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 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 1, Ch. VIII–Union Correspondence.

THE
WAR OF THE REBELLION:
A COMPILATION OF THE
OFFICIAL RECORDS
OF THE
UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES.

CHAPTER VIII.
OPERATIONS IN ARKANSAS, THE INDIAN TERRITORY, AND MISSOURI.
February 7-May 9, 1861.
(Secession)
–––
UNION CORRESPONDENCE.

{p.653}

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, February 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. S. HARNEY, Commanding Department of the West:

SIR: The following dispatch was sent you by telegraph to-day:

[Brig. Gen. W. S. HARNEY, Commanding Department of the West:]

Have you in the Saint Louis Arsenal troops enough to defend it? Ought you not to send up all the men from Jefferson Barracks?

WINFIELD SCOTT.

The General-in-Chief desires to strengthen that dispatch by calling your attention to these considerations: That it is best to move in advance of excitement; that it is possible, when an emergency arises, re-enforcements may be cut off, and that all the force may now be usefully employed at work in adding to the defenses of the arsenal.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEORGE W. LAY, Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.

{p.654}

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, February 13, 1861.

Brig. Gen. WILLIAM S. HARNEY, Commanding Department of the West, Saint Louis, Mo.

GENERAL: The General-in-Chief directs that you give orders for the immediate abandonment of Fort Smith by calling the garrison to Fort Leavenworth. The troops will bring with them as much of the public property as the means of transportation will permit, excepting any surplus subsistence stores, which will be sent to the nearest post in the Indian country west of Arkansas.

As the authorities of the State of Arkansas have seized the public property, it will not be safe to send supplies of any description up the Arkansas River, and all the posts in the southern part of your department must therefore be supplied via Fort Scott from Saint Louis or Fort Leavenworth.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, February 19, 1861.

Lieut. Col. L. THOMAS, Assist. Adj. Gen., Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a letter from the headquarters of the Army by Lieutenant Colonel Lay, aide-de-camp, dated the 13th instant, in which my attention is called to the subject of the defense of the Saint Louis Arsenal.

The considerations presented in that communication have not been overlooked by me, but believing from all the information I have been able to gather (and I have been favored with the advice of persons whose judgement I have considered as perfectly reliable) that the apprehensions which have been entertained of a demonstration against the Saint Louis Arsenal have not been well founded, and that such an attempt has not been at any time seriously contemplated, it has not appeared to me that the safety of the arsenal required that I should call up any considerable portion of the troops from Jefferson Barracks. Moreover, the secession party is in a decided minority in Saint Louis, and there is every reason to suppose that in the event of a movement from any quarter upon the arsenal its garrison would be promptly succored by an overwhelming force from the city. At any rate such is the prevailing opinion in the community, and in the existence of the sentiment may, it is thought, be found a sufficient warrant for the belief that the arsenal is not at this time in danger.

The Saint Louis Arsenal is, however, being put in as complete a defensive condition as possible. Major Hagner, in whose judgment I have the most entire confidence, advised me, even before the arrival of Captain Lyon’s company, of the Second Infantry, that he considered himself strong enough to defend his position successfully. He has recently, in obedience to the orders of the General-in-Chief, been re-enforced by some three hundred recruits from Jefferson Barracks, and his command now numbers nine officers and four hundred and eighty-four men.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. S. HARNEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

{p.655}

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SAINT LOUIS ARSENAL, February 21, 1861.

Col. H. K. CRAIG, Chief of Ordnance, Washington:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report for your information that since my report of the 7th instant the following additional troops have been joined to my command:

February 16, three officers and two hundred men; February 19, one officer and one hundred and one men. Our aggregate this morning is four hundred and eighty-eight.

I have thrown up field works on all sides of our main cluster of buildings, and provided them with guns commanding the interior faces of our inclosing wall and all approaches to the main square. We are perfectly secure, therefore, against any infantry attack and watchful against surprise.

I am sorry to say that the small-pox and measles have appeared within the last forty-eight hours, and a few cases have developed; but I have opened a separate hospital in the laboratory buildings for such cases, and have authority from the general commanding the department to send patients to Jefferson Barracks as often as may be necessary. The cases were brought here.

Notwithstanding the large force and the few conveniences for them upon their arrival, I think they are well cared for, and all essentials for health and comfort provided. The arrangements made still permit all the arsenal duties to proceed regularly without inconvenience to the shop work in hand.*

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

P. V. HAGNER, Brevet Major, Commanding.

* Some matter of detail here omitted.

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[FEBRUARY 22, 1861.]

To the SECRETARY OF WAR, City of Washington, D. C.:

We, the undersigned, citizens of Arkansas, learn with deep regret that the post of Fort Smith is to be abandoned by the General Government. It is fair to suppose that this order has been determined upon in consequence of the actions of a mob in Little Rock and the unfortunate course of the governor in demanding from the United States officer the arsenal.

The late decision of the people at the ballot-box has proved beyond question the almost unanimous voice in the counties adjoining Fort Smith for Union as against violence, mob law, and secession. We, therefore, in the name of the people, the whole people, ask a suspension of this movement until the decision of the State by its convention is known.

GEO. RUDDY et al.

At a mass meeting held in the city of Fort Smith, county of Sebastian, State of Arkansas, 7 p.m. on the 22d day of February, A. D. 1861, Francis H. Wolfe was called to the chair, and. James M. Ward nominated and elected as secretary of said meeting. On, motion, it was resolved that the above beading be adopted as the sense of this meeting. On motion it was resolved that the secretary of this meeting be requested to forward this petition to the Secretary of War at Washington, D. C.

FRANCIS H. WOLFE, Chairman. JAMES M. WARD, Secretary.

{p.656}

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, February 22, 1861.

Brigadier-General HARNEY, Commanding Department of the West, Saint Louis, Mo.:

Stop the march of the troops from Fort Smith.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

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WASHINGTON CITY, March 11, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

DEAR SIR: Our friends in Saint Louis desire that Captain Lyon may have the command of the troops at the Saint Louis Arsenal, and be charged with its defense, and that Major Hagner be required simply to take charge of the Ordnance Department. Captain Lyon ranks Major Hagner, and would have command of the troops except for the fact that Major Hagner is assigned to duty according to his brevet rank. I ask in behalf of our friends that this assignment may be rescinded and the command of the troops given to Captain Lyon.

Respectfully,

FRANK P. BLAIR.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, March 18, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. H. EMORY, First Cavalry, City of Washington, D. C.:

SIR: Instead of taking post at Fort Cobb, as directed in Special Orders, No. 40, of the 13th instant, the General-in-Chief directs that you repair without delay to Fort Washita, and that you give orders to Lieutenant Colburn, the adjutant, First Cavalry, to proceed to the same post with the regimental staff, band, and records.

The general further directs that you give orders for concentrating the troops now at Forts Cobb, Arbuckle., and Washita at or in the vicinity of the latter post, unless, in your judgment, the safety of the troops and the interests of the United States demand a different disposition.

The interests of the United States are paramount to those of the friendly Indians on the reservation near Fort Cobb, but good faith requires that notice shall be given them of the withdrawal of the troops, that they may have a chance to move temporarily to the vicinity of the posts to be occupied, for the purpose of protection against wanton attack from any quarter.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., March 19, 1861.

Capt. ALEXANDER MONTGOMERY, Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. Army, Fort Smith, Ark.:

Send the following by express to the commanders of Forts Washita, Arbuckle, and Cobb, and acknowledge by telegraph this dispatch:

The company of the First Infantry at Fort Arbuckle will forthwith proceed to Fort Washita.

{p.657}

The commander of Fort Cobb will make the necessary preparations for the abandonment of that post, and hold his command in readiness for a prompt movement.

By order of Brigadier-General Harney:

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SAINT LOUIS ARSENAL, March 19, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington City:

COLONEL: I received to-day through the department headquarters Special Orders, No. 74, from your office, assigning the command of the troops and defenses at this post to Capt. N. Lyon, Second Infantry.* This order I am informed has not been accompanied by any explanation, but I have since received from the department headquarters a copy of the instructions sent to Captain Lyon, directing him 41 not to regard the officers and men of the Ordnance Department as forming a part of his command.”

Having been assigned to the command of this arsenal, by telegraphic orders, at a moment of great excitement and anxiety for its safety, and every requirement of the law having been fulfilled to enable me to exercise command over troops of the line stationed here at the time of my arrival, and subsequently confirmed in the command (after Captain Lyon’s arrival) by the terms of your telegraphic dispatch, dated February 11, 1861, stating “the command of the mixed troops belongs to Major Hagner,” I need not tell you with what surprise this order was received. As it comes after all excitement in this community has been allayed; after all the necessary defenses for the arsenal have been long since arranged and completed by me in a manner so imposing as to impress all visitors with the conviction of our thorough preparation against illegal attempts, and without one word of explanation to save the pride of a soldier of twenty-five years’ active service from the reproach implied by being displaced by a junior in years, in length of service, and in Army rank in the command of the defenses of his post, you cannot doubt, sir, that the surprise is accompanied by great mortification.

If the command of mixed troops belonged to Major Hagner on the 11th of February, and any course of argument has since proven to the satisfaction of those in authority that that command no longer belongs to him, I appeal to the high sense of justice of the General-in-Chief, to his own well-deserved and well-known soldier’s pride, whether it was not due to me that that fact should be stated in orders if it induced my displacement. Had any personal impeachment been urged, ought not my long service and hitherto good standing in my profession have secured me a hearing before condemnation I Should it now be that my relatives and friends, in and out of the Army, should be left to dread that one who has, on more than one occasion, received the praise of the General-in-Chief, has now done something or omitted to do something forfeiting his good opinion for competency, in the performance of a trust committed to him ? May I not hope, therefore, that some explanatory statement shall be published in this case?

I have been informed by Captain Lyon to-day that he has used efforts or made application to obtain this command from me. What kind they have been I do Dot know, but as no communication has passed through his commanding officer, as prescribed by Army Regulations, and no previous whisper of the use or contemplated use of such efforts has reached {p.658} my ears, I have been deprived of the legal right and of the authorized benefit of an answering argument to any he may have made. This injustice to me, I am sure, cannot receive the sanction of the General-in-Chief; and I confidently appeal to him for such action in the case as may secure me my full rights, as intended by law and regulation.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. V. HAGNER, Brevet Major, Commander of Arsenal.

* See inclosure to Harney to Thomas, March 20, 1861, p. 658.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, MO., March 20, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General of the Army, Washington, D. C. :

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of paragraph 1, Special Orders, No. 74, of the 13th instant, from the Adjutant-General’s Office, assigning Capt. N. Lyon, Second Infantry, to the command of the troops and defenses at the Saint Louis Arsenal, and to inclose a copy of the instructions I have given with respect, to that assignment. I trust the interpretation I have placed upon the order is in accordance with the views of the War Department upon the subject.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. S. HARNEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosures.]

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 74.

WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE,. Washington, March 13, 1861.

I. Capt. N. Lyon, Second Infantry, the senior officer of the line present and on duty at Saint Louis Arsenal, Mo., is assigned to the command of the troops and defenses at that post.

...

By order of the Secretary of War:

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., March 13, 1861.

Capt. N. LYON, Second Infantry, Commanding Troops at Saint Louis Arsenal, Mo.:

SIR: I am directed by the commanding general to address you as follows respecting the interpretation to be put upon paragraph I of Special Orders, No. 74, of the 13th instant, from the Adjutant-General’s Office assigning you to the command of the troops and defenses at the Saint Louis Arsenal, with a copy of which you have been furnished:

It is not supposed that in issuing that order the Secretary of War designed you should exercise any control over the operations of the Ordnance Department, and you will not, therefore, regard the officers and men of that branch of the service stationed at the arsenal as forming a portion of your command.

The arrangements heretofore made for the accommodation of the troops at the arsenal and for the defence of the place will not be disturbed {p.659} without the sanction of the commanding general, to whom you will present any considerations touching those subjects you may think worthy of adoption.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, March 21, 1861.

Lieut. Col. W. H. EMORY, First Cavalry, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: The general does not think proper to give more specific instructions in relation to the posts in Arkansas. He had a conference with Senator Mitchell the 19th instant, and, in deference to his opinion, agrees that a company may be kept at Fort Cobb, but prefers to leave the question to the discretion given you in instructions of the 18th instant.

In regard to the questions asked by you the other day, the general says: 11 If asked by the commander of Fort Smith for aid in guarding the post and depot, give it. If the State secedes, march all the troops beyond its limits.”

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, March 27, 1861.

[SECRETARY OF WAR:]

The letter of Hon. Charles B. Mitchell, U. S. Senator from Arkansas, dated the 17th instant, in relation to the military posts in Arkansas, having been submitted to Lieutenant-General Scott, he has the honor to report, speaking not from documentary information but rather from oral testimony, as follows:

Fort Smith is an old established post, from which the troops had been for a time withdrawn, but which has been lately used as a depot to supply the advanced posts soon to be named.

The honorable Senator proposes that the troops at Fort Smith shall be transferred to a point called “Frozen Rock,” about fifteen miles southeast of Fort Gibson, on the Arkansas River, which is said to be a suitable position for a post. If this idea is to be entertained, a preliminary examination of the site should be made by a competent officer, and the title to the land, the sources of supply, lines of communication, &c., should be ascertained. By act of March 3, 1859, “No permanent barracks and quarters shall hereafter be constructed unless detailed estimates shall have, been previously submitted to Congress, and shall have been approved by a special appropriation for the same.” Until these previous steps are taken, no movement can be taken to transfer the troops from Fort Smith.

Fort Washita, also an old-established post, is about 160 miles from Fort Smith. It is a highly important military point. The public buildings are good and in repair. Orders were given Lieutenant-Colonel Emory, First Cavalry, the 18th instant, to proceed there and establish his headquarters as commander of his regiment, with discretionary power to concentrate at or in the vicinity of the post two companies {p.660} of cavalry and five of infantry, now at Forts Arbuckle and Cobb, in addition to the two companies of cavalry already at Fort Washita. Orders were transmitted the same day, by telegraph and express, to move in advance one company of infantry from Fort Arbuckle to Fort Washita, in consequence of a report, dated the 3d instant, from the commanding officer of the latter post, referring to rumors of a contemplated attack from Texas.

Fort Arbuckle, about 60 miles west, a little north of Fort Washita, has a garrison of two companies of cavalry. It is of no importance as a military point, and will, no doubt, be broken up under the discretionary orders to Lieutenant-Colonel Emory.

Fort Cobb, about 160 miles northwest of Fort Washita, was first occupied by troops October 1, 1859. The site is on a portion of the Choctaw country, leased as a reserve for several detached bands of Comanche and other Indians, which were moved there from points within the limits of Texas. This arrangement was made for the convenience of the State of Texas, and Fort Cobb was designed for the double purpose of protecting these friendly bands against incursions from the hostiles of their own tribes and to restrain the latter in their descents upon Texas. The attitude now assumed by Texas changes the relations of Fort Cobb to that State, whilst present maintenance is no doubt necessary for the protection of the Indians of the reserve. But in connect-ion with this point must be considered the safety of the garrison in case of attack by a superior force and the possibility of supplying it. The post is at such a distance from the base of co-operation as to leave it unsupported; the retreat of its garrison would be easily cut off; hence it requires a powerful garrison, if any. The supply trains must pass over a section of country so open, to incursions from Texas as to make strong escorts necessary to guard them. Subsistence and forage are said by the chiefs of the staff departments to be difficult to obtain and very high.

These are the main subjects for the large discretion devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Emory, and it is not doubted he will appreciate them and decide with judgment.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

By command of Lieutenant-General Scott:

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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STEAMER ARKANSAS, Sixty Miles below Dardanelles, April 2, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army:

SIR: I think it proper to report that I am detained by low water in the Arkansas. I left Memphis Sunday, March 24, with the assurance of good water in the Arkansas River, but the water has suddenly fallen and left us at a point difficult to procure transportation of any kind. I send this by a messenger to obtain transportation, with directions to mail the letter, at the first post-office. Apprehending the chances of such detention, I sent a copy of my instructions to Fort Arbuckle, and directed the commanding officer at that post to commence the movement upon Fort Washita, and, in the event of the latter place being threatened, to march to its support with his whole force. A copy of my {p.661} instructions to the commanding officer at Arbuckle was sent to the headquarters Department of the West.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry.

P. S.–Since writing the above the chances of getting forward with out much detention are improved. I nevertheless think it proper to send this notice, in case of any further delay.

W. H. E.

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COUNCIL BLUFFS, April 2, 1861.

JOHN A. KASSON:

DEAR SIR: I arrived home yesterday, and would have telegraphed you at Saint Joseph had I dared to do so. There are men from secession military companies formed at Saint Joseph for the purpose of capturing the troops from Fort Randall. They will be down about May 1, on the Omaha, and they propose to take boat, arms, &c. I have several letters from steady Union men in Saint Joseph, and I shall board the boat as she comes down. My information is such that there is no doubt about the matters, and a telegram from the proper source to the officers on the boat would cause them to take the proper action. This letter will reach Washington before the troops reach this place.

Union men are leaving Missouri in swarms, and unless matters change within a week a reign of terror will exist about Saint Joseph.

I am, truly,

G. M. DODGE.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., April 6, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. P. V. HAGNER, Ordnance Department, Commanding Saint Louis Arsenal:

SIR: The department commander directs that you transfer to Capt. N. Lyon, Second Infantry, commanding the troops at the Saint Louis Arsenal, all the mounted artillery at that place available for service, and understood to consist of two 8-inch howitzers, six 12-pounder howitzers, and four 6-pounder guns; also, the implements required to render the same effective for service, together with fifty rounds of fixed ammunition for each piece. Captain Lyon is also authorized by the department commander to throw up such defenses of earth at the arsenal, and to occupy such of the out-buildings with a night force, as in his judgment security of the place may call for.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT SMITH, April 6, 1861.

Capt. S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the West:

CAPTAIN: I inclose a copy of my instructions to the commanding officer at Fort Cobb. I have used the discretionary power given me by the General-in-Chief, and left two companies at Fort Cobb in place of one, {p.662} as suggested. I think one company insufficient to occupy so isolated a post, but if the change is not approved at headquarters, one of the companies can be withdrawn before it will be required at Washita.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry.

[Inclosure.]

FORT SMITH, April 6, 1861.

To the COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Cobb:

SIR: In pursuance of special instructions, dated Headquarters U. S. Army, March 18 and 21* (copies of which are inclosed), you will direct two companies of your command to march immediately to Fort Washita, and two companies to remain at Fort Cobb until further orders. For this purpose additional transportation will this day be sent you from the quartermaster’s depot at this place.

You will take great pains to give the Indians the notice required by the instructions of the General-in-Chief, and offer to such Indians as may choose to retire within the protection of the camp at Washita the privilege of moving under the protection of the troops destined for that place, but you will observe the offer was directed to be made before the intention was entertained of leaving any troops at Fort Cobb. The ordnance stores will be moved with the troops, except such ammunition as may be required for the use of the companies left behind.

Any surplus means of transportation will be used in transferring the other property to Fort Washita which may not be required at Fort Cobb-such as, cavalry clothing and surplus forage.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, MO., April 8, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assist. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

Under existing circumstances, and in view of the large amount of public property at Fort Leavenworth, I consider it very important that the garrison should at once be re-enforced, and request authority to order to that post two companies of artillery from Fort Randall and two companies of infantry from Fort Kearney. Please answer by telegraph.

W. S. HARNEY, Brigadier General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, MO., April 9, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. P. V. HAGNER, U. S. Army, Commanding Saint Louis Arsenal, Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: Under existing circumstances the department commander deems it of great importance that the ordinance supplies stored in the magazine {p.663} at Jefferson Barracks, or elsewhere, be brought within the vicinity of the Saint Louis Arsenal limits, and he therefore directs that you cause such supplies to be transferred to the arsenal with the least practicable delay.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See Townsend to Emory, pp. 656, 659.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Jefferson Barracks, Saint Louis, Mo., April 9, 1861.

Maj. N. C. MACRAE, Third Infantry, Commanding:

SIR: The department commander directs that Captain Totten’s company, Second Artillery, be sent to the Saint Louis Arsenal by the early train to-morrow, or as soon thereafter as practicable. The company will be prepared to go into camp on its arrival at the arsenal, and will take with it to that place the equipage necessary for this purpose.

The department commander further directs that the detachment of ordnance that accompanied Captain Totten’s company from Little Rock Arsenal be transferred to the Saint Louis Arsenal.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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FORT SMITH, April 10, 1861.

To the COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Cobb:

The instructions to give authority to move to the Indians, under your protection, were based, as you were informed by me, on the idea that the post was to be entirely abandoned. Since it is determined to retain two companies at that post, and I am informed by the Indian agents here it will give great dissatisfaction to the Choctaws to bring those Indians to Washita, within their territory, I deem it proper for the present to suspend so much of the instructions of the 6th of April (sent from here only yesterday) as authorizes you “to offer to such Indians as may choose, to retire within the camp at Washita the protection of the troops destined for that place.” I have been expecting Colonel Leiper, the agent of the Cobb Indians, now on his way here. He is no doubt detained by high water on the road. In his absence I have consulted the superintendent of Indian affairs and the contractors, Johnson and Grimes, who inform me the Indians are hutted and planting and without means, and could not move at this time if allowed by the Choctaws and Chickasaws to come among them.

In reference to your supplies, I am furnished a statement by Captain Burns, showing you to be supplied up to the 31st of May. The withdrawal of two companies will therefore leave the remaining two full supplies up to the 30th of June. I Captain Burns has been notified of this, that you may be supplied thereafter.

In view of any prompt movement that may be required, I respectfully {p.664} suggest that you do not keep on hand more than two or three mouths’ supplies.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel First Cavalry.

A copy of this [above] letter is respectfully submitted, as it contains the only departure from the orders of the General-in-Chief I have thought proper to make under the discretionary powers left me.

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel First Cavalry.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis Mo., April 10, 1861.

Maj. N. C. MACRAE, Third Infantry, Commanding Jefferson Barracks, Mo.:

SIR: Instead of proceeding to Saint Louis Arsenal, as directed in the communication I had the honor to address to you, under date of yesterday, the department commander directs that Captain Totten’s company (F), Second Artillery, take post at the arsenal magazine, on the Jefferson Barracks reservation, to guard the public property stored there. It is understood that there are sufficient quarters at the magazine for the accommodation of the company; but, if not, tents must be used to the extent that may be necessary.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., April 10, 1861.

Bvt. Maj. P. V. HAGNER, U. S. Army, Commanding Saint Louis Arsenal, Mo.:

SIR: I am directed by the Commanding general to say that, upon the information furnished by Lieutenant Wright, his instructions of yesterday’s date, ordering that the ordnance supplies stored in the Jefferson Barracks may again be brought within the arsenal limits, are so far modified as to require that the fixed ammunition only be transferred to the arsenal.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST? Saint Louis, MO., April 10, 1861.

Col. D. S. MILES, Second Infantry, Fort Kearney, Nebr.:

You will proceed with the headquarters and two companies of your regiment to take post at Fort Leavenworth without delay.

By order of Brigadier-General Harney:

F. C. ARMSTRONG, Lieutenant, Second Dragoons, Aide-de-Camp.

{p.665}

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., April 11, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. G., U. S. Army, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 5th instant, directing the movement of six companies of artillery-three from Fort Ridgely and three from Fort Randall. The order for the movement from Fort Randall has been sent by telegraph to Council Bluffs, to be forwarded thence by special messenger. The steamer Omaha has been chartered by the assistant quartermaster here to convey the troops from Fort Randall to Saint Joseph, the terminus of the railroad. The Omaha is now at Saint Joseph, and instructions have been sent to that point by telegraph for her to leave for Fort Randall without delay.

The orders for the movements from Forts Ridgely, Ripley, and Abercrombie were transmitted by telegraph to Saint Paul, to be forwarded thence by special messengers to the several posts concerned; but since they were issued I have received a copy of your dispatch of the 6th instant to Major Morris, Commanding at Fort Ridgely, requiring him to proceed at once with his command, save a small detachment, to the city of New York, instead of waiting to be relieved by a company of the Second Infantry, as at first directed. I have therefore recalled by telegraph my own order to Major Morris.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. S. HARNEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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FORT SMITH, April 13, 1861.

Lieutenant-Colonel TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters U. S. Army:

SIR: Before starting to Washita, and preliminary to a request, I desire to give a brief account of what has been done. I found the infantry already at Washita, and the cavalry from Arbuckle on the move to the same point. Upon the earnest appeal of the Indian agent, and the objection which it is understood would be made by the Choctaws and Chickasaws to bringing the Cobb Indians to Fort Washita, within their territory, from which all persons are excluded by treaty, I have suspended the invitation to them to follow the troops to Fort Washita, and have left two companies instead of one at Cobb. On an appeal from the same quarter, I have suggested to the department commander that two companies of cavalry from Fort Wise might be usefully employed by passing the summer near Fort Cobb, where there is a large depot of corn not easily removed. The usual supply of ammunition for this post, Cobb, Arbuckle, and Washita has been reported seized at Napoleon, and I have suggested to the department commander to send a supply overland. There are bat two company officers with the four companies of cavalry concentrating at Washita, and I have asked that officers be sent forthwith to those companies, particularly the newly-appointed captains.

I have communicated so much of the General-in-Chief’s instructions to the commander of this post as refers to it, and directed him, as soon as this State (Arkansas) secedes, to retire within the Indian country to the point on the Arkansas River where the high road from Fort Washita to Fort Scott, Kans., crosses it.

{p.666}

Major Sacket and Captain Prince both made earnest appeal’s not to abandon Arbuckle. I have forwarded those appeals and dissented from them. The reasons for this dissent will, I hope, satisfy the General-in-Chief that no change should be made in his instructions. They are, in my opinion, precisely those best calculated to fend off impending troubles, and, if those troubles should occur, to “preserve the safety of the troops.” Without reference to the course the Indian nations will adopt, I wish to call attention to what will be the position of the troops amongst them in regard to supplies if Arkansas goes out. They have heretofore been supplied from Texas, but principally by transportation through Arkansas. In the event contemplated, those lines would be closed, and the only one left would be the old military road from Kansas City via Forts Scott and Gibson. This road runs parallel and near to the Arkansas boundary, and supplies over it would be constantly exposed to seizure.

Having stated all I know affecting the honor and safety of the troops and the interests of the United States, and what has been done in the execution of the orders of the General-in-Chief, I now come to the object of my letter. Owing to the turn affairs have recently taken, the position of an officer from a Southern State out here on duty has become extremely embarrassing; so much so as to impair his efficiency. Therefore, I urgently request I may be allowed to turn over this command, with my instructions, to Major Sacket, or such other officer as may be selected, and that I may be permitted to return to Washington City, where I can explain my reasons for the step. If those reasons should prove unsatisfactory, I am prepared to resign my commission.

I respectfully suggest it has never been the policy of any government to employ officers to operate against their own section of country.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel First Cavalry.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, MO., April 16, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters of the Army, City of New York:

SIR: In the present state of affairs in this quarter, I deem it to be my duty to make a special report with reference to the Saint Louis Arsenal. The arsenal buildings and grounds are completely commanded by hills immediately in their rear and within easy range. I learn from sources which I consider reliable that it is the intention of the executive of this State to cause batteries to be erected on these hills and also upon the island opposite to the arsenal. I am further informed that, should such batteries be erected, it is contemplated by the State authorities, in the event of the secession of the State from the Union, to demand the surrender of the arsenal.

The command at the arsenal at the present consists of nine officers and about four hundred and thirty enlisted men, made up of a detachment of ordnance, Captain Totten’s company of the Second Artillery, Captain Lyon’s company of the Second Infantry, and Fourth Artillery, and general-service recruits. While this force would probably be able to resist successfully an assaulting party greatly superior to itself in numbers, it could not withstand the fire of the batteries situated as above indicated.

{p.667}

Under these circumstances I respectfully request instructions for my guidance.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. S. HARNEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, April 17, 1861.

Lieut. Col. Wm. H. EMORY, First Cavalry, Commanding Fort Arbuckle:

SIR: On receipt of this communication, you will, by order of the General-in-Chief, with all the troops in the Indian country west of Arkansas, march to Fort Leavenworth, Kans., taking such useful public property as your means of transportation will permit. The troops may or may not be replaced by Arkansas volunteers. The action of that State will not affect your movement.

Capt. A. Montgomery, A. Q. Al., will be left at Fort Smith, to take charge of public property, and as staff officer of volunteers who may be mustered into the service of the United States.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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SPRINGFIELD, April 17, 1861.

His Excellency ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President, &c. :

DEAR SIR: By Governor Yates’ request I also inclose to you, along with other letters, the following memorandum received by him from Captain Lyon, commanding at the Saint Louis Arsenal.

Yours, &c.,

E. L. BAKER.

[Inclosure.]

Memorandum for Mr. F. J. Dean, about to visit Springfield, Ill.

SAINT LOUIS ARSENAL, April 16, 1861.

Captain Lyon, Second Infantry, commanding the troops at Saint Louis Arsenal, would respectfully submit to his Excellency Richard Yates, governor of Illinois, that in view of imminent danger of an attack at this point by the secessionists upon this arsenal, the custom-house, treasury, and post-office in Saint Louis, it would be well to communicate with the authorities in Washington for the purpose of holding the six regiments called for from his State in readiness for service here. At Jefferson Barracks, ten miles below, quarters for three thousand men could be had, and some one thousand or two thousand could be quartered here. A sufficient excuse also exists in the fact that the four regiments called for from this State cannot be had. As the arms of this arsenal are the main object of attack here, it might be well for Governor Yates to make requisition for a large supply of arms, and get them shipped from here to Springfield.*

N. LYON, Captain, Second Infantry, Commanding.

* See also Yates and others to President Lincoln, April 17, in Vol. 1, 3d Series.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., April 18, 1861.

Capt. N. LYON, Second Infantry, Commanding Troops, Saint Louis Arsenal, Mo.

SIR: The department commander deems it expedient to direct that no patrols be sent outside of the arsenal limits until otherwise ordered by him. The department commander further orders that none of the five thousand stands of arms recently placed at your disposal, or of the equipments and ammunition for the same, be issued without his sanction.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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ON THE ROAD To FORT WASHITA, April 18, 1861.

Capt. S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department West:

CAPTAIN: The staff officers at this place tell me that a year’s supply for the troops in this district is expected around by the Arkansas River. I beg to call attention to the possibility of their being stopped on the way. You will receive the information before I can at Washita, and the circumstance will no doubt suggest to the general commanding the necessity of making arrangements to supply us overland, and giving directions which would authorize me to withdraw the troops towards Missouri to some point where it will be convenient to do so.

The troops are now supplied to the 31st of May only.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. EMORY, Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry.

[Indorsement.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., April 24, 1861.

Respectfully forwarded, in the absence of a department commander, to the headquarters of the Army, in connection with a copy of a letter herewith from Capt. W. W. Burns, C. S. at Fort Smith, in reference to the supplies within alluded to.* The stores in question were shipped from Saint Louis the 12th and 13th of the present month. It is known that a portion of them reached Napoleon, Ark., in safety.

Respectfully,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* See report No. 3, p. 647.

s

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EAST SAINT LOUIS, April 19, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON:

Dispatches for U. S. officers at Saint Louis should be addressed to East Saint Louis by the way of Terre Haute. Their contents will then be perfectly safe as far as all western points are concerned. Notify {p.669} other members of the Cabinet, and ascertain yourself about Baltimore and Washington offices. Send order by telegraph at once for mustering men into service to Capt. N. Lyon. It will surely then be executed, and we will fill your requisition in two days. Relieve Hagner. Answer immediately.

FRANK P. BLAIR, JR.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, April 20, 1861.

His Excellency Governor YATES, Springfield, Ill.:

DEAR SIR: Please send two or three regiments of your quota of Militia to support the garrison of the Saint Louis Arsenal, and to receive their arms and accouterments there. The commander of that arsenal will also have instructions from me to issue those arms and accouterments, and ten thousand more to such agent as your excellency may appoint, for which extra arms and accouterments the State of Illinois will be held responsible to this Government.

Very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, April 20, 1861.

To the COMMANDER OF THE ARSENAL at Saint Louis:

SIR: Two or three regiments of the Illinois militia recently called for by the President will present themselves to you, to assist in the defense of the Saint Louis Arsenal. Equip them at once with arms, accouterments, and ammunition, and if any part of this re-enforcement cannot be accommodated with quarters in the arsenal, let that part be sent to Jefferson Barracks, if that can be done without hazard to the arsenal. You will, moreover, issue ten thousand additional stand of arms (arms and accouterments) to the authorized agent or agents of his excellency the governor of Illinois, with a corresponding amount of ammunition.

Respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, April 21, 1861.

Brig. Gen. W. S. HARNEY, Commanding Department of the West, Saint Louis, Mo.:

GENERAL: I am directed by the Secretary of War to say that you are hereby relieved from the command of the Department of the West,* which will devolve upon the senior officer in the department, and you will repair to this city and report to the General-in-Chief.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

* Revoked by Special Orders No. 128, A. G. O., May 8, 1861.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Washington, April 21, 1861.

Capt. N. LYON, Second Infantry, East Saint Louis:

General Harney has this day been relieved from his command. The Secretary of War directs that you immediately execute the order previously given to arm the loyal citizens, to protect the public property, and execute the laws. Muster four regiments into the service.

L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, MO., April 22, 1861.

Hon. JOHN A. BROWNLEE, President of Board of Police Commissioners, City of Saint Louis, Mo.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st instant, acquainting me with certain resolutions of the board of police commissioners of this city.*

In answer to the first resolution, I respectfully state that some twenty-four hours before the receipt of your communication I had decided to take up my quarters temporarily at the arsenal. With regard to the second, third, and fourth resolutions of the board, I can only say that in the issue of arms from the Saint Louis Arsenal and in the reception of volunteers into the service of the United States I must be governed solely by the instruction that may be sent to me from the War Department touching those subjects.

In conclusion, I beg leave to add that it is my sincere desire to prevent any collision between the troops of the State of Missouri and the forces of the United States at this point.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. S. HARNEY, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, MO., April 22, 1861.

Capt. W. STEELE, Second Dragoons, Commanding Fort Leavenworth, Kans.:

SIR: Your telegram of the 20th instant, stating that, in consequence of information of organizations to take the Leavenworth Arsenal and to allay excitement, you had accepted temporarily the services of a company of volunteers, was duly received and laid before the department commander, who approves the proceeding reported by you.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 9.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST, Saint Louis, Mo., April 23, 1861.

In compliance with instructions which have been received from the Adjutant-General’s Office, Under date of April 21, 1861, Brig. Gen. W. {p.671} S. Harney hereby relinquishes command of the Department of the West.

By order of Brigadier-General Harney:

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Not found.

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APRIL 27, 1861.

General CAMERON, Secretary of War:

DEAR GENERAL: I send inclosed for your information three letters just received from Saint Louis. The writers were not aware of some important measures for their safety which you have already taken. A great handle is made (and with wonderful success) of the false idea that the efforts of the administration are directed not to national defense, but to the subjugation of the South. All this does but impose upon us the more stringent necessity to make sure of Saint Louis and Cairo. The fact is indisputable. The how is not for me, and I do not choose to trouble you with details. I beg pardon for so often obtruding myself upon you in regard to this particular subject, but my anxiety about it is extreme.

Your friend and obedient servant,

EDW. BATES.

[Inclosures.]

SAINT LOUIS, April 22, 1861.

DEAR SIR: Permit me respectfully to express an idea in relation to our adverse circumstances, as a nation, referring, however, more particularly to the circumstances of the times in Missouri. I beg leave to state that treason and revolt are becoming rampant in Missouri, and even in Saint Louis. Rumors of the Government sending twenty-five thousand men from other States to protect the arsenal here have produced immense excitement, and if such order should be issued I should apprehend much danger would arise, and perhaps the State would be led into the vortex of secessionism. I therefore suggest, with all deference, that if Major Anderson be sent here, and a portion of the Regular Army, as they arrive from the West, be placed under his command, all excitement would subside, and our State be preserved in the Union and under “our fathers’ flag.” The Saint Louis Republican of this morning, in an editorial article, thinks there is no danger to the public property to be apprehended, provided no increased irritating causes may arise. I fear nevertheless that there are secret associations actively employed here to take advantage of any and every occasion which may arise in order to impel the State from the Union. No doubt such persons and associations are regardless of human life, and under the influence of disorganizing and, I may say, satanic passions. Every true patriot here is endeavoring to use his influence to preserve our institutions and to regard the allegiance we owe to the General Government, in the hope that when Congress is convened some plan may be adopted to calm and bring into order and reinstate fraternal good feeling in our convulsed country. I pray to the great Ruler of all, that His gracious Spirit may guide our rulers to wise and kind counsels and decisions.

It appears that Mr. Howard has been appointed collector of the customs at Saint Louis. While I should have preferred Capt. Barton Able, yet it is a matter of congratulation that, the infidel Boernstein has not been appointed. I regret, too, the appointment of Dr. Hammer as physi- {p.672} cian for the marine hospital, for he is also an avowed infidel. Permit me, in conclusion, to earnestly recommend a good man, and one who has been most actively devoted to your party, for appointment to some good office, such as paymaster in the Army. He has lost his situation as secretary of the school board purely on account of his Republican partyism. Personally nine-tenths of the members of the board would have voted for his re-election were he not objectionable as a member and leader of the “Wide Awakes.” He is, I think, a most trustworthy man, faithful to all his engagements. I have hastily written the foregoing amidst the pressure of several cases.

Most respectfully and truly, your obedient servant,

W. W. GREENE.

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SAINT LOUIS, April 22, 1861.

Hon. EDWARD BATES:

My DEAR OLD FRIEND: I have this moment returned from a visit to Captain Lyon at the arsenal. I find matters there in confusion as to the command, and that the force is inadequate to the defense of the place. It seems Captain Lyon is in command of the troops, and Major Hagner of the ordnance; that General Harney has to be in many matters consulted. I think this should be remedied at once, by placing somebody in the supreme command in all respects.

Captain Lyon has only about three hundred and sixty men in all, and of these about thirty are sick and thirty others are prisoners. The walls are long, and cannot be lined with so few men. Captain Lyon has received no authority to accept and arm volunteers. There are plenty of good men in the city, ready and anxious to volunteer at once. This should be attended to immediately.

The secessionists here have changed their tactics completely. Such is the excitement created here by the calling out of the militia, that they are confident the people of this State will vote her out of the Union, and they have good grounds to think so. They are, therefore, for leaving everything to the people, and committing no violence. They have substituted the false charge that Mr. Lincoln intends to subjugate the South in lieu of their own lawless acts, and have suddenly become the most law-abiding citizens. If the State goes out, they expect the public property belonging to the United States to pass ipso facto to them. This is my own inference as to their plans, but I think it is correct.

Captain Lyon agrees with me that both the arsenal and barracks are untenable as military positions. It therefore requires a large force to maintain the rights of the Government. To send the militia from any non-slaveholding State would be in my opinion most injudicious. It, would inflame the popular mind to a very dangerous degree. What I propose and earnestly recommend is to enroll volunteers of this State, purging them all with an oath, to the number of three, four, or five thousand men. This number can be, easily obtained if it be understood they are not to leave the State. It would place Saint Louis in the hands of the Union men, and thus give them courage, which they now lack, and it could excite but little jealousy. It would also show that there were Union men in Missouri, which is important at this time. The Government would lose nothing in permitting them to remain here, for I think they should be kept here at all events. They would not lose their citizenship by being enrolled. There is much talk in certain quarters of “superseding” the convention, and we may need all our citizens here.

Permit me also to suggest that it would be well to quietly remove a {p.673} great portion of the arms and munitions of war now at the barracks to Cairo, with the avowed purpose of arming the troops to be there mustered into the service. One great point to be gained by the secessionists in capturing the arsenal is to get the arms for the State, which is now almost wholly without arms of any kind. I will be here ten days or perhaps two weeks, and any service I can render the Government will be cheerfully done.

Your sincere friend,

C. GIBSON.

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SAINT LOUIS, April 24, 1861.

Hon. EDWARD BATES, Washington City:

DEAR SIR: The trying times in which we find ourselves demand that every lover of his country and constitutional liberty should speak out, and in this communication I desire to state my views and offer a few suggestions. I am in hopes that the administration will not desert us in the hour of peril, and allow the Union men in this city to be bound hand and foot by our secession governor and his minute-men. There is a desire on his part to get the State in antagonism to the Federal authorities by means, first, of an arming of our State, and then when all is ready we will be turned over to the South. I desire to call your attention to the latter clause of the inclosed slip, taken from the Evening News of yesterday. It shows the immense importance of this city in the coming contest, and demonstrates to me that it should be in the possession of the. Government represented by the old flag. For this purpose I would suggest that the Western volunteers be rendezvoused at their respective capitals, which are in connection with Saint Louis by rail, and at a given time they be sent to Alton, and moved to Saint Charles, in our own State. By this means we have communication cut a portion of this off by the river and North Missouri Railroad. Then a command can be moved to the Maramec River at Glencoe, and the communication is cut off by the Pacific Railroad; and then with the barracks, which are in our possession, we are masters of the position, with free intercourse with Saint Louis. Then we have a rallying-point for our Union men in this State. We of Saint Louis have, borne the burden and heat of the day, and we now ask that a sufficient force for our protection be sent to our city. With this city in the possession of the United States forces the State cannot be armed, and we are saved to the Union. These are the sentiments of all the unconditional men that I have spoken to, and I offer them for what they are worth.

With respect, I remain, your friend,

CHARLES WIGGINS.

[Inclosure.]

[From the Evening News. April 23, 1861.]

OUR LEGISLATURE.

Governor Jackson has ordered the legislature of Missouri to convene in extra session on next Thursday week, the 2d of May, “for the purpose of enacting such laws and adopting such measures as may be deemed necessary and proper for the more perfect organization and equipment of the militia of this State, and to raise the money and such other means as may be required to place the State in a proper attitude of defense.”

In assembling in this extra session, the legislature, we trust, will exhibit less of bigoted partisanism and a livelier regard for the true {p.674} interests of the State than it manifested at the last session. This hour of gloom and danger is no time for flippancy or trifling-no time for displays of personal vanity or partisan spite-no time for the exhibition of sectional bigotry and malevolence. The common welfare and the interests of our State-nay, the very existence of our beloved commonwealth-may be at stake, and the crisis demands not only the highest human wisdom, but the greatest forbearance and concession.

We want no hostility between the city and the remainder of the State. The interests of the two are one, and the effort for the maintenance of those interests should be united. Acting separately, we would only fall a prey to enemies. Acting together, we can defend our rights, maintain our individuality, and assert a dignity which our enemies as well as our friends will be bound to respect.

The sentiment in the city is in favor of neutrality, and this is the policy demanded by the interests of the State. If the legislature resolves to arm the State, let it be understood and declared that it is to be an arming purely and solely in defense of neutrality; an arming in defense or our soil; an arming to protect all Federal property, and to maintain all Federal institutions in the State; an arming for the protection of every citizen, high or low, great or humble, in the enjoyment of his rights.

On such a basis the State and the city, we believe, may act harmoniously together, and acting thus in concert, they may defy all enemies and invaders. The city can furnish money, can cast cannon, can manufacture muskets and cartridges, and provide the munitions of war. It can concentrate the supplies for an army, manufacture clothing for troops, and, with its vast means of transportation, bear an army with all necessary material and supplies to almost any point within the State. All this the city can do, and will do, if it has assurances that its contributions will be used only in legitimate defense, and for the maintenance of peace and the laws.

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ADJUTANT-GENERAL’S OFFICE, Little Book, Ark., April 27, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General Federal Army, Washington City:

SIR: I am directed by his excellency the governor to acknowledge the receipt of Special Orders, No. 106, from War Department at Washington.* That order is based upon the presumption of the State of Arkansas being willing to furnish the quota of troops required of her for the Federal Army-a presumption entirely improbable, and, I can assure you, utterly impossible. Further, I have to inform you that I had the honor on Tuesday night, April 23, 1861, at Fort Smith, to order the seizure of the person of Maj. R. C. Gatlin, Fifth Infantry, as prisoner of war, and who is now at large on parole of honor not to serve against the State of Arkansas or the Southern Confederacy.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDMUND BURGEVIN, Adjutant-General of Arkansas.

* Of April 15, making provision for mustering in the quota of Arkansas under the President’s call for militia.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, April 30, 1861.

Capt. NATHANIEL LYON, Commanding Department of the West:

SIR: The President of the United States directs that you enroll in the military service of the United States the loyal citizens of Saint Louis and vicinity, not exceeding with those heretofore enlisted, ten thousand in number, for the purpose of maintaining the authority of the United States; for the protection of the peaceable inhabitants of Missouri; and you will, if deemed necessary for that purpose by yourself and by Messrs. Oliver T. Filly, John How, James O. Broadhead, Samuel T. Glover, J. Wilzie, and Francis P. Blair, jr., proclaim martial law in the city of Saint Louis.

The additional force hereby authorized shall be discharged, in part or in whole, if enlisted, ass soon as it appears to you and the gentlemen above named that there is no danger of an attempt on the part of the enemies of the Government to take military possession of the city of Saint Louis or put the city in the control of a combination against the Government of the United States; and whilst such additional force remains in the service the same shall be governed by the Rules and Articles of War, and such special regulations as you may prescribe. I shall like the force heretofore directed to be enrolled to be under your command.

The arms and other military stores in the Saint Louis Arsenal not needed for the forces of the United States in Missouri must be removed to Springfield, or some other safe place of deposit in the State of Illinois, as speedily as practicable, by the ordnance officer in charge at Saint Louis.

[Indorsements.]

It is revolutionary times, and therefore I do not object to the irregularity of this.

W. S.

Approved, April 30, 1861.

A. LINCOLN.

Colonel Thomas will make this order.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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SAINT LOUIS ARSENAL, April 30, 1861.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington:

SIR: I am accepting all the troops that offer, and at this time some 3,300 have offered, and 3,082 are armed. Deeming the emergencies pressing, and fully requiring the Government to avail itself of all available resources, I shall still accept these volunteers till countermanding orders are received. This is unavoidable, both because the Government needs the services of these men, and because of the fear of State tyranny to force them into the secession ranks. No doubt 10,000 men can be raised here, and indications are that they will be needed, sooner or later, to meet the determined purpose of the State authorities to overturn the authority of the General Government, which, if true to herself, can maintain it here.

I suffer much the want of proper facilities. I am often in want of means to send a reliable messenger speedily to some point in the Vicinity, and should have some horses for the purpose. The State is doubtless {p.676} getting ready to attack Government troops with artillery. The Government should put the artillery here in condition for active service, and some fifty horses are needed at once. I have appointed a citizen to act as quartermaster and commissary, but, as before reported, he has no funds at his command, though this difficulty is somewhat avoided by referring certified accounts to Major McKinstry, but the want of experience in these matters on the part of this appointee is badly felt. A little experience, however, may measurably remove this difficulty.

Camp equipage much needed. Every building is occupied to its greatest capacity, and many are now out of doors. I have sent some six hundred to the marine hospital, and three other volunteer companies, together with Captain Totten’s company (F, Second Artillery), to occupy buildings outside the arsenal, hired for this purpose, both to give them shelter and occupy commanding positions, which the secessionists had intended to occupy themselves, and upon which they openly avowed they would plant siege batteries to reduce this place. This exasperates them, and has given rise to a singular correspondence, which, when convenient, I will lay before the War Department. Unless otherwise ordered, I shall proceed to execute the foregoing views, so far as in my power, towards securing the Government interests here. An armed steamer is needed to ply from Alton to Cairo and in connection with this place. As soon as possible troops will occupy Jefferson Barracks, but in view of impending emergencies this will be but temporarily.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

N. LYON, Captain, Second Infantry, Commanding.

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HDQRS. FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANS., April 30, 1861.

Lieut. Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Headquarters Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I arrived at this post with my headquarters, band, E and F companies of the Second Infantry, from Fort Kearney on yesterday, having marched from Fort Kearney to Omaha in eight days and a half, a distance of one hundred and eighty-five miles, crossing by Deep Ford the Platte, and by ferry the Pawnee Loup Fork; the command consisting of one colonel, one adjutant, one regimental quartermaster, one captain, two first lieutenants, and one hundred and sixty-one rank and file.

I was delayed at Omaha four days waiting the arrival of a boat. While there I received telegraphic dispatches that the citizens at Saint Joseph intended to obstruct my passing, and also to prevent the command from Fort Randall from passing. I also was shown a dispatch from the president of the Saint Joe and Hannibal Railroad that, that command could not pass over that road without meeting with resistance, and that for fear of injury to the road he declined to transport them. Hearing at this time General Harney had left Saint Louis and the department, I immediately assumed the authority to issue to the commander of the troops from Randall the inclosed order, No. 1, and wrote to him the inclosed communication, which I hope will meet the approval of the Lieutenant-General commanding the Army.

I also made arrangement with a patriotic merchant at Omaha, by the name of McCormick, to hire wagons, advance subsistence, and such funds as may be required for this command, taking sight drafts on the {p.677} commissary and quartermaster at Saint Louis, Mo. Please give orders to have these drafts met.

The distance from Omaha to Marengo, where the railroad terminates, is one hundred and seventy-five miles, and which ought to be marched in eight days. The hire of the wagons will be from $3.50 to $4 per day.

On descending the Missouri the captain of the steamer received a dispatch from the owner or agent of the line at Brownsville that the military at Saint Joe consisted of a battery of four cannon and about two hundred armed infantry; that if I attempted to pass Saint Joe I would be fired on and the boat injured; that he must land the troops at Belmont, five miles above, and I could march four miles to Palermo, nine miles below Saint Joe. I determined to do so to save the boat, but on arriving at Belmont an express arrived from the agent that “the Missouri troops had relinquished the idea of attacking me, and that I would be permitted to pass unmolested,” which I did without any demonstration whatever, having my men formed, muskets loaded, bayonets fixed, ready for any emergency.

On my arrival at this post I found Captain Steele, Second Dragoons, had taken into service parts of three volunteer companies from Leavenworth City, under Captains McCook, Cozzens, and Clayton, numbering one hundred and twenty, rank and file. These troops I shall discharge to-day, believing my force at present sufficient to guard the public property at this post against any rabble or detached secessionists formed or forming in this vicinity.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. S. MILES, Colonel Second Infantry, Commanding.

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ALBANY, May 1, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

DEAR SIR: I wish to call your attention to certain matters connected with the affairs of the State of Missouri, and particularly as regards the arsenal at Saint Louis.

1st. There seems but very little doubt at the present time, particularly in Illinois, as regards the secession of the State of Missouri from the Union. The secession movement in Northern Missouri and along the line of the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad is scarcely stronger in any Southern State.

2d. Judging from what has been done elsewhere by the various seceding States, one of the first acts of secession by Missouri would be the seizure of the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad, the interruption, if not the entire suppression, of Government and free State transportation and travel over it, and, if the contest continues, in the entire confiscation of the road and its property, as far as concerns Northern and Eastern interests.

3d. I also think that it is of vital importance to the Government that the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad be preserved to its owners, and that its free and uninterrupted use be maintained at all times and at all hazards. It furnishes the only accessible and speedy route by which the Government can communicate with Kansas, Nebraska, and Utah, or with its military posts along the Western and Northwestern frontier to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and, if allowed to fall into and remain in the hands of an enemy, it is easy to see how difficult and well-nigh impossible in such an emergency it would be for the Government to pre- {p.678} serve its Western Territories and military posts, for the danger to which they would be exposed would indeed be serious, and they could only be supported at immense expense and loss both of time and of means.

4th. Quincy, in Illinois, which from the course of the Mississippi River projects into the Missouri at a distance of sixty-five miles west of Saint Louis, presents immense advantages as a military post, and as such should be occupied by the Government. By merely looking at the map you can see what an important position is Quincy. It is the key to Northern Missouri, Kansas, Utah, Nebraska, California, and Oregon. Missouri once against the Federal Government, the only present feasible, and expeditious road by which troops, munitions, provisions, transportation, and general travel can pass is the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad, over Northern Missouri, between those Western sections and the country east of the Mississippi River. The forces to be placed at Quincy should be placed there at once, to keep open the communication by way of the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad.

5th. To further strengthen the Government position at Quincy as a key to the Western section, I should strong urge the removal of the arsenal now at Saint Louis to Quincy. The disadvantages of the present locality are manifest. Situated in what may soon be a disaffected country, it is at any moment liable to attack, and even at the present moment has been threatened. Saint Louis in itself commands nothing-is in reality a key to nothing. The site of the arsenal is disadvantageous, as it can readily be commanded from adjacent heights, and its original location was probably on account of its vicinity to a large city, whence supplies could easily be obtained. The present difficulties show that such a vicinity for Federal property only renders more liable to attack. As to the supplies, they are in a great degree derived from Illinois, and not a small part of them from that part of Illinois which finds its outlets at Quincy.

At Quincy, with its eighteen thousand inhabitants, and to which one of the finest sections of the Western country is tributary, an arsenal could be furnished in all abundance, and cheaper than at Saint Louis. But the great public commendation for the establishment of an arsenal there is that it could and should be made an all-important auxiliary in securing the command of this very much needed and useful key to our Western communication. The facilities possessed by the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad for the transportation of munitions of war, troops, &c., are very great, and the speed and easiness of communication by that route with the Western posts cannot be too much valued. I would strongly urge upon you the necessity of your immediate attention to this matter, as I deem the change of the arsenal from Saint Louis to Quincy and the protection and preservation of the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad as of immense importance to the country.

I remain, yours, very truly,

ERASTUS CORNING.

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WASHINGTON, May 2, 1861.

Hon. SECRETARY OF WAR:

SIR: Mr. J. L. Bittinger, recently appointed postmaster at Saint Joseph, Mo., arrived here yesterday, and gave me information in regard to secession movements in that State, which I take the liberty of conveying to you.

He states that while descending the Missouri River be met with a Mr. Jeff. Thompson, who informed him, not supposing that he was in favor {p.679} of the Union, that Lieutenant Cooke, now at Fort Leavenworth, had told him (Thompson) confidentially that the dragoons stationed at that post had pledged themselves to co-operate with the secessionists in whatever schemes they might determine upon, and he remarked that he himself-their commander-intended to head them in the project. Lieutenant Cooke further observed that it was his determination, in case Missouri seceded, to do all he could to transfer the Government property in his charge to the State authorities, and in the event that Missouri did not secede, that he would resign his commission and offer his services to the South.

Mr. Bittinger says that the disunionists in Saint Joseph are organized, have possessed themselves of Government arms, and are meditating the capture of Fort Leavenworth. There are now in Saint Joseph, he states, three hundred and seventy-four Union men, who form four companies, which will be placed at the disposal of the Federal administration. They have no arms, however, although they have applied for some-to Major Van Vliet, I believe; but they were refused on the ground that the persons applying had no order from the Secretary of War. The Union volunteers of Saint Joseph beg that you will give them such written authority as will enable them to procure the necessary arms and equipments without any further delay.

Having fulfilled what I deem my duty in imparting to you the above information, I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

JOHN R. ATKINSON.

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SAINT LOUIS, May 4, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War:

DEAR SIR: Our regiments have been mustered into service now nearly two weeks, and requisitions have been sent to Philadelphia and other points for accouterments, blankets, haversacks, tents, clothing, and other articles absolutely necessary for the health, comfort, and efficiency of the men, and as yet we have not even received a reply. Our men have enrolled under the most trying circumstances, in the very face of armed enemies, with no State government to back us and furnish us with necessaries until the ordinary machinery of the Federal Government can be brought to our assistance, nor a city government or rich men in a unanimously loyal community to advance money for our assistance and comfort, as is the case with all the regiments now being raised in the free States. We have, by being mustered into service and standing under arms naked and without clothing, saved millions of dollars of Government property, chiefly munitions of war, and as soon as we shall be suitably equipped are ready to take the field and confront the enemies of the Government wherever it may be your pleasure to send us. Under these circumstances I appeal to you to give the necessary orders on the quartermasters at Philadelphia and at other points to fill the requisitions which I send you by this messenger to furnish the quartermaster at this post with the funds necessary to maintain the troops here in comfort so long as it shall be your pleasure to keep them at this post.

I understand that some of the accouterments usually furnished by the Ordnance Department, such as cartridge boxes and bayonet scabbards, and some other small military stores, such as buttons, ordered by the officers of the regiments on private account, have been seized by parties in Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. It is bad enough to face our enemies in this outpost of danger in the condition we find ourselves, but it is {p.680} too bad to be robbed by our friends. If you can apply any corrective to this I shall feel under great and lasting obligations.

Respectfully,

FRANK P. BLAIR, JR.

P. S.–The service cannot be anticipated by requisitions. Authority must be given to the quartermaster to draw for money, say for $100,000. McKinstry is heartily disposed to do all that he can for the maintenance of the Government, and there is no ground for the nonsense that has been put afloat by those who want his position here.

Respectfully,

FRANK P. BLAIR, JR.

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SAINT LOUIS, MO., May 4, 1861.

General G. B. MCCLELLAN, Cleveland, Ohio

Your dispatch received. No order sent from here to Emory to fall back on Leavenworth. Probably the order went direct from Washington. The purport of your dispatch will be forwarded by telegraph to Army headquarters.

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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INDIANAPOLIS, IND., May 6, 1861.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War :

I have intelligence from Col. F. P. Blair and his aide, F. A. Dick, of Saint Louis, that it is quite probable some of the forces of Indiana may be required in Saint Louis at the time of the encampment of the State troops there. Shall I observe the order of Colonel Blair in sending troops to Saint Louis?

Answer immediately.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. P. MORTON.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, May 6, 1861.

Gov. O. P. MORTON, Indianapolis:

Obey no order from Mr. Blair, or any one else, other than officer duly authorized to give orders.

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, May 9, 1861.

Col. FRANK P. BLAIR, Jr., Saint Louis:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th instant, and beg leave, in reply, to say that it is impracticable for this Department to give authority to the quartermaster at Saint Louis to draw money at his pleasure. It is impossible, whatever may be the disposition of the Department, to place $100,000 at his disposal in the manner you suggest.

Very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

{p.681}

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, May 9, 1861.

Col. FRANK P. BLAIR, Jr., Saint Louis:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th instant, containing your requisitions on the Ordnance Bureau and the Quartermaster-General, and have referred those requisitions to the proper bureaus for their action and reply, from each of which you will hear on the subject.

The aggregate of the quota of militia called out from Missouri under the first proclamation of the President is 3,123 men. To arm and equip that number orders have already been issued to the United States mustering officers to make requisitions from the arsenals at Saint Louis and Pittsburgh. So also camp and garrison equipage have already been ordered to be furnished for that number of men. Fatigue clothing of the description now given to volunteers in the service here can be provided in a short time if desired, or, at all events, as soon as the troops in this city and those under the command of Generals Patterson and Butler are supplied. It will be impossible to furnish clothing to your troops promptly. In New York and Pennsylvania their troops have either furnished themselves or been furnished, relying for reimbursement of the expenditure hereafter by the General Government.

Very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, May 9, 1861.

Hon. ERASTUS CORNING, Albany:

DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of May 1, and beg to express to you the thanks of this Department for its valuable suggestions. I trust you will make free at all times in communicating any information important for this Department to know.

I have referred your letter to General Scott for his perusal and consideration, and the subject to which it refers is receiving due consideration.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.

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Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Book (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Corporate Name: United States. War Dept.
Main Title: The War of the Rebellion:
a compilation of the official records of the
Union and Confederate armies.
Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War
by Robert N. Scott.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1880-1900.
Published/Created: Washington : Government Pub. Off., 1880-1901 (70 v. in 128).
Description: 70 v. in 128. 24 cm.
Subjects: United States. Army--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Sources.
Confederate States of America. Army--History--Sources.
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Regimental histories.
LC Classification: E464 .U6