. I have had the pleasure to receive the order for Capt. W. E. James to report to me with his company of cavalry. We require three or four more companies of that arm from the great extent of country to be observed. Another officer capable of commanding a brigade and four or five competent to the duties of quartermasters and commissaries are greatly needed. In this connection I recommend the appointment of Lieutenants Davis and Morgan as assistant quartermasters. They have proved themselves competent to the discharge of the duties of that position.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, June 25, 1861.

General T. H. HOLMES, Commanding at Fredericksburg:

SIR: You are authorized to co-operate with Lieutenant Lewis, C. S. Navy, with any part of the force under your command, as you may deem advisable, in the operations which he has explained to this Department, and with which you are acquainted.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 25, 1861.

Col. CHARLES A. CRUMP, Commanding, &c., Gloucester Point, Va.:

COLONEL: Your communication of the 22d instant has been forwarded to these headquarters. There have been sent to Gloucester Point four 9-inch guns; two 32-pounders, of 57 cwt.; four 9-inch guns; one 32-pounder, of 33 cwt.; one 32-pounder, of 27 cwt., and two 32-pounders, of 33 cwt. The last named (two 32-pounders, of 33 cwt.) were diverted at West Point and sent to Yorktown, it being thought that they would be more immediately needed at the latter place. Their place will be supplied as early as practicable. You will please inform me when they arrive. In the opinion of the Colonel of Engineers, the above-named guns are not sufficient for the proper defense of Gloucester Point. The {p.950} two 9-inch guns and the two long 32-pounders, which you request, will then be sent you when available, and established at such points as the Engineer officers may direct.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 25, 1861.

Capt. GEORGE D. DAVIS, Palmer’s Springs,. Mecklenburg County, Va.:

CAPTAIN: In reply to your communication of the 22d, I have to state that by the proclamation of the governor of June 3, all volunteer companies not mustered into service are called upon forthwith to repair to their places of rendezvous, there to be mustered into the service of the State. You should therefore proceed with your company to Richmond, armed with such arms as may have been furnished you, or as you may be able to procure, where you will be provided with such arms and equipments as are available. It is advisable however, that you come as fully equipped as possible, as you will thereby hasten your preparation for the field.

Respectfully, &c,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. B. S. GARNETT, Commanding Northwestern Virginia, Laurel Hill, Va.:

GENERAL: On to-morrow the two remaining companies of Colonel Fulkerson’s regiment, viz, the Thirty-seventh, commanded, respectively, by Captains Gibson and Wood, and two belonging to the Twentieth, commanded by Captains Jones and William B. Bruce, leave for your command via Staunton. They will take with them two 6-pounder iron guns, with ammunition, two hundred tents, and the following articles of clothing, viz, seven hundred and twenty overcoats, one thousand pairs of socks, and six hundred pairs of drawers. I am informed by the Quartermaster’s Department that at present there are no shirts on hand, but that the number called for in your requisition (five hundred) will be forwarded, together with the balance of the over coats, as soon as made. By the Quartermaster’s statement it appears that six hundred and forty-nine blankets have been previously furnished the troops under your command, and that there is not now a single blanket in store. In addition to the two hundred tents mentioned above, the two companies belonging to the Twentieth Regiment, and before alluded to, take with them twenty-two tents on Colonel Gilliam’s requisition.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.951}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 25, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

GENERAL: Your communication of the 22d instant* has been duly received. The resignation of the five officers of the Zouave battalion therein mentioned, the dissatisfaction of the men, and the inability on the part of the officers to control in this battalion, as reported by you, have been sources of great regret to me. There are insurmountable obstacles in the way of the promotion of Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, of the Fifteenth Regiment Virginia, to the command of the regiment you propose forming by the addition of two companies of Virginia volunteers to this battalion, nor is there any officer of the Army now available to be assigned to this command. I desire you to direct Lieutenant-Colonel Coppens to proceed to Richmond and report to me at these headquarters, and beg to be informed if there is no officer of the Zouave battalion, in your judgment, capable of commanding and managing it.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HDQRS. TWENTY-SEVENTH BRIGADE VIRGINIA MILITIA, Raleigh Court-House, Va., June 25, 1861.

General WM. H. RICHARDSON Adjutant-General Virginia Militia, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to report, through yourself, to his excellency the governor and commander-in-chief, that I have just reached home, after a visitation of the One hundred and twenty-sixth, One hundred and forty-second, One hundred and eighty-fourth, One hundred and ninetieth, One hundred and eighty-seventh, and One hundred and twenty-ninth Regiments of line, during which, in the unavoidable vacancy in the office of brigade-inspector (caused by Linkon’s assignment to volunteer service), I trained the officers, reviewed and drilled the six regiments. By my addresses to the several regiments, to the county courts, and to the people, wherever assembled I have been most successful in getting up a patriotic union of men, hitherto of various shades of opinion, for the defense of Virginia, and also in promoting the formation of volunteer companies, some now in the field, and several to march in a few days.

Nicholas County, One hundred and twenty-ninth Regiment, two companies, one in camp; Fayette County, One hundred and forty-second Regiment, three companies, in the field; Raleigh County, One hundred and eighty-fourth Regiment, two companies, one already gone, and one to leave Monday; Wyoming County, One hundred and ninetieth Regiment, one company; Logan County, One hundred and twenty-ninth Regiment, two companies; Boone County, One hundred and eighty-seventh Regiment, two companies, another forming; one marches to-day; one in camp. In all, twelve companies.

Thus the governor will perceive that one brigadier of Virginia militia has attempted to fulfill his responsibilities, and is ready, whenever called upon, to take the field at the head of his brigade.

With respect to some partial, and, as it seems to me, irregular and {p.952} impolitic orders, emanating from the lieutenant-colonel (McCausland) of the Kanawha Valley volunteer forces, it is my duty to complain to his excellency. These orders, in the name of the governor, call for drafting one or two hundred men in a county. This is unnecessary, and it harasses the people, because I find each county and regiment ready to furnish as many volunteers as it is prudent to take away from these western counties, in which there are many disaffected persons whom it is necessary to watch and restrain until our State can get rid of them or punish them. If the governor should require any number of men from my brigade to be drafted, I ask that I may execute the governor’s orders. Recently an irresponsible man, named Hutchinson, brought one of these little one hundred-men orders, and pretended he had authority to draft. These irregular attempts to draft I will oppose until the governor shall otherwise direct, with respect to drafting a company out of the One hundred and forty-second Fayette Regiment on any pretext such as that. The people of that gallant county will not volunteer. Their having three companies in the field for some time completely proves the injustice of these little irregular drafts. The truth is, these will greatly injure a general draft when required by the public exigencies, as may soon be.

With great respect, sir, your most obedient servant,

ALFRED BECKLEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding Twenty-seventh Brigade.

P. S.-The official return of brigade will be forwarded in a few days. Inclosed I send the certificate of election of a new company, formed last Saturday, of one hundred and thirteen men.

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HEADQUARTERS, Romney, Va., June 25, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: On the 5th instant I had the honor to receive at the hands of the President the commission of colonel of cavalry in the Army of the Confederate States, accompanied by an order to perform certain services therein specified. On the 7th instant I reported myself to General Johnston, and exhibited to him the order alluded to. He informed me that such were the exigencies of his command that he could not spare a single man. Without some organized force, around which to rally volunteers, it was evidently vain for me to move towards the point at which the service was to be rendered, as I would have been pleased to have done with even one company of cavalry. Therefore I lost no time in sending out agents in the valley and Piedmont, and have met with success far beyond my most sanguine expectations, as this bids fair to become a popular arm of the service.

On the 15th Capt. Turner Ashby, commanding a troop belonging to Colonel Hunton’s regiment, reported that he had obtained from General Johnston permission to join his own regiment, and from Colonel Hunton he obtained permission to join my command on the 14th instant; therefore his troop joined me at Winchester. On the 17th Captain Gaither, with a troop of Marylanders, joined me at the same point, with most of his men mounted. On the same day I had ordered both of these troops to march to this place, to leave Winchester in the afternoon. In the mean time I learned that General Johnston’s command was drawn up in line of battle, expecting an attack. This induced me to {p.953} countermand the marching orders which I had given to Captains Ashby and Gaither, that my men should have their part in the expected engagement. On the morning of the 18th, having learned enough of the enemy’s position to convince me that there was no danger of an immediate attack, I ordered the above-named captains to move forward with their companies to this place. Since that time I have been joined by a full company of mounted men from Shenandoah County, commanded by Captain Myers, and another from the County of Page, commanded by Captain Jordan. Captain Bowen has tendered me another, expecting to join me here, to-day or to-morrow with his company from Warren County. Captain Wingfield joined me with his company on day before yesterday. Captain Shands, from the county of Rockingham, joined on yesterday with twenty-five men, and expects the arrival of his recruiting agents in a day or so with men sufficient to fill up his company. Besides these, a full company, raised by Mr. Isbell from the county of Jefferson, report that they will join me in a few days. In addition to these organized companies I have with me volunteers from the States of Alabama, Kentucky, and Maryland, as well as from Hardy County, this State, under favorite leaders, in squads of from ten to thirty-five men, who wait to join their respective captains, now busily employed in raising full companies, though not yet reported as ready to join me. These different squads, for their more efficient service, I have temporarily attached to different companies already organized. Among these last-named men are some of the very best for the peculiar services of partisan and border war. That the organization of my command may be the more thorough and efficient, my plan is that the men of the different companies shall see some service under the officers now commanding them before they are fixed in their positions by election and commission. Further, it is my intention and the basis upon which I have thus far acted, although I can get from loyal and true citizens of the Confederate States as many horses, saddles, and bridles, &c., as I may need, for certificates of value, to be paid by our Government, yet have I deemed it both right and politic to exhaust the supply in the hands of positive traitors and submissionists, that they, in holding the Confederate States certificates, may become interested in the success of our revolution. What I remarked above as to horses, bridles, &c., for my command, I have but to say as to all the commissary supplies needed for our maintenance. In this connection I will draw your attention to the important fact that the saddles which I have picked up here and there in these mountains are totally unfit for my service, in that they both hurt the horses’ backs and afford no secure seats for the riders. I beg, therefore, that the saddles promised, as well as the articles mentioned in the inclosed requisition, may be forwarded to me at this point, in care of Mr. Thornton Pendleton and Major Funsten, who will bring them with them to this place, and upon the receipt of the better saddles, so indispensable to me, I will turn over to the proper department all those which may be unfit for ranger service, as well as all articles whose places may be better supplied under the requisition herewith inclosed. Of sabers I have but few, and wish none others, as I much prefer the hatchet, weighing about a half pound, in their stead.

The force above mentioned, in round numbers men, every day increasing, I have had to quarter, mount (for some of them came without horses), feed, and arm upon the credit of the Confederate States, by me used under the commission received from our President. Whilst in Winchester in person, and enabled to sign requisitions and give receipts, I was supplied by General Johnston with such things as could {p.954} be spared from the different departments. When I set out to join the command at this place I left in Winchester an acting quartermaster, Mr. Thornton Pendleton, who to-day has come up to inform me that the quartermaster’s department of General Johnston will not honor his requisitions for my command. I am obliged, therefore, to ask that in advance of the full organization of my regiment Mr. Pendleton be authenticated as the quartermaster to my regiment, that Captain Turner Ashby be commissioned as lieutenant-colonel, and Dr. O. R. Funsten as major of my regiment. To the last-named gentleman I am much indebted for the energy, zeal, and untiring efforts in raising volunteers; and while he has not had a military education, I know him to be brave and indomitable, yielding to no man in his devotion to our cause, and I doubt not but that he will be fully equal to the requirements of his position. I cheerfully recommend him for major. As to Captain Ashby, I need not speak of his qualities, for already he is known as one of the best partisan leaders in the service. Himself a thorough soldier, he is eminently qualified to command. I sincerely trust that the commission asked for may issue to him. As soon as the requisite companies are filled, which I believe will be in a few days, I will send in to be commissioned the names of the company officers.

In order that the demoralizing influences of campaign life, particularly those which attach to a border war, may be counteracted as far as possible, the Rev. James B. Averitt, of the Episcopal Church, has been induced by me to accompany the command as the acting chaplain of the regiment. Already have I seen the good emanating from the regular services and prayers of this clergyman, as we have among us not a few communicants of the church, and I need not mention to you the good effect upon the popular mind here which the presence of one whose life is devoted to God and his country will have. I ask, therefore that this gentleman may be appointed chaplain of my command, and that his commission may issue for the same. I am the more anxious for this last-mentioned appointment in that in having a fully commissioned and authenticated man of God with us, aside from the positive good to the command, the charges of land pirates and ether unenviable sobriquets already preferred against us as parties to this partisan warfare may be the more fully met and refuted. For this gentleman, therefore, I ask this appointment.

Touching the services rendered by my command since we have been here, I will state that three spies have been captured-one of Virginia, the two others from Maryland. They are now in the jail of this county. I will send on in a day or so a detailed statement of the facts bearing upon their guilt, asking for instructions in their cases. My men keep the entire county of Hampshire thoroughly scouted, as well for the protection of the persons and property of loyal citizens as to watch the approach of hostile forces.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

ANGUS W. McDONALD, Colonel of Cavalry, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 26, 1861.

Major GORGAS, Chief of Ordnance Department, Richmond, Va.:

MAJOR: Upon the requisition of Brigadier-General Garnett I desire four hundred rounds of ammunition (two hundred each) to be sent with {p.955} the two 6-pounder iron guns intended for his command. Colonel Dimmock informs me, upon whom, through my error, the requisition for guns, equipments, and ammunition was made, that the guns, caissons, &c., were forwarded on yesterday, but cannot say whether or not the ammunition accompanied them. Will you investigate the matter, and if the ammunition has not already been sent, cause the same (four hundred rounds) to be shipped at once to General Garnett, to the care of Major Harman, at Staunton?

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

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CAMP JACKSON, June 26, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

MY DEAR SIR: I desire to furnish the President with some facts relative to the state of affairs in this region of the State, which it is important, in my judgment, he should understand. The remnant of the Union shriekers in this southwestern part of the State cannot relinquish the idea of building up a political power and party which will control affairs here and in the State generally. An important object with them is to get control of the military organization whenever they possibly can, and to prevent any where they cannot.

In the county of Washington, at Abingdon, a military depot was established by the direction of the governor for the reception of volunteers from the counties of Lee, Scott, Russell, and Washington. A good many men convened there, and after being mustered into the service of the State were sent to Richmond. After this a colonel appointed by the governor (Colonel Moore) was assigned to the command of the post. He is a worthy, brave, and excellent man, of the strongest secession opinions. A major was sent there with him.

Recently Mr. John A. Campbell, the present submission member of the Convention, from Washington County, has been parading the county with a view of raising what he calls “his regiment,” and left the impression that he had received the commission of colonel from the governor. There was convened about two hundred men under different captains at the Abingdon post, who refused to be mustered into the service, but who desired to stay mu camp at public expense, under their own organization, awaiting the appointment of Mr. Campbell to a colonelcy, and in default of that determining to disband and go home. This is an expiring effort to keep alive the influence of the Union party in the county, and to extend it, if possible, to the surrounding ones. Colonel Moore refused to issue rations to these people unless they would muster into service, which they refused to do, and disbanded.

That little village is the seat of all Union-shrieking influences, and they are exerted to their utmost upon all volunteer companies that come there. I am sure the best thing that can be done is at once to order away all the companies now there to Richmond, and to break up the encampment. Lynchburg will answer every purpose now for a receiving depot for all the west, and Colonel Moore could be assigned to duty in the field, which he would be glad of. If Campbell is allowed to get the commission of colonel, and to establish himself at Abingdon, it will exert a very injurious influence in this section of the State, by encouraging the Union spirit, now struggling for life in the county of Washington, but which is in the ascendency in the adjoining counties of Carter and Johnson, in Tennessee. The brother-in-law of this man {p.956} Campbell is one of the prominent leaders of the Lincoln party in Tennessee, a coadjutor of Johnson, Nelson, and Brownlow, and any exercise of military authority by his brother-in-law in Virginia would prove extremely baleful to the cause we have so much at heart.

I am afraid this long letter will worry you, but I know the facts and views it contains are important to this section of the country, and I did not feel at liberty to withhold them from the President.

I am, very truly, your friend,

JOHN B. FLOYD.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Norfolk, Va., June 26, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE, Commanding Forces:

SIR: I received yesterday your letter of the 24th instant,* and duly remarked the contents. I dispatched a steamer, with a flag, to Old Point yesterday, and sent a letter to General Butler, informing him I forwarded some persons (the captain and crew of a Prussian bark, wrecked on the coast-some ladies and children, &c.), whose private affairs required them to go North. He could not be found to receive the letter, and the boat was detained several hours, as it appears Major-General Butler had himself gone over to the Ripraps, and, while the flag of truce was flying in the roads, he was firing (seven shots) from Sawyer’s rifled-gun upon our works at Sewell’s Point. Nobody hurt.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. HUGER, Brigadier-General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, June 26, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel DEAS, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: I have just had the honor to receive your letter of the 24th instant. You ask on the part of the governor if Brigadier-General Meem has been authorized by me to raise two regiments from the Third Division of Virginia Militia. I respectfully reply he was ordered to do so by me. Permit me to remind you that in calling out the militia I am compelled to use the officers set over them, and in the absence of any means of knowing their character must suppose that in times like these none but competent persons are left in high military places. If General Meem is such a person as you describe, let me suggest that the authorities in Richmond hold the remedy in their own hands, not I. I think that the belief you express “that the population from which these regiments would be taken is by no means loyal” is erroneous. Your strictures upon my order to General Meem imply strong disapproval-I suppose that of General Lee. If I am correct in so understanding you, would it not be well to countermand the order in question at headquarters?

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

{p.957}

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HEADQUARTERS, Yorktown, Va., June 26, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Richmond:

SIR: I received information yesterday from Major Hood, operating below with three companies of cavalry and one piece of artillery, that a steamer, with troops on board, landed on the other side of the Poquosin River, in a large barge, one hundred men at Mesick’s Point, where we had a vedette. The movement was evidently one of reconnaissance. They staid about fifteen minutes, re-embarked, and returned to Fort Monroe. The day before yesterday Major Hood scoured the country to within two miles of Newport News, passing across it to the Warwick road; then to John Sinclair’s farm and New Market Bridge, and by the way of Back River road to his station, at Bartlett’s, on the Poquosin. He did not meet or see any trace of an enemy. Yesterday, about evening, he learned that some three companies of the enemy had marched on the Warwick road, and taken up their position at Whiting’s house, this side of New Market Bridge. He detached a party last night to surprise the enemy, but on their arrival found that the enemy had returned to Newport News. These operations will continue. The day before yesterday I mustered in five infantry companies of militia, averaging some two hundred men, and one of cavalry. The infantry companies I stationed near their own houses, to meet three times a week, and in the mean time to attend to their crops and families. The larger number came from the Poquosin, supposed heretofore to have been of doubtful patriotism; but I think a large majority are true. I sent through Gloucester and this county yesterday for spades, shovels, &c., and my quartermaster required them from Richmond.

It is necessary to make intrenchments and place a gun, protected by some infantry, at three or four points on this side of the Poquosin River; also to fortify Harrod’s Mills, on the York road, and Young’s Mills, on the Warwick road. This line, thus fortified, could not be turned easily. From this I can operate in front of Bethel, to the north of the enemy, and be in reach of re-enforcements when pressed. If operations with infantry are carried on below this line, they will certainly be disastrous in the end, for there is not a position lower down that cannot be turned by the enemy, and in much greater force than ourselves; and should a disaster occur it would be complete, and involve, as a consequence, the loss, probably, of this place.

I do not mean that we should not make a dash into them with infantry and then return to our intrenchments. We must not stay with infantry sufficiently long in any one place below to allow the enemy to take it in the rear, it being in his power to do so at any time, if he knew our position perfectly. The flanks of the line I propose now to occupy are reasonably secure. The right is at the place designated by me to you before, and the left is thrown back to avoid the landing on the other side of the Poquosin. If the enemy becomes bold, while we are preparing, he will soon be taught prudence.

A company of the Fifteenth Regiment Virginia Militia, mustered at Williamsburg, about a week ago, and which refused to march under its captain, I have had disarmed, marched here, and the ringleaders are now being tried. I have the guard-house full of zouaves, who will also be tried at once, the courts sitting without regard to hours.

This will be taken up by Lieutenant-Colonel Coppens, whom I send to Richmond in obedience to your orders. Lieutenant-Colonel Coppens appears devoted to his duties, and, from my own observations, though {p.958} I have seen but little of him, I am of the opinion that he will make a very good officer.

I could not disband the Zouaves, but let the officers resign, if they chose. The officers are gallant fellows, too, and I had hoped to have been able to have preserved to the country the services of all.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, June 27, 1861.

Brigadier-General HOLMES, Aquia Creek, Va.:

SIR: If you deem the suggestions of Commander Lewis feasible, you are authorized to detail five hundred troops for the purpose of co-operating with him. In doing this it would be proper to select from the different regiments under your command.

If, however, you do not concur with Commander Lewis in the feasibility of the undertaking, it will be proper for you to send a detachment of troops to Cone River to support him in the event he should find it necessary to run in at that point.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

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Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

DEAR SIR: General Holmes suggests that instead of obtaining volunteers from him, you order the Tennessee regiment to the duty required in our joint machinations against the “peace and dignity” of Abraham and the Pawnee, and that a line from you to Colonel Bate would “enthuse” them, &c. Captain Maury calls on you, at my request, to attend to this. Our Commander Lewis, of the Navy, will command the party afloat, and will succeed.

Truly, &c.,

S. R. M.

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HEADQUARTERS, Brooke’s Station, June 27, 1861.

Hon. Ia. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: In answer to yours relative to co-operating with Commander Lewis, Confederate Navy, I have respectfully to say that I did not feel justified in ordering volunteer troops on an expedition so fraught with ruinous consequences if it failed, and the success of which required that so many contingencies should be effectually accomplished. I referred the matter to the colonels of regiments, and they declined to volunteer their men.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

TH. H. HOLMES, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.959}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 28, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: In answer to your letter of the 27th instant* I have to state that it has always been intended to erect a battery at Mathias Point, with a view of commanding the navigation of the Potomac, and guns, &c., have been prepared for the purpose. Its construction has been postponed, from the fact that it would be vigorously resisted by the troops of the U. S. Government, and from its exposed position would require a larger force to protect and defend it than was available. The erection of the battery is still desired if it can be accomplished; but if the point at Evansport will accomplish the same end, as you think probable, and as it possesses advantages which you mention, it is preferable to construct the proposed battery at said point; but before this can be decided on you are desired, with the aid of the naval officers on the Potomac, to make an examination of the river at that point, to ascertain its condition and character, and you are requested to do so as soon as practicable. There are three 9-inch columbiads now here that were intended for Mathias Point and can be used at Evansport if that point be preferred. There are no rifled 32-pounders. I think no unnecessary demonstration should be made to attract the enemy’s attention, either at Evansport or at Mathias Point, which might disclose our purpose.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, Brooke’s Station, June 28, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: Pursuant to your instructions, received last night, I dispatched Colonel Bate, with the effective force of his regiment present, to support Commander Lewis, C. S. Navy. I consider the command (about four hundred) unnecessarily strong, as Colonel Bate is positively ordered to take no part in the expedition on the Water. I sincerely hope your excellency will not consider me extra cautious in this matter, for when we consider that an indispensable requisite to success would be the absolute concealment of three hundred or four hundred men on a comparatively small steamer, and those men untrained volunteers, and that this is only one of several other contingencies equally difficult to be reconciled, it seems to me that success would be miraculous.*

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

TH. H. HOLMES, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* The records do not indicate what this “expedition” was.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, June 29, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

GENERAL: Immediately after reading in a newspaper the proclamation of the governor of Virginia in relation to the transfer of troops, &c., {p.960} from the State to the Confederate authorities, I inquired of General Lee if this transfer involved the necessity of “mustering” the Virginia troops into the service of the Confederate States, but received no answer. Lieutenant Washington was desired to obtain an answer to this question when in Richmond recently, and brought an affirmative verbal one.

An order in relation to the muster of the Virginia troops at the end of June, which followed him from General Lee’s headquarters, contained nothing on the subject, so that I am still uncertain.

If this form is necessary, be so good as to give me instructions. I have had no official information of the transfer of the Virginia troops to the Confederate Government.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS, Loring’s Mill, Warwick Road, Va., June 30, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux, about eighteen hundred strong, arrived here yesterday at 3 p. m., after a most arduous march, without meeting with the enemy, although we sought him under the guns of his works at Newport News.

The command started at 11 o’clock at night on the 28th instant, under my immediate orders, and marched, in a drenching rain, to near the points where the enemy’s sentinels were reported to be posted. Before our arrival, however, at that point, I caused a thorough examination to be made of the bridge at New Market and its immediate vicinity, and could find no evidence of its being fortified or even occupied. One of the objects of this night march, as I wrote the commanding general, was to surprise the enemy at that point, if in occupation of it, and to drive him back into his works. Finding no enemy here, I determined to pass, by a private road, to within a mile or a mile and a half of Newport News, to conceal my cavalry in the wood which skirts the road leading from that place to Fort Monroe, to place my infantry in ambush on a parallel road and near enough to give support to the cavalry, and await daybreak and the passage of parties between the two posts. I proceeded to execute this plan, not without hope, from the extreme inclemency of the weather and the suddenness of our movement, of being able to surprise and capture the work itself, which, I am told, is garrisoned by at least four thousand men. We had arrived in the immediate vicinity of the post, when a musket was discharged by one of our own men, and two negroes were seen running towards the enemy, making it very improbable that we should be able to accomplish our purpose by surprise. We nevertheless continued our march, and learning from a negro that some two hundred men of the enemy were quartered in a house near the work, I determined to surround it. It was now daylight. I therefore sent the cavalry in front of the house, while the infantry filed through a road in its rear, but, upon examination, it was found the enemy did not occupy it that night, having perhaps been deterred from turning out of their work by the violent rain. I nevertheless concealed my men as much as possible, showing a few of the cavalry, in order to entice a portion of the garrison to come out. They, however, remained close, and as I intended to return to Yorktown by the Warwick road, I marched up to this point, where I am establishing a post, stopping, however, three hours in sight of Newport News, in order to rest the men. We visited {p.961} many houses, which the enemy had pillaged the day before, and captured some negroes. We found a most respectable man (Captain Smith) and his family still living on their place, but subject to the threats, annoyances, robberies, and abuses of these unprincipled foes, who threatened their lives, as well as to burn their property, on the ground of their being secessionists. After leaving his house I addressed a letter to Col. Phelps, in command at Newport News, calling his attention to this improper and uncivilized conduct, and stating to him that it was not to be expected that the courtesy and humanity that had characterized our treatment of those who had fallen into our hands would continue if such conduct on the part of his officers and men was longer tolerated. I am satisfied this savage and cruel course towards individuals is in pursuance of orders from Washington, and in most cases to the disgust of the respectable portion of the officers, who are obliged to carry them out.

I leave Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux, with his battalion, here, and Stanard’s battery, with instructions to fortify his flanks and front, and to hold this position. I am in hopes that the demonstration of force made on this road now will rid the inhabitants, at least for a time, of the presence of the enemy.

The traitors in the neighborhood of Fort Monroe, through which we were compelled to march, no doubt communicated the fact as soon as we passed, for about daylight signal-guns were fired from the fort to give warning to Newport News.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER.

P. S.-I leave for Williamsburg, via Yorktown, to-morrow morning.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., June 30, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, C. S. A., Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: I have received your letter of the 28th instant,* inclosing the report of Colonel Ruggles, in reference to Mathias Point. You will perceive, by my letter to you in reference to the erection of a battery, which you proposed at Evansport, that the establishment of one at Mathias Point cannot be decided on until you ascertain which point is the most preferable. I have, however, requested three 9-inch columbiads, with their carriages, ammunition, &c., to be forwarded to you, that you may have them in readiness for whichever point may be determined on. While this matter is undecided, I would recommend that you adopt such measures as may be in your power to allay the apprehensions of the enemy as to the occupation by us of either point. Before breaking ground at the point that you may select for the battery, it will be necessary to have everything in readiness for its speedy construction and a sufficient covering force prepared for its protection. I will endeavor to send you another regiment as soon as one is available, and have to request that you will endeavor to recruit your force from volunteers of the surrounding counties.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE General, Commanding.

* Not found. {p.962}

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 1, 1861.

Brig. Gen. H. A. WISE, Commanding, &c., Gauley Bridge, via Lewisburg, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 23d instant, covering copy of dispatches received by you from Colonel Tompkins, has been duly received and laid before the Secretary of War.* In respect to so much of your letter as relates to the force under Colonel Tompkins, in companies, mustered into the State volunteer service, and which you ask to be mustered into your legion, I am instructed to say that as these companies, being within the district of your command, must necessarily come under your orders, they need not be mustered into the force authorized to be raised by you. If, however, any question should arise which might render it important to attach them by a special muster to your legion, you are fully authorized to cause them to be so mustered and attached.

Several companies, both horse and foot, have been sent to you from this quarter. Among them is a company of artillery, with a battery consisting of two 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, which with the two 6-pounders previously sent to you will complete the full battery originally intended for you. Every effort is being made to send forward the troops for your command as fast as they are raised.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 1, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. E. JOHNSTON, Winchester, Va.:

GENERAL: I am directed by General Lee to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 26th ultimo, in reply to my communication of the 24th, respecting the calling into service of the two regiments from the Third Division of the State Militia. The general desires me to say that it was far from his intention to east any strictures upon you for any orders that you may have given upon that subject. The matter coming from the governor of Virginia in the form of an inquiry was submitted to you for reply, as none could be given from this office, and at that time it was not known that you had given any instructions on the subject. The latter part of my letter was simply intended to convey to you certain information, of a nature which might influence you if found correct. As a matter of course, your orders calling out the militia could only be conveyed through the regularly appointed officers, irrespective of their character or abilities.

Respectfully, &c.,

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, July 2, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

GENERAL: I become more convinced daily of the great value of cavalry, compared with infantry, for service on this frontier. The quantity we have is entirely insufficient for mere scouting and out post duty. If {p.963} you can send companies enough to make up another regiment under such an officer as Colonel Stuart, you will add vastly to the strength of this force. We cannot observe the river with one regiment.

Do send me Pemberton immediately, or, if he cannot be spared, Major Rhett. I have no adjutant-general. Can you not appoint and send to me two more such as Bee and Smith? They are to be found-Pemberton, for instance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 211.}

HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 4, 1861.

...

III. Brig. Gen. T. J. Jackson, Provisional Army, Confederate States, will report for duty to General Johnston, commanding Army of the Shenandoah.

...

By order of General Lee:

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 5, 1861.

Col. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

GENERAL: I have been gratified by your report of the 30th ultimo, of your advance with Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux’s command to the vicinity of Newport News, and of the measures taken by you to repress the marauding parties of the enemy and to restrain them within their limits. It is hoped that your letter to Colonel Phelps will have the effect of preventing the barbarous treatment of our citizens, and it is believed that it cannot be in consonance with the feelings of the officers. In the expeditions sent to the neighborhood of the enemy you are desired to take every precaution to prevent being surprised or cut off.

Very respectfully, yours,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 6, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Commanding, Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: General Lee directs me to say that he entirely approves of your views, as expressed in your communication of yesterday, in regard to the erection of a battery at Mathias Point. They coincide exactly with what he has expressed at various times. To erect a battery there would be for the purpose of preventing the passage of the enemy’s vessels up the Potomac; which, so long as we hold our present positions above, and can continue to hold them, is a matter of very little consequence. Nevertheless, the enemy must never be permitted to occupy and fortify the point themselves; and therefore, to prevent this, it will be necessary for you to keep a vigilant eye upon his movements, and to repel any attempt of the kind.

{p.964}

The occupation of Gray’s Point, however, on the Rappahannock, is of great importance, and Colonel Talcott has been directed to proceed there, for the purpose of establishing a battery. The three heavy guns which have gone to Fredericksburg you will send to him, on his requisition to that effect. The general approves of the organization which you have made of the Virginia regiment.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Yorktown, Va., July 7, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that, while fortifying Young’s Mills and the month of Warwick River, on July 2, reports reached me that the enemy at Newport News Point, having been re-enforced from Fort Monroe, in consequence of our advance, would probably attack the position before I could make it secure, it being only eleven miles distant by land and an hours voyage by water. I therefore ordered down the Fifth Louisiana and Sixth Georgia Regiments, and placed them in reserve at and near Warwick Court-House, about two miles in the rear of Young’s Mills. I strengthened this place then by erecting intrenchments for guns and breastworks for men both at the mouth of Warwick River and in rear of the marsh connecting Young’s Mills with the mouth of the river.

On the 3d, late in the day, I received positive information that the enemy was passing large bodies of troops, with an extensive park of artillery, over Hampton Creek, and, as I had made Young’s Mills quite strong, 1 ordered several regiments to move, by a flank, to Harrod’s Mills, on the York road, placing the Georgia and Alabama battalions in a deep forest between the two positions, so as to render support to either.

I left Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux in command at Young’s Mills, with his own battalion of five hundred men, one company of rifles, two pieces of artillery, and one troop of cavalry, with written instructions as to the course he should pursue in any case that could occur. I proceeded then to Harrod’s Mills and commenced fortifying it. At 9 o’clock I heard that Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux had determined to go in person down on the Warwick road, near Newport News, to cut off parties of the enemy that might come out the next morning. I regretted to hear it, as I left him in charge of the important post at Young’s Mills. However, it was too late to prevent it, and early the next morning I received the intelligence that he had been killed in a skirmish with an advance party of the enemy, who, after one or two fires, fled, leaving our men in possession of the field, with a loss of two killed and one wounded on our side; that of the enemy not known precisely, but supposed to be four killed and wounded.*

Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux was a gallant officer and accomplished gentleman. His loss is much lamented by all the regimental officers as well as myself, and is deplored by his battalion. His remains were buried, with religious ceremonies and military honors, to-day, as well as those of Private Hackett. Subsequently metallic coffins arrived from Richmond, and they were forwarded in them to Louisiana, attended {p.965} by six of his battalion. I mention these circumstances, as they may be of interest to his friends, should they inquire concerning him at the Adjutant-General’s Office.

I received to-night the inclosed letter. It is written by a negro who is perfectly reliable, and whose information has been very correct heretofore. His master, who is on my staff, and who is himself a man of great firmness of character and entirely reliable, believes the statement fully.

I go to Williamsburg to-morrow, and take with me fifteen hundred men. There will be then in and about Williamsburg only thirty-five hundred men, and five thousand here. There should be here at least seven thousand effective men, and at Williamsburg at least five thousand. The ground in front of Williamsburg affords a fine field for the play of guns of great range, and some long-range guns should be placed there if practicable. The place is very weak. There are very few guns, and they are of an inferior character. Altogether its weakness invites attack. I shall write from there to-morrow; but, in the mean time, ask for four more strong regiments, a battery of artillery, 12-pounders preferable, horsed and drilled. If there are no such batteries, then one of light artillery, well mounted and drilled. The road from Williamsburg to Richmond is plain and easy. The landing below is easy, and can be prevented only by the means pointed out by Captain Rives, who presented his views to Colonel Talcott on the subject. These recommendations involve two large guns, one at Spratley’s farm, on James River, to enfilade the landing, as far as or nearly to Grove Landing, and the other below the Grove, to enfilade it as far as Skiff Creek. Below this it is difficult and tedious, and involves a longer march. I am very uneasy about Williamsburg. If the enemy get that strong position between College and Queen’s Creeks, they will fortify it well, will mask their work, and march up to Richmond. Nothing is easier, unless these guns are sent. As to those brought from Gloucester Point to this place, I approve of it, because it was represented by me by Major Randolph (at least I so understood it) that the 9-inch columbiad in question was so placed as to fire up the York River. As the field in front of the old English fort affords a range of a mile and a half to two miles, such a gun was necessary here. Another was absolutely necessary to command the apple orchard, which itself commands all the rest of our position; therefore the enemy must not be allowed at any time to fortify it. This place taken, Gloucester Point falls. These are my convictions. The columbiads were put up in my absence. I respectfully ask to be informed if I shall have them dismounted. I am told there are two columbiads or 32-pounders at West Point not mounted. If so, I would like to have one sent to Gloucester Point. This would save the necessity of dismounting one here. I omitted to mention that I fortified Harrod’s Mills, on the York road and then, on the 6th instant, I brought back the command, with the exception of Major Hood’s cavalry and one piece of artillery, which I left with him, and at his request sent the two companies of cavalry just arrived from Ashland to report to him. He has gone down the country to-night to try and surprise some of the enemy. After sending in the troops yesterday, I visited the Poquosin River and laid off, with Captain Meade, positions for batteries on the west side of this river, which I will have fortified if the enemy gives me time. I shall inspect at Gloucester Point tomorrow, and then proceed to Williamsburg, from which place I shall write again. While I shall {p.966} endeavor to be prepared at all points, I entertain the impression that the enemy will for the present only advance as far as New Market Bridge, which he will fortify.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Brigadier-General, Commanding Forces.

* See pp. 188-192.

[Inclosure.]

JULY 4, 1861.

DEAR GENTLEMEN OF YORKTOWN: It is with much pleasure that I have taken this opportunity this morning to address you all with a few lines, in order to let you all know what I heard yesterday from a black man from our free town, Hampton. He says the Yankee guard is on the road from Fox Hill to town. They will not let any person pass nor repass, white nor black, on the account of bringing news out of Hampton. All that is in have to stay in, and all that is out have to stay out. Lincoln’s and Butler’s white and black negroes are preparing for York and Williamsburg. They have two thousand negroes in Hampton. They report that their time is up; that they are getting ready to go home. But I heard that this is only a blind; so you all must be on a lookout, night and day, for Yankee negroes. They may make their appearance before my letter reaches you all. Agreeable to what I heard, I heard Samuel and William belong to Mr. Samuel Latimere; John Smith belongs to Mr. Thomas Latimere; Jack Allen belongs to Mr. G. Mears. These four boys are at the Point; so I heard. They ran away from Williamsburg. Jack, so I heard, came down by land, with a chain around him. He says he stole by the men on post while they were asleep with their blankets over their heads. These other three men came on the east side of James River until they came to a boat, then came down to Newport News Fort. They were taken there that night, and they put them in one of those tug-boats and carried to Old Point. They were taken before General B. P. Butler. He asked them where they were from. Williamsburg, sir. What have you all been doing there? Working on batteries, sir. Good! You all are the boys for me; you all are the very boys; you all are worth money. Men, take good care of these boys, particularly; they are not to want for nothing. I will give you three passes to go and come when you please. You all three appear before me to-morrow morning again. You all must not be out the way. We all are going up to York, in short, and we want you all to pilot us up there, and show us how to get in the bateries, so we can go right to Richmond. So you all and generals cannot be too particular and on a bright lookout. George Scott will be in the band too. Please do not tell this to wives nor servants. Burn this letter up.

...

C. R. B.

P. S.-Good-bye, gentlemen; I hope God and His kind providence may provide for you all, and keep Virginia, the mother of States, from falling into the hands of raging Yankee negroes. Please to burn this letter up after reading it. I want to see you all very much indeed.

Yours, very respectfully, and obedient servant,

--

{p.967}

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, July 8, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.:

GENERAL: Since I forwarded to you Colonel Jackson’s report* from Darkesville nothing has occurred worth mentioning. I waited in that position until yesterday, hoping that the enemy might, by leaving his strong post at Martinsburg, give us an opportunity to fight. Becoming convinced that he had no such intention, I returned to this place last night, and am now having a few slight field works thrown up, under Major Whiting’s directions, to cover our cannon and militia. The latter are assembling; two brigades were called out, the commanders of which expect to have 2,200 men by evening.

General Patterson received two regiments day before yesterday, and several others are said to be approaching Martinsburg by Williamsport.

The service here requires a few more regular officers in quartermaster and commissary departments; two more competent to command brigades, and one for adjutant-general.

If we are beaten here, General Beauregard’s left will be very insecure.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

* See p. 185.

[Inclosure.]

BATH, July 7, 1861.

Maj. Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON:

DEAR SIR: The same gentleman who gave you information just before you left Harper’s Ferry has learned from the same source that General Mansfield is on his way to Martinsburg with two regiments by way of Chambersburg. He cannot reach Martinsburg before to-morrow evening. Colonel Stone has left Noland’s Ferry, just before Point of Rocks, pushing forward his men to be at Martinsburg. The First Pennsylvania Regiment marched from Frederick City by way of Shepherdstown yesterday about 6 o’clock. This regiment had four pieces of artillery. This information left Bath yesterday morning. Rely upon this information.

Very truly, yours, &c.,

H. E. EDMUNDSON.

This indicates an attack upon us here. I am trying to prepare for it with the slender means at my disposal.

J. E. J.

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YORKTOWN, VA., July 8, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. B. MAGRUDER:

GENERAL: Understanding that some difference of opinion exists with regard to the distribution of heavy ordnance between this place and Gloucester Point, and that the recent transfer to this post of a 9-inch shell gun has given rise to some dissatisfaction, I beg leave to submit my reasons for advising that transfer: The lines on the land side of this post are from a mile and a half to two miles in extent. For the distance of about one thousand yards from the point of intersection with the river east of the town to the marsh on the south of it the {p.968} country is cleared to a distance of a mile in front of our works. Through this cleared space the roads front Hampton and Wormley’s Creek approach the line, and the ranges are a mile and more in extent. It was along these roads, and through ravines diverging from them, that Washington made his approaches and planted his batteries. Should the enemy bring a siege train from Old Point, or land guns from their vessels, which they may do within a few miles of us, they may erect heavy batteries between the roads from Hampton and Wormley’s Creek and for some distance west of the Hampton Roads, which will destroy our works unless we have guns of equal metal on our side. I have ascertained that there are two ravines running from Wormley’s Creek and the Hampton Roads, which unite eight hundred yards in front of our lines, and send out two branches, one to our left and the other two or three hundred yards farther to our right, affording a perfect protection to the enemy until within four hundred yards of our lines. They may make their approaches through these ravines without being seen, and at night might construct a parallel which light pieces of artillery could not destroy. To guard this portion of our lines, I made a requisition for eight 30-pounder navy guns of the class weighing 27 cwt., and submitted it to General Lee for his approval. He approved of it, and also of a requisition for four 42-pounder carronades, intended for the line along the march where the ranges are short. Only two of the 32-pounders were sent, and we were then informed that the remainder had been sent to General Beauregard, and that we could get no more of them. I then proposed to substitute for the six 30-pounders of 27 cwt. two 9-inch shell guns and a long 32-pounder of 61 cwt., intending to mount the latter on the old English redoubt in the center of our defenses, and to fire solid shot over the heads of our own men. The advantage of this position is that it commands the entire country around, and affords a very extensive field of fire for a gun of long range. We obtained one shell gun which had just arrived at Gloucester Point, and, hearing subsequently that two others had arrived, I went over during your absence, at Colonel Hill’s request, to get another. I found that it was intended for an embrasure in the water battery not yet opened, and designed to afford the means of firing on a fleet after it had passed the batteries of Yorktown and Gloucester Point and anchored above; and also to sweep the beach for a short distance, not exceeding two hundred yards, above the battery. Considering these rear defenses of the water battery of less importance than our lines on the land side, I advised the transfer of the gun. It is right to add that there were two shell guns at Gloucester Point not mounted, one of them intended for an elevated platform in the rear of the water battery, from which the beach below the battery is completely commanded, and the other to fire up the river, as above stated. The barbette gun is mounted, I am informed, making the tenth or eleventh heavy guns, I believe, in the water battery. The land defenses of Gloucester Point have two 32-pounders, and the ground admits of a cross-fire from these gulls through most of its extent. I do not know the length of their line, but suppose it not to exceed one thousand yards. Our lines are certainly not less than one and a half miles, admit of very little cross-fire, and arc defended by two shell guns and two 32-pounders. We have five field pieces stationed here. Three are at Gloucester Point two iron 6-pounders and Cabell’s battery of four pieces, which, having no field service to perform, should be counted as a part of the artillery at that post.

Very respectfully,

G. W. RANDOLPH.

{p.969}

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MANASSAS, July 9, 1861.

President DAVIS:

Enemy’s force increasing, and advancing daily this side of Potomac. He will soon attack with very superior numbers. No time should be lost in re-enforcing me here with at least ten thousand men-volunteers or militia. I write to-day.

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, July 9, 1861-7 p. m.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

GENERAL: I have just been informed by Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, commanding our cavalry, that he has reason to believe that the enemy intends to advance upon us to-night (the distance is but twenty-two miles). The evidences are that it is the belief of the people living near the town, ascertained by his pickets, and that three days’ provisions were issued to-day, and that a United States lieutenant had mentioned it.

We are not prepared beyond the readiness of our men to fight. The field works have not been progressed with far enough to make them useful, and the militia is not provided with fixed ammunition, having received but powder and lead.

Most respectfully, &c.,

J. E. JOHNSTON.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, July 9, 1861.

[General COOPER ?]

GENERAL: I was so unwell yesterday as to be unable to write fully, and therefore trusted to the information contained in the note from Colonel Edmundson, * of the correctness of which, in the main, I have no doubt. Similar information from other sources gives me the impression that the re-enforcements arriving at Martinsburg amount to seven or eight thousand. I have estimated the enemy’s force hitherto, you may remember, at 18,000. Additional artillery has also been received. They were greatly superior to us in that arm before.

The object of re-enforcing General Patterson must be an advance upon this place. Fighting here against great odds seems to me more prudent than retreat.

I have not asked for re-enforcements, because I supposed that the War Department, informed of the state of affairs everywhere, could best judge where the troops at its disposal are most required. The arms ordered by Colonel Thomas for the militia are not here yet. The two generals expect some 2,200, but at present we cannot arm them all and they have their own ammunition to fix, being furnished with powder and lead.

Most of the regiments which have joined since my arrival have incompetent officers, and are therefore still uninstructed.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, &c.

* See p. 967.

{p.970}

If it is proposed to strengthen us against the attack I suggest as soon to be made, it seems to me that General Beauregard might, with great expedition, furnish five or six thousand men for a few days.

J. E. J.

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DEPARTMENT HEADQUARTERS, Williamsburg, Va., July 9, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: I inspected Gloucester Point yesterday afternoon and found everything in good order; but am of opinion that more infantry is needed there. The enemy can land within five miles of this place, and bring against it a great force. If the land defenses are carried, the navy or water battery falls into their hands, and this battery, though commanded by that at Yorktown, is far the most effective against shipping. I have written Captain Whittle to send down the two 32-pounders now at West Point and not mounted, and will send one or both to Gloucester Point. Captain Cabell has only 6-pounder guns. He ought to have a howitzer 12-pounder, to assist in defending the land side. I have also to represent that the enemy can approach by the beach on York River in rear of the naval battery, and carry, or rather turn, completely the land defenses. To prevent this, and to properly man the works, there should be sent to Gloucester Point another regiment, with these additions. I think Colonel Crump will hold the place against an immensely superior force. The 32-pounders I have ordered myself but desire the 12-pounder howitzers and the additional regiment.

The extreme importance of the place, I think, fully justifies this disposition of means, if they can possibly be spared from other places equally exposed, and among these there are none so exposed as Williamsburg. I have collected, however, a considerable number of spades from private persons in Gloucester, and, after having used them to fortify, in some degree, positions of strength below Yorktown, I brought them with me last night, arriving here at 3 o’clock this morning, and turned them over to Colonel McLaws, who commands here. The Second Louisiana Regiment arrived here last night, and is now at work.

I have carefully examined the line of defense, as established before my arrival here, of which the redoubt, which was being erected when Major-General Lee was here, constitutes the center and main work. The line from College to Queen’s Creek, indicated in the full distance by Colonel Ewell as being only one and three-quarter miles in length, is represented to me by Captain Rives as being three and a quarter miles long. It cuts the city of Williamsburg at about its center, and it would be necessary to destroy more than half the town in front of it; besides, it would require more work to erect defenses on that line than to render formidable the line in front of it, where the redoubt is already finished. I have therefore decided, with the countenance of Captains Meade and Rives, of Colonel Ewell and Colonel McLaws, to erect four smaller redoubts on the advanced line, and these are now being erected, and rapidly.

I inclose a report of Captains Rives and Meade as to the armament necessary for these works, and beg that the guns and ammunition for the same be sent as soon as possible. The enemy will advance as soon as he is prepared, and that will probably be soon. I ask for the smallest means, to enable me to defend this line with any reasonable certainty of success. The field guns ought to be furnished with horses {p.971} or mules, to enable me to advance with them, and to carry them off in case the force here should be compelled to fall back. I should be mortified to lose them, but could not help it if the means were wanting to remove them. I know the men can carry off some of them, but cannot depend upon such means for any distance. It is proper to prepare for advancing, for defending, and for retreating. Should we fail here, these guns would or might be wanted in Richmond. We may not fail, but I am of opinion we have a long war before us, and cannot afford to lose any material.

The work contemplated at Mulberry Island, if that point is geographically situated as represented, would be of the greatest importance in defending this place and Richmond. If the enemy was forced, by such a work, to march up the Peninsula, there are several lines which would at once be fortified, where he would meet with very rough treatment or be repulsed. 1 think he would be entirely defeated. At present, and without this work, these lines can easily be turned, and landing made above them on James River. If it be decided to fortify at Mulberry Island, no time should be lost, and I would like to be informed of it, in order that I might give my attention to the lines spoken of.

I know the immense demands necessarily made on the resources of the country, and sincerely sympathize with those who desire (as I believe all do) to grant what is asked, but have not the power. Yet in justice to the common good, as well as to myself, I am constrained to add to these demands.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

WILLIAMSBURG, VA., July 10, 1861.

General J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding Department:

SIR: In accordance with your instructions, we have the honor to submit the following report on the number of guns required for the defenses in the vicinity of Williamsburg:

The number of guns on hand at this place is two 12-pounders, in working order, with ammunition; eight 6-pounders, in working order, with ammunition; two 6-pounders, to be mounted in a few days. For the works now in course of construction at a minimum armament of two guns to each redoubt, there are required, in addition, eight pieces (12 or 24 pounder howitzers) for redoubts, and three heavy 8-inch columbiads or 9-inch Dahlgren navy guns for shore defense, viz, two at Spratley’s and one near Grove Wharf. Of the eight light pieces required, it is very desirable that four should constitute a mounted battery to be used in operating ,at favorable points beyond the works and to prevent a landing on the shore in the vicinity. Besides, it would be indispensable to protect any retreat that might be necessary to be made.

ALFRED L. RIVES, Captain of Engineers. R. K. MEADE, JR., Captain of Engineers.

{p.972}

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 10, 1861.

Capt. GEORGE N. HOLLINS, In charge Naval Defenses, James River:

CAPTAIN: A copy of the order assigning you to the charge of naval defenses of James River is herewith inclosed. You are desired to push forward the armaments as fast as practicable, and to continue the examination of the river from Day’s Point to Mulberry Point, with a view of ascertaining the best method of commanding its navigation. You are requested to report upon the advantage of establishing batteries at Mulberry Point and the point opposite, and of interrupting the Swash Channel by loaded rafts or boats. Should batteries at Mulberry Point and the point opposite be considered advantageous, you will state your opinion as to the propriety of establishing there the guns now mounted at. Fort Powhatan. You will take under your superintendence the general naval defenses of the river and the service of the batteries.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 217.}

HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 10, 1861.

...

VI. Capt. George N. Hollins, C. S. Navy, having been detailed by the Secretary of the Navy to take charge of the naval defenses of James River, is assigned to that duty.

...

By order of General Lee:

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 10, 1861.

General J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 7th instant, and lament the death of Lieutenant-Colonel Dreux, a gallant and accomplished officer.

There are no troops with which you can be re-enforced at present. Two long 32-pounders, with a supply of ammunition, have been sent to you to-day, which you can apply to the defenses of Yorktown or Williamsburg, as you may think proper, and two 12-pounders will go to you to-morrow, with a supply of ammunition, which you can dispose of in the same way. The facility of the enemy’s landing in the vicinity of the Grove Wharf with a view either of attacking Williamsburg or Yorktown, is much lessened since the establishment of a battery at Day’s Point, which I hope will prevent their ascending the river. Watchfulness, however, on your part and every precaution must be continued. You can use your judgment as to applying the 32-pounders above mentioned at Spratley’s farm and below the Grove to defend that landing or to Yorktown and Williamsburg. I need not refer to the importance of the battery at Gloucester Point for the defense {p.973} of York River; therefore the armament of this battery was considered with peculiar interest and the guns disposed to the best advantage. Unless you deem it expedient, the columbiads transferred from there need not at present be returned. You are requested, however, to give every attention to the completion of the works at Gloucester Point, and, if possible, to strengthen its garrison. The question of transferring the guns at West Point to Gloucester Point will be referred to Captain Whittle.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF FREDERICKSBURG, Brooke’s Station, Va., July 10, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: If it is the settled policy of the general commanding to defer the establishment of a battery at Mathias Point, I beg respectfully to suggest that it will be better for me to withdraw the troops from there entirely and at once. The enemy can have no object in lauding there, except to prevent our occupancy; and, if we withdraw our troops, it will be to them of no more importance than any other point on the river; whereas if we continue our forces there it will keep them constantly on the alert, and give to the point a fictitious importance which, in a military point of view, it does not deserve. We have now there some fifteen hundred men and a battery of artillery, all raw and almost entirely uninstructed. This force should not be reduced if the place is to be held; and, as they have a coast of seven or eight miles to guard, picket duties occupy them so constantly, that they have very little time and less disposition to drill. My wish is to bring them here, where they will be available for service, without having to perform a march of thirty-five miles, and where, under my supervision, the raw material can be converted into soldiers.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

TH. H. HOLMES, Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.

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RICHMOND, July 10, 1861.

General. JOSEPH B. JOHNSTON:

MY DEAR SIR: General Gist, the adjutant-general of South Carolina, goes to your headquarters to make himself useful to you in any way he can serve you, and it gives me pleasure to commend him to your polite attention.

Your letter found me trying by every method to hasten re-enforcements to you, but small as our force is, the want of transportation does not allow me to send such as we have except at a rate which makes me heartsick. I am still endeavoring to induce an increase of transportation, and hope, if not too late, to be able in a few days materially to increase your force. Everybody disappoints me in their answers to my requisitions for troops, and the last hope of a large force of militia coming to your aid seems doomed to add another to past disappointments.

{p.974}

I know you will [do] whatever is possible, and that you will only follow the dictates of your own good judgment and true patriotism. The anxiety of the reckless and the short-sighted policy of the selfish may urge you to fight when your judgment decides otherwise. The responsibility is great. I have tried for a week to get off and join you, but have not been able to do so, without having arrangements for procuring and forwarding troops to be delayed if not deranged.

I have ordered two officers of experience to go to you to-morrow; Colonel Forney’s regiment, will, I suppose, get off in the morning, if not this evening, and more shall go as fast as the railroad will permit. General Beauregard is expecting an attack, and asks for ten thousand men. Magruder wants four thousand. Garnett is lamentably weak, but with re-enforcements now on the way will, I hope, prevent a junction of McClellan and Patterson. Mansfield was reported to be in Washington on yesterday.

May God bless and direct you in this critical hour of our national existence.

Your friend,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 11, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL Your letter of the 10th instant has just been received. It is not the intention at present to establish a battery at Mathias Point, nor until everything is prepared, guns, troops, &c., for its speedy erection. It is, therefore, desirable, as you have already been advised, to allay the enemy’s anxiety in reference to that point. Had troops never been posted there, I think it probable, as you state, that it would be viewed as of no more importance than other points on the river. But their attention having been attracted to it, and as it must be known to exercise a command over the river, I now fear, if not held by us, it will be seized by them and defended by intrenchments which it might be difficult for us to capture. If it was known that there was no intention of constructing batteries there, their apprehensions on this subject might be allayed and the troops withdrawn for the present; and perhaps, by keeping the troops out of sight, and setting a vigilant watch, prepared at any time to prevent its occupation and intrenchment, it might be all that was necessary. But upon this point you must exercise your own judgment, taking especial care to retain the point in our own possession.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 12, 1861.

Brig. Gen. H. A. WISE, Charleston, Kanawha, Va.:

GENERAL: I have your letter of 3d instant.* As Col. J. L. Davis, who was left here in charge of the recruitment of your legion, has proceeded to join you, and as the legion has already overrun the numbers {p.975} authorized in your instructions, the President deems it unnecessary to extend the time suggested by you for the transportation of your volunteers, more especially as there are now here some companies yet to be sent forward to you under the previous arrangement, besides a regiment of North Carolina volunteers, two companies of which are now here and the balance expected in a few days. This regiment is understood to be armed and equipped. You are, however, notwithstanding the increase beyond your original numbers, authorized to cause to be mustered and incorporated into your legion all the volunteers that have been organized and have reported to you, including those yet to be forwarded. A supply of rifle powder was sent prior to receipt of your letter, and the Ordnance Department is ordered to increase the quantity.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 12, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, &c., Yorktown, Va.:

GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 9th instant. I am gratified to learn, from your inspection at Gloucester Point, of the good order that exists there. The facility for landing a large force by the enemy, for the purpose of carrying the water battery, has kept me anxious for the safety of that position, and I am glad you concur in the importance of holding and strengthening it. If possessed by the enemy, the navigation of York River will be open to him. I had hoped that you would have been able to have re-enforced its garrison by troops drawn from the surrounding counties. Though anxious to do so, I am without the means of sending there more troops at present. In case of an attack on that point it will be necessary for you to re-enforce it from Yorktown. The last two 12-pounders that are mounted have been sent to you, and two 24-pounder howitzers will be sent to you next Tuesday, and some 42-pounder carronades as soon as carriages can be provided for them. I hope you will urge forward the completion of all the earthworks for the defense of that place, and arm them as well as you can. I will send an additional regiment as soon as one is available. As regards the defenses of Williamsburg, I hope you will push forward their completion on the plan adopted by you, and use in its armament such guns as you now have. The eight 24-pounder howitzers which you require will be forwarded to you as soon as carriages for them can be completed. I cannot now say whether the columbiads desired by you can be provided, unless they can be spared from other points, where they are now in position. I do not consider the guns proposed at Spratley’s and Grove Wharf so important now, since the battery at Day’s Point, on James River, has been established, as stated in a previous letter. It will be necessary for you to make a requisition for such horses or mules as you may require to move the field guns. In reference to the proposed work at Mulberry Point, it will be commenced as soon as its necessity is ascertained, for which surveys are now being made, and, in connection with it, if found necessary, a battery is proposed for the opposite point.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.976}

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HEADQUARTERS, Brooke’s Station, Va., July 12, 1861.

General R. B. LEE, Commanding Forces:

GENERAL: I cannot take the responsibility of withdrawing the troops from Mathias Point on the condition that the enemy will not be permitted to land there, although I believe that if he does so it will be with an overwhelming force that cannot be successfully resisted by the command now there; and as it is too remote to be re-enforced from here and is not a favorable point from which the enemy can begin an invasive march, I cannot see why any importance should be attached to its possession, and this opinion is strengthened by the report of Captain Kennedy, C. S. Navy, that Evansport is quite as convenient a point for stopping the navigation of the river. But why think of the navigation at all? If we invade it will be ours, as a necessary consequence; if not, the stoppage of it would not materially affect the strength of our enemies.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant

TH. H. HOLMES, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, July 13, 1861.

Gen. JOSEPH B. JOHNSTON:

MY DEAR GENERAL: I have just received yours of yesterday, and am surprised at the extreme inaccuracy of the young officer who reported to you that about 15,000 volunteers, extremely well armed and equipped, were assembled in North Carolina, but were not accepted because they offered to serve for but twelve months. The truth is, that about ten days ago it was reported to me that three regiments for twelve months and five for the war were ready for service; they were all ordered to proceed immediately; one of the twelve-month’s regiments arrived about three days ago, with a special request that, as they were mountaineers, they should be sent to General Garnett; they were imperfectly equipped, but as soon as ready were sent forward. Another, for the war, came yesterday; it was fully equipped, and to-day has gone to your column. Another, imperfectly armed and equipped, two days since was reported as subject to my orders at Danville; it is on its way here by my order. I have written and telegraphed to hasten the movement of the troops promised and the organization of others, and have asked if they could not be raised that arms would be sent to me for troops who would promptly respond. So much for the fiction of the 15,000 men. The same story with variations has been circulated here, and you will not be surprised if, weary and heart-sick from fruitless exertions to obtain the troops necessary to re-enforce our different columns, I have come to speak harshly of men who circulate stories so destitute of truth. From Mississippi I could get 20,000 men, who impatiently wait for notice that they can be armed. In Georgia numerous tenders are made to serve for any time at any place, and to these and other offers I am still constrained to answer, “I have not arms to supply you.” I have seen the opportunity which the incapacity of the enemy offered to beat his columns in detail, but have neither had the men nor the transportation to avail of the occasion. From day to day have sought such arrangements as would secure the more steady and rapid advance of the troops and then to leave here to share the fortunes of the Army in the field, but have never seen the occasion when I might go away without leaving {p.977} everything behind me in such condition as would cause my absence to be injuriously felt.

I will not weary you with details of delay and mismanagement, but I could not permit you to suppose that I had allowed any rule to stand in the way of the one great object of giving to our columns capacity to take the offensive and prevent the junction of the enemy’s forces. I recollect Captain Pendleton well, and when we were all younger esteemed him highly as a soldier and a gentleman. I some days since directed that he should have rank as a colonel and be put in command of the batteries of your army. General Lee’s attention has been called to your remarks about intrenching tools and the muskets which had been promised. He will endeavor to supply your wants. I realize the difficulty to which you refer of a retreat, and feel that it would expose Virginia to temporary, if not permanent, disintegration; it is therefore only to be contemplated as a necessity, and the evil consequences only to be repaired by such a vigorous attack upon the enemy east of the mountains as would drive them across the Potomac, and, by threatening the capital, to compel the withdrawal of Patterson within the strong intrenchments from Alexandria to Arlington Heights; the results would certainly be doubtful, and if it failed nothing would remain to prevent the enemy from occupying the valley and cutting off the communication between our army and Richmond. I have therefore resorted to a call for the militia in all the counties north of James River from the Alleghany to the Atlantic. If they come with promptitude and spirit and the sixteen regiments which I hope for from the cotton States should arrive in time, we may yet drive the invaders from Virginia and teach our insolent foe some lessons which will incline him to seek for a speedy peace. I need not assure you that my confidence and interest in you both as an officer and as a friend cause me to turn constantly to your position with deepest solicitude.

I recollect but imperfectly the country about Winchester, and have feared that the position had but little natural strength if the enemy can turn it. He will not hazard an attack upon your intrenchments if he has the little sagacity which would be necessary to show him the advantage of pressing to the rear to seize the Manassas Railroad, and occupy the strong places in the mountains through which it passes.*

...

Very truly, your friend,

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

* Remainder of private and personal nature.

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HEADQUARTERS, Jamestown Island, Va., July 13, 1861.

[General R. B. LEE:]

SIR: After a careful examination of the defenses here, I have directed the immediate erection of a redoubt for two guns at the eastern point of this island, so as to prevent a landing there and to defend the mouth of the creek, as well as to sweep the space between the redoubt, half way down the island, and that about to be erected at the point. In addition to this, the battery about to be erected will afford assistance to that on Spratley’s farm, so as to prevent a landing, if possible, on the beach on the mainland, between the mouth of the creek and King’s Mill. To furnish the work at the point with guns, I have directed the withdrawal of two of the four heavy guns now in the square redoubt in time middle of the island, leaving there two heavy guns, which will {p.978} do as well to prevent a landing in front of this middle redoubt as the four guns now mounted there. Captain Jones, of the Navy, and Captains Myers and Nichols, of the Engineers, concur with me in the opinion that this disposition of the guns and the erection of the work at the point are advisable. With this concurrence, I have ordered it to be done, to save time, there being but two 32-pounders (57 cwt.) sent to me, to be used either at Williamsburg or at Yorktown, in which I include Gloucester Point. I have but one of these with which to defend the landing at or near Spratley’s, and as a landing there would turn all the defensive works about Williamsburg, it is of the utmost importance that it should be prevented. I therefore propose the following distribution of guns, which do not seem to me to be of much use here, or whose places can be supplied by guns of inferior caliber, viz: 1st, one heavy gun, 8-inch columbiad (now mounted to defend the bridge and causeway lately made to the mainland), to be removed to the work at Spratley’s, and as the field of fire of this gun can be covered by a 6-pounder, to replace this with the latter. The work at Spratley’s will thus be furnished with two heavy guns. The two 32-pounders, mounted on the main work, look up the river, and could be much more strongly placed; one to defend the mouth of the creek, where Spratley’s house is situated, just opposite -the point of this island, and the other at a point below King’s Mill. If ships should pass all the batteries the fire of the two guns against them would be less important than if directed to prevent a passage; and it matters not whether this preventing a passage be at the work on Jamestown Island or at some lower point easily defensible, which, if carried, would enable the enemy to disregard and turn the defenses of the island. I therefore strongly recommend that these two guns also be turned over to Captain Rives, who is in charge of the defenses at and near Williamsburg, to use as I may direct. I do not know that Captain Jones, of the Navy, and Captain Myers, of the Army, the engineers in charge, entertain different views from mine on this subject. I do not think it proper, however, to withdraw any pieces from the island without referring the subject to the General-in-Chief, particularly as it will not probably cause more than twenty-four hours’ delay. I consider Jamestown Island as safer than any other place on the line of defense, even after the withdrawal of these guns.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 15, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Commanding, &c., Fredericksburg, Va.:

GENERAL: I desire you to make the necessary arrangements to facilitate the construction of the battery at Gray’s Point, about to be commenced. Colonel Talcott will return to the Rappahannock about the middle of this week, where he hopes to find the guns proposed to be mounted at that point near at hand for the purpose. It will be necessary to keep your preparations secret, and do nothing to attract the attention of the enemy to Gray’s Point. Troops will be required to cover the Point and to aid in the construction of the works. I have thought it probable that you could send down Major Ward, with two or more {p.979} companies from Tappahannock, and any companies collected in the adjoining counties may be used for the same end. Should you be able to spare a couple of field pieces, they would add very much to the protection of the battery, until its construction might be completed. They could then be withdrawn. Colonel Talcott will take Fredericksburg in his route, to concert with you the necessary measures. I hope you will give him all the facilities in your power.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 15, 1861.

Col. C. Q. TOMPKINS, Virginia Volunteers, Charleston, Va.:

SIR: In reply to your communication of the 6th instant, I am directed to inform you that the requisitions of Brigadier-General Wise for a large supply of ammunition have been approved and sent to the Ordnance Department. From him you will receive such amounts of powder and flints as you may require. On the return of Governor Letcher to this city the subject of the appointment of officers, to which you refer, will he immediately taken up.

Respectfully,

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 16, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. B. MAGRUDER, Commanding, Yorktown, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 13th, in reference to the defenses on Jamestown Island, has been received. I hope the additional redoubt which you have directed to be constructed at the east end of the island and the division of the guns in the midway redoubt may be advantageous. I do not consider it advisable, however, to diffuse your force over too large a space, and it was this consideration that induced the location of the midway redoubt on its present site. I have only to repeat, in relation to the landing at Spratley’s, King’s Mill, &c., that the construction of the battery at Day’s Point and the projected batteries at Mulberry Point, and the one opposite, will render them more secure, and diminish the danger of an attempt upon Williamsburg by that route. No means, however, must be neglected to prevent such an attempt or to secure the line of defenses across the Peninsula. We have not, however, guns sufficient to place at every vulnerable point on the Peninsula, and they must be posted only on the most important, and, if carried, the guns must be removed to other points of defense. Upon the completion of the defenses a more advantageous disposition of the guns may be made; but until that time I do not wish the guns for the defense of the channel to be removed from their present positions.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.980}

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RICHMOND, VA., July 17, 1861.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD:

We are making all efforts to re-enforce you. Cannot send to-day, but afterwards they will go regularly daily, railroad permitting. Hampton’s Legion, McRae’s regiment, and two battalions, Mississippi and Alabama, under orders.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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RICHMOND, July 17, 1861.

General HOLMES, Fredericksburg, Va.:

General Beauregard is attacked. Move with three regiments and a light battery to support him. Replace the troops you withdraw by the militia, leaving Colonel Ruggles in command of the district, directing him to hold his troops in readiness for any emergency.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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RICHMOND, July 17, 1861.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Manassas Junction, Va.:

You are authorized to appropriate the North Carolina regiment on its route to General Johnston. If possible, send to General Johnston to say he has been informed, via Staunton, that you were attacked, and that he will join you if practicable with his effective force, sending his sick and baggage to Culpeper Court-House by rail or through Warrenton.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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MANASSAS, July 17, 1861.

General COOPER:

I believe this proposed movement of General Johnston is too late. Enemy will attack me in force to-morrow morning.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 224.}

HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 17, 1861.

...

IV. Brigadier-General Holmes will hold himself in readiness to advance with three regiments and one field battery of his command to the support of Brigadier-General Beauregard upon notice to that effect from the latter general. He will take care to make arrangements for the security of the position which he now holds, and will replace the troops he withdraws therefrom by the militia of the county which has been called into service. He will keep in mind that the movement herein indicated is not to jeopardize the security of the military district under his command, to which in case of necessity, he will return, and, in any event, after the service upon which he may be detailed shall have been accomplished.

{p.981}

V. The Fifth North Carolina Regiment, Colonel McRae, will proceed to Manassas, and will report to Brigadier-General Beauregard as soon as transportation can be furnished, of which due notice will be given by the quartermaster in this city.

VI. Hampton’s Legion will proceed without delay to Manassas Junction, and join the Army of the Potomac, under Brigadier-General Beauregard. The infantry of the Legion will go by railroad; the cavalry will march; the artillery will follow on as soon as transportation can be furnished.

...

By order of General Lee:

GEO. DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, July 17, 1861.

General J. B. FLOYD, Wytheville, Va.:

Information of the disaster to General Garnett’s command has been received, and McClellan is at Huttonsville. To oppose his seizure of the Virginia Central Railroad, a junction of sour command and that of General Garnett, now probably at Monterey, is desired. You will advance with your brigade by railroad to Salem, thence to Jackson’s River, if your transportation will permit. If not, to Staunton.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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RICHMOND, July 17, 1861.

Brig. Gen. H. A. WISE, Charleston, Kanawha County, Va.:

GENERAL: Information has been received of the disastrous retreat of Garnett’s command to Monterey and the advance of McClellan’s to Huttonsville. The aid of your force and that of General Floyd becomes important. If your command is not now essential in Kanawha, move up toward Covington. Communicate with General Floyd, who is ordered to proceed in that direction.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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RICHMOND, VA., July 18, 1861.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD:

McRae’s North Carolina regiment goes to you this evening; Barksdale’s Mississippi regiment goes to you from Lynchburg. Further re-enforcements have promise of transportation in the morning. Hampton’s Legion and others will go as soon as possible. God be praised for your successful beginning. I have tried to join you, but remain to serve you here, as most useful for the times.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL’S OFFICE, Richmond, July 18, 1861.

Col. ANGUS W. MCDONALD, Romney, Va.:

SIR: Information has been received of the disastrous retreat of Garnett’s command to Monterey and of McClellan’s advance in that direction. {p.982} It is deemed advisable to concentrate our forces in order to oppose any attempt on the Central Railroad. The President therefore directs that you proceed with your troops to Staunton to unite with those in that vicinity, unless the execution of your original orders should detain you, in which event you will thereafter retire upon Staunton.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Winchester, July 18, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your telegram of yesterday.

General Patterson, who had been at Bunker Hill since Monday, seems to have moved yesterday to Charlestown, twenty-three miles to the east of Winchester.

Unless he prevents it, we shall move toward General Beauregard to-day. I am compelled to leave the sick and most of the baggage for want of means of transportation. There are wagons enough to carry but four days’ provisions, but the urgency of the case seems to me to justify a risk of hunger. I am delayed by provision for the care of the sick.

I leave General Carson here with two brigades of Virginia militia, with orders to fall back if the enemy should approach in force.

Respectfully, &c.,

J. E. JOHNSTON.

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HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, Smithfield, Va., July 18, 1861.

Col. S. S. ANDERSON, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Forces, Norfolk Harbor, Va.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I yesterday completed a personal examination of the country embraced within the limits of this brigade, the neighborhood of Suffolk excepted. Commencing eastward, I find the battery at Cedar Point unfinished. The guns, implements, and ammunition were hourly expected, but, in consequence of changes made in the plan for carriages, several of the platforms now finished must be taken up, and others more complex laid. This seems to me an unnecessary delay, when the guns may at any hour be needed. The battery at Barrel Point still needs at least one 9-inch shell gun, which will render it much more effective. The neck on which these batteries are located is very thickly wooded, and susceptible of defense by a comparatively small force.

I have placed one company of infantry (and a cavalry picket advanced) near the causeway connecting Ragged Island with the mainland. Another cavalry vedette patrols from Soddin’s Point eastward. The headquarters of this company (Captain Gillett’s) is near the post marked “Store” Seven companies of Colonel Pender’s regiment, with headquarters, are, I think, well located at the cross-roads marked “Isle of Wight Church.” It affords support to Old Town battery, on Jones’ Creek, which was previously entirely isolated. All the roads towards {p.983} the shore from the church are good, and no distance exceeding-six miles. A road opened by Colonel Pryor brings it within seven or seven and a half miles of his headquarters. The battery at Old Town (four short 32s) is in good condition, and served by two companies of Colonel Pender’s regiment, under the lieutenant-colonel. One long 32 or a shell gun would be valuable at this point. I have directed one of these companies to be relieved every fort-night, that all may be instructed in battalion drill. Colonel Pryor’s headquarters, with seven companies, is on Day’s Neck, one-half a mile or less from the Back Wharf battery. Of six 32s, weighing 6,000 pounds, five only were mounted on the occasion of my visit. The sixth carriage was, however, at hand. Lieutenant Poindexter, in charge of this battery, has gone to Norfolk for the complete equipment of this battery. It is served by companies of Colonel Pryor’s regiment near by. This battery commands the inner channel only. Burwell’s Bay may be reached by the outer channel. I have stationed a company of Colonel Pryor’s regiment at the Storehouse Wharf Landing, and have directed a breastwork to be thrown up, which will command the shore, accessible on either side of the wharf. I think it very desirable that one or two field pieces (two of the old iron ones in the old custom-house at Norfolk or the iron guns on navy carriage in the same yard, would answer) be sent to this point. Another company of Colonel Pryor’s regiment guards two landings near by, both of which are only available by narrow causeways. Two companies of cavalry guard and patrol the coast to Day’s Point. The roads in this neighborhood are very numerous, and all have strong, defensible posts. I consider it absolutely necessary that a stronger force be posted in this vicinity, and urgently request either that Daniel’s regiment be advanced or that another regiment be sent forward. I understand that Colonel Daniel’s regiment is to be held in reserve at Suffolk. It is of little or no use to me there, unless to fall back on, which I hope not to be compelled to do.

I request authority to establish a quartermaster and commissary depot at this point or near by. The troops here have not been supplied with fresh meat for six weeks. On the representation of the surgeon of Colonel Pryor’s regiment, I have to-day ordered mutton or other meat to be supplied.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. C. PEMBERTON, Brigadier-General, Commanding Artillery Brigade.

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RICHMOND, July 19, 1861.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Comdg., &c., Manassas Junction, Va.:

We have no intelligence from General Johnston. If the enemy in front of you have abandoned an immediate attack and General Johnston has not moved, you had better withdraw call upon him, so that he may be left to his full discretion. All the troops arriving at Lynchburg are ordered to join you. From this place we will send as fast as transportation permits. The enemy is advised at Washington of the projected movement of Generals Johnston and Holmes, and may vary his plans in conformity thereto.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.984}

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ABINGDON, July 19, 1861.

To the PRESIDENT OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES:

H. D. Aston, residing at the north end of Russell, on the 17th heard from Buchanan of advance of Federal troops into Logan. Sent messenger, who reported letter from sheriff of Logan to clerk of Buchanan, stating advance of five hundred and eighty, burning of Logan Court-House, killing two women, and passing on up Guyandotte. No further information. The railroad and salt works, perhaps lead mines, may be the object. We had men only, neither arms, ammunition, nor a military head. The latter of some experience, with full powers to do and get what is necessary, is of most pressing urgency for all this country south of Kanawha Valley.

SAMUEL W. ASTON, EDWARD D. KERNAN, J. V. FULKERSON, Of Russell County. WYNDHAM ROBINSON. C. S. BEKAM. NEWTON K. WHITE.

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BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Camp at Monterey, July 19, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Our present position in this village, the only one in the vicinity fit for a depot of supplies, is exposed and wholly untenable, unless the routes approaching it from the west be guarded at considerable distances; and I have been restless in the consciousness that, were the enemy apprised of our real condition, a comparatively small body of cavalry might make sad havoc among us and at least destroy what they might not be able to hold. The trains bringing supplies from Staunton are daily coming up, and as the wagons are needed below, must be unloaded. The debris of General Garnett’s command are constantly pouring in, and what of it is left in anything like organized form will be here on to-morrow or the day following in a most forlorn condition. I fear that, while they must be cared for, they will be almost useless for any military purpose; yet, even under these circumstances, I have not felt authorized to beat a further retreat, thus substituting distances for regiments against the enemy’s advance.

With a view mainly to guarding this point, hoping at the same time to relieve somewhat the panic-stricken people of the country and to revive the spirit of troops depressed by retreat, I am to-day making a forward movement, looking of course to the protection of our rear. The Twelfth Georgia Regiment, under the direction of Major Williams, of the Engineer Corps, who has joined this command, with an artillery company three pieces strong, which I have organized from the elements at hand, will take position to-day somewhere upon, or immediately beyond, the Alleghany Ridge. I have also formed a composite command of the Churchville Cavalry, the remnants of the Rockbridge Cavalry, and a company of riflemen, made up from the militia, to which I have assigned Major Jones, of the Forty-fourth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, an officer who has inspired me with great confidence. They will constitute an advance guard and will be thrown along the turnpike {p.985} road as near to the enemy as may be safe, to watch his movements, to intercept marauding parties, and the riflemen, who are familiar with the country, to annoy the enemy from the hills and bushes. This rifle corps, some eighty strong, are the picked men of one hundred and eighty militia who reported for duty; but who, on account of the state of their crops, were exceedingly reluctant to leave home. I offered, upon condition that they would make up this company well armed and provided for, to allow the others to go home for the purpose of reaping the crops of all. This proposition was cheerfully acceded to, and I am really in hopes that an efficient corps has been thus put in the field.

Should this force be deemed sufficient to hold for the present the turnpike pass in the Alleghany Mountains, our entire attention may be directed to the Huttonsville and Huntersville road.

Unless some point can be held upon it with a view to resisting the advance of the enemy, the entire country in that direction will be thrown open and our rear protected alone by the distance over which his column must pass. The people in that region, who are supposed generally to be loyal, are naturally alarmed and calling for protection. I inclose herewith the copy of a note received late last night from a gentleman of high character and great influence, as I understand; relating to that subject.

It is hardly necessary to add that, with but two regiments which have not been seriously demoralized by the disasters of the late conflicts with the enemy, the force here is altogether too weak for the necessities of the time.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. R. JACKSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S.-If it be proposed to defend the pass into Pocahontas over the Elk Mountain, it would be most practicable to send troops to the Millborough Station on the railroad, as the distance over which wagon transportation must be made would be much less.

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RICHMOND, July 20, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Manassas Junction, Va.:

GENERAL: You are a general in the Confederate Army, possessed of the power attaching to that rank. You will know how to make the exact knowledge of Brigadier-General Beauregard, as well of the ground as of the troops and preparation, avail for the success of the object in which you co-operate: The zeal of both assures me of harmonious action.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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RICHMOND, July 20, 1861.

Maj. H. L. CLAY, Lynchburg, Va.:

Push forward to Manassas all armed regiments immediately on their arrival at Lynchburg. Acknowledge by telegraph, and state when Barksdale’s Mississippi regiment left Lynchburg for Manassas under my telegraph order to you of the 18th. Keep me daily advised by telegraph of arrival of troops at Lynchburg and their departure.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-General.

{p.986}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 20, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. W. LORING, Provisional Army, Confederate States:

GENERAL: You are assigned to the command of the Northwestern Army, and it is important that you join it without delay. Brig. Gen. H. R. Jackson, now in command of the forces, was at Monterey when last heard from, and he will give you all the information relative to previous operations, the state of the troops, country, &c. You will perceive the necessity of preventing the advance of the enemy, and the importance of restraining him the other side of the Alleghany Ridge. For this purpose you will occupy such passes as in your judgment will effect the object, and your attention is particularly called to the defense of the road leading from Huttonsville (where the enemy is said to be now stationed), through Mailing’s Bottom to Huntersville, and the Warm Springs to Millborough, on the Virginia Central Railroad. In addition to the force you will find at Monterey and on the march from Staunton, Brigadier-General Floyd has been directed to move with his brigade upon Covington. Brigadier-General Wise, operating in the valley of the Kanawha, has been directed to move up towards the same point, and Col. Angus W. McDonald, on the South Branch of the Potomac, to Staunton. A union of all the forces in the West can thus be effected for a decisive blow, and, when in your judgment proper, it will be made. Such supplies as you cannot procure in your vicinity will be forwarded from Staunton and this place.

Very respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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MANASSAS, July 21, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General C. S. Army:

President Davis directs me to say send forward instantly all the troops, ammunition of all kinds, and provisions; the troops and ammunition first. A terrible battle raging. Please answer.

THOS. G. RHETT, Adjutant-General to General Johnston.

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RICHMOND, July 21, 1861.

Maj. THOS. G. RHETT, Manassas Junction, Va.:

Everything is being done that it is possible to do. Trains leave tonight and early to-morrow morning with troops, provisions, and all the ammunition that can be collected. Keep us advised.

S. COOPER, Adjutant-General.

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MANASSAS, July 21, 1861.

We have won a glorious though dear-bought victory. Night closed on the enemy in full flight and closely pursued.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

{p.987}

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MANASSAS, July 21, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant-General, Richmond:

Night has closed upon a hard-fought field. Our forces have won a glorious victory. The enemy was routed and fled precipitately, abandoning a very large amount of arms, munitions, knapsacks, and baggage. The ground was strewn for miles with those killed, and the farm-houses and the ground around were filled with his wounded. The pursuit was continued along several routes towards Leesburg and Centreville, until darkness covered the fugitives. We have captured several field batteries and regimental standards, and one U. S. flag. Many prisoners have been taken. Too high praise cannot be bestowed, whether for the skill of the principal officers or for the gallantry of all the troops. The battle was mainly fought on our left, several miles from our field works. Our force engaged them not exceeding fifteen thousand; that of the enemy estimated at thirty-five thousand.

JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 21, 1861.

General W. W. LORING, Commanding Army of the Northwest:

GENERAL: In my letter of yesterday I directed your attention to the importance of occupying the strong passes on the roads leading to Staunton and Millborough, to prevent the enemy reaching the Virginia Central Railroad. The selection of those passes is, of course, left to your judgment; but, should General McClellan not have advanced beyond the Tygart’s River Valley, the occupation of the Cheat Mountain, on the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike, and the Middle Mountain, on the Huttonsville and Huntersville Turnpike, will hold those roads, from such information as I am able to get, against a large force. The route to Middle Mountain, I am told, is best by Millborough Depot, Pocahontas Court-House, &c., and you are authorized to call upon Pocahontas and Greenbrier Counties for volunteers to hold Middle Mountain, or other passes, and to aid you in driving back the invaders.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. W. LORING, Commanding Northwestern Army, Virginia:

GENERAL: Three Tennessee regiments, expected at Lynchburg, are ordered to Staunton, to join the Northwestern Army. You are desired, in the event of their not reaching Staunton before you leave, to give orders to Maj. M. G. Harman as to their disposition. If you find it necessary to move troops on the Warm Springs road, to get them in position on the Huntersville and Huttonsville Turnpike, for the defense of Elk Mountain or the Middle Mountain, to prevent the enemy seizing that road, and thus reaching the Virginia Central Railroad, you may find it advantageous to send the Tennessee regiments to Millborough. Maj. M. G. Harman, at Staunton, will make arrangements on your order.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

P. S.-A field battery, Captain Stanley’s, has been ordered to Staunton, to report to you.

{p.988}

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DEPARTMENT HEADQUARTERS, Williamsburg, Va., July 21, 1861.

His Excellency the GOVERNOR, Through Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: I have the honor to state that I have called into service, by proclamation (nearly a month previous to the governor’s proclamation), the militia of James City, York, Warwick, and Elizabeth City Counties, these four counties embracing the One-hundred-and-fifteenth and Sixty-eighth Regiments. This proclamation was prompted by the exigencies of the service, and in consequence of the fact that I thought it but just that the people of these counties should assist in the defense of their property and houses, and not leave such defense entirely to the few who had volunteered and those who had come forward from a great distance. This was the only means in my power to reach those who evidently intended neither to suffer in person or property during the war, unless forced to do their part. I have in every case stationed these men in the immediate vicinity of their homes, and only required them to meet three times a week, to organize, drill, and be ready in case of an emergency, and in order, also, to ascertain what arms they had, and to know how far they could be relied on in an emergency. In view of these facts, I would request his excellency the governor to officially approve of my act. I shall retain these men in service until otherwise directed, as they are of great use.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Brigadier-General, Commanding. G. B. COSBY, Major and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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CAMP AT MONTEREY, VA., July 22, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: Unless a considerable force be at once put upon the road from Millborough, through Huntersville, towards Huttonsville, the enemy will overrun Pocahontas and get possession of the Central Railroad. There is good reason for believing that he is now upon Middle Mountain, twenty-five miles only beyond Huntersville, and we have but one regiment (Colonel Lee’s) on the road to meet him. I shall do what I possibly can to support Colonel Lee from this point; but Monterey is equidistant with Millborough from Huntersville. It is unfortunate that one of the regiments, with the artillery, now in motion from Staunton, had not been sent, in accordance with my suggestion, up to Millborough. I have dispatched Captain Cole, C. S. Army, to Huntersville, for the purpose of collecting and reporting reliable information, and of providing for transporting and provisioning the forces which may be sent in that direction, although the prospect of obtaining provisions or transportation there is very limited.

H. R. JACKSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. NORTHWESTERN ARMY OF VIRGINIA, Monterey, Va., July 22, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: My mind has been somewhat relieved from the heavy anxiety which has oppressed it, in view of the great difficulties attendant upon {p.989} maintaining our position in Northwestern Virginia, by learning this afternoon that attention has been effectively directed to the line from Huttonsville to the Central Railroad at Millborough. In justice to myself I inclose herewith copies of correspondence, to show that from the first my eye has been fixed upon this necessity, and to refer to the fact that, when I was here with but two regiments, upon which any reliance whatsoever could be placed, and before I was joined even by the shattered wrecks of General Garnett’s command, I dispatched one of those regiments to operate alone upon that line.

The copy of my order to Capt. Robert G. Cole will show that I have already dispatched him, with as plenary power as I could give, to make arrangements at Huntersville for the transportation and provisioning of the troops which may be put in motion from Millborough.

While the information contained in the letter of Mr. Skeen, as to the occupancy of Middle Mountain by the enemy, may be premature, it cannot be questioned, I think, that such is now the destination of the main body of his forces; whether with an eye to the Central Railroad or to taking General Wise in the rear remains still to be seen.

A very intelligent officer, Captain Hall, one of our recently released prisoners, while in the enemy’s camp, had intimate intercourse with General Rosecrans, who told him that by means of telegraphic and railroad facilities General McClellan could at any time concentrate troops, even to the amount of fifty thousand, in Northwestern Virginia. Rosecrans also said that they were on the lookout for Wise.

The Fourteenth Indiana Regiment, with one thousand and ten men, occupy the top of Cheat Mountain, with two regiments at its western base. The enemy have in all five hundred cavalry, armed with sabers, carbines, and navy revolvers, and twenty-six pieces of artillery, comprising a battery from the old Regular Army. All of his troops are admirably armed and equipped. The time of service of the Eighth and Tenth Indiana Regiments expires this month, and they are all going home, saying that they have had enough of it, and apparently shocked by the carnage on Rich Mountain.

I regret to say that the condition of the command of the late General Garnett is improving but slowly, if at all, the weather being far from propitious. I am greatly embarrassed by the sick and discontented. In fact, I must say that I scarcely know what disposition to make of them. From this remark, however, the regiments of Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson and Fulkerson (Thirty-seventh Virginia Volunteers) are to be excepted, and, while they are undoubtedly suffering to a very great extent, those able officers keep them up to their duty, maintaining their organization intact, and I am troubled with but few complaints from the men.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY R. JACKSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS NORTHWESTERN ARMY, Monterey, Va., July 22, 1861.

Major HARMAN:

If there be any command whatsoever, and especially of artillery, now at Staunton, and designed for this quarter, send it at once to the Millborough Station, with the necessary means and agency to provide for its transportation upon the Huntersville and Elk Mountain, or Huttonsville, {p.990} turnpike. Send in the same direction all other available forces, with full supplies of ammunition. If the enemy should intend to attempt to take possession of the railroad, he will descend by that route, and, if all our energies be not at once thrown out, he will effect it.

I have sent Colonel Lee upon that line. He will be in Huntersville to-day, and must be supported, or all in that direction is lost. It is unfortunate that my idea of sending in that direction at least one of the regiments now on the road to this point had not been adopted. But it may not be too late, if any reliance whatever can be placed upon the people of the country and we can act with sufficient promptness.

I send Captain Cole to-day to Huntersville to look to the transportation and provisioning of the column which should move on that line; but the prospect of obtaining an adequate supply is slight indeed.

Send a courier back to me at once, with a statement of what can be done and upon what I can rely in the premises; and you had best direct energetic attention to Millborough as a grand base of operations.

Very respectfully,

HENRY R. JACKSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS NORTHWESTERN ARMY, Monterey, Va., July 22, 1861.

Maj. M. G. HARMAN, Quartermaster, Staunton, Va.:

SIR: In response to your favor of this day, I would simply refer you to my previous correspondence in reference to the propriety of starting a column upon the Huntersville and Huttonsville turnpike from Millborough, Central Railroad as its base of supplies, and I had inferred from your favor of July 20 that you concurred with me in that opinion, and had already urged it by telegraph upon the President. Grieved to find that my suggestion had not been adopted, and that no regiment had been sent by the way of Millborough to support Colonel Lee, and confirmed in the correctness of my judgment by the recent reported movements of the enemy, I forwarded to you a telegraphic dispatch to-day, looking to the same end, addressed to headquarters, and desired that you should scud all available forces at Staunton at once to Millborough. This would seem to make my response to your letter of this date unnecessary. But I am apprehensive that not to respond at once may possibly occasion some delay in a movement which appears to me to be all-important. I must beg, therefore, to insist that any troops designed for military operations in Northwestern Virginia shall be sent, until further notice, by the way of Millborough to their destination. In answer to your inquiry as to what disposition is to be made of the stragglers from the regiments which have suffered so greatly in the retreat from Laurel Hill, I must refer you for instruction to the Commander-in-Chief.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY R. JACKSON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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DEPARTMENT HEADQUARTERS, Williamsburg, Va., July 22, 1861.

Col. ROBERT JOHNSTON, Commanding Cavalry:

SIR: I have placed sixteen hundred picked men at your service, besides the cavalry under your command, and also two batteries of artillery. {p.991} With this force I desire you to repress marauding parties of the enemy; to sweep the country of negroes from Back River and near Newport News to Harrod’s and Young’s Mills, below which line no negroes, unless attached to the Army, shall be allowed to go. I wish also to destroy or capture all parties of the enemy which may venture far from their posts and works. If the negroes in the Back River region and on the James River can be surprised and captured at night or by day by small parties of troops who know the country, and they are willing to undertake it, let them do it, supported by cavalry, infantry, or both, stationed at proper distances.

The instructions as to the disposition, in Order No. 179, herewith,* you need not regard as rigorous, but only intimations of my views.

Should you divide your column, I desire that Colonel Cumming should command that on James River, accompanied by some of the best of the Old Dominion Dragoons and Curtis’ company of Warwick Beauregards, retaining for yourself Sinclair’s Company of York infantry. It is desirable that your movements should be as prompt and secret as possible, as in consequence of the two great victories we have achieved at Manassas and the information I have received from the naval officer stationed at Dene [Green] Point, I am under the impression that the number of troops has been considerably diminished at Fort Monroe, Hampton, and Newport News. Indeed, Captain Fitzgerald, of our Navy, who has just come over, informs me that no tents are to be seen at the latter post, and it is stated that it is abandoned. I can scarcely think this, but wish you to send skillful scouts to ascertain it, and other soldiers who know the country, or reliable negroes, to ascertain the state of things at Hampton, and be guided by the results, informing me if these reports be true by swift express. I do not give you detailed instructions, but request you to confer with Major Hood, Captain Phillips, and others who know the country perfectly.

Should you at any time occupy a position at Young’s Mills, remember, at all times, to keep a strong force at the head of the mill-dam, on your left flank, near M. Wall’s house, and concealed in the wood which skirts his farm. Also to keep vedettes on Young’s farm, on your right flank, or James River, to inform you of any attempt of the enemy to land there, which is not at all improbable. Kit Curtis’ lane is considered a safe position for troops on the York road, and I was informed by a negro of M. Wall’s that the road from Curtis’ to his master’s house was a straight one, and only about two miles from thence.

Should, upon this expedition (which I do not anticipate), or at any other time during your service in the lower part of the Peninsula, your troops stationed at Young’s Mills be attacked, and you have troops stationed in Curtis’ lane a march by the latter through the road leading to M. Wall’s would enable you to fall upon his right flank and rear, and thus secure an easy and complete victory; or should you ever be attacked at Harrod’s Mills, and have troops stationed at Young’s Mills, a march from the latter to the former, by Mr. John Patrick’s, would enable you to accomplish the same results.

I state also, for your information, that Colonel Mallory has completed the works at Ship Point, on the Poquosin River; that Captain Smith, of the artillery, has probably already planted two guns in them. Mallory’s force consists of Smith’s company of artillery, and he informs me of two hundred and thirty militia.

I desire, whenever you can, that you will give to the late Colonel Dreux’s battalion of Louisiana volunteers (now Lieutenant-Colonel {p.992} Rightor’s) the post of honor, in order that they may have every opportunity to avenge the death of their late gallant commander.

Inform me constantly of your proceedings, and should you desire re-enforcements, General Hill has orders to send them. Should you find yourself at any time at Bethel, strengthen the fortifications by a free use of the spade and ax, clearing out the woods to the left and rear of that position, and particularly strengthening the work to the extreme right and point of the ravine, making traverses also near and parallel to the intrenched lines, to prevent the men from being taken in reverse. Also strengthen the works at Young’s and Harrod’s Mills, and at Young’s farm, if you have leisure. At Young’s Mills be careful of the road leading down to the ravine, nearly opposite the saw-mill, and station a gun on our side to command it. Before every fight, if you have time, pack your wagons and get them out of the way of the infantry and artillery.

I have heard that the enemy is in force in the woods and ravine just above Captain Smith’s house, on the James River. I heard since that it was not so. Direct the commanding officer who may have charge of the column on the Warwick road to examine it well before approaching it, and have every piece of woods carefully examined before passing over the roads leading through it.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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HEADQUARTERS SIXTH [N. C.] REGIMENT, At Huntersville, Va., July 22, 1861-1 p. m.

General JACKSON, Commanding at Monterey, Va.:

DEAR GENERAL: We have reached this place, but can make no calculation to proceed farther to-day, as the rain has been incessant from the time we struck our tents this morning. Our horses failed so much that it may be night before all our wagons arrive. In the mean time, such companies as have not their wagons up take shelter in the public houses of the town. Our forward movement must depend in a great measure on the ability of our horses to transport baggage. The men, too, suffer greatly from coughs and colds. Our sick embarrass us much, in the absence of ambulances, that might have been used for their help, until applied to their legitimate use.

Mr. Skeen, the intelligent and patriotic citizen to whom you referred me, has aided me very much; and, moreover, has promised to make me a correct map of our route and the adjoining country. He, with others, urge the policy of occupying what is called Middle Mountain, fifteen miles in advance of Elk Mountain. Without doing this, a large number of loyal to our cause as well as much property, will be at the mercy of the enemy. Middle Mountain is a branch of the Cheat, and, as far as my information extends, is to be approached by only one road, the one that we may defend. The Bath Cavalry will scout, before tomorrow, as far as the farther base of Elk Mountain.

We shall probably soon feel the want of artillery, and respectfully urge you to send it on as soon as practicable; also an engineer, as you proposed. Our depot is not yet determined on; as soon as it is, I shall have the honor of again communicating with you.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

STEPHEN LEE.

P. S.-I had written the above before the arrival of Major Byrd, who handed me your letter. Mr. Skeen expressed decidedly the opinion {p.993} that the enemy will advance by our route, other movements being mere artifices to conceal, if possible, their real course. I fear that I shall lose the services of the Bath Cavalry, as it seems to be almost in a mutinous state, on account of their dislike to their captain. Captain Gammon, however, of the Pocahontas Rescues, will fill his place, as far as infantry can. Our principal danger seems to be from Huttonsville, by a rough and circuitous route, impracticable to wagons, unless the enemy have recently worked upon it, along the Elk River, to our rear. Such, however, is the terror of the enemy at meeting our sharpshooters, that I think we can keep them from this approach. The militia of Bath and Pocahontas will need five hundred guns, and I wish they could be sent immediately. I shall employ such as have rifles immediately. Major Byrd, who rode forward last night, is satisfied that we may anticipate the enemy in the occupation of Middle Mountain. I respectfully suggest that the army be brought from McDowell, and be ready at Monterey when the wagons arrive, which will be preceded by Lieutenant Williams, of the Bath militia. You must determine as to ammunition.

With great respect, your obedient servant,

STEPHEN LEE.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 23, 1861.

Brig. Gen. H. R. JACKSON, Army of the Northwest, Monterey, Va.:

GENERAL: I have received your two letters of the 2Oth,* reporting the state of military operations in the northwest. You have done all under the circumstances that was proper, and all will yet be well.

Our brave troops must bear up against misfortune. Reverses must happen, but they ought only to stimulate us to greater efforts. I regret my inability to repair to your assistance, but events occurring in our front prevented. I am sure the glorious victory there achieved will cheer the hearts of your troops.

At the first report of the retreat from Beverly, anticipating your wants, I ordered ammunition, tents, blankets, cooking utensils, and shoes to be sent to you. But, unfortunately, they were sent, by mistake, to General T. J. Jackson at Winchester. A duplicate supply of the articles have been forwarded to Staunton. General Loring, an officer of experience, has been assigned to the command of the Army of the Northwest, and he is accompanied by officers who have served years on the frontier.

Four Virginia regiments, one Arkansas, three Tennessee, and two Georgia regiments, and two field batteries are ordered to join the Northwestern Army. This force, with what ought to be organized from the hardy mountaineers, will be sufficient to drive back the invaders. There is a necessity for repelling them, and it must be done. Every assistance will be afforded in this quarter.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

* Not found.

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STAUNTON, VA., July 23, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. LEE:

Your dispatch received. The Twelfth Georgia Regiment, Colonel Johnson, is on top of the Alleghany Mountains near Yager’s; the First {p.994} North Carolina Regiment has been ordered to Elk Mountain; Forty-fourth Virginia Regiment, Colonel Scott, is at Monterey; Twenty-third Virginia Regiment, Colonel Taliaferro, is at McDowell’s, for recruits; First Georgia Regiment, Colonel Ramsey, is at McDowell’s, to recruit; Major Jones, with five iron pieces of artillery, is with the Twelfth Georgia Regiment; Captain Shumaker’s battery, with two companies of the Twentieth Regiment, Captains Jones and Bruce, is at Monterey; six remnants of companies of the Twentieth Regiment have been ordered to general headquarters, and are on the march for Staunton. This was the position of the army yesterday at 4 p. m., when Major Tyler left Monterey. I would suggest that our forces are now so much scattered that the three Tennessee regiments be sent to Monterey. If you desire to re-enforce Elk Mountain, it could be done from Monterey, or be used to oppose the advance from Cheat Mountain, if it should be attempted.

M. G. HARMAN, Major, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 23, 1861.

Maj. M. G. HARMAN, Staunton, Va.:

General Jackson desires troops to be sent by Millborough, to re-enforce Elk Mountain. The first regiment that arrives must take that route, unless General Loring orders otherwise. Send Captain Marye by Millborough, and comply with orders from the commanding general without reference here. Unless cavalry is called for, Major Lee’s squadron will await orders.

R. E. LEE.

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HEADQUARTERS, Monterey, Va., July 23, 1861.

Maj. M. G. HARMAN, Quartermaster, Staunton, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Yours of yesterday has just been placed in my hands (about 7 a. m.), and it will consequently be impossible for me to get the courier back to you by 10 o’clock this morning.

I must still continue to press upon you the importance of sending troops, with supplies and ammunition, as rapidly as possible, by the way of Millborough, to the Huttonsville turnpike. As I have already written and telegraphed to yourself and to headquarters, this point is equidistant from Huntersville and the Millborough Station, and the road thither is a common country road and very rough. Until further notice do not send any more troops to this point.

I do not think that Captain Marye’s artillery will be in any danger whatsoever between Millborough and Huntersville. Colonel Lee’s command will be on the road in advance of him, and between himself and the enemy. At Huntersville he will see Captain Cole, with whom he can confer as to any danger beyond that point. I cannot weaken Colonel Lee’s command, already quite too small for the end to be accomplished, in order to guard against the possibility of danger, and. I have no cavalry with me fit to be sent to the Warm Springs who are not upon necessary and arduous duty.

Very respectfully, yours,

H. R. JACKSON.

{p.995}

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HEADQUARTERS, Manassas, July 23, 1861.

[General COOPER ?]

GENERAL: I respectfully inclose herewith a note just received from Colonel Stuart. The President knows the person from whom the colonel received the information and the value of his statements. He came with a Mr. Magraw to ask permission to come within our lines to look for the body of a friend; taking this course, they said, because a rule established by their authorities forbids flags of truce in such cases. Colonel Stuart is directed to treat them as prisoners. Should they be permitted to go to the North from Richmond, I suggest that the sea furnishes their best route.

The last paragraph indicates a diversion in Western Virginia effected by the recent battle.

Col. A. W. McDonald has just reported to me, and been ordered to repair through Staunton to the forces assembling to operate against the troops commanded by McClellan.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure.]

HDQRS. ADVANCE BRIGADE, ARMY OF POTOMAC, Fairfax Court-House, July 23, 1861-10 a. m.

GENERAL: I arrived and halted beyond the town at 9.30 a. m. Three wounded officers here. I had already sent scouting parties around. The enemy’s operations may be known by the papers inclosed. The retreat continued in utter disorder into Washington City; 50,000 said to be engaged. I send a letter from Arnold Harris, from whom I got the last information. I have retained him and Magraw and party as prisoners, and urge that the request he makes be refused. He says McClellan has been ordered to succeed McDowell at once. I send a late file of papers obtained from him. They say there is no force this side of Alexandria; 50,000 men are to be mustered out of service in fifteen days. Banks has been ordered to relieve Patterson.

Most respectfully,

J. E. B. STUART, Colonel, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 24, 1861.

Maj. J. GORGAS, Chief of Ordnance, C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.:

MAJOR: A letter has just been received from General Wise, commanding in the valley of the Kanawha, in which he says he is almost without ammunition. Will you have sent to him, by the Central Railroad to Lewisburg, a full supply, suitable for the arms with which his force is supplied?

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.996}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 24, 1861.

General H. A. WISE, Commanding, &c., Kanawha Valley, Va.:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 17th has just been received and communicated to the President.* He is much gratified at your success, and particularly at the handsome repulse given to the enemy at Scarey Creek and his subsequent ejection to the Pocotaligo; You will have learned of the disastrous retreat of General Garnett’s command, and the death of that gallant officer. It is reported that General McClellan occupies Cheat Mountain Pass, on the road to Monterey, and the Middle Mountain, on the road to Huntersville. Should he reach the latter point, the road is open to him to Lewisburg, to turn upon you or to seize at Millborough the Virginia Central Railroad. An effort is making to prevent his advance, and troops are being forwarded to occupy Elk Mountain, north of Huntersville, and the Alleghany Ridge, on the routes from Huttonsville to Staunton. General W. W. Loring has been ordered to the command of the Army of the Northwest, and it is hoped he will be able to check the advance of the enemy. A concentration of all the forces in that region may be necessary for that purpose, and it becomes necessary that you should look to the security of your rear. Keep your command concentrated, and be prepared to unite with General Loring or operate as circumstances on your line of communication may dictate. You have been already written on this subject by the Adjutant and Inspector General of the Army. There is no objection to your increasing the strength of the Legion, but you will perceive that at this time re-enforcements cannot be sent to you from here, from the necessity of restricting the operations of the enemy, if possible, north of Pocahontas, and of strengthening the armies of the Potomac, which have won a glorious victory in front of Manassas. It was hoped that the good citizens of Kanawha Valley would by this time have rallied under your standard and given you the force you desired. The late proclamation of the governor, authorizing the mobilization of the militia of the State, a copy of which is inclosed, will, I trust, yet give you the troops you desire. Ammunition has been sent you. More will be forwarded. Arms cannot be forwarded except under an escort of troops and on requisitions. The inventory you refer to in your letter was not inclosed. The difficulties that surround you are fully appreciated, but great reliance is placed on your wisdom, energy, and valor. At this time there are no 12-pounder howitzers for issue. If any can be procured they will be forwarded, with a supply of ammunition.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

P. S.-A field battery of three iron 6-pounders and one 12-pounder howitzer, Captain Kirby, is almost ready to be sent to you, and will be forwarded with all dispatch.

* See report of action at Scarey Creek, July 17, p. 285.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Norfolk, Va., July 24, 1861.

Maj. Gen. B. E. LEE, Commanding:

GENERAL: I have gone on from day to day strengthening our defenses, and more effectually guarding all the shores from an attempt of the enemy to land, and will soon be well protected, and have no objection {p.997} to encourage a landing. I have heard from Major Ramseur that his battery of six pieces will leave Raleigh to-morrow for Suffolk, where he will report to General Pemberton for duty with his brigade along James River, west of Nansemond. Four other field batteries, of four pieces each, are now nearly equipped. These have been got up by great exertions by General Pemberton, and the caissons and harness will soon be done. One battery is on the coast, west of Craney Island, and the other three still at a camp of instruction, on Tanner’s Creek; and, being fitted up, I can now use them, if necessary. I am moving the regiments down, to guard the beach on Eastern Peninsula and the passes on the roads beyond the intrenched camp; and what I want to say to you is, that now I will soon be ready, if we have been able to make any rifled cannon of large caliber, to place a battery, properly guarded, on the point nearest to Old Point-distance to wharf at Old Point just three miles. Their fire will be dangerous to shipping, and will make the landing of steamboats at the wharves there a troublesome operation. Guns might have been established there before, but other than rifled cannon would have had little or no effect, and only provoked an attack, for which we were not then prepared. Hereafter I shall be glad to receive one. Will you please let me know if a battery of, say, four rifled guns, heavy caliber, can be had? I have heard Mr. Anderson was making some. I make this private, as I do not wish it spoken of. I impress on every one that I have a great contempt for firing at long range, and order no battery to fire until they are sure to hit; but, when I am all ready, I know good rifled guns can damage shipping (not batteries) at three miles, elevation from 16˚ to 20˚; a columbiad would require 35˚. Let me have your views.

Yours, truly,

BENJ. HUGER, Brigadier-General.

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HDQRS. ARMY OF NORTHWESTERN VIRGINIA, Monterey, Va., July 24, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: The Arkansas regiment, Colonel Rust commanding, reached this point the day before yesterday, and was sent forward yesterday, upon this road, to the support of Colonel Johnson’s command, seven miles in the rear of which they are now stationed. The absolute want of water rendered it impossible that these commands could be brought nearer together, and we are destined to encounter the same difficulty along the entire road from Monterey to the Alleghany. While this may seem to be a cause of serious weakness, giving the enemy an opportunity of taking our forces in detail, yet, on the other hand the character of the road is such as to render it utterly impossible for any body of men larger than a regiment to operate effectively at the same time. I have no doubt, therefore, that the intervening mountains can be defended by our force, small as it is, against any regular approach of the enemy. My great cause of uneasiness is, that a part of them may possibly be turned and cut off. This is to be guarded against, of course, by vigilance and by scouting; and I am sorry to say that the troops upon which we must rely for the discharge of that duty are sadly inefficient. They are all, both cavalry and infantry, volunteers and militia from this region of Virginia, and, from the perpetual applications made to me for the furlough, not simply of officers and privates, but of companies {p.998} and entire commands, I feel assured that nearly the whole would retire from the field if they were permitted to do so.

At Monterey we now have left the commands of Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson, Colonel Fulkerson, Colonel Scott, and Lieutenant-Colonel Hansborough, Captain Jackson’s three companies of cavalry, and Captain Shumaker’s and Captain Rice’s artillery, with three guns between them, the aggregate strength being some eighteen hundred men. It is to be hoped that this will be daily increased by the restoration to health of the sick and the return to duty of the absent. Without tents or camp equipage, and with but the clothing upon their backs, the horses of the artillery and cavalry jaded and galled, this force is far from efficient.

Twelve miles in the rear of us are stationed what is left of the First Georgia Regiment, Twenty-third Virginia (Colonel Taliaferro’s), and Colonel Pegram’s regiment. As they become fit for duty, or, in case of urgent necessity, they will be ordered again to advance. I am sorry to say that the Georgia regiment seems to have been almost wholly disorganized, and that what I said in praise of their conduct upon the retreat of General Garnett was not warranted by the facts.

Despite the weakness of our column upon this line, as compared with the strength of the enemy, I have not hesitated to order Colonel Gilham, with two regiments and a battalion of four companies (who arrived on yesterday), to proceed at once to Huntersville, to the support of Colonel Lee, upon the Huttonsville turnpike. You will perceive, from the letter of that most efficient officer of the 22d instant, that he had arrived at Huntersville, took up his line of march yesterday, and, it is to be hoped, may be to-day in the vicinity of Middle Mountain. I must confess that I feel no little anxiety about him, and would have been happy, indeed, if Colonel Gilham’s command had joined him at Huntersville, which might have been accomplished had they started, in accordance with my suggestion, from the Millborough Station, on the Central Railroad. Being assured that Colonel Gilham’s commission was older than that of Colonel Lee, I have assigned him to the command of all the forces upon that line.

Constant applications are made to me to furnish horses to such of the cavalry as have lost theirs in the field. I will be grateful to know what course I am to pursue in reference to them.

I trust that I shall be excused for writing so frequently and so much; but I have felt it to be due to all concerned that a full picture of our actual situation and condition should be regularly presented to the commanding general.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY R. JACKSON, Brigadier General, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, VA., July 25, 1861-5.30 a. m.

General S. R. ANDERSON, Lynchburg, Va.:

The President directs that you proceed immediately to Scott and Lee Counties, Virginia, and seize and punish a party of invaders said to be committing depredations at Estillville and in that region. Make use for this purpose of the two Tennessee regiments at Bristol and any other troops, volunteers or militia, whose services you may find available. Supply yourself with ammunition, powder, and lead. Celerity and caution are necessary.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

{p.999}

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE NORTHWEST, Monterey, Va., July 25, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that, upon reaching here, I found the command very much scattered, and I am now endeavoring to concentrate it at points of strength near the Alleghany and on the turnpike from Millborough to Huntersville. Before my arrival General Jackson had forwarded two regiments of infantry in the direction of Elk Mountain. We have no positive information of their reaching it, but we have heard indirectly that Colonel Lee had succeeded in getting to Middle Mountain, and was in position. I shall push forward re-enforcements to him, and thus secure the turnpike and Central Railroad in that direction. I shall also re-enforce Colonel Johnson, who is in position on the Alleghany Mountains, which is not thought to be a very strong one.

No information has been received from Generals Wise or Floyd, except a rumor that the former had been victorious in a fight with the enemy, and that McClellan had sent Colonel McCook, with one regiment of infantry and a battery of artillery, to meet General Wise. Should Generals Wise and Floyd be delayed, it will be very necessary to send additional forces to this point and Huntersville, in order to secure beyond doubt the pass of the Alleghany and the turnpike leading to the Central Road. This is rendered more necessary in consequence of the utter demoralization of Colonel Ramsey’s regiment of Georgia volunteers. Two other regiments are somewhat in the same condition. Upon my arrival at Staunton, day before yesterday, I there found a large number of officers and several hundred men belonging to Colonel Ramsey’s and to other regiments, with leaves of absence to visit Georgia and other places. I immediately countermanded all of the furloughs, and ordered a competent officer stationed there to take charge of them, and to permit neither officer nor man to leave without authority from me. En route from Staunton I passed large numbers on the road, and was told that the farm houses on the road were filled with them. This is in consequence of Colonel Ramsey-stationed by General Jackson some ten miles below this point-having given his entire regiment leaves of absence. I have directed that every effort be made to concentrate them, but it may now be impossible to do so. I have ordered the arrest of Colonel Ramsey. At the latest dates neither the Tennessee nor Georgia regiments of infantry, nor the Georgia battery of artillery, which were assigned to this army, had reached Staunton.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. LORING, Brigadier-General, Commanding, &c.

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SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 169.}

HDQRS. FIRST CORPS, ARMY POTOMAC, Manassas Junction, Va., July 25, 1861.

I. The subdivisions of this army corps will be organized at once as follows:

First Brigade, General M. L. Bonham, commanding: Second South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. B. Kershaw; Third South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. H. Williams; Seventh South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. Thomas G. Bacon, and Eighth South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. E. B. C. Cash.

{p.1000}

Second Brigade, General R. S. Ewell commanding: Fifth Alabama Regiment of Volunteers, Col. R. E. Rodes; Sixth Alabama Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. J. Seibels; Thirteenth [12th?] Alabama Regiment of Volunteers, Lieut. Col. Theodore O’Hara, and Twelfth Mississippi Regiment of Volunteers, Col. Richard Griffith.

Third Brigade, General D. R. Jones, commanding: Fourth South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. B. E. Sloan; Fifth South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. M. Jenkins; Sixth South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. C. S. Winder, and Ninth South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. D. Blanding.

Fourth Brigade, General James Longstreet, commanding: First Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. P. T. Moore; Seventh Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. L. Kemper; Eleventh Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. S. Garland, jr., and Seventeenth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. M. D. Corse.

Fifth Brigade, General Philip St. George Cocke, commanding: Eighteenth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. R. E. Withers; Nineteenth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Lieut. Col. J. B. Strange; Twenty-eighth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. R. T. Preston, and Forty-ninth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. William Smith.

Sixth Brigade, Col. J. A. Early, commanding: Fifth North Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. D. K. McRae; Eleventh North Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. W. W. Kirkland; Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. F. Hoke, and Twenty-fourth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Colonel J. A. Early.

Seventh Brigade, Col. N. G. Evans, commanding: Thirteenth Mississippi Regiment of Volunteers, Col. William Barksdale; Seventeenth Mississippi Regiment of Volunteers, Col. W. S. Featherston, and Eighteenth Mississippi Regiment of Volunteers, Col. E. R. Burt.

Eighth Brigade: Sixth Louisiana Regiment of Volunteers, Col. J. G. Seymour; Seventh Louisiana Regiment of Volunteers, Col. Harry T. Hays; Eighth Louisiana Regiment of Volunteers, Col. H. B. Kelly, and Ninth Louisiana Regiment of Volunteers, Col. Richard Taylor. Special battalion, Col. C. R. Wheat.

Separate command, Eighth Virginia Regiment of Volunteers, Col. Eppa Hunton, Leesburg, Va., Hampton’s Legion.

II. The horse artillery, for the present, will be placed: Kemper’s battery with the First Brigade, Shields’ battery with the Fourth Brigade, and Latham’s battery with the Fifth Brigade. Walton’s battery will concentrate at or about the left of Mitchell’s Ford, for the purposes of instruction.

III. The cavalry, for the present, will be distributed in the following manner: Colonel Radford, with six companies, will be on duty with the First Brigade while in advance. The remaining four companies of Radford’s regiment, with Lieutenant Colonel Munford, will report for service with the Fourth Brigade.

IV. Such changes as are involved in these orders will be made without delay.

By command of General Beauregard:

THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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RICHMOND, July 26, 1861.

General JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Manassas:

Report here is that many arms are being taken off the field by irresponsible persons. We have regiments for the war unarmed and waiting {p.1001} orders. Other regiments for the war badly armed. The war regiments should have the best arms.

By order of the President:

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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LYNCHBURG, July 26, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Your dispatch received. I have ordered two regiments from Bristol. There is still one more at Bristol. Shall I order that? Shall I remain here? Give me instructions as to my course.

S. R. ANDERSON, Brigadier. General.

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RICHMOND, July 26, 1861.

Brig. Gen. S. R. ANDERSON, Lynchburg:

My telegram to you by direction of the President supersedes the direction of the Secretary of War to you. Countermand your orders to the troops at Bristol, and proceed yourself to that place and carry out the President’s orders.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 26, 1861.

General B. HUGER, Commanding Forces, Norfolk, Va.:

GENERAL: I am much gratified to learn the progress made in the defenses at Norfolk and the arrangements to prevent the landing on our shores. If the attempt is made, the invaders must be repelled. Your course has been very judicious in not planting a battery opposite Fort Monroe before prepared to maintain it and make it effective. If you are in that condition now, the time has arrived for its establishment, and you are authorized to do it at once. I will next week send you two 8-inch columbiads, rifled, the guns being of the weight and size of the 9-inch, and they will be followed in a few days. I hope, by two of 9-inch caliber, rifled, but of the 10-inch size. The carriages for the first two named, with traverse plates, are ready, though the guns are not, the machinery for that caliber not being perfected. Make your arrangements and inform me of your facilities for constructing carriages and what else you require that I can supply. Take every precaution for the security of the men at the battery. Select your officers and men, and be prepared for strenuous resistance by the enemy. The co-operation of the Navy will be requested, at your demand. Keep your arrangements secret, until you choose to disclose them.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

{p.1002}

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HEADQUARTERS, Richmond, Va., July 26, 1861.

General H. A. WISE, Commanding, &c., Kanawha Valley, Va.:

GENERAL: I state for your information that General S. R. Anderson, with two regiments from Tennessee, has been ordered to the counties of Scott, Lee, &c., with such other force as he may collect, to drive back the invaders from that region. I hope he will be able to relieve you from some of the pressure on your point. All the disposable ammunition at this place has been ordered to Lewisburg for your column.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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MANASSAS, July 27, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

Your dispatch in reference to arms abandoned by the enemy has been received. Tell the President that General Beauregard and myself have been using all our available means to collect these arms.

J. E. JOHNSTON.

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RICHMOND, July 27, 1861.

General S. R. ANDERSON, Lynchburg, Va.:

Order the regiment to Lynchburg and thence to Staunton. You will receive orders controlling your personal movements.

L. P. WALKER.

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RICHMOND, July 27, 1861.

General S. R. ANDERSON, Lynchburg, Va.:

The three Tennessee regiments first advanced will be under the command of General Donelson. The other two regiments under your command you will order to Bristol, where fuller orders will reach you.

L. P. WALKER.

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LYNCHBURG, July 27, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

Adjutant-General Cooper ordered me to Bristol on last night. To-day you order me to have the troops at Bristol brought to Lynchburg. How many regiments do you want ordered here, and shall I remain here or go to Bristol? Answer this evening. I do not know what to do.

S. R. ANDERSON, Brigadier-General.

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LYNCHBURG, VA., July 27, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

Your dispatch received. I have ordered two regiments. Shall I order the third? I wait for personal orders.

S. R. ANDERSON, Brigadier-General.

{p.1003}

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE FORCES, Richmond, Va., July 27, 1861.

Brig. Gen. T. H. HOLMES, Commanding at Fredericksburg, Brooke’s Station, Va.:

GENERAL: I regret to learn that the proposed construction of the batteries at the mouth of the Rappahannock at this time will interfere with your arrangements. I had hoped it would occupy time that could be thus advantageously used. I have, however, submitted the questions to the President, who, concurring in the general advantages of occupying the Potomac, thinks it more prudent first to shut up the Rappahannock. I shall not enter into the arguments bearing on the questions at this time, as they will no doubt present themselves to you, but will merely state that the latter object is one of defense, not merely of the banks of the river, but of the country to your rear; whereas the former is one of defense, to be entered on as soon as you are ready to oppose the resistance that will be offered by the enemy. I do not think the Rappahannock will occupy you long, if the work is commenced with promptness and prosecuted with vigor. And in this view I recommend that you undertake it with sufficient force to prevent its interruption. After the batteries are placed in a defensive position, your covering force can be withdrawn and left to the garrisons you assign them. Two companies might be taken for the battery on Gray’s Point from Lowry, two from the point near by, and two others, probably of those mentioned in a former letter, reported to have been organized. A battery of light artillery will be necessary until some of the heavy guns are in position, and one or more good regiments, as you may determine. The garrison of the battery on Cherry Point can be organized from volunteers from the counties north of the Rappahannock. All the arrangements are left to your judgment. As soon as you get these points secure your movable force will be available for the Potomac or other location, where you must be prepared for their resistance, and I shall be prepared to send you every assistance in my power. I hope you will endeavor to close the Rappahannock as soon as possible. A request has been made to the governor of North Carolina to send you a light battery from that State.

Respectfully,

R. E. LEE, General, Commanding.

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HDQRS. OF FORCES IN AND AROUND COCKLETOWN, July 27, 1861.

Maj. G. B. COSBY Assistant Adjutant-General, Army of Yorktown:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I exceeded, in part, the instructions of the general for carrying off the negroes from below Young’s and Harrod’s Mills yesterday. In order to proceed with the greatest security, I moved my whole command, leaving one hundred men in charge of a sick field officer, with my caissons and transportation at this point. I sent picked men in advance to take such positions that the enemy could not leave Hampton or Newport News without my being duly apprised of it. These men were followed by my cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hood who was directed to take the Back River road. Lieutenant-Colonel Cumming was stationed at the New Market Bridge, with two howitzers, his own and Major Irby’s battalions, and a {p.1004} portion of the North Carolina battalion. With the remaining force I took my position at the junction of Maney’s road, to prevent the march of the enemy from Newport News on to the Sawyer Swamp road, to the rear of Lieutenant-Colonel Cumming.

About 5 o’clock I received an express from Colonel Hood, informing me that he had executed his orders, when I directed Colonel Cumming to fall back. I returned to this point with my whole command, and reoccupied the same position I had left in the morning.

After dark I sent Captain Phillips, with a detachment of thirty dragoons, to bring off the negroes on the James River side of the Peninsula from the vicinity of Newport News.

Captain Phillips returned this morning, having executed his orders with the skill and promptness for which he has been commended. One negro escaped from him by jumping out of a window. He was shot at by the guard, but escaped unhurt.

I have the honor to inclose herewith a list of negroes furnished me by Colonel Hood. I would especially call the attention of the commanding general to the necessity of closely guarding the negroes taken from the James River side. They have been constantly in communication with the enemy, and evinced the strongest dislike to being taken.

Whilst in position yesterday the enemy moved out of Hampton in considerable force, leading me to believe that perhaps they contemplated an attack on my command. They passed on to Newport News, although they were well aware that Colonel Hood’s command was scattered through the Back River country; some of them had fired upon the veddettes. Reports have reached me that troops have embarked at Newport News yesterday. I do not accredit this. I am rather of the opinion that Newport News has been re-enforced from Hampton. I would also report that I have duly consulted with Colonel Hood and Captain Phillips, as directed, and with other intelligent officers, as to the propriety of destroying the telegraph between Hampton and Newport News, and have decided that the risk attending the execution with a large force would be too great for the benefit that would be derived from its destruction. It is considered that the position of the force would be extremely hazardous, as it would be between Hampton, Newport News, and Fortress [Monroe]; have but one road to retreat by if forced to retire; and that it would be particularly hazardous, as it would be scattered over a considerable distance at all times whilst executing the order.

A small party can destroy the communication by telegraph at any time that it may be deemed proper to make a demonstration against either end of it. If destroyed now, it would be reconstructed, and so guarded as to render a nocturnal communication with Hampton more difficult than it is now.

I have not been able to gain any information as to the number and the whereabouts of the surf-boats. I am under the impression that these boats cannot be destroyed without passing through the whole of the enemy’s lines; an impossibility. This opinion is formed from conversations with officers of my command intimately acquainted with all the localities in the far end of the Peninsula.

I have the honor to inclose a report furnished me by Surg. G. W. Semple this morning. I would earnestly request that it be considered at once by the general commanding. Commanding officers of battalions are constantly reporting additional cases of sickness in their commands.

I sent all the spades and axes to Yorktown this morning that could {p.1005} be gathered together. I also sent the flag of truce to Fortress Monroe this morning, as directed by the general, and with it a cart for the baggage of the officers, prisoners at Yorktown. I took occasion, having learned through the New York Herald that Lieutenant-Colonel Pegram was a prisoner at the fort, to request that he might be allowed to send to me such letters as he might desire to send his family in Richmond, and stated the condition of the wounded officers recently captured. Since the burning of the vessels on York River the enemy have kept close in their lines. I think this is due to the strong force under my command.

As soon as I am furnished with sufficient transportation, I will complete my instructions in regard to the rest of the negroes. The forwarding of those sent to Williamsburg has exhausted all the means at my disposal. Having executed these instructions at the most exposed points, it will not be necessary for me to remain here. They can be completed from Young’s and Harrod’s Mills. I will await the order to fall back to that position, unless the necessity for doing so becomes greater than at present.

I forgot to report, in mentioning yesterday’s proceedings, that the enemy made two attempts to inspect us in balloons.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

RO. JOHNSTON Colonel of Cavalry, Commanding.

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LYNCHBURG, July 28, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER:

There have been ordered by your instructions to Lynchburg five regiments, three of whom have been forwarded to and are now at Staunton, commanded by Colonel Hatton, Colonel Forbes, and Colonel Maney. These are the three first advanced. The other two are commanded by Colonel Fulton and Colonel Savage. Part of Fulton’s command has already reached Lynchburg, and the remainder, with Savage’s regiment, will probably reach here to-day or to-night. At Haynesville and Bristol, East Tennessee, there are three regiments, commanded by Colonel Battle, Colonel Newman, and Colonel Rains, ordered there from Middle Tennessee. Your order yesterday evening was to forward the two additional regiments expected here to Staunton. Under your telegram to-day I have to ask whether I shall order these regiments (Fulton’s and Savage’s) to remain here, go to Staunton, or to return to Bristol. I proceed to Bristol this evening. Answer to my acting aide, Col. G. P. Smith, at this point.

S. R. ANDERSON, Brigadier-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Manassas, July 28, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

GENERAL: This army, both General Beauregard’s troops and mine, is without adequate means of transportation. It would be impossible to maneuver for want of it. I respectfully ask that the Quartermaster-General be directed to take measures for the immediate purchase of a large number of wagons and teams. Agents should be sent to different {p.1006} parts of the State and wherever else may be deemed expedient. This need is urgent. Our enemies are exerting themselves to the utmost.

Your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE NORTHWEST, Monterey, Va., July 28, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. of the Forces, Richmond, Va.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the troops on this line since my arrival:

We occupy (with one regiment of infantry and two pieces of artillery, with two regiments of infantry at the base of the mountain) the pass in the Alleghany Mountains in front of this place. The enemy, with about the same force, hold the strong pass in the Cheat Mountain, distant from our position about eighteen miles. From the best information which we can obtain, they are at several points between the Cheat Pass and Beverly, distant about twenty-three miles. Before my arrival General Jackson had marched a force to occupy the passes on the Huntersville and Huttonsville turnpike.

On yesterday Colonel Lee’s regiment of North Carolina volunteers was at the base of Elk Mountain, eleven miles in advance of Huntersville, and will soon be in position at the Elk Mountain Pass. The Bath Cavalry were still farther advanced, at the Big Spring, twenty-eight miles from Huntersville.

Colonel Gilham, with two regiments, on yesterday at Huntersville, will join Colonel Lee as soon as he can get necessary supplies, which were en route for him from the depot recently established at Millborough.

About two hundred and fifty of the Pocahontas militia have been mustered into service. Eighty of them are now organized as spies and guides, and are watching closely all of the mountain roads, passes, and paths in the direction of the enemy. Captain Marye’s battery probably arrived at Huntersville to-day, and will join Colonel Lee without delay.

The re-enforcements arrive very slowly. Two of the Tennessee regiments arrived at Staunton on yesterday, and the third was expected to reach there to-day. Nothing has been heard of Generals Floyd’s and Wise’s brigades, or of the two Georgia regiments of infantry, or the Georgia battery.

The very strong pass in the Cheat Mountain cannot be turned near by; but, as soon as I can concentrate the forces, will advance upon the enemy from the other quarter.

There is said to be a strong position in advance of the Alleghany Pass, at Yeager’s, near the crossing of the Greenbriar River. A reconnaissance is being made to-day, with a view of advancing upon it.

I have reason to believe that the forces of the enemy have been reduced recently, and I will move against him as soon as it will be proper to do so.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. LORING, Brigadier-General.

{p.1007}

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HEADQUARTERS, Williamsburg, Va., July 28, 1861.

Colonel CRUMP, Commanding, Gloucester Point, Va.:

SIR: General Magruder directs that you will make a call upon the citizens of Gloucester, Middlesex, and Matthews Counties for one-half of their male force of slaves, to finish the works around Gloucester Point. They will be allowed fifty cents a day and a ration for each negro man during the time he is at work. You will send out agents to collect and bring in these negroes, and detail some one to take down the names of the slaves, of their owners, and the date of their arrival, and to give a certificate of the number of days they have worked. The free negroes will be impressed, if they refuse to come, and a force will be sent to bring them in.

The general directs that the work be made, if possible, impregnable, which he thinks can be done by deepening the ditches and thickening the parapets and putting up traverses. Six hundred negroes could effect this in ten days, or perhaps in five. Nearly eight hundred hands have been procured here in a very short time.

You will consult with Captain Page and Captain Meade in regard to the best method of strengthening the lines and batteries at Gloucester.

You will enforce, if it should be necessary, the above call, though it is hoped it will not be. I inclose the call.

I am, sir, respectfully,

G. B. COSBY, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Manassas, July 29, 1861.

General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:

GENERAL: I had the honor to write to you on the 24th instant on the subject of my rank compared with that of other officers of the C. S. Army. Since then I have received daily orders purporting to come from the “Headquarters of the Forces,” some of them in relation to the internal affairs of this army. Such orders I cannot regard, because they are illegal.

Permit me to suggest that orders to me should come from your office.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON, General, C. S. Army.

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HEADQUARTERS OF CAVALRY, Cockletown, July 29, 1861.

Maj. G. B. COSBY Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. Army of Yorktown:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I returned to this post this morning, and ordered the troops under my command to their respective stations, retaining here one 12-pounder howitzer, as instructed.

I should have reported from the Half-way House rumors of the evacuation of Hampton, but that Captain Bryan, who went down to Hampton with a flag of truce, had not returned, and I waited his return for authentic information. Captain Bryan returned late last evening, haying {p.1008} been detained by the necessity of visiting Newport News. In addition to clothing for the officers, directed by the general, he bought clothing for other officers, prisoners of war. They were all forwarded to Yorktown. Captain Bryan reports that he found no pickets outside of the outworks at Hampton, where he was met by Captain Butler, nephew and aide to General Butler. He found the town on fire, but efforts being made by the U. S. troops to extinguish it with fire-engines. He was informed by Captain Butler that the fire was caused by drunken and disorderly soldiers. From all he could learn he was satisfied that there was still a force, though small, in Hampton. Captain Bryan was received with courtesy both at Hampton and Newport News.

I have also to report that, in addition to those previously sent off, I had five wagons (company wagons) loaded with sick. A report was received to-day, by an outer picket, from a Mr. House, in Hampton, through Mr. Kelley, overseer of Mr. Dennis, that there were no troops in Hampton, no encampment between Old Point and Hampton, and only one regiment at Newport News. I have also the honor to report that Col. C. K. Mallory, One hundred and fifteenth Regiment of Militia, informs me that the steamer which burnt the vessels in Back River was certainly piloted, and one person is strongly suspected. I have instructed the colonel to have the party arrested, as also all other persons in Fox Hill who have been passing about under the protection of the Federal Government. I would also report that a volunteer scout, headed by Private W. Causey, comprising six Old Dominion Dragoons, reported having fired upon a party of the enemy on the Slater’s Creek road, near Newport News, and under the telegraph, killing and wounding several. Captain Bryan reports that from reliable parties near Hampton he learned that the man killed was an officer.

I am, major, very respectfully,

RO. JOHNSTON, Colonel, Commanding.

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RICHMOND, July 30, 1861.

General S. R. ANDERSON, Bristol, Tenn.:

The movement contemplated has been defeated by confusion of orders. You may follow the regiments with which you are intended to operate by way of Lynchburg and Staunton, and take your proper command.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

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HEADQUARTERS, Williamsburg, Va., July 30, 1861.

Captain HENDERSON, C. S. A.:

SIR: I have just learned, for the first time, that the carriages of the guns mounted at Yorktown are made of pine, and that recently, when the first were fired (with a greatly reduced charge), these carriages plainly gave indications that they would give way entirely after a few rounds. You will report to me forthwith what is the true state of the case, and what these carriages are in shape, Navy or Army; and, if Army, casemate or barbette. You will also call on Captain Meade, of the Engineers, to assist you in the examination of them. Report also the quantity, kind, and quality of the ammunition on hand for each {p.1009} piece. I desire this report at the very earliest moment, as I shall use it as a basis of a letter to the Navy Department. Have you fuses and powder yet for all the ammunition?

Very respectfully,

J. BANKHEAD MAGRUDER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

State also what progress has been made in the erection of the furnace for heating shot. The materials, I learn, were sent down a few days since.

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HEADQUARTERS NORTHWEST ARMY, Huntersville, Va., July 30, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Adjutant-General, &c.:

COLONEL: Upon reaching here I find the country is very scarce of supplies, and that it will be necessary for us to rely mostly upon Staunton and Richmond. Since I reached the command I have put the quartermaster’s department and commissariat in such order as it was possible to do. General Jackson informs me that he has made frequent and urgent requisitions for supplies, and that his requisitions are scarcely filled from day to day. In order to place the thing beyond doubt and insure a sufficiency, I have renewed the requisitions, and have written to the different agents, sending one of my aides to see in person that the supplies are forwarded from Richmond and Staunton. I respectfully request that orders may be issued at the earliest possible moment for them to be forwarded. I am satisfied, if we can be furnished in a few days, that a successful movement can be made.

Respectfully, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. W. LORING, Brigadier-General, Commanding, &c.

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HEADQUARTERS NORTHWEST ARMY, Huntersville, Va., July 30, 1861.

Col. GEORGE DEAS, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have just seen a reliable man who tells me that he was in General Wise’s camp last Friday, 26th July; that Wise was at Gauley Bridge, on his retreat to Lewisburg, about sixty miles distant. He thinks that Wise intended to fight the enemy at Tompkins’ [farm], eight miles from the bridge.

Upon learning this, I sent word to Staunton for the two Georgia regiments and the battery expected at Staunton to be moved by the train to Millborough, there to remain until further orders.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. LORING, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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MANASSAS, July 31, 1861.

General S. COOPER:

News has reached here that General Banks has assembled eight thousand men for operations in the valley. If true, can troops be sent by the Department to oppose him, or shall it be done from here?

G. T. BEAUREGARD. {p.1010}

HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY, Cockletown, July 31, 1861.

Gen. G. B. COSBY, Headquarters Army of Yorktown:

MAJOR: I have the honor of sending by Privates H. H. and R. F. Elliott, Old Dominion Dragoons, four negroes, belonging to Mr. B. P. Lee. It has been reported that these negroes were left upon his plantation by their owner, and have been exceedingly troublesome to the residents in that vicinity. It is said that one of them abused a lady and threatened the life of her husband. These facts are mentioned that the general may place them under strict guard and not tarn them over to their master, from whom they might escape and return to give further trouble.

I have also the honor to report that Privates Joseph and Benjamin Phillips, Sr., returned to this place this morning, having visited the town of Hampton. They found it deserted by the enemy, and the bridge connecting it with Fortress Monroe torn down, a picket being stationed at the foot of the bridge, on the other side of the river, which, they were informed by the citizens, threatened to fire upon any one who showed himself on that side of the town. They have authentic information, also, that the force at Newport News is comparatively small. I am under the impression that it does not exceed 1,500 men, independent of the ships supporting them. The impression of the people of Hampton is that the place was evacuated very hurriedly last Friday, when my command was in that vicinity.

If desirable, this place can be burned now before it is reoccupied by the enemy, without trouble, by a small party. I should state, however, that the Messrs. Phillips found very few negroes in that place. They were informed that they were carried over the bridge previous to its evacuation, and it is supposed they were placed on the works at the Rip Raps.

I have the honor to report that, in the event of my having to remove my command hurriedly, I should have to abandon a good deal of public property here. The means of transportation provided is not sufficient to move the comforts absolutely required by a force of this size, subject to the exposure and labor which the general is well aware has been endured by the cavalry in the Peninsula. On my arrival here I found no means provided for the transportation of the effects of myself and staff, and have taken the liberty of retaining one wagon here for that especial purpose, which I trust will meet the approbation of the general commanding. All the transportation of the post is confined to the wagons assigned to the companies under my command. Every train not occupied in sending negroes to Williamsburg and transporting necessaries from Yorktown is constantly employed in hauling forage from the Back River country. It is considered that this is too much labor for these teams, the average distance that the forage is now hauled exceeding twenty-five miles. This will be increased by the necessity of going farther down the country. I should especially request that a regular quartermaster, with as large a train as can be spared, be sent here immediately, to haul off all the forage from the Back River country before the force of the enemy is so increased as to render it extremely dangerous to do so. A small force of cavalry would have prevented our drawing supplies thence to this time.

When I first assumed command at this post I had occasion to make a requisition for horseshoes and horseshoe nails; these stores have never been furnished. I have the honor to request the interference of the general commanding to this matter, that a large supply of horseshoes {p.1011} and horseshoe nails be furnished at once, and that an additional force of farriers be sent to me to shoe the horses of my command, many being unfit for service at this time for want of shoes and the number rapidly increasing. Nearly every horse in the command requires the attention of a farrier at this time.

I forgot to state in relation to the negroes that unless specially directed by the general I will not deem it necessary to remove more negroes to Williamsburg.

I am, major, very respectfully,

RO. JOHNSTON, Colonel, Commanding.

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BUNGER’S MILL, VA., Four miles west of Lewisburg, August 1, 1861.

General R. E. LEE, Commanding, &c.:

SIR: I am here, falling back to Covington, under orders left to my discretion by General Cooper. My situation in the Kanawha Valley was critical in the extreme. After the Scarey affair the enemy fell back and were re-enforced strongly. They increased to five thousand. At Gauley I had one thousand; at Coal, one thousand; and at Elk, and within two miles thereof, about two thousand. Thus divided, necessarily the enemy could attack, when he chose, double or quadruple my numbers, with far better arms and supplies. I found they were collecting some fifteen thousand troops at Weston and moving to Summersville, at the same time moving up the Kanawha Valley and jamming me at any point I might select to occupy. I determined upon a prompt retreat, where my forces could co-operate with Generals Loring or Floyd. In thirty minutes after we fell back from Tyler’s Mountain the enemy took possession and nearly succeeded in cutting off seven hundred of Colonel Tompkins’ command at Coal. They escaped, and burned the steamer on which they were moving up the river. Save an accident from the defiant disobedience of orders by the lieutenant of the McCullough Rangers, losing some baggage and causing the death of one of my sick and the wounding of several of my men, the retreat has been, upon the whole, creditably in order.

We left Charleston last Wednesday week [July 24] and Gauley last Saturday, destroying the bridges there behind us. This I was obliged to do by the great deficiency of transportation, owing to gross inefficiency of the quartermaster’s department of my brigade. I have come on slowly. The men had been marched and countermarched very much, and were sore and sadly worn-out in shoes and clothing and suffered for want of tents. We arrived here yesterday, leaving a strong rear guard of four infantry companies, attached to two hundred and fifty cavalry. They are scouting the enemy to their teeth. Last night my scouts reported that they are moving on in three divisions, converging from Fayetteville, Gauley, and Summersville to a point on this turnpike a few miles back.

At Weston they have a force of fifteen thousand, and from Huttonsville movements are made to join those from Weston at Summersville, to concentrate some ten thousand troops on this road, directly moving on Lewisburg. We will check them all we can, but a force far larger and better organized than mine is as yet must be sent to do it effectually. From Charleston to this place the State volunteers under my command lost from three to five hundred men by desertion. But one man deserted {p.1012} from the Legion. I respectfully submit that I had better be allowed to reorganize the whole mass and incorporate the State volunteers with my Legion in the Confederate service. I think the enemy will now threaten the Southwestern Railroad at New Berne, and they will make a base line from Gauley to Lewisburg.

The Kanawha Valley is wholly disaffected and traitorous. It was gone from Charleston down to Point Pleasant before I got there. Boone and Cabell are nearly as bad, and the state of things in Braxton, Nicholas, and part of Greenbrier is awful. The militia are nothing for warlike uses here. They are worthless who are true, and there is no telling who is true. You cannot persuade these people that Virginia can or will ever reconquer the northwest, and they are submitting, subdued, and debased. I have fallen back not a minute too soon. And here let me say, we have worked and scouted far and wide and fought well, and marched all the shoes and clothes off our bodies, and find our old arms do not stand service. I implore for some (one thousand) stand of good arms, percussion muskets, sabers, pistols, tents, blankets, shoes, rifles, and powder.

Respectfully,

HENRY A. WISE.

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6