Home Store Products Research Design Strategy Support News
 Research ACW US War Dept. Official Records HTML Ser. I, Vol. 1, Ch. I–Reports.



December 20, 1860-April 14, 1861.
(Secession, Fort Sumter)


December 20, 1860.– Ordinance of secession adopted by the South Carolina Convention.
26, 1860.– United States troops, under command Of Major Anderson, transferred from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter.
27, 1860.– Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie seized by the State troops.
30, 1860.– United States Arsenal at Charleston seized by the State troops.
January 2, 1861.– Fort Johnson seized by the State troops.
5, 1861.– First expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor.
9, 1861.– Steamship Star of the West fired upon by the State troops.
11, 1861.– Surrender of Fort Sumter demanded of Major Anderson by the governor of South Carolina and refused. *
March 1, 1861.– The Government of the Confederate States assumes control of military affairs at Charleston.
3, 1861.– Brig. Gen. G. T. Beauregard, C. S. Army, assumes command at Charleston.
April 3, 1861.– Schooner Rhoda H. Shannon fired upon by the Confederate batteries.
10, 1861.– Second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor.
11, 1861.– Evacuation of Fort Sumter demanded by General Beauregard.
12-14, 1861.– Bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

* No record of this transaction found in the files of the Department; but the demand and refusal were published about the time stated, and that demand is referred to in Foster to Totten, January 12, and in Holt to Hayne, February 6, 1861. See Correspondence and Orders,” post.–COMPILER.


No. 1.–Maj. Robert Anderson, First U. S. Artillery, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie.
No. 2.–Extracts from annual report of Capt. John G. Foster, U. S. Corps of Engineers, relating to the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, the seizure of Castle Pinckney and Fort Johnson, and operations at Fort Sumter.
No. 3.–Ordnance Storekeeper F. C. Humphreys, U. S. Army, of the seizure of Charleston Arsenal, and correspondence.
No. 4.–Lieut. Charles R. Woods, Ninth U. S. Infantry, of first expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.
No. 5.–Capt. G. V. Fox, U. S. agent, of second expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.
No. 6.–Maj. Robert Anderson, First Artillery, commanding U. S. troops. **
No. 7.–Engineer journal kept by Capt. John G. Foster, U. S. Corps of Engineers. **
No. 8.–Brig. Gen. G. T. Beauregard, C. S. Army, commanding Confederate troops. **
No. 9.–Brig. Gen. R. G. M. Dunovant, South Carolina Army.
No. 10.–Brig. Gen. James Simons, South Carolina Army.
No. 11.–Lieut. Col. R. S. Ripley, South Carolina Army.
No. 12.–Lieut. Col. Wilmot G. De Saussure, South Carolina Army,
No. 13.–Maj. P. F. Stevens, South Carolina Army.
No. 14.–Capt. R. Martin, South Carolina Army.
No. 15.–Capt. William Butler, South Carolina Army.
No. 16.–Capt. W. R. Calhoun, commanding Sumter battery, Fort Moultrie.
No. 17.–Capt. J. H. Hallonquist, commanding mortar and enfilading batteries.
No. 18.–Lieut. Thomas M. Wagner, South Carolina Army.
No. 19.–Lieut. Alfred Rhett, South Carolina Army.
No. 20.–Lieut. Jacob Valentine, South Carolina Army.
No. 21.–Capt. G. B. Cuthbert, South Carolina Infantry.
No. 22.–Capt. J. Gadsden King, South Carolina Militia.
No. 23.–Lieut. J. E. McP. Washington, South Carolina Army.
No. 24.–Lieut. C. W. Parker, South Carolina Army.
No. 25.–Joint reports of James Chesnut, jr., Lieut. Col. A. R. Chisolm, Capt. S. D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp.
No. 26.–Joint reports of Maj. D. R. Jones, assistant adjutant-general; and Col. Charles Allston, jr., Commander H. J. Hartstene (C. S. Navy), and Messrs. William Porcher Miles and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp.
No. 27.–Surg. Gen. R. W. Gibbes, South Carolina Army.
No. 28.–Commander H. J. Hartstene, C. S. Navy.

* Of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter, when not otherwise indicated.

** See also “Correspondence and Orders,” post.

No. 1.

Reports of Maj. Robert Anderson, U. S. Army, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, S. C.

No. 11.]

FORT SUMTER S. C., December 26, 1860-8 p.m. (Received A. G. O., December 29.)

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I have just completed, by the blessing of God, the removal to this fort of all of my garrison, except the surgeon, four non-commissioned officers, and seven men. We have one years supply of hospital stores and about four months’ supply of provisions for my command. I left orders to have all the guns at Fort Moultrie spiked, and the carriages of the 32-pounders, which are old, destroyed. I have sent orders to Captain Foster, who remains at Fort Moultrie, to destroy all the ammunition which he cannot send over. The step which I have taken was, in my opinion, necessary to prevent the effusion of blood.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Col. S. COOPER, Adjutant-General.



WAR DEPARTMENT, Adjutant-General’s Office, December 27, 1860.

Major ANDERSON, Fort Moultrie:

Intelligence has reached here this morning that you have abandoned Fort Moultrie, spiked your guns, burned the carriages, and gone to Fort Sumter. It is not believed, because there is no order for any such movement. Explain the meaning of this report.

J. B. FLOYD, Secretary of War.


CHARLESTON, December 27, 1860.

Hon. J. B. FLOYD, Secretary of War:

The telegram is correct. I abandoned Fort Moultrie because I was certain that if attacked my men must have been sacrificed, and the command of the harbor lost. I spiked the guns and destroyed the carriages to keep the guns from being used against us.

If attacked, the garrison would never have surrendered without a fight.

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery.


No. 12.]

FORT SUMTER, S. C., December 27, 1860. (Received A. G. O., December 31.)

COLONEL: I had the honor to reply this afternoon to the telegram of the honorable Secretary of War in reference to the abandonment of Fort Moultrie. In addition to the reasons given in my telegram and in my letter of last night, I will add as my opinion that many things convinced me that the authorities of the State designed to proceed to a hostile act. Under this impression I could not hesitate that it was my solemn duty to move my command from a fort which we could not probably have held longer than forty-eight or sixty hours, to this one, where my power of resistance is increased to a very great degree. The governor of this State sent down one of his aides to-day and demanded, courteously, but peremptorily,” that I should return my command to Fort Moultrie. I replied that. I could not and would not do so. He stated that when the governor came into office he found that there was an understanding between his predecessor and the President that no re-enforcements were to be sent to any of these forts, and particularly to this one, and that I had violated this agreement by having re-enforced this fort. I remarked that I had not re-enforced this command, but that I had merely transferred my garrison from one fort to another, and that, as the commander of this harbor, I had a right to move my men into any fort I deemed proper. I told him that the removal was made on my own responsibility, and that I did it because we were in a position that we could not defend, and also under the firm belief that it was the best means of preventing bloodshed. This afternoon an armed steamer, one of two which have been watching these two forts, between which they have been passing to and fro or anchored for the last ten nights, took possession by escalade of Castle Pinckney. Lieutenant Meade made no resistance. He is with us to-night. They also {p.4} took possession to-night of Fort Moultrie, from which I withdrew the remainder of my men this afternoon, leaving the fort in charge of the overseer of the men employed by the Engineer Department. We have left about one month’s and a half of provisions in that fort; also some wood and coal and a small quantity of ammunition. We are engaged here to-day in mounting guns and in closing up some of the openings for the embrasures-temporarily closed by light boards, but which would offer but slight resistance to persons seeking entrance. If the workmen return to their work, which I doubt, we shall be enabled in three or four days to have a sufficient number of our guns mounted, and be ready for anything that may occur.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Col. S. COOPER, Adjutant-General.


No. 2.

Extracts from annual report (October 1, 1861) of Capt. John G. Foster, U. S. Corps of Engineers.


Castle Pinckney, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.–Some necessary repairs were commenced upon this work in December, 1860, but before these were completed the fort was seized by the troops of the State of South Carolina, on the 27th of December.

Lieut. R. K. Meade, Corps of Engineers, who was in the immediate charge, was suffered to leave with the workmen; but all the public property in the fort was taken possession of, including the mess property and one month’s provisions for the Engineer force. The armament of the fort was all mounted, except two or three guns on the barbette tier and one 42-pounder in the casemate tier. The carriages were in good order, and pretty good. The magazine was well furnished with implements, and also contained some powder. The fort was repaired three years ago, and was generally in excellent condition, one of the cisterns only wanting repairs.

Fort Johnson, Charleston, South Carolina.–The barracks and quarters were in such bad order as to be almost uninhabitable, and a large sum would be needed to repair them. The position was taken possession of by the State troops on the 2d of January, 1861. A small battery of three guns was soon after built, adjoining the barracks.

Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.–Vigorous operations were commenced on this fort in the month of August, 1860, with the view of placing it in a good defensive position as soon as possible. The casemate arches supporting the second tier of guns were all turned; the granite flagging for the second tier was laid on the right face of the work; the floors laid, and the iron stairways put up, in the east barracks; the traverse circles of the first tier of guns reset; the bluestone flagging laid in all the guns’ rooms of the right and left faces of the first tier; and the construction of the embrasures of the second tier commenced at the time the fort was occupied by Major Anderson’s command, on the 26th of December, 1860. The fears of an immediate attack, and disloyal feelings, induced the greater portion of the Engineer employés to leave at this time. But those that remained, fifty-five in number, {p.5} reduced towards the end of the investment to thirty-five, were made very effective in preparing for a vigorous defense.

The armament of the fort was mounted and supplied with maneuvering implements; machicoulis galleries, splinter-proof shelters, and traverses were constructed; the openings left for the embrasures of the second tier were filled with brick and stone and earth, and those in the gorge with stone and iron and lead concrete; mines were established in the wharf and along the gorge; the parade was cleared, and communications opened to all parts of the fort and through the quarters.

The fort was bombarded on the 12th and 13th of April by the rebels, and evacuated by Major Anderson’s command on the 14th of April. During the bombardment, the officers’ quarters were set on fire by hot shot from the rebel batteries, and they, with the roofs of the barracks, were entirely consumed. The magazines were uninjured by the fire. The bombardment dismounted one gun, disabled two others, and ruined the stair towers and the masonry walls protecting above the parapet. No breach was effected in the walls, and the greatest penetration made by successive shots was twenty-two inches. Nearly all the material that had been obtained to construct the embrasures of the second tier, to flag this tier and the remainder of the first tier, and to finish the barracks was used up in the preparations for defense.

Fort Moultrie, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.–The work of preparing this fort for a vigorous defense commenced in August, 1860, and was diligently prosecuted up to the day of its evacuation, December 26, 1860. In this time the large accumulation of sand, which overtopped the scarp wall on the sea front, was removed to the front and formed into a glacis; a wet ditch, fifteen feet wide, dug around the fort; two flanking caponieres of brick built, to flank with their fire the three water fronts; a bastionet for musketry constructed at the northwest angle; a picket fence built around the fort, bordering the ditch, and protected by a small glacis; merlons constructed on the whole of the east front; communication opened through the quarters, a bridge built, connecting them with the guardhouse, and the latter loopholed for musketry, so as to serve for a citadel.

Means were also furnished to transport Major Anderson’s command, and such public property as could be removed before the occupation of Fort Moultrie by the rebels, to Fort Sumter. Before evacuating the fort, the guns were spiked, the gun carriages on the front looking towards Fort Sumter burned, and the flagstaff cut down. A considerable quantity of Engineer implements and materials were unavoidably left in the fort.

Respectfully submitted.

J. G. FOSTER, Captain, Engineers.


No. 3.

Reports of and correspondence with. Ordnance Storekeeper F. C. Humphreys, U. S. Army, in reference to seizure of Charleston Arsenal.

CHARLESTON, December 28, 1860.

Capt. Wm. MAYNADIER, Ordnance Bureau:

A body of South Carolina military now surround the arsenal, outside, however, of the inclosure, but denying ingress or egress without {p.6} countersign. The officer in command disclaims any intention of occupancy, and the United States flag is undisturbed. I await instructions.


CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S. C., December 29, 1860.

Capt. WM. MAYNADIER, In charge of Ordnance Bureau., Washington, D. C.

SIR: I reported by telegraph on the 28th instant that this arsenal was surrounded by a body of South Carolina militia, and that myself and the command are not allowed to pass in or out without a countersign. Those in authority disclaim any intention of occupying the post, nor do they molest the flag. I asked for instructions, but have received none.

I protest (the disclaimer notwithstanding) that this post is to all intents and purposes in the possession of the South Carolina troops, and also against the indignity offered me as an officer of the United States Army, to say nothing of the annoyance the entire command is subjected to by this measure.

I shall, therefore, unless otherwise instructed from the War Department, make a formal protest against the posting of sentinels around this arsenal, and request that they be removed, which, if denied, I shall consider an occupancy of it by the State, and shall haul down my flag and surrender.

I respectfully submit that such a course is proper, and due to myself and the position I occupy as commanding officer.

Very respectfully, I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

P. C. HUMPHREYS, Military Storekeeper Ordnance, Commanding.


ORDNANCE OFFICE, January 1, 1861.

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

WM. MAYNADIER, Captain of Ordnance.


Abstract from muster-roll of F. C. Humphreys, military storekeeper of ordnance, dated to include the 30th, day of December, 1860.

Present: Brevet Col. Benjamin Huger, who assumed command November 20, by order of the Secretary of War, and who was absent under orders from the Adjutant-General’s Office, dated December 1, 1860, and assumed his former duty at Pikesville Arsenal, by instructions of the Secretary of War, dated December 15, 1860.

F. C. Humphreys, military storekeeper, who resumed command of post December 7, 1860. Fourteen enlisted men.

F. C. HUMPHREYS, Military Storekeeper, U. S. Army.


CHARLESTON, S. C., December 30, 1860.

SIR: This arsenal has to-day been taken by force of arms. What disposition am I to make of my command?


Capt. MAYNADIER, In charge of Ordnance Bureau.



CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S. C., December 31, 1860.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the correspondence relative to the surrender of this post yesterday to the authorities of this State. Trusting that my course may meet the approval of the Department,

I am, sir, very respectfully,

F. C. HUMPHREYS, Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U. S. A.

Capt. WM. MAYNADIER, In charge of Ordnance Bureau, Washington, D. C.


CHARLESTON, December 30, 1860-10 1/2 o’clock a.m.

SIR: I herewith demand an immediate surrender of the U. S. Arsenal at this place and under your charge, and a delivery to me of the keys and contents of the arsenals, magazines, &c.

I am already proceeding to occupy it with a strong armed detachment of troops.

I make the demand in the name of the State of South Carolina, and by virtue of an order from its governor, a copy of which is inclosed.

Very respectfully,

JOHN CUNNINGHAM, Colonel Seventeenth Reg. Inf., S. C. M.

Capt. F. C. HUMPHREYS, Military Storekeeper Ordnance.

HEADQUARTERS, CHARLESTON, S. C., December 29, 1860.

SIR: In the morning, after reporting yourself to Major-General Schneirle, and informing him of this order, you are directed to get from him a detachment of select men, and in the most discreet and forbearing manner you will proceed to the U. S. Arsenal in Charleston, and there demand, in my name, its entire possession, and state distinctly that you do this with a view to prevent any destruction of public property that may occur in the present excited state of the public mind, and also as due to the public safety. You will then proceed to take, in the most systematic manner, a correct inventory of everything in said arsenal, and the exact state of all arms, &c.

You will read this order to Captain Humphreys, who is the United States officer at the arsenal.

I do not apprehend any difficulty in giving up the same, but if refused, then you are to take it, using no more force than may be absolutely necessary, and with the greatest discretion and liberality to Captain Humphreys, who is at perfect liberty to remain in his present quarters as long as it may be agreeable for himself, and he is requested to do so. Report as soon as possible to me.



CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S. C., December 30, 1860.

SIR: I am constrained to comply with your demand for the surrender of this arsenal, from the fact that I have no force for its defense. I do so, however, solemnly protesting against the illegality of this measure in the name of my Government.


I also demand, as a right, that I be allowed to salute my flag, before lowering it, with one gun for each State now in the Union (32), and that my command be allowed to occupy the quarters assigned them until instructions can be obtained from the War Department.

Very respectfully,

F. C. HUMPHREYS, Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U. S. Army.

Col. JOHN CUNNINGHAM, Seventeenth Regt. Inf., S. C. M.


CHARLESTON, S. C., January 1, 1861.

What disposition shall I make of the detachment under my command? We axe very unpleasantly situated here.

F. C. HUMPHREYS, U. S. Army.

Capt. WM. MAYNADIER, Charge of Ordnance Bureau.

ORDNANCE OFFICE, January 2, 1861.

F. C. HUMPHREYS, U. S. Arsenal, Charleston, S. C.:

I want a report in detail of what has occurred; of the present position and condition of your command and property; as regards quarters and other accommodations, freedom of movement, and any statements or views in the matter that you may deem proper for a full understanding.

W. MAYNADIER, Captain of Ordnance.

CHARLESTON ARSENAL, S. C., January 3, 1861.

SIR: I received your dispatch last night and sent a reply by telegraph. I will now proceed to make a detailed report of the facts relative to the surrender of this arsenal, which I should have done before but that my time has been fully occupied in getting proper vouchers for the property recently in my charge.

On Sunday morning last Colonel Cunningham marched a strong detachment of armed men into this arsenal (having several days before entirely surrounded it outside of the inclosure) and demanded the surrender in the name of South Carolina and by order of Governor Pickens. Having no force to make a defense, I surrendered under a protest, and demanded the privilege of saluting my flag before lowering it and of taking it with me, and that the command should occupy the quarters until instructions could be received from the War Department, which was granted.

Soon after, the arsenal and magazine were both opened, and the property has been constantly issued since-arms, ammunition, accouterments, &c.

Myself and men and our families are very unpleasantly situated. There {p.9} are some 200 men here constantly, and we are in actual danger from accident when so many inexperienced persons are at every turn with loaded arms. Our movements are watched and restricted, and I would earnestly request that we may be moved elsewhere. The times are so unsettled that I have not issued to my command this month, either subsistence or fuel-in fact, we have no conveniences for anything, and all is confusion and turmoil.

I understand that all communication with Fort Sumter is cut off, and that a barge with its men from that post has been captured at the city wharf and are held in durance.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

F. C. HUMPHREYS, Military Storekeeper Ordnance, U. S. Army.

Capt. WM. MAYNADIER, In charge of Ordnance Bureau, Washington, D. C.


No. 4.

Reports of Lieut. Charles R. Woods, Ninth U. S. Infantry, of first expedition for relief of Fort Sumter.

NEW YORK HARBOR, January 12, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that. I reached this post at 8 1/2 o’clock this morning with my command, having been unable to reach Fort Sumter. I will make a detailed report without delay.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHARLES R. WOODS, First Lieutenant, Ninth Infantry.

Col. H. L. SCOTT, A. D. C.

FORT COLUMBUS, N. Y. H., January 13, 1861.

COLONEL: Pursuant to instructions, dated Headquarters of the Army, January 5, 1861, I embarked on the evening of Saturday, 5th instant, from Governor’s Island, at 6 o’clock p.m., on a steam-tug, which transferred us to the steamer Star of the West.

My command consisted of two hundred men, recruits from the depot, fifty of whom were of the permanent party. My officers were First Lieut. W. A. Webb, Fifth Infantry; Second Lieut. C. W. Thomas, First Infantry, and Assist. Surg. P. G. S. Ten Broeck, Medical Department.

On Tuesday afternoon, 8th instant., arms and ammunition were issued to all the men. About midnight same evening we arrived off Charleston Harbor, and remained groping in the dark until nearly day, when we discovered the light on Fort Sumter, which told us where we were. The other coast light marking the approaches to the harbor had been extinguished, and the outer buoy marking the channel across the bar gone. During the night we saw what we supposed to be the light of a steamer cruising off the harbor, but she did not discover us, as our lights were all out. Just before day we discovered a steamer lying off the main ship channel. As soon as they made us out they burned one blue light and two red lights, and, receiving no response from us, immediately {p.10} steamed up the channel. As soon as we had light enough we crossed the bar, and steamed up the main ship channel. This was on the first of the ebb tide, the steamer ahead of us firing rockets and burning lights as she went up. We proceeded without interruption until we arrived within one and three-quarter miles of Forts Sumter and Moultrie-they being apparently, equidistant-when we were opened on by a masked battery near the north end of Morris Island. This battery was about five eighths of a mile distant from us, and we were keeping as near into it as we could, to avoid the fire of Fort Moultrie. Before we were fired upon we had discovered a red palmetto flag flying, but could see nothing to indicate that there was a battery there.

We, went into the harbor with the American ensign hoisted on the flagstaff, and as soon as the first shot was fired a full-sized garrison flag was displayed at our fore, but the one was no more respected than the other. We kept on, still under the fire of the battery, most of the balls passing over us, one just missing the machinery, another striking but a few feet from the rudder, while a ricochet shot struck us in the fore-chains, about two feet above the water line, and just below where the man was throwing the lead. The American flag was flying at Fort Sumter, but we saw no flag at Fort Moultrie, and there were no guns fired from either of these fortifications.

Finding it impossible to take my command to Fort Sumter, I was obliged most reluctantly to turn about, and try to make my way out of the harbor before my retreat should be cut off by vessels then in sight, supposed to be the cutter Aiken, coming down the channel in tow of a steamer, with the evident purpose of cutting us off. A brisk fire was kept up on us by the battery as long as we remained within range, but, fortunately, without damage to its, and we succeeded in recrossing the bar in safety, the steamer touching two or three times. Our course was now laid for New York Harbor, and we were followed for some hours by a steamer from Charleston for the purpose of watching us.

During the whole trip downward the troops were kept out of sight whenever a vessel came near enough to us to distinguish them, and the morning we entered the harbor of Charleston they were sent down before daylight, and kept there until after we got out of the harbor again. From the preparations that had been made for its I have every reason to believe the Charlestonians were perfectly aware of our coming.

We arrived in New York Harbor on the morning of the 12th instant, and disembarked at 8 o’clock this morning, the 13th, by orders from Headquarters of the Army.

The conduct of the officers and men under my command during the whole trip, and particularly while under fire, was unexceptionable.

Capt. John McGowan, commanding the steamer Star of the West, deserves the highest praise for the energy, perseverance, and ability displayed in trying to carry out his orders to put the troops in Fort Sumter. He was ably assisted by Mr. Walter Brewer, the New York pilot taken from this place.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. R. WOODS, First Lieutenant, Ninth Infantry, Commanding.

Col. L. THOMAS. Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. A., Washington. D. C.


No. 5.

Report of Capt. G. V. Fox, U. S. agent, of second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter.

STEAMER BALTIC, New York, April 19, 1861.

SIR: I sailed from New York in this vessel Tuesday morning, the 10th instant, having dispatched one steam-tug, the Uncle Ben, the evening previous to rendezvous off Charleston. The Yankee, another chartered tug, followed us to the Hook, and I left instructions to send on the Freeborn.

We arrived off Charleston the 12th instant, at 3 a.m., and found only the Harriet Lane. Weather during the whole time a gale. At 7. a.m. the Pawnee arrived, and, according to his orders, Captain Rowan anchored twelve miles east of the light, to await the arrival Of the Powhatan. I stood in with the Baltic to execute my orders by offering, in the first place, to carry provisions to Fort Sumter. Nearing the bar it was observed that war had commenced, and, therefore, the peaceful offer of provisions was void.

The Pawnee and Lane immediately anchored close to the bar, notwithstanding the heavy sea, and though neither tugs or Powhatan or Pocahontas had arrived, it was believed a couple of boats of provisions might be got in. The attempt was to be made in the morning, because the heavy sea and absence of the Powhatan’s gunboats crippled the night movement. All night and the morning of the 13th instant it blew strong, with a heavy sea. The Baltic stood off and on, looking for the Powhatan, and in running in during the thick weather struck on Rattlesnake Shoal, but soon got off. The heavy sea, and not having the sailors (three hundred) asked for, rendered any attempt from the Baltic absurd. I only felt anxious to get in a few days’ provisions to last the fort until the Powhatan’s arrival. The Pawnee and Lane were both short of men, and were only intended to afford a base of operations whilst the tugs and three hundred sailors fought their way in.

However, the Powhatan and tugs not coming, Captain Rowan seized an ice schooner and offered her to me, which I accepted, and Lieutenant Hudson, of the Army, several Navy officers, and plenty of volunteers agreed to man the vessel, and go in with me the night of the 13th. The events of that day, so glorious to Major Anderson and his command, are known to you. As I anticipated, the guns from Sumter dispersed their naval preparations excepting small guard-boats, so that with the Powhatan a re-enforcement would have been easy. The Government did not anticipate that the fort was so badly constructed as the event has shown.

I learned on the 13th instant that the Powhatan was withdrawn from duty off Charleston on the 7th instant, yet I was permitted to sail on the 9th, the Pawnee on the 9th, and the Pocahontas on the 10th, without intimation that the main portion-the fighting portion-of our expedition was taken away. In justice to itself as well as an acknowledgment of my earnest efforts, I trust the Government has sufficient reasons for putting me in the position they have placed me.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

G. V. FOX.

The Baltic has been chartered for one month.

Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington.


No. 6.

Reports of Maj. Robert Anderson, First U. S. Artillery, of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

STEAMSHIP BALTIC, OFF SANDY HOOK, April 18, [1861]-10.30 a.m.-via New York.

Having defended Fort Sumter for thirty-four hours, until the quarters were entirely burned, the main gates destroyed by fire, the gorge walls seriously injured, the magazine surrounded by flames and its door closed from the effects of heat, four barrels and three cartridges of powder only being available, and no provisions remaining but pork, I accepted terms of evacuation offered by General Beauregard, being the same offered by him on the 11th instant, prior to the commencement of hostilities, and marched out of the fort Sunday afternoon, the 14th instant, with colors flying and drums beating, bringing away company and private property, and saluting my flag with fifty guns.

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

HON. S. CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington.

NEW YORK, April 19, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to send herewith dispatches Nos. 99 and 100,* written at but not mailed in Fort Sumter, and to state that I shall, at as early a date as possible, forward a detailed report of the operations in the harbor of Charleston, S. C., in which my command bore a part on the 12th and 13th instants, ending with the evacuation of Fort Sumter, and the withdrawal, with the honors of war, of my garrison on the 14th instant from that harbor, after having sustained for thirty-four hours the fire from seventeen 10-inch mortars and from batteries of heavy guns, well placed and well served, by the forces under the command of Brigadier-General Beauregard. Fort Sumter is left in ruins from the effect of the shell and shot from his batteries, and officers of his army reported that our firing had destroyed most of the buildings inside Fort Moultrie. God was pleased to guard my little force from the shell and shot which were thrown into and against my work, and to Him are our thanks due that I am enabled to report that no one was seriously injured by their fire. I regret that I have to add that, in consequence of some unaccountable misfortune, one man was killed, two seriously and three slightly wounded whilst saluting our flag as it was lowered.

The officers and men of my command acquitted themselves in a manner which entitles them to the thanks and gratitude of their country, and I feel that I ought not to close this preliminary report without saying that I think it would be injustice to order them on duty of any kind for some months, as both officers and men need rest and the recreation of a garrison life to give them an opportunity to recover from the effects of the hardships of their three months confinement within the walls of Fort Sumter.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Regiment Artillery, &c.


P. S.–I inclose herewith copies of the correspondence between General Beauregard and myself.

R. A.

Col. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.

* See April 10 and 11, “Correspondence and Orders,” post.



HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.

SIR: The Government of the Confederate States has hitherto forborne from any hostile demonstration against Fort Sumter, in the hope that the Government of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two Governments, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it.

There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States, and under that impression my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defense and security.

I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property, and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have upheld so long and with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down.

Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON, Commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S. C.


FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 11, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say, in reply thereto, that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligations to my Government, prevent my compliance. Thanking you for the fair, manly, and courteous terms proposed, and for the high compliment Paid me,

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. BEAUREGARD, Commanding Provisional Army.


HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.

MAJOR: In consequence of the verbal observation made by you to my aides, Messrs. Chesnut and Lee, in relation to the condition of your {p.14} supplies, and that you would in a few days be starved out if our guns did not batter you to pieces, or words to that effect, and desiring no useless effusion of blood, I communicated both the verbal observations and your written answer to my communications to my Government.

If you will state the time at which you will evacuate Fort Sumter, and agree that in the mean time you will not use your guns against us unless ours shall be employed against Fort Sumter, we will abstain from opening fire upon you. Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee are authorized by me to enter into such an agreement with you. You are, therefore, requested to communicate to them an open answer.

I remain, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON, Commanding Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S. C.


FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 12, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by Colonel Chesnut of your second communication of the 11th instant, and to state in reply that, cordially uniting with you in the desire to avoid the useless effusion of blood, I will, if provided with the proper and necessary means of transportation, evacuate Fort Sumter by noon on the 15th instant, and that I will not in the mean time open my fires upon your forces unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against this fort or the flag of my Government by the forces under your command, or by some portion of them, or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on your part against this fort or the flag it bears, should I not receive prior to that time controlling instructions from my Government or additional supplies.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. BEAUREGARD, Commanding.


FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 12, 1861-3.20 a.m.

SIR: By authority of Brigadier-General Beauregard, commanding the Provisional Forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

JAMES CHESNUT, JR., Aide-de-Camp. STEPHEN D. LEE, Captain, C. S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Sumter.


FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 13, 1861-20 min. past 2 o’clock.

GENERAL: I thank you for your kindness in having sent your aide to me with an offer of assistance upon your having observed that our flag was down-it being down a few moments, and merely long enough to enable us to replace it on another staff. Your aides will inform you of the circumstance of the visit to my fort by General Wigfall, who said that he came with a message from yourself.


In the peculiar circumstances in which I am now placed in consequence of that message, and of my reply thereto, I will now state that I am willing to evacuate this fort upon the terms, and conditions offered by yourself on the 11th instant, at any hour you may name to-morrow, or as soon as we can arrange means of transportation. I will not replace my flag until the return of your messenger.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. G. T. BEAUREGARD, Charleston, S. C.


HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A., April 13, 1861-5 min. to 6 o’clock p.m.

SIR: On being informed that you were in distress, caused by a conflagration in Fort Sumter, I immediately dispatched my aides, Colonels Miles and Pryor, and Captain Lee, to offer you any assistance in my power to give.

Learning a few moments afterwards that a white flag was waving on your ramparts, I sent two others of my aides, Colonel Allston and Major Jones, to offer you the following terms of evacuation: All proper facilities for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and private property, to any point within the United States you may select.

Apprised that you desire the privilege of saluting your flag on retiring, I cheerfully concede it, in consideration of the gallantry with which you have defended the place under your charge.

The Catawba steamer will be at the lauding of Sumter to-morrow morning at any hour you may designate for the purpose of transporting you whither you may desire.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient, servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Maj. R. ANDERSON, First Artillery, Commanding Fort Sumter, S. C.]


HEADQUARTERS, FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 13, 1861-7.50 p.m.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of this evening, and to express my gratification at its contents. Should it be convenient, I would like to have the Catawba here at about nine, o’clock to-morrow morning.

With sentiments of the highest regard and esteem, I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON, Major, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. G. T. BEAUREGARD, Commanding Provisional Army, C. S.


HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C. S. A., Charleston, April 15, 1861.

The commanding general directs that the commanding officer of the garrison of Fort Sumter will bury the unfortunate soldier who has been accidentally killed by explosion of misplaced powder while saluting {p.16} his flag. He will be buried with all the honors of wax in the parade of the fort.

By order of Brigadier-General Beauregard:

W. H. C. WHITING, Adjutant and Engineer General.

Copy furnished to-

Major ROBERT ANDERSON, U. S., First Regiment of Artillery.

P. S.–The wounded will receive the best attention, and will be placed in the State hospital.

By order of General Beauregard:

W. H. C. WHITING, Adjutant and Engineer General.


WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, April 20, 1861.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON, Late Commanding at Fort Sumter.

MY DEAR SIR: I am directed by the President of the United States to communicate to you, and through you to the officers and the men under your command, at Forts Moultrie and Sumter, the approbation of the Government of your and their judicious and gallant conduct there, and to tender to you and them the thanks of the Government for the same.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War.


No. 7.

Engineer journal of the bombardment of Fort Sumter. By Capt. J. G. Foster, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

NEW YORK, October 1, 1861.

April 9, 1861.–The four-gun battery on the upper end of Sullivan’s Island that was unmasked yesterday morning by blowing up the wooden house standing in front of it was situated very nearly upon the prolongation of the capital of this fort, and, therefore, could enfilade the terre-pleins of both flanks of the work, as well as sweep, to a certain extent, the outside of the scarp wall of the left flank, where alone a vessel of any considerable draught of water could lie near to the fort and discharge her cargo. It therefore became a matter of importance to provide traverses to intercept the fire along the barbette tier of the right flank, as this contains the heaviest battery, intended to operate both upon Fort Moultrie and Cummings Point, and also to prepare, means for quickly unloading any vessel that may run in alongside the left flank with supplies for the garrison.

For the first purpose I commenced to prepare (for want of sand bags) a large double curb of boards and scantling, to be elevated upon the top Of the parapet at the right shoulder angle, and being filled with earth hoisted from the parade, to serve for a traverse to protect this flank.


For the second I prepared ladders and runways to take in re-enforcements and provisions at the embrasures rapidly, one embrasure being enlarged so as to admit barrels, and also cleared the passage around to the main gate. A large stone traverse was also commenced to cover the main gates from the fire from Cummings Point. The masons were put at work cutting openings through the walls of the officers’ quarters so as to admit a free communication through them, on the first and second floors, from one flank to the other. The battery in the right shoulder angle, first tier, was also being improved by substituting a 42-pounder for a 32-pounder, cutting into the magazine wall, so as to allow the gun on the gorge to be used against the batteries, and cutting away one side of the embrasure, so as to allow the first gun on the right flank to be used in the same way.

The quantity of bread became very small, and only half rations of it were allowed to the men. The enemy’s steamers were very active carrying supplies to their batteries.

April 10.–Every one, by order of the commanding officer, Major Anderson, changed his quarters into the gun casemates to-day. The work on the traverse progressed well. Lieut. R. K. Meade, Engineers, being placed on ordnance duty, found the supply of cartridges on hand to be too small, and took immediate measures to increase the supply by cutting up all the surplus blankets and extra company clothing to make cartridge bags. The curb for the traverse at the right shoulder angle was completed and put together on the terre-plein at nightfall, and after dark raised up on the parapet and filled with earth, which had been hoisted from the parade. The working party, under Lieutenant Snyder increased by a large detail from the command, completed this work about midnight.

The supply of bread failed to-day, and its absence, was supplied by rice, obtained by picking over some damaged rice, which while spread out to dry in one of the quarters, had been tilled with pieces of glass from the window-panes shattered by the concussion of guns fired in practice.

A second battery was unmasked to-day on Sullivan’s Island, nearer, the western point of the island than the one last discovered. It is of one gun, and very heavy-evidently a 9-inch Dahlgren gun, or a 10-inch columbiad.

The enemy’s steamers were very active at night, but no alarm occurred.

April 11.–At early dawn I detected the presence of the floating battery on the upper end of Sullivan’s Island. It is situated between the end of the jetty and the steamboat wharf, where evidently distrusting her qualities as a floating battery intended to breach the gorge wall at short range, she has been run on shore at high water, and, being left by the receding tide, has become a fixed battery. Her position gives her the advantage of sweeping with her guns the whole of the left flank of the fort, and thus rendering it impossible for any vessel with supplies to lie anywhere along this flank, while the breakwater in front protects her from our ricochet shots.

The stone traverse at the gorge has been raised to-day high enough to protect the main gate, and the traverse on the top of the parapet has been strengthened by the addition of sand bags on the top and sides, and braced in the rear by extra gun carriages. The communications cut through the walls of the quarters are finished, and all the water pipes, and faucets prepared for use in case of fire. The third splinter-proof shelter on the right flank, barbette tier, is finished. These shelters are formed of the timbers of extra gun carriages inclined against the interior {p.18} slope, and covered with 2 inch embrasure irons, securely spiked down. Shot and shells have been distributed to the guns, and about 700 cartridges reported ready. The work of making cartridge bags is slow, owing to there being only six needles in the fort.

The enemy’s steamers are very active carrying supplies and hospital stores to the batteries on Cummings Point.

At 4 p.m. three aides of General Beauregard (Colonel Chesnut, Colonel Chisolm, and Captain Lee) came as bearers of a demand for the surrender of the fort. The unanimous decision of the officers in council was in the negative, and a written answer, in accordance, was returned by Major Anderson.

April 12.–At 1 a.m. four aides of General Beauregard (Colonel Chesnut, Colonel Chisolm, Captain Lee, and Mr. Pry, or, of Virginia) came with a second letter, stating that as Major Anderson had been understood to make the remark to the bearers of the first letter, in taking leave, that he would “await the first shot, and if not battered to pieces, would be starved out in a few days,” it was desired to know what importance might be attached to it. The reply of Major Anderson did not satisfy the aides, who were authorized in that case to give notice, that the fire would open. Accordingly, on leaving at 3 1/2 a.m., they gave notice that their batteries would open in one hour.

At 4 1/2 a.m. a signal shell was thrown from the mortar battery on James Island; after which the fire soon became general from all the hostile batteries. These batteries were, as nearly as could be ascertained, armed as follows, viz:

On Morris Island: Breaching battery No. 1, two 42-pounders; one 12-pounder Blakely rifled gun. Mortar battery (next to No. 7), four 10-inch mortars. Breaching battery No. 2 iron-clad battery), three 8-inch columbiads. Mortar battery (next to No. 2), three 10-inch mortars.

On James Island : Battery at Fort Johnson, three 24-pounders (only one of them bearing on Fort Sumter). Mortar battery south of Fort Johnson, four 10-inch mortars.

On Sullivan’s Island: lron-clad (floating) battery, four 42-pounders. Columbiad battery No. 1, one 9-inch Dahlgren gun. Columbiad battery No. 2, four 8-inch columbiads. Mortar battery west of Fort Moultrie, three 10-inch mortars. Mortar battery on parade, in rear of Fort Moultrie, two 10-inch mortars. Fort Moultrie, three 8-inch columbiads; two 8-inch seacoast howitzers; five 32-pounders; four 24-pounders. At Mount Pleasant, one 10-inch mortar.

Total, firing on Fort Sumter, 30 guns, 17 mortars.

At 7 a.m. the guns of Fort Sumter replied, the first shot being fired from the battery at the right gorge angle, in charge of Captain Doubleday. All the officers and soldiers of Major Anderson’s command were divided into three reliefs, of two hours each, for the service of the guns Lieutenants Snyder and Meade, of the Engineers, taking their turns with the other officers in the charge of batteries.

Of the forty-three workmen constituting the Engineer force in the fort nearly all volunteered to serve as cannoneers, or to carry shot and cartridge to the guns.

The armament of the fort was as follows, viz:

Barbette tier: Right flank, one 10-inch columbiad, four 8-inch columbiads, four 42-pounders. Right face, none. Left face, three 8-inch seacoast howitzers, one 32-pounder. Left flank, one 10-inch columbiad, two 8-inch columbiads, two 42-pounders. Gorge, one 8-inch sea-coast howitzer, two 12-pounders, six 24-pounders. Total in barbette, 27 guns.


Casemate tier: Right flank, one 42-pounder, four 32-pounders. Right face, three 42-pounders. Left face, ten 32-pounders. Left flank, five 32-pounders. Gorge, two 32-pounders. Total in casemate, 21 guns.

Total available in both tiers, 48 guns.

Besides the above, there were arranged on the parade, to serve as mortars, one 10-inch columbiad to throw shells into Charleston and four 8-inch columbiads to throw shells into the batteries on Cummings Point. The casemate guns were the only ones used. Of these, those that bore on Cummings Point were the 42-pounder in the pan-coupe of the right gorge angle, the 32-pounder next to it on the gorge, which, by cutting into the brick wall, had been made to traverse sufficiently, and the 32-pounder next the angle on the right flank, which, by cutting away the side of the embrasure, had been made to bear on a portion of the Point, although not on the breaching batteries.

The guns of the first tier, that bore on Fort Johnson, were four 32-pounders on the left flank. (Of these, one embrasure had been, by order, bricked up.)

The guns that bore on the three batteries on the west end of Sullivan’s Island were ten 32-pounders, situated on the left face, and one at the pan-coupe of the salient angle (four embrasures being bricked up).

The guns bearing on Fort Moultrie were two 42-pounders, situated on the right face, and one at the pan-coupe of the right shoulder angle.

The supply of cartridges, 700 in number, with which the engagement commenced, became so much reduced by the middle of the day, although the six needles in the fort were kept steadily employed, that the firing was forced to slacken, and to be confined to six guns-two firing towards Morris Island, two towards Fort Moultrie, and two towards the batteries on the west end of Sullivan’s Island.

At 1 o’clock two United States men-of-war were seen off the bar, and soon after a third appeared.

The fire of our batteries continued steadily until dark. The effect of the fire was not very good, owing to the insufficient caliber of the guns for the long range, and not much damage appeared to be done to any of the batteries, except those of Fort Moultrie, where our two 42-pounders appeared to have silenced one gun for a time, to have injured the embrasures considerably, riddled the barracks and quarters, and torn three holes through their flag. The so-called floating battery was struck very frequently by our shot, one of them penetrating at the angle between the front it and roof, entirely through the iron covering and woodwork beneath, and wounding one man. The rest of the 32-pounder balls failed to penetrate the front or the roof, but were deflected from their surfaces, which were arranged at a suitable angle for this purpose. We could not strike below the water line on account of the sea wall behind which the battery had been grounded, and which was just high enough to allow their guns to fire over it, and to intercept all of our ricochet shots.

The columbiad battery, and Dahlgren battery near the floating battery did not appear to be much injured by the few shot that were fired at them. Only one or two shots were fired at Fort Johnson, and none at Castle Pinckney or the city.

Our fire towards Morris Island was mainly directed at the iron-clad battery, but the small caliber of our shot failed to penetrate the covering, When struck fairly. The aim was, therefore, taken at the embrasures, which were struck at least twice, disabling the guns for a time. One or two shots were thrown at the reverse of batteries 3 and 4, scattering some groups of officers and men on the lookout, and cutting down {p.20} a small flagstaff on one of the batteries. At one time during the day a revenue schooner which had been seized by the insurgents was observed lying at anchor between Sullivan’s Island and Mount Pleasant. Lieutenant Snyder, Corps of Engineers, who had charge at this time of the battery firing in this direction, directed two or three shots at her with such effect as to put one of them through the vessel and cause, her to haul down her colors, the flag of the so-called Confederate States, to hoist her anchor and sails, and get out of range as soon as possible.

One or two shots were thrown at the hulks which had been anchored in the channel, on a line between Cummings Point and Fort Moultrie, to be fired at night if our fleet should attempt to come in. As no person appeared on board, the fire was not continued in this direction.

The barracks caught fire three times during the day, from shells, apparently, but each time the flames, being in the first or second stories, were extinguished by a pump and application of the means at hand. Peter Hart, who was formerly a sergeant in Major Anderson’s company, and employed by me at the time as a carpenter, was very active and efficient in extinguishing the flames.

The effect of the enemy’s fire upon Fort Sumter during the day was very marked in respect to the vertical fire. This was so well directed and so well sustained, that from the seventeen mortars engaged in firing 10-inch shells, one-half of the shells came within or exploded above the parapet of the fort, and only about ten buried themselves in the soft earth of the parade without exploding. In consequence of this precision of vertical fire, Major Anderson decided not to man the upper tier of guns, as by doing so the loss of men, notwithstanding the traverses and bomb-proof shelters that I had constructed, must have been great. These guns were therefore only fired once or twice by some men who ventured upon the parapet for this purpose. In doing this they managed without much care, producing little or no effect upon the enemy, besides doing injury to the guns. At the third fire of the 10-inch columbiad at the right gorge angle, it was omitted to throw the friction wheels out of bearing, and consequently in the recoil the gun ran entirely off its chassis, overturning itself, and in its fall dismounting the 8-inch sea-coast howitzer next to it.

The direction of the enemy’s shells being from the northeast, north, southwest, and southeast, sought every part of the work, and the fuses being well graduated, exploded in most instances just within the line of parapet. To this kind of fire no return was made. The four 8-inch columbiads that I had planted in the parade to be used as mortars on Cummings Point were not used, neither was the 10-inch columbiad, arranged to fire shot and shells towards the city. The hot-shot furnaces were not used nor opened. The effect of the direct fire from the enemy’s guns was not so marked as the vertical. For several hours firing from the commencement a large proportion of their shot missed the fort. Subsequently it improved, and did considerable damage to the roof and upper story of the barracks and quarters, and to the tops of the chimneys on the gorge. The aim of the guns during the day, with the exception of batteries Nos. 1 and 2, on Cummings Point, appeared to be directed to dismount the guns of out barbette tier. Those from Fort Moultrie succeeded in dismounting an 8-inch columbiad, and in striking on its side and cracking a second 8-inch columbiad, both situated on the right flank. The roof of the barracks on this flank and the stair towers were much damaged by this fire.

The shots from the guns in the batteries on the west end of Sullivan’s Island did not produce any considerable direct effect, but many of them {p.21} took the gorge in reverse in their fall, completely riddling the officers’ quarters, even down to the first story, so great was the angle of fall of many of the balls.

Three of the iron cisterns over during the day, and the quarters below deluged by their contents of water, aiding in preventing the extension of the fire. The shots from these batteries and from Fort Moultrie, aimed at the embrasures, failed to produce any effect. None of the shot came through, although one shell exploded in the mouth of one embrasure.

A part of the guns from Cummings Point essayed to dismount the barbette tier on the gorge, and the remainder to breach the gorge, or rather the pan-coupe at the right gorge angle. At this latter point, two columbiads and a Blakely rifled gun fired almost constantly. The effect of this fire on this day was to breach around the embrasure of the first Tier at the pan-coupe to a, depth of twenty inches, and to put one shot through the filling, consisting of brick and bluestone combined, with which the embrasure opening of the second tier had been filled. One shot was also put through the top of a loophole window on the second tier, another through the top of the main gate, and a third through the magazine ventilator at the right of the gorge, falling between the pier and the inner wooden ceiling.

Three of the embrasure cheek-irons that I had placed in the second tier loopholes, were knocked out of place. Several of the stones that had been placed in the first tier loopholes were struck, but owing to the lead run in around them to hold them in place none were broken.

The penetration of the 8-inch columbiad balls from Cummings Point was eleven inches at the first shot-and that of the twelve-pound bolt from the Blakely gun was the same, as ascertained by measurement. The latter, however, threw its shot with greater accuracy, and with less time of flight, than the former. The distance was about 1,250 yards.

The shot from Cummings Point that passed a little over the gorge took the left face in reverse damaging the masonry of the parade wall, coping, &c., and splintering the chassis of one gun in barbette. As an instance of strength of masonry, I may mention that one 10-inch shell from Cummings Point fell upon the second tier casemate arch, which was not covered by concrete or flagging, and so good was the masonry of this 15-inch arch that the shell did not go through, although it bedded itself, and broke off from the soffit below a large fragment of brickwork.

The night was very stormy, with high wind and tide. I found out, however, by personal inspection, that the exterior of the work was not damaged to any considerable extent, and that all the facilities for taking in supplies, in case they arrived, were as complete as circumstances would admit. The enemy threw shells every ten or fifteen minutes during the night. The making of cartridge bags was continued by the men, under Lieutenant Meade’s directions, until 12 o’clock, when they were ordered to stop by Major Anderson. To obtain materials for the bags all the extra clothing of the companies was cut up, and all coarse paper and extra hospital sheets used.

April 13.–At daybreak no material alteration was observed in the enemy’s batteries. The three U. S. men-of-war were still off the bar. The last of the rice was cooked this morning, and served with the pork-the only other article of food left in the engineer mess-room, where the whole command has messed since the opening of the fire. After this the fire was reopened, and continued very briskly as long as the increased supply of cartridges lasted. The enemy reopened fire at {p.22} daylight, and continued it with rapidity. The aim of the enemy’s gunners was better than yesterday. One shot from the rifled gun in the battery on Cummings Point struck the cheek of an embrasure in the right gorge angle, and sent a large number of fragments inside, wounding a sergeant and three men. The spent ball also came in with the fragments. An engineer employé, Mr. John Swearer, from Baltimore, Md., was severely wounded by pieces of a shell which burst inside the fort close to the casemates. One or two balls also penetrated the filling of the embrasure openings of the second tier, but fell entirely spent inside-one of them setting a man’s bed on fire.

It soon became evident that they were firing hot shot from a large number of their guns, especially from those in Fort Moultrie, and at nine o’clock I saw volumes of smoke issuing from the roof of the officers’ quarters, where a shot had just penetrated. From the exposed position it was utterly impossible to extinguish the flames, and I therefore immediately notified the commanding officer of the fact, and obtained his permission to remove as much powder from the magazine as was possible before the flames, which were only one set of quarters distant, should encircle the magazine and make it necessary to close it. All the men and officers not engaged at the guns worked rapidly and zealously at this, but so rapid was the spread of the flames that only fifty barrels of powder could be taken out and distributed around in the casemates before the fire and heat made it necessary to close the magazine doors and pack earth against them. The men then withdrew to the casemates on the faces of the fort. As soon as the flames and smoke burst from the roof of the quarters, the enemy’s batteries redoubled the rapidity of their fire, firing red-hot shot from most of their guns. The whole range of officers’ quarters was soon in flames. The wind being front the southward, communicated fire to the roof of the barracks, and this being aided by the hot shot constantly lodging there, spread to the entire roofs of both barracks, so that by twelve o’clock all the woodwork of quarters and of upper story of barracks was in flames. Although the floors of the barracks were fire-proof, the utmost exertions of the officers and men were often required to prevent the fire communicating down the stairways, and from the exterior, to the doors, window frames, and other woodwork of the east barrack, in which the officers and men had taken their quarters. All the woodwork in the west barrack was burned. The clouds of smoke and cinders which were sent into the casemates by the wind set on fire many boxes, beds, and other articles belonging to the men, and made it dangerous to retain the powder which had been saved from the magazine. The commanding officer accordingly gave orders to have all but five barrels thrown out of the embrasures into the water, which was done.

The small stock of cartridges now only allowed a gun to be fired at intervals of ten minutes. The flagstaff was, struck by shot seven times during the day, and a fragment of shell cut the lanyard of the flag. The part thus cut was so connected that the flag must have come down by the run had not the flag been, as it was, twisted around both parts of the lanyard. During the night I endeavored to remedy this by lowering the topmast so as to reeve a new halyard, but failed in consequence of the sticking of the mast, which was swollen by the rain. The most that could be done was to reeve the uncut part of the lanyard through a block attached to the topmast, as high up as a man could climb, so that if the flag untwisted and came down it could be immediately rehoisted as high as this block.

As the fire reached the magazines of grenades that were arranged in {p.23} the stair towers and implement rooms on the gorge, they exploded, completely destroying the stair towers at the west gorge angle, and nearly destroying the other. At 1 o’clock the flagstaff having been struck twice before this morning, fell. The flag was immediately secured by Lieutenant Hall, and as soon as it could be attached to a temporary staff hoisted again upon the parapet at the middle of the right face by Lieutenant Snyder, Corps of Engineers, assisted by Hart, and Davey, a laborer.

About this time information was brought to the commanding officer that Mr. Wigfall, bearing a white flag, was on the outside, and wished to see him. He accordingly went out to meet Mr. Wigfall, passing through the blazing gateway, accompanied by Lieutenant Snyder. In the mean time, however, Mr. Wigfall had passed to an embrasure on the left flank, where, upon showing the white flag upon his sword, he was permitted to enter, and Lieutenant Snyder entering immediately after, accompanied him down the batteries to where some other officers were posted, to whom Mr. Wigfall commenced to address himself, to the effect that he came from General Beauregard to desire that, inasmuch as the flag of the fort was shot down, a fire raging in the quarters, and the garrison in a great strait, hostilities be suspended, and the white flag raised for this object. He was replied to that our flag was again hoisted on the parapet, that the white flag would not be hoisted except by order of the commanding officer, and that his own batteries should set the example of suspending fire. He then referred to the fact of the batteries on Cummings Point, from which he came, having stopped firing, and asked that his own white flag might be waved to indicate to the batteries on Sullivan’s Island to cease also. This was refused; but he was permitted to wave the white flag himself, getting into an embrasure for this purpose. Having done this for a few moments, Lieutenant Davis, First Artillery, permitted a corporal to relieve him. Very soon, however, a shot striking very near to the embrasure, the corporal jumped inside, and declared to Mr. Wigfall that “he would not hold his flag, for it was not respected.”

At this moment the commanding, officer having re-entered through an embrasure, came up. To him Mr. Wigfall addressed nearly the same remarks that, he had used on entering, adding some complimentary things about the manner in which the defense had been made, and ending by renewing the request to suspend hostilities in order to arrange terms of evacuation. The commanding officer desiring to know what terms he came to offer, Mr. Wigfall replied, “Any terms that you may desire your own terms-the precise nature of which General Beauregard will arrange with you.”

The commanding officer then accepted the conditions, saying that the terms he accepted were those proposed by General Beauregard on the 11th, namely: To evacuate the fort with his command, taking arms and all private and company property, saluting the United States flag as it was lowered, and being conveyed, if he desired it, to any northern port. With this understanding Mr. Wigfall left., and the white flag was raised and the United States flag lowered by order of the commanding officer.

Very soon after a boat arrived from the city, containing three aides of General Beauregard, with a message to the effect that, observing the white flag hoisted, General B. sent to inquire what aid he could lend in extinguishing the flames, &c. Being made acquainted with the condition of affairs and Mr. Wigfall’s visit they stated that the latter, although an aid of General Beauregard, had not seen him for two days.

The commanding officer then stated that the United States flag {p.24} would be raised again, but yielded to the request of the aides for time to report to their chief and obtain his instructions. They soon returned, with the approval of all the conditions desired except the saluting of the flag as it was lowered, and this exception was subsequently removed after correspondence. In the morning communication was had with the fleet, and Captain Gillis paid a visit to the fort.

The evacuation was completed after saluting the flag, in doing which one man was instantly killed, one mortally and four severely wounded, by the premature discharge of a gun and explosion of a pile of cartridges. The whole command went on board a steamer which placed them on board the Isabel, where they remained all night.

April 14.–The Isabel went over the bar and placed the whole command on board the steamer Baltic, which started for New York.

April 17-Arrived in New York.

The following observations may be, made upon the bombardment:

The enemy’s fire on the second day, the 13th, was more rapid and more accurate than on the previous day it seemed to be directed at the embrasures, and to set the quarters on fire. The latter object was fully attained, but not the former, for only two embrasures were struck-one at the right gorge angle by the rifled shot mentioned above, and the other at the left shoulder angle by a shot from the so-called floating battery, which struck the shutter, but without destroying it or entering the throat of the embrasure. The attempt to form a breach at the right gorge angle only succeeded in breaching around one embrasure to the depth of twenty-two inches, and in knocking off a large, piece of one cheek, but without disabling the gun or rendering the embrasure inefficient. The barbette tier was not much injured by the second day’s firing, none of the guns being dismounted by it, and few of them struck. The fire, however, destroyed all the gun carriages and splinter-proof shelters on the gorge.

After the cessation of fire, about six hundred shot-marks on the face of the scarp wall were counted, but they were so scattered that no breached effect could have been expected from such fire, and probably none was attempted except at the right gorge angle. The only effect of the direct fire during the two days was to disable three barbette guns, knock off large portions of the chimneys and brick walls projecting above the parapet, and to set the quarters on fire with hot shot. The vertical fire produced more effect, as it prevented the working of the upper tier of guns, which were the only really effective guns in the fort, being columbiads, 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, and 42-pounders principally, and also prevented the use of the columbiads arranged in the parade, to be used as mortars against Cummings Point. The shells that struck the stair towers nearly destroyed them, and filled the stairways with so much rubbish as to render them almost impassable. This, with the destruction of the stairs at the gorge by the explosion of the magazine of shells by the fire, made it almost impossible to get to the terre-plein.

The burning of the quarters and barracks produced a great effect on the defense while the fire lasted, inasmuch as the heat and smoke were almost stifling, and as the fire burned all around the magazines, obliging them to be closed, and thus preventing our getting powder to continue the firing. It also destroyed the main gates, and the gun carriages on the parapet of the gorge. But we could have, resumed the firing as soon as the walls cooled sufficiently to open the magazines, and then, having blown down the wall left projecting above the parapet, so as to get rid {p.25} of flying bricks, and built up the main gates with stones and rubbish, the fort would actually have been in a more defensible condition than when the action commenced. In fact, it would have been better if the chimneys roofs, and upper walls of the quarters and barracks had been removed before the firing begun, but the short notice and the small force did not permit anything of this kind to be done after the notice of the attack was received.

The weakness of the defense, principally lay in the lack of cartridge bags, and of the materials to make them, by which the fire of our batteries was, all the time, rendered slow, and towards the last was nearly suspended. The lack of a sufficient number of men to man the barbette tier of guns at the risk of losing several by the heavy vertical fire of the enemy also prevented us making use of the only guns that had the power to smash his iron-clad batteries, or of throwing shells into his open batteries, so as to destroy his cannoneers.

The want of provisions would soon have caused the surrender of the fort, but with plenty of cartridges the men would have cheerfully fought five or six days, and if necessary much longer, on pork alone, of which we had a sufficient supply.

I do not think that a breach could have been effected in the gorge at the distance of the battery on Cummings Point, within a week or ten days; and even then, with the small garrison to defend it, and means for obstructing it, at our disposal, the operation of assaulting it, with even vastly superior numbers, would have been very doubtful in its results.

Respectfully submitted.

J. G. FOSTER, Captain, Engineers.


No. 8.

Reports of Brig. Gen. G. T. Beauregard, C. S. Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS C. S. ARMY, Charleston, S. C., March 6, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to War Department orders of the 1st instant I arrived at this place on the 3d instant and immediately reported to Governor Pickens for military duty. That day we inspected the floating battery now being constructed here. On the 4th instant we inspected the works on the southern portion of the harbor (Morris Island and Fort Johnson), and yesterday those on the north (Fort Moultrie, &c., including Castle Pinckney).

I have now the honor to state that I coincide fully in the opinion and views contained in Maj. W. H. C. Whiting’s letter preceding his full report and that, as I have not time to write more fully on the subject, I desire that portion of his letter referring to the above works should be annexed to this report, and a copy thereof sent to me for my files.

On Morris Island the flanking defects are being remedied, and will probably soon be completed, as well as the position, &c., of said works will permit. I have ordered that only six mortars, instead of twelve, intended for that point, should be put in position there. I have ordered the construction of a series of small batteries of heavy guns, two in each, and twenty in all, well protected by traverses along the channel shore of that island, said batteries to be about fifty or one hundred yards {p.26} apart (according to the nature of the ground), to prevent the broadsides of a vessel, from silencing them in a few minutes. When those batteries shall be ready, I will remove into them all the heavy guns I can dispose of. I have ordered to that island the whole of Colonel Gregg’s regiment, with two short 12-pounders and one light battery, for the protection of said works, selecting a strong natural position to protect their right flank from a land attack.

I have ordered an additional battery (for two mortars) to be constructed near Fort Johnson, to receive half of those intended for a defectively-placed mortar battery, to the south of said work, the latter not being in itself of much importance, containing only an open battery of four 24-pounders bearing on the inner harbor. At Fort Moultrie, towards the north of Fort Sumter, I have ordered additional traverses to be thrown up, of a better construction than those already there, for the protection of the channel guns against enfilade from Fort Sumter. Between Moultrie and the western extremity of Sullivan’s Island I have ordered the construction of a four-gun concealed battery, to enfilade the channel face of Sumter, having nine or ten guns (en barbette) bearing on the Morris Island works. I have ordered two more 32-pounders to be added to the extreme five-gun battery, commanding the Maffitt or northern shore channel into the harbor, and I have selected the site of two more mortar batteries, of two each, to take in reverse the casemate and barbette guns of Fort Sumter bearing on Morris Island.

I have fortunately found that we would soon have mortars enough for all our present wants; but, generally, the carriages and chassis of nearly all the guns, especially those on the Morris Island works, are either defective or not of the proper kind. I am going to remedy this defect as soon as practicable.

I find that the gorge of Fort Sumter is too much inclined to the guns on Morris Island to be breached by them at this distance (thirteen hundred yards); and, moreover, they have double the number of guns bearing on them, reversing thereby the advantages of the attack over the defense. If we succeed in constructing my enfilading battery on Sullivan’s Island we will then have a preponderating fire against said gorge wall (four feet six inches thick); but, as already stated, at about thirteen hundred yards, and at an angle of about fifty degrees.

I find that the battery of heavy guns (10-inch columbiads), which I proposed putting up in the vicinity of Fort Johnson, would be impracticable (if we had said guns), the grounds being too low and marshy.

I have now given you a general view of the condition of the offensive works of this harbor, and I am of the opinion that, if Sumter was properly garrisoned and armed, it would be a perfect Gibraltar to anything but constant shelling, night and day, from the four points of the compass. As it is, the weakness of the garrison constitutes our greatest advantage, and we must, for the present, turn our attention to preventing it from being re-enforced. This idea I am gradually and cautiously infusing into the minds of all here; but, should we have to open our batteries upon it, I hope to be able to do so with all the advantages the condition of things here will permit. All that I ask is time for completing my batteries and preparing and organizing properly my command, which is still in a more or less confused state, not having yet my general staff officers around me. So soon as I shall have here a competent engineer officer (Major Whiting arrived here on the 4th, and will probably leave again for Savannah to day, where his presence is required), I will send to the department a plan of this harbor, with the position, &c., {p.27} of all the works marked thereon. Those Drummond lights, ordered from New York, will be here, in about ten days.

I remain, sir, very respectfully,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

General L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.


CHARLESTON, S. C., March 6, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I proceeded to Morris Island this morning, and commenced establishing battery positions.

I. Directed the Dahlgren battery to be modified. Retired the interior crest of the right gun, so as to obtain a raking fire on the whole approach, and on the beach, and placed a traverse between the two, and directed the rear of the battery to be excavated, to give a relief of at least eight to interior crest. It is absolutely necessary that these guns be placed en barbette; otherwise, unless the epaulement is cut down to two, they cannot be depressed sufficiently for the short ranges on the ship’s carriages.

II. Battery A, for two 8-inch columbiads (new position). The relative positions of the different batteries will be indicated on the chart by the engineer and submitted to you to-morrow.

III. Arranged and modified the Star of the West battery, giving greater relief, reducing the platform, locating necessary traverses, and adding one 24-pounder. Directed the two field pieces for line and laud defense.

IV. Battery B, for two guns, one 8-inch columbiad, and one 8-inch sea-coast.

V. Battery C, for one 8-inch sea-coast and one 42-pounder.

VI. Battery D, for two 24-pounders.

VII. Battery E, two 24-pounders, at nearly right angles to the brush. To protect the two last from Hunter, the left traverse must cross the epaulement.

VIII. Battery F, partially finished, for two 8-inch sea-coast howitzers and two 24-pounders. The howitzers are on casemate carriages, and must be changed.

The arrangement of these batteries will, in general, be identical, except when the siege carriage is used in the Star of the West battery, and in E, and G, the latter of three 24-pounders, partly done. Therefore the guns can be placed in different order, if thought best. I placed the guns of longest range farthest from Hunter, as having greater effect upon the distant approach. Examination of the maps, when complete, will show the field of fire. Of these guns there are now on the island three 8-inch columbiads, now mounted on casemate carriages in battery; No. 2 as a siege battery on Sumter; two 42-pounders, mounted on casemate carriages, siege battery on Sumter. The two Dahlgrens, and the two 8-inch sea-coast, on the casement trenches. All the above require barbette, carriages. Of these, the barbette carriages for the columbiads are, nearly ready; also, for the sea coast. There are also eight 24-pounders on siege carriages already mounted on the channel; in all, fifteen. There are required for the proposed addition two sea-coast howitzers, now at Pinckney, and five 24-pounders also at Pinckney; making, in all, twenty-two guns to be provided. The arrangement is that indicated in the plan this morning. I am doubtful which battery to commence first. Perhaps in order from the Dahlgren, although it would be best to have them done simultaneously. There is want of labor, and {p.28} great want of proper quartermaster and commissary arrangements for the labor. All the work on the siege batteries should be suspended, and turned to proper account on the channel.

Please to direct the enlarged chart, made by Lieutenant Gregorie, South Carolina Engineers, for the governor, to be sent down to have the positions of the batteries located upon it, for your information.

W. H. C. WHITING Major, Engineers.

General BEAUREGARD, Charleston Hotel.


HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit by Col. R. A. Pryor, one of my aides (who like the others was quite indefatigable and fearless in conveying my orders, in an open boat, from these headquarters to the batteries during the bombardment), a general report of the attack of the 12th instant on Fort Sumter. This report would have been sent sooner if my other pressing duties had permitted me to devote my time to it, while the presence of the enemy’s fleet still led us to expect an attack along the coast at any moment. A more detailed account will be sent forward as soon as the returns of the commanders of batteries shall have reached this office. The great difficulty I will labor under will be to do full justice to all when so much zeal, energy, and gallantry were displayed by officers and soldiers in the execution of my orders. I wish, however, to record two incidents, which will illustrate the feelings that animated all here.

Whilst the barracks in Fort Sumter were in a blaze, and the interior of the work appeared untenable from the heat and from the fire of our batteries (at about which period I sent three of my aides to offer assistance in the name of the Confederate States), whenever the guns of Fort Sumter would fire upon Fort Moultrie the men occupying Cummings Point batteries (Palmetto Guard, Captain Cuthbert) at each shot would cheer Anderson for his gallantry, although themselves still firing upon him, and when on the 15th instant he left the harbor on the steamer Isabel the soldiers of the batteries on Cummings Point lined the beach, silent, and with heads uncovered, while Anderson and his command passed before them, and expressions of scorn at the apparent cowardice of the fleet in not even attempting to rescue so gallant an officer and his command were upon the lips of all. With such material for an army, if properly disciplined, I would consider, myself almost invincible, against any forces not too greatly superior.

The fire of those barracks was only put out on the 15th instant, p.m., after great exertions by the gallant fire companies of this city, who were at their pumps night and day, although aware that close by them was a magazine filled with thirty thousand pounds of powder, with a shot-hole through the wall of its anteroom.

I am now removing the tottering walls of the buildings within, and clearing away all the rubbish, &c., from the interior of the work, so as to render it still more formidable than it was before it was attacked.

In one or two days I will send forward to you photographs taken at different points of sight, from which you can clearly understand the condition of the fort within when first occupied by us.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.



HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 16, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following summary statement of the circumstances of the surrender of Fort Sumter:

On the refusal of Major Anderson to engage, in compliance with my demand, to designate the time when he would evacuate Fort Sumter, and to agree meanwhile not to use his guns against us, at 3.20 o’clock in the morning of the 12th instant I gave him formal notice that within one hour my batteries would open on him. In consequence of some circumstance, of delay the bombardment was not begun precisely at the appointed moment, but at 4.30 o’clock the signal gun was fired, and within twenty minutes all our batteries were in fall play. There was no response from Fort Sumter until about 7 o’clock, when the first shot from the enemy was discharged against our batteries on Cummings Point.

By 8 o’clock the action became general, and throughout the day was maintained with spirit on both sides. Our guns were served with skill and energy. The effect was visible in the impressions made on the walls of Fort Sumter. From our mortar batteries shells were thrown with such precision and rapidity that it soon became impossible for the enemy to employ his guns en barbette, of which several were dismounted. The engagement was continued without any circumstance of special note until nightfall, before which time the fire from Sumter had evidently slackened. Operations on our side were sustained throughout the night, provoking, however, only a feeble response.

On the morning of the 13th the action was prosecuted with renewed vigor, and about 7 1/2 o’clock it was discovered our shells had set fire to the barracks in the fort. Speedily volumes of smoke indicated an extensive conflagration, and apprehending some terrible calamity to the garrison I immediately dispatched an offer of assistance to Major Anderson, which, however, with grateful acknowledgments, he declined. Meanwhile, being informed about 2 o’clock that a white flag was displayed from Sumter, I dispatched two of my aides to Major Anderson with terms of evacuation. In recognition of the gallantry exhibited by the garrison I cheerfully agreed that on surrendering the fort the commanding officer might salute his flag.

By 8 o’clock the terms of evacuation were definitely accepted. Major Anderson having expressed a desire to communicate with the United States vessels lying off the harbor, with a view to arrange for the transportation of his command to some port in the United States, one of his officers, accompanied by Captain Hartstene and three of my aides, was permitted to visit the officer in command of the squadron to make Provision for that object. Because of an unavoidable delay the formal transfer of the fort to our possession did not take place until 4 O’clock in the afternoon of the 14th instant. At that hour, the place having been evacuated by the United States garrison, our troops occupied it, and the Confederate flag was hoisted on the ramparts of Sumter with a salute from the various batteries.

The steamer Isabel having been placed at the service of Major Anderson, he and his command were transferred to the United States vessels off the harbor.

The urgency of immediate engagements prevents me from giving at present a more circumstantial narrative of the incidents connected with the capture of Fort Sumter. When the reports from the various commanders of batteries are received I will hasten to forward you a more detailed account.


In conclusion, I am happy to state that the troops, both officers and soldiers, of the Regulars, Volunteers, Militia, and Navy, by their energy, zeal, perseverance, labor, and endurance before the attack, and by their courage and gallantry during its continuance, exhibited all the characteristics of the best troops; and to my staff, Regular and Volunteer, I am much indebted for the prompt and complete execution of my orders, which had to be communicated in open boats during the bombardment to the different batteries then engaged.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S., Charleston, S. C., April 27, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit to the Department with this my detailed report of the operations conducted during the bombardment, of Fort Sumter, accompanied by copies of the reports sent in to this office by the commandants of batteries, together with a series of photographs (twenty-two in number), showing the condition of Forts Sumter and Moultrie and of the floating battery after the surrender of the former fort. *

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.

* The photographs not found.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, Charleston, S. C., April 27, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following detailed report of the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter and the incidents connected therewith:

Having completed my channel defenses and batteries in the harbor necessary for the reduction of Fort, Sumter, I dispatched two of my aides at 9.20 p.m., on Thursday, the 11th of April, with a communication to Major Anderson, in command of the fortification, demanding its evacuation. I offered to transport himself and command to any port in the United States he might elect, to allow him to move out of the fort with company arms and property and all private property, and to salute his flag in lowering it. He refused to accede to the demand. As my aides were about leaving Major Anderson remarked that if we did not batter him to pieces he would be starved out in a few days, or words to that effect. This being reported to me by my aides on their return with his refusal, at 5.10 p.m. I deemed it proper to telegraph the purport of his remark to the Secretary of War. In reply I received by telegraph the following instructions at 9.10 p.m.: “Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the mean time he will not use his guns against us unless ours should be employed against Fort Sumter, you are authorized thus to avoid effusion of blood. If this, or its equivalent, be refused, reduce the fort as your judgment decides to be most practicable.”


At 11 p.m. I sent my aides with a communication to Major Anderson based on the foregoing instructions.* It was placed in his hands at 12.45 a.m. 12th instant. He expressed his willingness to evacuate the fort on Monday at noon if provided with the necessary means of transportation, and if be should not receive contradictory instructions from his Government or additional supplies, but he declined to agree not to open his guns upon us in the event of any hostile demonstrations on our part against his flag. This reply, which was opened and shown to my aides, plainly indicated that if instructions should be received contrary to his purpose to evacuate, or if he should receive his supplies, or if the Confederate troops should fire on hostile troops of the United States, or upon transports bearing the United States flag, containing men, munitions, and supplies designed for hostile operations against us, he would still feel himself bound to fire upon us, and to hold possession of the fort.

As, in consequence of a communication from the President of the Ignited States to the governor of South Carolina, we were in momentary expectation of an attempt to re-enforce Fort Sumter, or of a descent, upon our coast to that end from the United States fleet then lying at the entrance of the harbor, it was manifestly an imperative necessity to reduce the fort as speedily as possible, and not to wait until the ships and the fort should unite in a combined attack upon us. Accordingly my aides, carrying out my instructions, promptly refused to accede to the terms proposed by Major Anderson, and notified him in writing that our batteries would open upon Fort Sumter in one hour. This notification was given at 3.20 a.m. of Friday, the 12th instant. The signal shell was fired from Fort Johnson at 4.30 a.m. At about 5 o’clock the fire from our batteries became general. Fort Sumter did not open fire until 7 o’clock, when it commenced with a vigorous fire upon the Cummings Point iron battery. The enemy next directed his fire upon the enfilade battery on Sullivan’s Island, constructed to sweep the parapet of Fort Sumter, to prevent the working of the barbette guns and to dismount them. This was also the aim of the floating battery, the Dahlgren battery, and the gun batteries at Cummings Point.

The enemy next opened on Fort Moultrie between which and Fort Sumter a steady and almost constant fire was kept up throughout the day. These three points-Fort Moultrie, Cummings Point, and the end of Sullivan’s Island, where the floating battery, Dahlgren battery, and the enfilade battery were placed-were the points to which the enemy seemed almost to confine his attention, although he fired a number of shots at Captain Butler’s mortar battery, situated to the east of Fort Moultrie, and a few at Captain James’ mortar batteries at Fort Johnson.

During the day (12th instant) the fire of my batteries was kept up most spiritedly, the guns and mortars being worked in the coolest manner, preserving the prescribed intervals of firing. Towards evening it became evident that our fire was very effective, as the enemy was driven from his barbette gun which he attempted to work in the morning, and his fire was confined to his casemated guns, but in a less active manner than, in the morning, and it was observed that several of his guns en barbette were disabled. During the whole of Friday night our mortar batteries continued to throw shells, but, in obedience to orders, at longer intervals. The night was rainy and dark, and as it was almost confidently expected that the United States fleet would attempt to land troops upon the islands or to throw men into Fort Sumter by {p.32} means of boats, the greatest vigilance was observed at all our channel batteries, and by our troops on both Morris and Sullivan’s Islands.

Early on Saturday morning all of our batteries reopened upon Fort Sumter, which responded vigorously for a time, directing its fire specially against Fort Moultrie. About 8 o’clock a.m. smoke was seen issuing from the quarters of Fort Sumter. Upon this the fire of our batteries was increased, as a matter of course for the purpose of bringing the enemy to terms as speedily as possibly, inasmuch as his flag was still floating defiantly above him. Fort Sumter continued to fire from time to time, but at long and irregular intervals, amid the dense smoke, flying shot, and bursting shells. Our brave troops, carried away by their natural generous impulses, mounted the different batteries, and at every discharge from the fort cheered the garrison for its pluck and gallantry, and hooted the fleet lying inactive just outside the bar.

About 1.30 p.m., it being reported to me that the flag was down (it afterwards appeared that the flag-staff had been shot away), and the conflagration from the large volume of smoke being apparently on the increase, I sent three of my aides with a message to Major Anderson to the effect that seeing his flag no longer flying, his quarters in flames, and supposing him to be in distress, I desired to offer him any assistance he might stand in need of. Before my aides reached the fort the United States flag was displayed on the parapet, but remained there only a short time, when it was hauled down and a white flag substituted in its place. When the United States flag first disappeared the firing from our batteries almost entirely ceased, but reopened with increased vigor when it reappeared on the parapet, and was continued until the white flag was raised, when it ceased entirely. Upon the arrival of my aides at Fort Sumter they delivered their message to Major Anderson, who replied, that he thanked me for my offer, but desired no assistance.

Just previous to their arrival Colonel Wigfall, one of my aides, who had been detached for special duty on Morris Island, had, by order of Brigadier-General Simons, crossed over to Fort Sumter from Cummings Point in an open boat, with private Gourdin Young, amidst a heavy fire of shot and shell, for the purpose of ascertaining from Major Anderson whether his intention was to surrender, his flag being down and his quarters in flames. On reaching the fort the colonel had an interview with Major Anderson, the result of which was that Major Anderson understood him as offering the same conditions on the part of General Beauregard as had been tendered him on the 11th instant, while Colonel Wigfall’s impression was that Major Anderson unconditionally surrendered, trusting to the generosity of General Beauregard to offer such terms as would be honorable and acceptable to both parties. Meanwhile, before these circumstances were reported to me, and in fact soon after the aides whom I had dispatched with the offer of assistance had set out on their mission, hearing that a white flag was flying over the fort, I sent Major Jones, the chief of my staff, and some other aides, with substantially the same propositions I had submitted to Major Anderson on the 11th instant, with the exception of the privilege of saluting his flag. The Major (Anderson) replied, “it would be exceedingly gratifying to him, as well as to his command, to be permitted to salute their flag, having so gallantly defended the fort under such trying circumstances, and hoped that General Beauregard would not refuse it, as such a privilege was not unusual.” He further said he “would not urge the point, but would prefer to refer the matter again to me.” The point was, therefore, left open until the matter was submitted to me.

Previous to the return of Major Jones I sent a fire engine, under Mr.


M. H. Nathan, chief of the fire department, and Surgeon-General Gibbes, Of South Carolina, with several of my aides, to offer further assistance to the garrison at Fort Sumter, which was declined. I very cheerfully agreed to allow the salute, as an honorable testimony to the gallantry and fortitude with which Major Anderson and his command had defended their post, and I informed Major Anderson of my decision about 7 1/2 o’clock., through Major Jones, my chief of staff.

The arrangements being completed Major Anderson embarked with his command on the transport prepared to convey him to the United States fleet lying, outside the bar, and our troops immediately garrisoned the fort, and before sunset the flag of the Confederate States floated over the ramparts of Fort Sumter.

I commend in the highest terms the gallantry of every one under my command, and it is with diffidence that I will mention any corps or names for fear of doing injustice to those not mentioned, for where all have done their duty well it is difficult to discriminate. Although the troops out of the batteries bearing on Fort Sumter were not so fortunate as their comrades working the guns and mortars, still their services were, equally as valuable and as commendable, for they were on their arms at the channel batteries, and at their posts and bivouacs, and exposed to severe weather, and constant watchfulness, expecting every moment and ready to repel re-enforcements from the powerful fleet off the bar and to all the troops under my command I award much praise for their gallantry, and the cheerfulness with which they met the duties required of them. I feel much indebted to Generals R. G. M. Dunovant and James Simons and their staffs, especially Majors Evans and De Saussure, South Carolina Army, commanding on Sullivan’s and Morris’ Islands, for their valuable and gallant services, and the discretion they displayed in executing the duties devolving on their responsible positions. Of Lieut. Col. R. S. Ripley, First Artillery Battalion, commandant of batteries on Sullivan’s Island, I cannot speak too highly, and join with General Dunovant, his immediate commander since January last, in commending in the highest terms his sagacity, experience, and unflagging zeal. I would also mention in the highest terms of praise Captains Calhoun and Hallonquist, assistant commandants of batteries to Colonel Ripley; and the following commanders of batteries on Sullivan’s Island: Capt. J. R. Hamilton, commanding the floating battery and Dahlgren gun; Captains Butler, South Carolina Army, and Bruns, aide-de-camp to General Dunovant, and Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, Yates, Valentine, and Parker.

To Lieut. Col. W. G. De Saussure, Second Artillery Battalion, commandant of batteries on Morris Island, too much praise cannot be given. He displayed the most untiring energy, and his judicious arrangements and the good management of his batteries contributed much to the reduction of Fort Sumter. To Major Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, in charge of the Cummings Point batteries, I feel much indebted for his valuable and scientific assistance, and the efficient working of the batteries under his immediate charge. The Cummings Point batteries (iron-42 pounder and mortar) were manned by the Palmetto Guards, Captain Cuthbert, and I take pleasure in expressing my admiration of the service of the gallant captain and his distinguished company during the action.

I would also mention in terms of praise the following commanders of batteries at the point, viz: Lieutenants Armstrong, of the Citadel Academy and Brownfield, of the Palmetto Guards; also Captain Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, who had charge-of the rifled cannon, and had the {p.34} honor of using this valuable weapon-a gift of one of South Carolina’s distant sons to his native State-with peculiar effect. Capt. J. G. King, with his company, the Marion Artillery, commanded the mortar battery in rear of the Cummings Point batteries, and the accuracy of his shell practice was the theme of general admiration. Capt. George S. James, commanding at. Fort Johnson, had the honor of firing the first shell at Fort Sumter, and his conduct and that of those under him was commendable during the action. Captain Martin, South Carolina Army, commanded the Mount Pleasant mortar battery, and with his assistants did good service. For a more detailed account of the gallantry of officers and men, and of the various incidents of the attack on Fort Sumter, I would respectfully invite your attention to the copies of the reports of the different officers under my command, herewith inclosed.

I cannot close my report without reference to the following gentlemen: To his excellency Governor Pickens and staff, especially Colonels Lamar and Dearing, who were so active and efficient in the construction of the channel batteries; Colonels Lucas and Moore for assistance on various occasions, and Colonel Duryea and Mr. Nathan (chief of the fire department) for their gallant assistance in putting out the fire at Fort Sumter when the magazine of the latter was in imminent danger of explosion; General Jamison, Secretary of War, and General S. R. Gist, adjutant-general, for their valuable assistance in obtaining and dispatching the troops for the attack on Fort Sumter and defense of the batteries; Quartermaster’s and Commissary Departments, Colonel Hatch and Colonel Walker, and the ordnance board, especially Colonel Manigault, Chief of Ordnance, whose zeal and activity were untiring: The Medical Department, whose preparations had been judiciously and amply made, but which a kind Providence rendered unnecessary; the Engineers, Majors Whiting and Gwynn, Captains Trapier and Lee, and Lieutenants McCrady, Earle, and Gregorie, on whom too much praise cannot be bestowed for their untiring zeal, energy, and gallantry, and to whose labors is greatly due the unprecedented example of taking such an important work after thirty-three hours’ firing without having to report the loss of a single life, and but four slightly wounded. From Major W. H. C. Whiting I derived also much assistance, not only as an engineer, in selecting the sites and laying out the channel batteries on Morris Island, but as acting assistant adjutant and inspector general in arranging and stationing the troops on said island. To the naval department, especially Captain Hartstene, one of my volunteer aides, who was perfectly indefatigable in guarding the entrance into the harbor, and in transmitting my orders; Lieut. T. B. Huger, who was also of much service, first as inspecting ordnance officer of batteries, then in charge of the batteries on the south end of Morris Island; Lieutenant Warley, who commanded the Dahlgren channel battery; also the school ship, which was kindly offered by the board of directors, and was of much service; Lieutenant Rutledge, who was acting inspector-general of ordnance of all the batteries, in which capacity assisted by Lieutenant Williams, C. S. A., on Morris Island, he was of much service in organizing and distributing the ammunition; Captains Childs and Jones, assistant commandant of batteries; to Lieutenant-Colonel De Saussure, Captains Winder and Allston, acting assistant adjutant and inspector general to General Simons’ brigade; Captain Manigault, of my staff, attached on General Simons’ staff, who (lid efficient and gallant services on Morris Island during the fight; Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes, of Charleston College, and his aides, for their valuable services in operating the Drummond lights established at the extensions of Sullivan’s and {p.35} Morris Islands. The venerable and gallant Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, was at the Iron battery, and fired many guns, undergoing every fatigue and sharing the hardships at the battery with the youngest of the Palmettoes. To my regular staff, Major Jones, C. S. A.; Captains Lee and Ferguson, South Carolina Army, and Lieutenant Legare, South Carolina Army, and volunteer staff, Messrs. Chisolm, Wigfall, Chesnut, Manning, miles, Gonzales, and Pryor, I am much indebted for their indefatigable and valuable assistance night and day during the attack on Fort Sumter, transmitting in open boats my orders when called upon with alacrity and cheerfulness to the different batteries amidst falling balls and bursting shells, Captain Wigfall being the first in Sumter to receive, the surrender.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. COOPER, Adjutant-General, C. S. A.

* For the correspondence with Major Anderson above referred to see inclosures to report No. 6, pp. 13-15.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S., Charleston, S. C., May 1, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to send you by the bearer, Capt. S. W. Ferguson, South Carolina Regulars, my regular aide, and Lieut. Col. A. R. Chisolm (aide to Governor Pickens), one of my volunteer aides, the flag which waved on Fort Moultrie during the bombardment of Fort Sumter, and was thrice cut by the enemy’s balls. Being the first Confederate flag thus baptized, I have thought it worth sending to the War Department for preservation. I should have, brought it on myself, but my present indisposition will prevent me from leaving here for a day or two.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.


No. 9.

Report of Brig. Gen. R. G. M. Dunovant, South Carolina Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS, SOUTH CAROLINA ARMY, Sullivan’s Island, April 21, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on Tuesday morning, April 9, in obedience to orders from your headquarters, I came down to Sullivan’s Island attended by the following members of my staff: Maj. N. G. Evans, S. C. A., adjutant-general; First Lieut. Warren Adams, S. C. A., and Second Lieut. Robert Pringle, S. C. A., aides-de-camp; Maj. W. D. De Saussure and Capt. J. D. Brims, special aides-de-camp.

Information having been received which led us to expect a determined effort on the part of the United States Government to re-enforce Fort Sumter, I at once made all the necessary preparations to prevent, if possible, the success of this attempt. The batteries in process of erection at the eastern extremity of the island were rapidly pushed to completion. Colonel Pettigrew had already taken precautions against {p.36} a surprise by establishing a picket guard on Long Island and by doubling the sentries on Sullivan’s Island.

On the morning of the 11th I reviewed the entire forces under my command, Colonel Pettigrew’s regiment of rifles occupying and defending the eastern third of the island with the assistance of the Charleston Light Dragoons, and the German Flying Artillery in charge of a field battery attached to his command, and Colonel Anderson’s regiment of the First Infantry being held in readiness to act as a reserve or to be thrown on any point where their services were required.

It affords me sincere gratification to record that, although happily Colonel Pettigrew’s regiment was not called into action, and had little share in the perils and honors of the recent engagement, their patient endurance of every privation, and their prompt and cheerful response to every call of duty during a long-continued service, entitle them to unqualified commendation. I may add that as soon as they heard the sound of our guns, twenty-four members of the regiment of rifles went down under fire to the floating battery, their boat narrowly escaping being sunk.

Colonel Anderson’s regiment of regulars also deserve special notice for the good order, spirit, and energy which have universally characterized the command. Three companies of his regiment, Captain Martin’s Captain Butler’s, and Lieutenant Valentine’s, were detached for duty as artillerists under Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley, and for their share in the bombardment I would respectfully refer you to the report of the lieutenant-colonel commanding the batteries.

The defenses of Fort Moultrie and the preparation of the gun and mortar batteries above and below this post seemed to me to be complete and satisfactory. For this no small measure of praise is due to the sagacity, experience, and unflagging zeal of Lieut. Col. R. S. Ripley, commanding First Battalion Artillery, who was assigned to duty under my command on the 2d day of January last, when Fort Moultrie was generally considered untenable. The suggestions made by this officer in his reports respecting the defenses of the fort have, in almost every instance been carried out, and their value has been triumphantly illustrated by the severe test to which they were subjected in the recent engagement. The guns which were used against Fort Sumter were the same which Major Anderson spiked and burned when he abandoned Fort Moultrie.

On the night of the 11th, as hostilities were shortly expected to commence, I made the following disposition of my staff: Major Pagan, Lieutenant Adams, and Lieutenant Pringle to be stationed between Fort Moultrie and Captain Butler’s battery, to carry orders to and from these posts and to the brigade of infantry; Major De Saussure to attend me personally, and Captain Bruns to be on detached service at Captain Hallonquist’s mortar battery, where he rendered efficient aid during the whole bombardment. Major Evans, who had been confined to his bed by sickness for some days, joined me soon after the battle commenced, and then, as always, exhibited the highest qualifications for the duties of his arduous and responsible post. I am gratified to record that my entire staff acquitted themselves well, and their services to me during the campaign have been invaluable. Although most of them had but little military experience, they have spared no pains to acquaint themselves with the duties of their office, and have, without exception, performed them intelligently, cheerfully, and with dispatch.

During the bombardment, I observed specially the behavior of the troops at Fort Moultrie, and at Captains Butler’s and Hallonquist’s {p.37} mortar batteries. At all these posts the energy and spirit displayed alike by officers and men could not be surpassed, I believe, by any troops in the world. The enfilade, Dahlgren, and floating batteries had also a prominent place in the picture, but I must again refer to the reports of the officers commanding these batteries.

I am pleased to mention that Ex-Governor J. L. Manning, Hon. W. P. Miles, and Capt. Samuel Ferguson, S. C. A., aides-de-camp to Brigadier-General Beauregard, brought orders to me from the brigadier-general commanding during the hottest of the fire. Major De Saussure, of my staff, carried information for the Ordnance Department in regard to the short supply of Dahlgren shells under a brisk fire.

As soon as the white flag was displayed from Fort Sumter on the 13th I sent Captain Hartstene, C. S. N., Captain Calhoun, S. C. A., and Surgeon Lynch, C. S. N., to ascertain whether Major Anderson had surrendered. These officers reported on their return that they had been preceded by some members of your staff.

For the details of this action, which has terminated so happily for the glory of our arms and for the honor and safety of South Carolina, I would respectfully refer you to the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley, and to the reports of the officers under his, immediate command.

R. G. M. DUNOVANT, Brigadier-General, Commanding South Carolina Army.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Assistant Adjutant-General.


No. 10.

Report of Brig. Gen. James Simons of operations against Fort Sumter.

HEADQUARTERS, Morris ISLAND, April 23, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor respectfully to inform you that the report of Lieutenant-Colonel De Saussure, commanding the battalion of artillery, with the reports of commanders of batteries at this post of the late action of the 12th and 13th instants with Fort Sumter, have this moment been handed to me, and as you are already apprised of my communication of yesterday to Assist. Adjt. Gen. D. R. Jones, this will furnish the reason for my delaying the present address. I have little to add to the minute and circumstantial detail which has been so carefully and minutely furnished by these officers. I add my confirmation to the commendation of the coolness, perseverance, and steady zeal of all those who were actively engaged in the action, to whom particular as well as general reference has been made in those reports.

The firing commenced on the signal designated in your General Orders No. 14, section 4, of date the 11th instant, and conformed substantially to the requisitions of General Orders No. 9, of date the 6th instant, both as regards the objects, and the times and the intervals of firing, and the only departure from the rigid compliance with those orders was done by my orders at 11.10 a.m. on the 13th instant, by which, through Colonel Wigfall, whom you had sent to me as a special aid the night before the engagement, I authorized battery commanders to increase the frequency of their fire, but with express directions that the fire should not be so frequent as to waste ammunition. This was continued until 1.30 p.m., when the flag of Fort Sumter fell, but whether by fire or by a ball from our batteries did not then appear. It was certain the colors were not {p.38} hauled down. I became certain afterwards, on a visit to Fort Sumter, that the flagstaff was shot away, for it bore the marks of many balls. Only two shots were fired from our batteries on this island after the flag fell. I suspended the firing, however, and on a consultation with Ex-Governor Manning, Colonel Chesnut, and Colonel Wigfall, members of your staff, I sent Colonel Wigfall, accompanied by Private Gourdin Young, of Palmetto Guard, with a white flag to Fort Sumter to inform Major Anderson that I observed his flag was down, and to inquire whether he would surrender to you. Colonel Wigfall, with great gallantry and his accustomed indifference to danger, accompanied as I have mentioned proceeded in a boat in the midst of the continued fire from our batteries other than at this island. Before he reached Fort Sumter I distinctly saw the flag of Fort Sumter flying on the northeast corner of the fortress but very much masked by the gable of the quarters and the smoke and flame. It was too late to recall Colonel Wigfall, and he accomplished his mission. Soon after he reached the fortress a white flag was substituted for that lately put up, and the firing ceased on both sides. The firing of Fort Sumter had continued after the flag had fallen.

At 2.15 p.m. Colonel Wigfall returned and announced that Major Anderson surrendered unconditionally to Brigadier-General Beauregard, of the C. S. Army. The announcement was received with the greatest enthusiasm, and Colonel Wigfall and Private Young were borne from the boat in triumph by the troops. Colonel Wigfall accompanied by Ex-Governor Manning, Colonel Chesnut, and Captain Chisolm of your staff, then proceeded to report to you.

In the afternoon, before sundown, a boat from the fleet was brought to by a shot from Lieutenant-Colonel Lamar’s battery, and landed Lieutenant Marcy, U. S. Navy. He asked me if I would give him permission to go to Fort Moultrie to inquire whether Major Anderson had surrendered, and whether he and his command could be taken out of the harbor by a vessel of the fleet, or a merchant vessel with them, or by their boats. I replied that so far as it was necessary to go to Fort Moultrie to learn whether Major Anderson had surrendered, I could, and did, give him the information, and so far as the removal of Major Anderson’s command out of the harbor was concerned, we could furnish the requisite transportation, but that the commanding general of our army was at hand, and that he would be communicated with, and that Lieutenant Marcy could have the answer at 9 a.m. the next day, at the same place. I sent Capt. Ben. Allston to you before dark with a dispatch to this effect, under the signature of Major Whiting. Subsequent events were managed by yourself or under your direction and control.

Besides the batteries actively engaged in the action, I cannot too highly commend the other batteries on the channel. The untiring zeal, watchfulness, and eagerness of the officers and men of the commands to participate in the defense of their country must fill the hearts of their fellow-citizens with the liveliest emotions of gratitude and pride.

I felt constrained to refuse permission to Capt. A. J. Green, of Columbia Artillery, and his gallant corps to open fire on Fort Sumter, although he solicited permission to participate in the contest. Whilst the credit of the battle will necessarily be more permanently associated with those who managed the instruments of warfare, I cannot conclude this report without inviting your attention to the infantry. In the midst of the greatest exposure to the most inclement weather, many hundreds bivouacking in the open air without any covering, many more sheltered by wide burrows in the sand hills, not a murmur of complaint escaped {p.39} during the thirty-three hours of the conflict; but with steady gaze on the fleet, which was ranged outside the harbor, plainly visible to the naked eye, they were ready to resist any hostile demonstration and repulse the invader, whilst their brave comrades of the batteries were engaged in driving the enemy from his strong fortress in our harbor. Commendation from one like myself, entitled from my education and training to no military consideration, is only valuable because it is honest and sincere.

In this sense you will permit me, general, to thank you for the assistants which your wisdom and kindness assigned to aid me in my difficult and trying position. I am almost unwilling to distinguish between them but the genius and the highest order of intellectual culture of Major Whiting, joined to his indefatigable and untiring energy, sleeplessly exercised both night and day, have entitled him at my hands to the most grateful eulogium.

Claiming no credit for myself, but only the desire to serve my country, I will urgently pray you, general, to pardon in myself all deficiencies which the newness of my situation and the suddenness of my assuming this post may have caused me to develop.

I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,

JAMES SIMONS, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD, Commanding Provisional Forces C. S., Charleston.


No. 11.

Report of Lieut. Col. R. S. Ripley, South Carolina Army, commanding Artillery.

HEADQUARTERS ARTILLERY, Sullivan’s Island, Fort Moultrie, April 16, 1861.

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on the evening of the 11th instant, at 9.1 o’clock, the batteries under my command were supplied and manned, the furnace heated, and all was ready for action either against a fleet or Fort Sumter. They were the following:

The five-gun battery, east of Curlew ground, under Captain Tupper, of the Vigilant Rifles.

The Maffitt channel battery, two guns, and mortar-battery No. 2, two 10-inch mortars, under Captain Butler, of the Infantry.

Fort Moultrie, which was my headquarters, thirty guns, under Capt. W. R. Calhoun, of the Artillery, assistant commandant of batteries; First Lieuts. Thomas Wagner and Alfred Rhett, Artillery, commanding Channel and Sumter batteries.

Mortar-battery No. 1, two 10-inch mortars.

The enfilade battery, four guns, under Capt. J. H. Hallonquist, Artillery, assistant commandant of batteries, and Lieutenants Flemming, Artillery, and Valentine, Infantry.

The Point battery, one 9-inch Dahlgren gun, and the floating battery, four guns, under Capt. J. R. Hamilton and First Lieutenant Yates, of the Artillery, and the Mount Pleasant battery, two 10-inch mortars, under Capt. Robert Martin, of the Infantry.

Of these three 8-inch columbiads, two 32-pounders, and six 24-pounders in Fort Moultrie; two 24-pounders and two 32-pounders in the enfilade {p.40} battery; one 9-inch Dahlgren gun, two 32-pounders, two 42-pounders at the Point and on board the floating battery, and the six 10-inch mortars bore upon Fort Sumter.

A strict watch was kept all night, but no attempt to send re-enforcements into Fort Sumter was observed. At 4 1/2 o’clock on the morning of the 12th a shell was seen from the batteries of Fort Johnson, and in accordance with orders the signal for general action was made at once. The commands went quickly and quietly to their posts, and very soon every battery bearing upon the fort had commenced. As it was still dark the firing was very slow, but after dawn the direct fire was quickened, until every gun which bore upon Sumter was in quick operation, and this was continued at the regular intervals presented throughout the day. The enemy at first only replied to the Cummings Point batteries, but in a short time opened a brisk fire on the Point and floating batteries of this command with great precision. Shortly afterward he commenced firing on the enfilade batteries, but did not open upon Fort Moultrie.

At about 8 o’clock I visited the batteries to the west of this fort, and noticed the admirable conduct of the officers and men. Lieutenants Blanding and Flemming, of the Artillery, at mortar battery No. 1, and Lieutenants Valentine and Burnet, of the Infantry, at the enfilade battery, were promptly and energetically performing their duties. Captain Hallonquist was directing his fire to enfilade and drive the enemy from his parapet. At the Point battery Capt. J. R. Hamilton was firing with great precision and skill, and from his battery I noticed First Lieutenants Yates and Harleston on board the floating battery working their guns with all the rapidity which the order of firing permitted. I next visited Captain Butler’s mortar battery, which he was working energetically.

Fort Sumter opened upon Fort Moultrie about 8.30 o’clock in the morning, and from that time a steady and continuous fire was kept up on us from his casemate 32-pounders and 42-pounders throughout the day. This was replied to by the nine guns of the Sumter battery of this fort, under Lieutenants Rhett and Mitchell, and two guns of the oblique battery, under Lieutenant Parker, until 9 a.m., when Lieutenant Rhett’s command was relieved by the detachment of Company A, under Lieutenants Wagner, Preston, and Sitgreaves.

Captain Calhoun arranged the reliefs, and the officers and men of Companies A, B, and D worked the Sumter battery of this fort alternately until evening. During this time Captain Calhoun kept his channel guns manned and ready for action against the fleet, which was confidently expected to attempt an entrance. At different times during the afternoon five hot shot were fired upon the quarters at Fort Sumter. I have learned that they were thrice set on fire. Meantime the enemy’s shot had told with great, effect upon the quarters of Fort Moultrie, continually perforating and breaking them up; but our defenses were strong, the merlons and traverses heavy and well secured, and no material damage was done to our defenses, although the principal fire of the enemy was directed on this fort during the whole of the afternoon. The direct fire ceased with the light, but the mortars kept up the bombardment at the prescribed intervals.

The night set in dark and rainy, and it was feared that the enemy would certainly attempt to re-enforce. All the batteries on the island were visited, and especial vigilance enjoined. The channel batteries were kept manned, the various enfilading guns were all in readiness to sweep the faces and landings at Fort Sumter, and the mortar batteries {p.41} to redouble their fire upon an alarm. The night passed away with one alerte, during which the mortar practice was increased in rapidity for a short time, and a few shots were fired from the different batteries; but it becoming apparent that the alarm was groundless the vertical fire was resumed, according to orders, and kept up until the day dawned.

Believing that it was impossible that the fleet outside would permit the cannonade to proceed without an attempt to re-enforce during the day, and the men of my command having been exposed to a pelting rain during the night, and feeling confident that we had perfect command of the enemy’s parapet, it had been determined to fire but two or three guns from the Sumter battery of Fort Moultrie, and, while keeping up a brisk mortar practice and fire from the enfilade battery, to save the ammunition of the Point and floating batteries to repel an attempt to re-enforce. Orders were given to such effect, and the two guns were opened from the Sumter battery of this fort, the other batteries firing in order. Fort Sumter opened early and spitefully, and paid especial attention to Fort Moultrie-almost every shot grazing the crest of the parapet, and crashing through the quarters. Our defenses were still uninjured and our losses trifling.

Finding that I could spare men and still keep the channel battery manned, the fire was somewhat increased, until about 9 o’clock on the morning of the 13th smoke was seen to issue from the roof of the quarters of Fort Sumter, and it was evident that a conflagration had commenced. The entire Sumter battery of Fort Moultrie was manned at once, and worked with the utmost rapidity, officers and men vieing in their energy. Captain Calhoun, First Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett., and Preston, Second Lieutenants Sitgreaves, Mitchell, and Parker, of the Artillery, and Mr. F. D. Blake, acting engineer, all superintended the working of the guns, which were manned by detachments from Company B, relieved at times by detachments from Company A, with a skill, and precision rarely excelled. Indeed, I doubt whether an artillery fire at such a distance with ordinary guns has ever equaled it in precision. The shot, both hot and cold, crashed into the quarters of Fort Sumter and along the parapet, rendering the extinction of the flames difficult, and lighting up new places to windward. It became evident soon that the enemy was worsted, but to insure the result orders were passed to each of the batteries to redouble their fire.

Captain Hamilton, Captain Hallonquist, and Lieutenants Yates and Valentine had anticipated the order, and Captain Butler soon increased the rapidity of his mortar practice; nevertheless from his casemates the enemy still poured shot thick and fast upon Fort Moultrie until about 12.45 p.m., when his flagstaff was cut away, and it slackened. The thick and stifling smoke arising from the ruins of his buildings told plainly that the time for surrender had nearly come. Nevertheless he hoisted a new flag over the crest of his parapet, and our fire, which had been ordered to cease when his flagstaff fell, was reopened with all the vigor we could command. The smoke still poured out of the ruins, and the fire from Fort Sumter having slackened again the order was again given to cease, but upon his recommencing we reopened.

While the enemy’s flag was still flying and he was still firing upon us, a boat was observed to leave Cummings Point and pull towards Fort Sumter. By my order a shot was sent ahead of it, but it continued on and landed.

At 1.15 p.m., a white flag having been hoisted alongside the United States ensign, the firing ceased. Brigadier-General Dunovant, who was present in Fort Moultrie, immediately sent Captain Hartstene, C. S. N., {p.42} Captain Calhoun, and Surgeon Lynch, C. S. N., to ascertain whether the Surrender was made, and to tender assistance. Upon their arrival they found that the staff of the commanding general had just preceded them.

It is hard to say whether any distinction can be made in the conduct of the officers and men under my command. From the senior captain to the prisoner turned out of the guard-house just before the action all did their duty. The conduct of several came under my special notice, and I mention them accordingly. Captains Calhoun and Hallonquist, assistants to commandant of batteries; Capt. J. R. Hamilton, First Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, and Yates, and Second Lieutenant Flemming, of the Artillery, and Captain Butler and Lieutenant Valentine, of the Infantry, were all in command of batteries, and deserve especial mention. In addition to the officers whose names appear in the report above I take pleasure in mentioning the conduct of the engineer and assistants, First Lieutenant Earle, and Messrs. F. D. Blake and J. E. Nash, volunteers, acting.

No repairs being needed for the defenses, these gentlemen acted as staff and lookout officers, and were very efficient. Lieut. T. S. Fayssoux, of the Cavalry, assistant commissary of subsistence, acted well in the same capacity. Capt. C. F. Middleton, an old resident of Sullivan’s Island, remained with his family during the cannonade, and was especially useful. All of these gentlemen were active and prompt in communicating orders and doing whatever duty devolved upon them.

Surg. Arthur Lynch, C. S. N., and Assist. Surg. Walter Taylor, South Carolina Volunteers, the permanent surgeons of the post, had made every preparation for the discharge of their duties, and would have been assisted by Drs. Raoul, Barnwell, and Porcher, who volunteered, but fortunately our casualties were, so few that their services as surgeons were needless. They acted as staff officers. The Rev. Mr. Aldrich was present during the cannonade. Dr. Maddox acted as Surgeon at mortar battery No. 1, and Drs. Daviga and Logan at the Point and on board the floating battery. Mr. John Wells, of South Carolina, acted as an ordinance officer at the Point battery under Captain Hamilton.

Our escape with only four slight casualties I conceive to be in a great measure due to the strength of our defenses, the material of which had been furnished under the direction of Maj. Walter Gwynn, chief engineer, in large quantities since the 1st of January last. Major Gwynn had also given his personal supervision to the construction of several of the works. The batteries exterior to the fort and many of the works adjacent were built under the superintendence of Captain Trapier, whose accomplishments as an engineer are well known, and certainly are appreciated by those who garrison works constructed by him.

Several times during the action I had the pleasure of meeting the brigadier-general commanding, and of receiving valuable assistance from Captain Bruns and other officers of the staff. I wish to draw particular and special attention to the valuable services of Messrs. John Henery and Charles Scanlan, acting military storekeepers, who have been on duty with my command since January last. These gentlemen have given every attention to their duty, and to them is due, in a great measure the high state of efficiency of our guns and ordnance. They were indispensable during the action.

The Ordnance Department deserves and has my thanks for the material furnished under so many adverse circumstances since the 1st of January last.

Among other volunteers, Maj. John Dunovant, of the Infantry, came {p.43} to Fort Moultrie early on the morning of the 13th, and was present during the action, doing all that lay in his power.

I was deprived of the services of the commissioned battalion staff during the cannonade. First Lieut. James Hamilton, adjutant, was absent sick on the 11th instant, but hearing of the probability of an engagement, left his bed and came to report for duty. He remained until some time after the action, when it was evident that his strength was gone. Lieutenant Yates, battalion quartermaster, preferred the command of the floating battery, and I excused him from staff duty.

Lieut. Col. Hatch, quartermaster-general, had made preparations for the extinguishment of fires. Mr. Prioleau Ravenel was present with the engines and a body of men to put them out should they occur. We were fortunate, and he did what duty he was called on to perform.

I have the honor to inclose a return of the few wounded, a statement of shot fired, and such reports from commanding officers as I have received. To them I beg to refer for the names of meritorious individuals not mentioned above.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. S. RIPLEY, Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery, Commanding.


Return of shot and shell fired front the batteries of Fort Moultrie, Sullivan’s Island, and Mount Pleasant, commanded by Lieut. Col. B. S. Ripley, Artillery, South Carolina Army, during the cannonade and bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 12 and 13, 1861.

ShellShotHot shot
10-inch9-inch8-inch64 pdr42 pdr32 pdr24 pdr32 pdr
Fort Moultrie624830510541
Enfilade battery300300
Point battery61
Floating battery247223
Mortar battery No. I185
Mortar battery No. 288
Mount Pleasant mortar battery81

No. 12.

Report of Lieut. Col. Wilmot G. De Saussure, South Carolina Army, commanding Artillery.


SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the reports of Maj. P. F. Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, assigned under Special Orders No. 8, from Headquarters Provisional Forces, to the Iron and Point batteries at this post, of Capt. George B. Cuthbert, commanding Palmetto Guard, by which corps the above batteries were manned, and of Capt. J. G. King, commanding Marion Artillery, by which corps the Trapier battery was manned. These several reports contain the events connected with the bombardment and fall of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, on Friday, {p.44} 12th, and Saturday, 13th instants, so far as the above-named batteries and corps were engaged.

An unavoidable delay in obtaining these reports has prevented me from earlier reporting to you. From the day on which supplies were cut off from Fort Sumter, on Sunday, 7th April, instant, the vigilance which had watched over the channel unceasingly was, if possible, increased, in order to prevent re-enforcement of men or supplies to the beleaguered fortress. On the afternoon of Thursday, 11th April, instant, I was notified that at a given signal the bombardment would commence, and that the signal might be looked for about 8 p.m. Shortly before that time the Trapier, Iron, and Point batteries were manned, the magazines opened, and the signal awaited.

After keeping the men at the batteries until nearly 10 p.m. they were dismissed to their respective quarters, but warned to turn out immediately upon the signal being given. At 4.30 a.m. of Friday, 12th April, instant, the signal being given, the batteries were promptly manned, and agreeably to the instructions furnished me for the firing of the mortars, the fire was opened on Fort Sumter from the Trapier battery and succeeded by the Point battery. The fire from this post was commenced at 4.48 a.m. and continued from the mortar batteries at the prescribed intervals until past 2 p.m., when, under orders from Headquarters Provisional Forces, the intervals were doubled. Shortly after 5 a.m., and when the early dawn enabled the guns to be properly worked, the fire was commenced from the three 8-inch columbiads in the Iron battery and the two 42-pounders in the Point battery. From the embrasures of the latter the masks bad been removed during the night of Thursday, and also from the rifled cannon in position in the Point battery.

Under my instructions the fire from the columbiads and 42-pounders was at the rate of four shot from each gun per hour. This interval was taken with the purpose of not overheating the guns, of not overfatiguing the men, and that the firing, being conducted with great deliberation, should be accurate. The desired purpose was, I believe, attained. The guns were chiefly directed to driving the men from the barbette guns of Fort Sumter and to dismount as many guns as possible, and also to drive the men from the casemate guns bearing upon this post. Shortly after 7 a.m. of Friday, the 12th instant, the fire from Fort Sumter was opened on this post, and for a considerable time was more directed here than to any other point around the harbor. One hundred and twenty-four shot were fired at the Iron battery, thirteen of which struck it. I am unable to report the number fired at the Point and Trapier batteries, or at the island and cantonments generally, but for a space of over two hours on Friday a duel was kept up between the Point battery and Fort Sumter, gun answering gun during that time. The fire from the guns was continued until dark. The mortar fire was continued both day and night.

On Saturday morning, 13th April instant, a little before 7 a.m., the tour of the mortars at this post having come round, the mortars were discharged at the appointed intervals, and shortly afterwards smoke was seen issuing from the officers’ quarters at Fort Sumter. The smoke increased until about 8 a.m., when the flames burst forth. I believe the fire was communicated from a shell thrown either by the right mortar in the Trapier battery, or the left mortar in the Point battery; the shells from these two mortars fell at or about the same place on the roof of the officers’ quarters, and at that time the smoke was first observed from this post. Upon the flames bursting out the rapidity of the fire was increased, in order to spread the flames. Shortly before 10 a.m. Captain {p.45} King was instructed to drop a shell on the southern end of the eastern barracks, in order to communicate the fire also to it, and his fifth shell passing through the roof at the designated point the fire was spread. The fire from this post was then reduced to the regular intervals, and so continued until 1.30 p.m., at which time, the flagstaff at Fort Sumter being shot away, the fire from this point was ordered to cease until opportunity was given to Major Anderson either to replace his flag, or by not replacing it signify a readiness to treat. The replacement of his flag was not seen from this post, and the fire consequently not resumed. The subsequent events are matters falling under your own orders.

The several reports herewith transmitted speak more fully of individual acts of gallantry than my own position would enable me to do. Of the gallantry of the troops engaged in the action, and of their perfect subordination, I cannot speak in terms too high. Few, if any, had ever before been under fire, and yet the entire coolness with which the guns were worked, and the accuracy of fire, would have reflected credit upon veterans. The Trapier battery of three mortars was manned by a portion of the Marion Artillery, under the command of Capt. J. Gadsden King, and the immediate direction of the battery assigned by him to Lieuts. W. D. H. Kirkwood and Edward L. Parker. The fire from these mortars appeared to me to be particularly good, a large proportion of the shells bursting over Fort Sumter or within the parade. The pointing of the mortars from this battery was chiefly done by Corporal McMillan King, jr., Privates J. S. Murdock and Robert Murdock, and reflects upon them very great credit. The Sumter Guard, Capt. John Russell, acted as a reserve to the Marion Artillery, and were engaged during a part of the bombardment at the battery and also during the night in working in the embrasures at the Point battery and in covering the iron battery in part with sand bags. While thus engaged during the night this company was under fire from Fort Sumter. The remaining portion of the Marion Artillery were on duty at Battery G, a Channel battery, to which were assigned Lieuts. J. P. Strohecker and A. M. Huger. The presence of a fleet of war vessels outside the bar required that this, in common with all the channel batteries, should be kept constantly manned, and upon an alarm excited during the night of Friday by a small boat being seen rowing near the shore, the preparation of this detachment was shown by a fire being immediately opened on the boat. The Iron battery, of three 8-inch columbiads, and the Point battery, of three mortars, two 42-pounders, and one 12-pounder rifled cannon, were manned by the Palmetto Guard, Capt. George B. Cuthbert. These two batteries were assigned to the supervision of Maj. P. F. Stevens. The fire from the Iron battery was under the immediate direction of Capt. George B. Cuthbert and Lieutenants Lamb and Buist, and does great credit to their skillful management. The battering from this battery is very marked upon the exterior wall of Fort Sumter, while the accurate practice dismounted, as I believe, two of the barbette guns on the eastern face, and to a considerable degree crippled one gun on the northern and one on the southwestern face.

At about 11 a.m. of Friday the mantlet to the embrasure of gun No. 2 was crippled by the lever-arm used in working it breaking from a flaw in the iron, and for some time this gun was unable to be used. The mantlet was subsequently pried open and the gun renewed its fire. The fire from the mortar at the Point battery was conducted under the supervision of Lieut. N. Armstrong, of the Citadel Academy, assisted by Lieut. C. R. Holmes, of the Palmetto Guard; and much praise is due to them for the accuracy of their fire. As well as I can judge, this {p.46} battery competes with the Trapier battery for the honor of throwing into Fort Sumter the largest number of shells thrown from any post in the harbor. The rifled cannon in this battery was under the supervision of Capt. J. P. Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, and its accuracy of aim reflected well upon the skill of Captain Thomas, and was a valuable auxiliary in driving the men from their guns. The two 42-pounders were managed by Lieut. T. Sumter Brownfield, and I cannot speak too highly of their services. Twice on Saturday, 13th instant, I saw the casemate bearing on this post manned, and instructed Lieutenant Brownfield to drive the men away, and in each case the shot striking on the cheeks of the embrasures drove the men away. The venerable Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia., was at this battery during the greater part of the bombardment, and by his enthusiasm and example greatly incited the men.

To Maj. P. F. Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, I but do justice in saying that by example, by forethought, by energy, by his skill much of the success from this post was achieved. He is entitled to most honorable mention and to the highest praise.

To the companies manning the channel batteries much praise is due for a vigilance which never slept, and through which everything looking towards a re-enforcement was guarded against. It was confidently believed by me that the channel batteries were far more likely to be engaged than the batteries bearing on Fort Sumter, and until the bombardment commenced I rested upon the troops at these batteries with the firm assurance that they would permit no entrance whatever to the beleaguered fortress, and the patient vigilance and endurance, the more commendable because not being by the fortune of war at the posts of combat on the 12th and 13th instants, when a hostile fleet lay off the harbor and an hourly conflict was expected, cannot be too highly commended. To the Wee Nee Riflemen, Capt. J. G. Pressley, Lieut. A. F. Warley, and the detachment of the Wee Nee Riflemen, Lieutenant Keils under him; the Columbia Artillery, Capt. A. J. Green; the German Artillery, Capt. C. Nohrden, and Lieut. Col. Thomas G. Lamar, with the volunteer detachment under him, I desire, to pay the highest commendation for a vigilance unsleeping and untiring. The gallant bearing of these troops while standing as silent spectators of the bombardment evinces that if it had been their good fortune to have been actively engaged they would have rendered for themselves a faithful account.

Without invidious distinction I desire particularly to call to your attention the services of the Columbia Artillery, Capt. A. J. Green, which has been on duty unrelieved since 1st January last, and of the German Artillery, Capt. C. Nohrden, which, with but short relief, has been on duty since 27th December last. To Captain Green, as the company longest in service, was given the choice of the batteries, and with characteristic gallantry he chose the post which he believed certain of action.

The course of circumstances deprived himself and his brother commanders of the channel batteries from joining in the engagement, while it afforded to their equally gallant but more fortunate brother commanders of the Point batteries the opportunity of being engaged. All were ready and all were gallant, and I desire to speak thus in justice to all. To the valuable services of Sergeant Hamilton and Privates Brooks, and Riley, of the Columbia Artillery, rendered at the Iron battery in endeavoring to repair the injured mantelet and lever-arm, I ask leave to call attention. I also desire to mention with great commendation the valuable services rendered me by Capt. F. D. Lee, Corps of Engineers, assigned by you as a part of my staff, {p.47} and to whose admirable field works too much praise cannot be awarded; also to Lieut. J. Ravenel Macbeth, my adjutant, and to Capts. J. Jones and F. L. Childs, assistant commandants of batteries, I desire to call attention for gallantry and cool determination in the extension of orders and for valuable suggestions during the engagement. To Capt. P. Gervais Robinson, M. D., Lieut. R. F. Michel, M. D., my medical staff, and to Drs. F. T. Miles and F. L. Parker, who kindly volunteered their services as surgeons, I am greatly indebted for the thought and care with which they had prepared for the casualties of battle. They were respectively assigned to the several batteries, and during the entire engagement remained at the posts to which so assigned. No casualties, I am glad to say, required their presence; but I am not the less indebted to them, and ask that they may be mentioned with the honor to which they are so justly entitled. To Lieut. John I Rutledge, inspector of ordnance, and to Lieut. L. C. Williams, of the Ordnance Department, with his valuable sergeants, M. E. Rooney and E. W. Fuller (the latter of whom was specially detached from the Columbia Artillery), I ask to call your particular attention. To the batteries under my command their services were invaluable, and to them I owe, in a very high degree, the efficiency of their fire.

Desiring through you, sir, to express to the commanding general of the Provisional Forces my entire satisfaction with the soldierly deportment and bearing and with the efficient services rendered, as I believe, by the troops under my command,

I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,

WILMOT G. DE SAUSSURE, Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Artillery.

Brig. Gen. JAMES SIMONS, Commanding Morris Island.


No. 13.

Reports of Maj. P. F. Stevens, commanding Point and Iron batteries.


COLONEL: I have the honor to report that yesterday morning, about 4 o’clock, a shell having been fired from Fort Johnson, according to instructions I manned my batteries, and, following Captain King’s battery, opened fire on Fort Sumter from the mortar battery, which was continued unabatedly night and day until the order was to-day given to cease firing. The Iron battery and the 42-pounder batteries opened their fire during all yesterday, and once during last night, when all alarm was given that re-enforcements were endeavoring to enter the fort. At 5 o’clock this morning, the fire was resumed from the Iron and 42-pounder batteries, in conjunction with the fire of the mortar battery.

At about 7.30 a.m. Lieutenant Armstrong in charge of the mortar battery, reported to me that he had thrown a shell which broke into the roof of Fort Sumter about the southwest angle and exploded therein. He immediately pointed out the spot, from which the smoke of the explosion had not yet ceased to issue. The smoke from this point continued to arise and increase in volume, until about 8 o’clock the flame broke out, and soon enveloped the south roof. I immediately ordered my batteries to quicken their fire, and a rapid volley was poured from all my batteries (mortars and heavy guns) for nearly three quarters of an hour. I think the fire from every battery under my {p.48} command was most ably directed, and contributed greatly to increase and spread the flames, which soon spread from roof to roof, causing the explosion of shells and hand grenades on the different parapets and greatly injuring the works. The fire having partly expended its fury, my fire was slackened by your order, and continued very much at the rates prescribed in orders until about 1 o’clock, when the flagstaff of Fort Sumter fell, seemingly shot away. The fire was then stopped by order of the commanding general, and not resumed from my batteries, Major Anderson subsequently having surrendered, about 2 p.m.

It is impossible for me to particularize the individual officers or men who behaved well during this action; but I think great credit due to the effective fire of guns directed by officers and Men, who, with the exception of the officers of the Military Academy, had never until two or three weeks since undertaken to manage artillery. Captain Cuthbert, of the Palmetto Guard, assisted by Lieutenant Buist, had especial charge of the Iron battery with its three 8-inch columbiads; Lieutenant Armstrong, of the South Carolina Military Academy, assisted by Lieut. R. Holmes, of the Palmetto Guards, had charge of the three 10-inch mortars of the Point battery; Lieut. T. Sumter Brownfield, of the “Guard,” had charge of the 42-pounders, and Capt. J. P. Thomas, of the Citadel Academy, had command of the Blakely rifled cannon. For some two hours yesterday a heavy fire was directed against my batteries, but with very little effect, and absolutely no loss of life. The Iron battery was struck several times with little damage, the balls glancing and making little impression. Several shot were split, upon striking the same. Early in the day one heavy shot struck the upper end of the shutter of embrasure No. 2. The plates of boiler-iron composing the same were considerably bent, or rather indented, by the blow, even splitting the plate through. The shot, however, was completely turned, and no real damage would have been experienced had it not been for a flaw in the lever-arm which maneuvered the shutter. This lever, to sustain a heavy weight as a counterpoise to the shutter, and having a large flaw (not before seen) just in the bend of the arm, was broken by the jar of the blow. The shutter was afterwards propped up, and the fire of the gun continued with great effect this morning. The sand battery was a most effectual screen for the guns it covered, and is absolutely uninjured by the fire of Fort Sumter. The rifled cannon being but limitedly supplied with ammunition could do little, but its few shots were skillfully directed by Captain Thomas.

I have the honor, sir, to congratulate you upon the share in this great success and victory to which the troops under your command are entitled.

Very respectfully,

P. F. STEVENS, Major, Commanding Point and Iron Batteries.

Lieutenant-Colonel DE SAUSSURE, Commanding Battalion Artillery.


MAJOR: Upon my return to this post I found the accompanying letter, which had been written to me by Capt. G. B. Cuthbert during my temporary absence from Morris Island.*

Sergeant Bissell did not exactly “cripple the gun of the left casemate,” {p.49} as a subsequent examination has proven, but Lieutenant Colonel De Saussure stated to me that Captain Seymour had informed him that our fire was so severe against the casemates bearing on my batteries that the men were driven out; and this fact is confirmed by my own observation that the fire from said casemates ceased about 2 o’clock on Friday, and was never renewed, although on Saturday my glass showed me some men in one of the casemates about to fire, as I thought. Immediately I ordered the two 42-pounders and Bissell’s 64-pounder to fire at the casemate, and the men within disappeared from sight.

Added to the names of Phillips and Campbell as working in the magazine, I must mention McLane and Macbeth, working in the shell magazine. To my knowledge McLane never left his magazine from the firing of the first shell to the surrender of the fort. The captain is a little in error in attributing the accident to the shutter of the middle gun in the Iron battery to the recoil of the gun. In my report to Lieutenant-Colonel De Saussure you will find it correctly attributed to a shot from Fort Sumter. I most cheerfully agree with the captain in his praise of the gallant conduct of the men who came for the tools and materials to repair the broken lever, but I would not detract from their praise in mentioning that the heavy weights of the shutter and its counterbalance again deranged the lever-bar, so that during Saturday’s engagements it was necessary to prop up the shutter, and fire with it thus open the whole day.

The incident alluded to in reference to Mr. Lining, the judge-advocate of the Seventeenth Regiment, was as follows: Mr. Lining was erecting the flag of the Palmetto Guard on the traverse in rear of the Iron battery when the first shot from Fort Sumter passed within a few feet of him. The captain, thinking the position too exposed for the flag, directed it to be transferred to the traverse on the right (at least that is my impression). Certainly Mr. Lining removed the flag, amid the rush and hiss of several balls flying near him, planted it securely on the traverse to the right, and descended amid the plaudits of his comrades. In all respects, save what I have here mentioned I fully indorse Captain Cuthbert’s communication, and am obliged to him for the facts recalled to my memory.

There is one somewhat remarkable incident which I beg leave here to record. On Thursday evening our camp was thrown into considerable excitement by the report that the demand was to be made for the surrender of the fort, and when it was reported that a white flag had been sent to Sumter our batteries were all manned, and the men in eager expectation were watching the fort. I was standing on the traverse closing the left flank of the Iron battery. A number of men were around me. Suddenly the United States flag on Fort Sumter was seen to split in two distinct parts, dividing from the front edge to the back just along the lower extremity of the “Union.” I remarked to the men around me, “I wonder if that is emblematical?” Several remarked that it appeared ominous. For several moments the flag flew in this condition, when it was hauled down and another flag raised in its stead.

Very respectfully,

P. F. STEVENS, Major and Superintendent, Citadel Academy.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Adjutant-General.

* Not found


No. 14.

Report of Capt. R. Martin, commanding Mount Pleasant mortar battery.


GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the inclosed report of practice at battery under my command.* Probably you will see I fired faster than ordered. Captain Ferguson can inform you that Colonel Ripley allowed me to fire faster. The officers and men are in good condition, though much mortified at not being noticed by Major Anderson. After the forty-eighth shot the fort was seen to be on fire, and the excitement was so great no account was kept of the shots. I think we fired about ten shells more.

I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

R. MARTIN, Captain, Commanding Battery.

Brig. Gen. P. G. T. BEAUREGARD, C. S. A., Commanding Forces about Charleston, S. C.

P. S.–Lieut. F. H. Robertson, of the Confederate Army, was of great use to me. He was prompt and energetic in the discharge of his duties, and was fully competent to the part assigned him by your order. I cannot close without mentioning the services of Lieut. George N. Reynolds of the Confederate States Army, who acted as ordnance officer. He showed an intimate acquaintance with his duties, and discharged them well. In fact, all the officers behaved coolly, although under no trial but that of excitement.

I am, general, your obedient servant,


* Omitted as unimportant.


No. 15.

Report of Capt. William Butler, commanding mortar battery No. 2, Sullivan’s Island.


SIR: I have the honor to submit my report upon the service of the mortars under my charge during the bombardment of Fort Sumter on the 12th and 13th instants.

On the night of the 11th the gunners were detailed and at their posts, the mortar pointed, and the battery prepared for immediate action. The following morning the signal for hostilities to commence being announced both from Forts Johnson and Moultrie, we opened fire from this battery upon Fort Sumter. The prescribed intervals for firing were observed, until varied by verbal orders from the lieutenant-colonel commanding, directing me to shorten them, when an increased rate of firing was commenced and continued until dark.

During the night the rate of firing was reduced to one shell in two to three hours, but was again renewed the next morning at the increased rate of the day before, and continued until about noon, when the signal for surrender was observed and the firing ceased.


The channel battery, though not called into use, was kept manned and ready for action. The fire of the enemy, which was not at any time concentrated in this direction, was apparently pointed for the channel battery, and did no damage except to some of the adjacent houses, the shot generally passing over us.

The officers under my command, Lieutenants Huguenin, Mowry, Blocker, Billings, and Rice, rendered efficient assistance, performing the duties assigned them with zeal and coolness. The men manned the batteries both night and day with alacrity and cheerfulness. I inclose a summary of the firing.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. BUTLER, Captain, South Carolina Infantry.

ADJUTANT, Fort Moultrie.


No. 16.

Report of Capt. W. R. Calhoun, commanding Sumter battery, Fort Moultrie.

FORT MOULTRIE, S. C., April 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report concerning the bombardment of Fort Sumter on the 12th and 13th instants by the Sumter battery at Fort Moultrie.

The fire was opened at 4.30 by Lieutenants Rhett and Mitchell, from the second detachment of Company B, Battalion of Artillery. Lieutenants Wagner, Preston, and Sitgreaves, with the whole of Company A, manned the channel battery, to be ready to open fire in the event of the United States fleet attempting to relieve Fort Sumter, and Lieut. C. W. Parker, with three detachments of Company D, manned the oblique battery.

The fire on Fort Sumter was kept up until 6 p.m., with satisfactory results, by detachments from Companies A, B, and D, arranged in reliefs, as was considered necessary or advisable. At 6 p.m. the fire from the. Sumter battery ceased, and was resumed at 7 a.m. on the 13th. The fire continued until the surrender of Fort Sumter under the direction of Lieutenants Wagner, Rhett, Preston, Sitgreaves, Parker, and Mitchell, and Mr. F. D. Blake, aiding and volunteering as lieutenant. All officers and men discharged their duties gallantly and efficiently, and in a manner never surpassed under similar circumstances.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. R. CALHOUN, Captain, &c.

Lieut. Col. R. S. RIPLEY, Chief of Artillery.


No. 17.

Report of Capt. J. H. Hallonquist, commanding mortar and enfilading batteries.

FORT SUMTER, April 17, 1861.

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the mortar and enfilading batteries which I commanded during the recent bombardment of Fort Sumter:

Owing to the fact that during the day I considered my personal attention {p.52} due more to the enfilading battery than to the mortars, I was chiefly at the guns of the latter [former], but during the night I saw that your orders relative to rate of firing were carried out. For a detailed account, therefore, of the mortar battery I would refer to the report of Captain Bruns to myself. I would call attention to the zeal and energy displayed by Captain Bruns, Lieutenants Flemming and Blanding, who worked at the guns during the whole time exposed to the heavy rains which fell on the morning and night of the 12th. I can say no more than that they performed their duties as became South Carolinians. Lieutenant Flemming commanded. Sergeants O’Grady and Wheat and Private Harlan, of Company B, were also untiring in the performance of their duty.

On the morning of the 12th the enfilading battery opened fire immediately after mortar battery No 1. Their rate of firing was at first much more rapid than that established, but the fire was slackened first to four, then to six and eight, minutes’ interval between each gun. My principal object of the fire, from this battery was to dismount the guns on the right and left faces of Fort Sumter exposed to an enfilading fire. The battery during the 12th and the morning of the 13th was the recipient of quite a heavy fire from Sumter, chiefly from his 32-pounders in casemate. One shell from his barbette battery burst over the parapet, but injuring no one. There was more danger from the splinters of the wooden houses near by, which at every discharge were scattered over the men at the guns. At 10 1/2 o’clock on the 12th I opened a ricochetting fire on the western front of Fort Sumter, as it was supposed that re-enforcements were passing in. From this battery six hundred shots were fired-one hundred and twenty-five to each gun.

I would respectfully call your attention to the excellent conduct of all the officers and men of Company K, Infantry Battalion. Lieutenants Valentine and Burnet were always in the right place at the right moment, and assisted me greatly in the management of the battery. For a report by name of the non-commissioned officers and men I would respectfully refer to Lieutenant Valentine, commanding the camp.

Charles Farelly, a citizen of Charleston, was untiring and active in the performance of his volunteer duty. I neglected above to refer to the good conduct of Corporal Smith at the mortar battery. He is reported by Lieutenant Flemming, commanding, as deserving the greatest praise for his general behavior during the bombardment.

Respectfully submitted.


R. S. RIPLEY, Colonel.


No. 18.

Report of Lieut. Thomas M. Wagner, commanding channel battery.

FORT MOULTRIE, April 18, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the signal for the attack on Fort Sumter on the morning of the 12th instant, at 4 1/2 o’clock, the company went to battery, every man present. Thirteen guns on the channel battery were manned; a detachment of six men were placed in the magazine, under Mr. Scanlon, and the hot-shot furnace put under Corporal Marshall, with four men. Eight detachments relieved Company {p.53} B from Sumter battery from 9 o’clock to 11 and from 1 to 3 on Friday, and from 12 to the end of the firing on Saturday. Detachments from Company A were engaged during both days in supplying the hot shot for the guns. The officers were at Sumter battery during the whole engagement.

The conduct of both men and officers under me deserves the highest commendation. All behaved so well that it would be invidious to mention names. I beg to ask that, the thanks of the officers of this command may be tendered to Mr. F. Blake, who volunteered to assist the officers in the arduous duties devolving upon them on account of the smallness of their numbers. The zeal, ability, and gallantry displayed by him deserve the highest commendation

The men who were at the battery during the night of the 12th were exposed to a violent storm, but submitted with cheerfulness to all their hardships. During the whole engagement the channel battery was manned, ready for the fleet.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

THOMAS M. WAGNER, Captain Company A, Bat. Art., S. C. A.

W. R. CALHOUN, First Lieutenant Company A, Bat. Art., S. C. A.


No. 19.

Report of Lieut. Alfred Rhett, commanding detachment Company B, Battalion Artillery, South Carolina Army.

FORT SUMTER, April 17, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to draw your attention to the coolness and meritorious conduct of the following noncommissioned officers and privates of Company B, under my command, displayed during the recent bombardment of Fort Sumter: Sergeants Schaffer and Edwards, Corporals Fullum and Pettigru, and Privates McGill and Randall. The whole command, indeed, behaved well.

I have the honor to remain, colonel, very respectfully,

ALFRED RHETT, First Lieutenant, Commanding Detachment Company

Lieut. Col. R. S. RIPLEY.


No. 20.

Report of Lieut. Jacob Valentine, commanding enfilading battery.

DEAR SIR: According to General Orders No. 20 I send a report of the firing from and against the enfilade battery and the conduct of the officers and men under my command. Number of shots fired from battery, 611. The object of our firing was to sweep the crest of the parapet, the roofs of the quarters within Fort Sumter, to dismount the barbette guns, if practicable, and to drive the enemy from the parapet. The latter object was accomplished. At this distance it is impossible to discern accurately the result of the firing. The firing from Fort {p.54} Sumter against our battery was heavy, but, I am happy to say, ineffectual, and resulted in neither injury to the battery or to the men.

I take great pleasure in bringing to your notice Lieut. B. S. Burnet, who, from the commencement to the last, was steady at his post, giving all necessary orders, and by his example gave double courage to the men under my command. I would also mention First Sergeant P. Cummings, Fourth Corporal G. Kay; also Privates Tracy, Stewart, Grant, Rawlins, Wheelis, Keen, Cody, Dwyer, and, indeed, the whole company, with but few exceptions, performed their duty to my entire satisfaction.

I cannot close my report without favorable mention of a volunteer (Charles Farelly), who in the working of the guns rendered us material service.

I am, colonel, your very obedient servant,

JACOB VALENTINE, Lieutenant, Commanding Enfilade Battery.

Col. R. S. RIPLEY.


No. 21.

Reports of Capt. G. B. Cuthbert, Palmetto Guard, South Carolina Infantry.

PALMETTO GUARD ENCAMPMENT, Morris Island, April 17, 1861.

DEAR SIR: In the report which I now make I propose to give an account of the most prominent incidents connected with the batteries manned by the Palmetto Guard, and which transpired during the engagement, which took place on the 12th and 13th instant I will also take occasion to mention the names of those who particularly distinguished themselves by their courage and efficiency. In conclusion I shall render you a statement of the number of shells and solid shot fired from the above-mentioned batteries.

The mortar battery at Cummings Point opened fire on Fort Sumter in its turn, after the signal shell from Fort Johnson, having been preceded by the mortar batteries on Sullivan’s Island and the mortar battery of the Marion Artillery

At the dawn of day the Iron battery commenced its work of demolition. The first shell from columbiad No. 1, fired by the venerable Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, burst directly upon the parapet of the southwest angle of the fort. After the first round the Iron battery continued firing at regular intervals of fifteen minutes, in accordance with the orders of General Beauregard The mortar battery continued during the day in the order prescribed.

At 7 o’clock a.m. Major Anderson fired his first shot. This was directed at the Iron battery. The ball passed a few feet above the upper bolts of the shed. The enemy continued firing at too great an elevation until the sixth shot, which fell harmlessly upon the upper portion of the shed, between the embrasures No. 2 and No. 3. At 9 o’clock a.m. columbiad No 1 became disabled by the recoil of the piece, which broke the bolts connecting the chains with the epaulement. This damage was repaired, however, after the expiration of an hour. At 10 o’clock a.m. columbiad No. 2, being aimed at the 10-inch columbiad bearing upon the Iron battery from the parapet of the southwest angle, was fired with such precision as to dismount the grim monster. A few minutes afterwards the window of columbiad No. 2 was struck near the center by a {p.55} 42-pounder shot, which shattered the bolts and scattered the fragments between the cannoneers. The proper working of this window, however, was not interfered with by this occurrence, but in a half hour after this columbiad recoiled with such violence as to break the lever-bar by which the window was lifted. This casualty prevented the use of this gun until the following morning, several engineers being engaged for the purpose of repairing it. After the second shot from the same piece on the following morning the bar became fractured again in the same place, and, until the surrender, columbiad No. 2 was fought with its shutter opened permanently. The fire of the Iron battery was directed during the first day at the guns in barbette and those in the casemates. Major Anderson directed his fire for four consecutive hours, from 7 to 11 o’clock a.m., at the Iron battery, striking it seven times. He then pointed his guns at the mortar battery of Cummings Point, and making no impression upon the unbroken wall of sand he turned his attention to the 42-pounders, thrusting at successive intervals their muzzles along the sides of their palmetto embrasures. At 4 o’clock p.m. the gunners at Fort Sumter ceased firing towards Morris Island, the batteries pointing in that direction being completely silenced. The rifled cannon did great execution two of its balls passing entirely through the walls of Fort Sumter.

On the morning of the 13th we attempted to breach with our columbiads by concentrating our fire upon a point to the right of the sally-port, in tending thus to effect another object at the same time, viz, by the ricochet of the ball to beat away the traverse of granite, which had been built up for the purpose of protecting the doorway from an enfilading fire. We had fired but a few shots when a shell from the mortar battery at Cummings Point fell upon the northwestern portion of the roof of the fort. After the lapse of some minutes we perceived the smoke issuing from that quarter. Soon flames burst upward. From that moment until the flagstaff was shot down seven-second shells were fired rapidly from the Iron battery, aimed in such a manner as to scatter the flame and to increase the fury of the conflagration. I refer you, dear sir, to the marks of shot and shell upon the outer and interior walls of the fort to enable you to form an adequate idea of the accuracy with which the columbiads, the mortars, the rifled cannon, and the 42-pounders of the Cummings Point batteries were aimed and fired.

The posts of the officers of the Palmetto Guard were as follows: Captain Cuthbert commanded and directed the fire of the Iron battery; First Lieutenant Holmes, assisted by Lieutenant Armstrong of the Citadel Academy, commanded the mortar battery; Second Lieutenant Brownfield commanded and directed the fire of the. 42-pounders; Captain Thomas, of the Citadel Academy with a squad of the Palmetto Guard, had charge of the rifled cannon; to Major Stevens was assigned the post of superintending the working of all these batteries, and he was so recognized; Lieutenant Buist acted as gunner to No. 3 columbiad during the greater part of the engagement, aiming many of his shots very accurately.

Lieutenants Holmes, Brownfield, and Buist behaved throughout the conflict with distinguished courage and gallantry. Major Stevens, Captain Thomas, and Lieutenant Armstrong, by their coolness, bravery and skill, gave the highest evidence of their long military training. Lieutenant Brownfield’s 42-pounders were fired with great precision, and to his industry and pride in his battery is attributable the fine working condition of his guns. To Mr. Phillips and Mr. Campbell much praise is due for their untiring devotion to their particular department of the {p.56} magazine stores. In the Iron battery, Orderly Sergeant Bissell aimed many a capital shot at the casemates, and the two Sergeants Webb at the parapet. Bissell crippled the gun of the left casemate, bearing directly upon the Iron battery, and Serg. L. S. Webb dismounted the 10-inch columbiad upon the parapet. Second Sergeant Bissell and Mr. Farelly also made some good shots. At the 42-pounders Sergeant Brownfield, Corporals Rhett, Wright, and Dwyer distinguished themselves as gunners. At the mortar battery Sergeant Gaillard, Corporals Robinson, Zalam, Brailijon, and Rhett did good service as gunners. Capt. Stephen Elliott, of the Beaufort Artillery, was present during the action on the 12th instant, and aimed several good shots.

On the same day when columbiad No. 2 was silenced in consequence of the serious accident referred to above, to repair the damage it became necessary to send forthwith to Charleston to procure the proper materials and implements. Privates Trouche, Craskeys, and Alrains volunteered to go in an open boat, under heavy fire from Fort Sumter and Fort Johnson. They went, and succeeded in accomplishing their errand. A sand bag on the first day of the engagement seriously interfered with the working of the window of columbiad No. 1. Private Allison volunteered to extricate the troublesome impediment. While engaged in the performance of this important service a ball from one of the casemates of Fort Sumter passed directly over him, striking the iron shed. He removed the bag and returned to his post.

The sang-froid of Mr. Lining, the judge-advocate of the Seventeenth Regiment, who served as a private during the engagement, has already received ample commendation in the public prints. I can vouch for the truth of the incident, having been an eye witness. (Please incorporate the report of the Courier in relation to the circumstance.)

The appointment of the Palmetto Guard to the occupation of Fort Sumter for one night was the highest compliment ever bestowed upon any volunteer corps in the history of our State, and that event will always be held by them in grateful remembrance. Upon reaching the stronghold, however, their labors were not yet finished. I wish to take no laurels from the brows of the members of the fire-engine companies of Charleston, but truth requires that I should state that, from the moment of their being disbanded within the walls of the fort, the Palmetto Guard worked incessantly at the engines until after midnight.

A proper respect for the memory of the dead, as well as the desire to put on record a noble act, induces me recount the following fact: Immediately before the departure of the Palmetto Guard for Fort Sumter, Sergeant Webb, Corporal Robinson, and Private Mackay placed a neat and appropriate head-piece over the grave of the unfortunate Howe, the first victim of the sad explosion which took place while Major Anderson was engaged in saluting his flag. The performance of this sacred duty did credit to their generous hearts, and proved that Carolina chivalry exists only in combination with a spirit of reverence and magnanimity. I am proud of the opportunity of stating that all of the members of the company conducted themselves nobly and bravely in the fight. Nor will those whose names have not been mentioned in this report object to the particular honorable notice of their gallant comrades.

Statement of ammunition expended upon Fort Sumter from the Iron battery: Shell, 60; solid shot, 183.

Ammunition expended from the other batteries of Cummings Point: Mortars, 197 shell; 42-pounders, 333 solid-shot, 3 grape-shot; rifled cannon, 11 shot, 19 shell.


With increased admiration for your own individual courage and efficiency on these two eventful days, I remain, dear sir, your obedient servant,

G. B. CUTHBERT, Captain Palmetto Guard.

W. G. DE SAUSSURE, Colonel, Commanding Battalion of Artillery.

PALMETTO GUARD ENCAMPMENT, Morris Island, April 20, 1861.

DEAR SIR: I write to make an addition to the report which you received yesterday. Please incorporate the following:

Private Gourdin Young volunteered to accompany Colonel Wigfall in a small boat when the latter gentleman was instructed to proceed to Fort Sumter on the fall of the United States flag, for the purpose of inquiring into the cause of that circumstance and to propose a surrender of the fortification. During the passage from Morris Island, amid an incessant fire of shell and grape, he displayed that coolness and determination characteristic of a true South Carolinian. Upon his return he was borne upon the shoulders of his fellow-comrades to the Iron battery.

With great respect, I remain yours, very truly,




No. 22.

Report of Capt. J. Gadsden King, commanding Marion Artillery.

SIR: In accordance with your order I beg to report that the Trapier battery on Morris Island, which was manned by the Marion Artillery, under my command, opened fire on Fort Sumter at 4 a.m. of Friday, the 12th instant, and continued firing in its turn, at the rate of one shell from each mortar, or three from the battery, every thirty-two minutes, until about 2 o’clock p.m., when the order was given to slack the fire and to fire at double the intervals, or at an interval of four minutes between each mortar in the harbor, which was obeyed until dark, or 7 o’clock, when the firing was reduced to a shell every twenty minutes until 4 1/2 a.m. of Saturday, the 13th instant, when the fire was resumed at the rate of a shell every four minutes until the fort was set on fire by a shell fired from the mortar No. 3 of the battery worked by my command, upon which the fire was quickened by order of Colonel Wigfall, an aid of General Beauregard, until the fort was in flames, at which time I was ordered to slacken the fire and to fire at the rate of one shell every four minutes as before, until it was seen that the west and south buildings of the fort alone were going to burn, upon which you ordered me to increase my fire and to drop my shell upon the eastern buildings of the fort, in order to set them on fire. This I tried to do, and at the fifth discharge from my mortars the mortar No. 2 of my battery dropped a shell through the roof of the eastern quarters, as I had ordered, and so set them on fire, thus burning the quarters.

On Friday I twice thought that shells from my battery set the fort on fire, but I am not sure. During the burning of the fort I had the fuse of my shells cut to its full length, so as to allow the shells to fall {p.58} and explode in the interior of the fort. The fire was kept up until the flag of Fort Sumter was either burned or shot down, when it was stopped by your order.

The total number of shell fired by the Marion Artillery was one hundred and seventy, of which I feel sure that at least three-fourths either burst on the ramparts or in the fort itself.

Where all behaved so well it is impossible to discriminate between any of them, but I deem it my duty to mention the names of my officers, Lieuts. W. D. H. Kirkwood, J. P. Strohecker, A. M. Huger, and E. L. Parker; Lieutenants Kirkwood and Parker having had immediate charge of the mortars I also deem it my duty to mention the names of my three gunners, Corporal McMillan King and Privates J. S. and Robert Murdock, who aimed every mortar that was fired from the battery from the beginning of the firing until its close, a period of thirty-four hours, day and night. My thanks are due to the detachment of fifteen men from the Sumter Guards, Capt. John Russell, for services rendered during the last three hours of the bombardment.

My warmest thanks and greatest approbation are due to my whole command for the prompt and cheerful manner in which they obeyed every order.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. GADSDEN KING, Captain First Artillery, S. C. M., Commanding Marion Artillery.

Lieut. Col. W. D. DE SAUSSURE, Commandant of Batteries.


No. 23.

Report of Lieut. J. E. McP. Washington, Battalion of Artillery, South Carolina Army.

CHARLESTON, April 13, 1861.

Fort Johnson-12.45, flagstaff struck; 1.5, United States flag, Union down, with white flag above. Officer seen on southwest angle with white flag, waved repeatedly. A few moments afterwards a sergeant and twelve men recognized on the parapet. One mortar fired from upper battery before the white flag on Sumter was discovered. Going to Fort Sumter. All firing stopped.


J. E. McP. WASHINGTON, Second Lieutenant, Battalion of Artillery, South Carolina Army.


No. 24.

Report of Lieut. C. W. Parker, Company D, First Artillery, South Carolina Army.

SIR: In accordance with orders received from Headquarters South Carolina Army, I have the honor to submit the annexed report of duty performed by the detachment of Company D under my command during the action of the 12th and 13th instants

Hoping that the efficient, arduous, and willing services rendered by {p.59} the men may merit your approbation I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. W. PARKER, Second Lieutenant, Company D.

Capt. W. R. CALHOUN, Commanding Batteries at Fort Moultrie.

The detachments of Company D, First Artillery, South Carolina Army, Lieutenant Parker commanding, served at Fort Moultrie during the action of the 12th and 13th instants, as follows, viz:

Oblique battery.–April 12, from 9 a.m. to 12 1/2 p.m. April 13 from 9 a.m. to 12 1/2 p.m.

Sumter battery.–April 12, from. 3 p.m. to 5 1/4 p.m.

Number of shot and shell fired.-From oblique battery, 110 solid-shot and 5 shell; from Sumter battery, 40 solid-shot.

C. W. PARKER, Second Lieutenant, Commanding Detachment Company D.


No. 25.

Joint reports of James Chesnut, jr., Lieut. Col. A. R. Chisolm, Capt. S. D. Lee, and Messrs. John L. Manning, William Porcher Miles, and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to the orders of Brigadier-General Beauregard, we left headquarters at 2.20 p.m., charged with a communication from him to Major Anderson, at Fort Sumter, in which we were authorized to demand the evacuation of the fort. We arrived there at 3.45 p.m., under a white flag. Lieutenant Davis, the officer of the day, received us very politely, and on being informed that we bad a message in writing for Major Anderson which we desired to deliver in person to the officer in command of the fort, conducted us into the presence of Major Anderson. We were welcomed by the major with great courtesy, who, after receiving and reading our communication, left us to consult with his officers. About 4.30 he again joined us, bringing his reply, the contents of which he stated to us, after which, and but a short time before departing, we held a short conversation with him, in the course of which he made the following remarks: “Gentlemen, if you do not batter the fort to pieces about us, we shall be starved out in a few days.” These, words, under the circumstances, seemed to have much significance, and to be of sufficient importance to induce us to report them particularly. We took leave of Major Anderson and the fort at 4.40 p.m., and reached the city at 5.10 p.m. We verbally reported immediately at headquarters the substance of what is written above.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

JAMES CHESNUT, JR., Aide-de-Camp. STEPHEN D. LEE, Captain C. S. Army, Aide-de-Camp. A. R. CHISOLM, Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Adjutant-General of the Provisional Forces, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C.


HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the following report of our movements and action:

After leaving the brigadier-general commanding last night, at 11 o’clock p.m., in obedience to orders we repaired with the second communication to Major Anderson at Fort Sumter. This communication was based on the telegram from Hon. L. P. Walker, expressing a desire not to injure the fort unnecessarily, and wishing to make another effort to avoid any useless effusion of blood. We reached Fort Sumter at 12.45 a.m., delivered the communication, and received Major Anderson’s reply at 3.15 a.m. He expressed his willingness to evacuate the fort on the 15th instant at noon, if provided with the necessary means of transportation if he should not receive prior to that time contradictory instructions from his Government or additional supplies, and that he would not in the mean time open his fire upon our forces unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against his fort or the flag of his Government by the forces under General Beauregard’s command, or by any portion of them, or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on our part against his fort or the flag it bears. His reply, which was shown to us, plainly indicated that if instructions should be received contrary to his purpose to evacuate, or if he should receive supplies, or if the Confederate troops should fire on hostile troops of the United States, or upon transports covered by his flag, although containing men, munitions, and supplies intended for him, and designing hostile, operations against us, he would still feel himself bound to fire upon us, and at liberty not to evacuate, Fort Sumter.

These terms being manifestly futile so far as we were concerned, placing us rather at a great disadvantage, and not within the scope of the instructions verbally given us, we promptly refused them and declined to enter into any such arrangements. Under these circumstances, pursuing our instructions, we notified him at once in writing that our batteries would open fire upon him within an hour from that time, which would be at 4.20. We then proceeded at once to Fort Johnson, which we reached at 4 a.m., and to Capt. George S. James, commanding at that post, gave the order to open fire at the time indicated. His first shell was fired at 4.30 a.m., the other batteries generally opening at 4.45 a.m. We were delayed at Fort Sumter longer than we expected, and we think longer than was necessary to decide upon the communication we received, and so indicated to Major Anderson; but this delay we could not avoid. Immediately upon leaving Fort Johnson we reported to General Beauregard, at his office, about daylight.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

JAS. CHESNUT, JR., Aide-de-Camp. STEPHEN D. LEE, Captain, C. S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Adjutant-General of Provisional Forces, Charleston, S. C.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, Charleston, S. C., April 13, 1861.

SIR: In obedience to orders from the commanding general, Beauregard, we left the wharf at 11.15 a.m., and proceeded in an open boat to {p.61} deliver communications to Brigadier-General Simons, commanding on Morris Island, and passing under the batteries of Fort Johnson landed in the rear of Major Stevens’ battery. Our orders were specifically to ask information as to the condition of the batteries on the island, and any other facts necessary to be communicated from Brigadier-General Simons to the commanding general, and also to establish military communications by land from Morris Island to the city of Charleston. We were moreover instructed to learn the condition of Fort Sumter as far as practicable without unnecessary exposure, and if the bombardment and conflagration within had forced an evacuation by Major Anderson and his command.

At the period of passing Fort Sumter about 12 m. the firing from it had ceased, except occasional shots opposite Fort Moultrie, but was kept up with great precision and regularity by the batteries from. Fort Johnson, Sullivan’s Island, and Morris Island. The conflagration of the officers’ quarters in the fortress appeared to be on the increase, and although the United States flag was still flying when we landed, there appeared no other evidence of the continuation of the contest.

After communicating with General Simons and establishing a land communication with the city, it was deemed advisable to send a flag to Fort Sumter and demand its evacuation, as at 1.10 p.m. precisely the United States flag had suddenly disappeared from its walls. While a white flag and the boat which bore us over was being made ready to take us, Colonel Wigfall, who had been detailed for special duties on Morris Island, thinking that no time was to be lost lest the garrison be destroyed, and accompanied by Private Young, of the Palmetto Guard, and two oarsmen, hastily entered a small skiff and pulled towards the fort with a white flag in his hand. Its size was too small to be distinctly seen by our batteries, and in consequence the discharge of neither shot or shell was discontinued by them, except those on Morris Island. His approach, therefore, to Sumter was one of imminent danger. We saw him after landing disappear into the fort through an embrasure. After the lapse of a short period of time he reappeared upon the pavement at the base of the fortification and re-embarked, directing his course to where we stood, at Major Stevens’s battery. Meantime the flag that had been erected after the flag-staff was cut away was taken down and a white flag run up in its stead. Before reaching the shore on his return Colonel Wigfall gave evidence that Major Anderson had consented to evacuate, which was soon after confirmed. He was received upon the beach by the troops, who for a moment rushed out to meet him, with strong evidences of admiration. We, then took Colonel Wigfall with us in our boat, and returned to the city to report to the general commanding.

Brigadier-General Simons bad no specific intelligence to communicate to the general commanding beyond the events narrated; but we take pride and pleasure in reporting the spirit, promptness, and energy which characterized the portion of his command inspected by us.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the general commanding.

JAMES CHESNUT, JR., Aide-de-Camp. A. R. CHISOLM, Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp. JOHN L. MANNING, Aide-de-Camp.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Adjutant-General Provisional Forces.


HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C. S. ARMY, Charleston, S. C., April 15, 1861.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the following report of our visit to Fort Sumter on the 13th instant for the information of the brigadier-general commanding:

After reporting to the general the execution of the orders with which we were charged for Morris Island, and in company with Colonel Wigfall reporting the surrender of Fort Sumter, and also its dangerous condition from the fire occasioned by the hot shot from Fort Moultrie, we proceeded, by order of the brigadier-general commanding, immediately to Southern warf, where we embarked on board the steamer Osiris for Fort Sumter, accompanied by the chief of the city fire department, Mr. Nathan, with a fire engine and its company. On our arrival at Fort Sumter we were met by Dr. Crawford, surgeon of the fort, who directed us to avoid the wharf, as it was in danger of blowing up at any moment from its mines. The doctor conducted us into the presence of Major Anderson, on the opposite side of the fort from the wharf, We entering the fort through an embrasure. We found the barracks, totally destroyed by fire, occasioned by our shells and hot shot. We stated to Major Anderson that we had been sent to Fort Sumter by General Beauregard with a fire engine, to offer assistance to extinguish his fire and to render any other assistance he might require, and also Surgeon-General Gibbes, of South Carolina, and assistants were present to administer to any wounded he might have. The major replied that he thanked the general for his kindness, but that his fire was almost burned out, and that he had but one man wounded, and he not seriously. We asked him if the magazine was safe. He replied he thought the lower magazine safe, though it was amid the burning ruins, and that he had thrown about one hundred barrels of powder into the water from the upper magazine during the action, for the safety of his command. We again asked him if he did not think it best to use the engine which accompanied us on the steamer, which lay out in the stream. He replied no-that he thought everything had been consumed that would burn.

Major Anderson expressed great satisfaction when we told him that we had no casualties on our side, and again asked us to thank General Beauregard for his kindness; and, on leaving, the major accompanied us himself as far as our small boat. We returned to the city and reported the result of our visit to General Beauregard about 7 p.m.

All of which is submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

JAMES CHESNUT, JR., JOHN L. MANNING, Aides-de-Camp. A. R. CHISOLM, Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Assistant Adjutant-General Provisional Forces, C. S. A.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 15, 1861.

MAJOR: On Friday, April 12, we received orders from General Beauregard to carry dispatches to General Dunovant, commanding on Sullivan’s Island. We were directed to communicate the purport of the dispatches, which were open, to Captain Martin, in command of the floating battery and the Dahlgren-gun battery; to Captain Hallonquist, {p.63} in command of the enfilade battery and a masked mortar battery near the same spot; and to Colonel Ripley, in command of Fort Moultrie-all of them posts on Sullivan’s Island. We set out on our mission at 9 o’clock a.m. and proceeded in a boat to Mount Pleasant. After communicating with Captain Martin we rowed over to and landed on the floating Iron battery. We found Lieutenant Yates actively engaged in returning the fire from Fort Sumter, which was then specially directed against his battery. The latter had been repeatedly hit, but had successfully resisted all the shot (32-pounders) which had struck it, with the exception of one, which had passed through the narrow, angular slope just below the roof.

After spending some time in this battery we proceeded to the Dahlgren-gun battery, where Captain Hamilton was commanding in person. Both the floating battery and the Dahlgren gun were directing their special attention to the dismounting of such of the guns en barbette upon Fort Sumter as the batteries could be brought to bear upon. The fire from both batteries was effective and well sustained. We next visited Captain Hallonquist’s enfilading battery, which was doing some admirable shooting. After remaining here a short time we proceeded to Captain Hallonquist’s mortar battery, and from thence to Fort Moultrie. Here we found an active, regular, well-sustained, and well-directed firing going on, which was being most vigorously returned by Fort Sumter. The quarters were pretty well riddled, and the furnace for hot shot twice struck, but not materially injured.

After carefully watching the firing for some time we visited Captain Butler’s mortar battery, where we found General Dunovant and delivered our dispatches. We then returned to Fort Moultrie, and after spending about an hour there proceeded back to the cove, where our boat was awaiting us, and touching at the floating battery for a communication for headquarters we rowed over once more to Mount Pleasant for the purpose of delivering a message from Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley (by request) to Captain Martin. We then returned to the city, which we reached about half-past 4 p.m., and immediately reported verbally at headquarters to the brigadier-general commanding.

We cannot conclude our report without expressing the extreme pleasure and gratification which we felt at the coolness, spirit, skill, and alacrity which we witnessed at all points among the officers and men. Very respectfully,

WM. PORCHER MILES, JOHN L. MANNING, Aides to Brigadier-General Beauregard.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Assistant Adjutant-General, Provisional Forces, C. S. A.

HEADQUARTERS; PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A., Charleston, April 15, 1861.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the following report of our visit to Fort Sumter on the 13th instant:

Informed about 1 o’clock that no flag was waving over Fort Sumter, General Beauregard detached us immediately to proceed to the fort and say to Major Anderson that his flag being down and his quarters in flames we were sent to inquire if he needed any assistance. When about half-way from the city to Fort Sumter we observed that the United States flag had been raised again. At once we determined to go back to the city, but had not proceeded far in return when, discovering a white flag floating from the ramparts of Sumter, we again direct {p.64} ed our course to the fort. On landing we were conducted to the presence of Major Anderson, whom we informed that in consequence of the conflagration in the fort we had been sent by General Beauregard to inquire if he needed any assistance. Major Anderson replied: “Present my compliments to General Beauregard, and say to him I thank him for his kindness, but need no assistance.” Continuing, the major said: “Gentlemen, do I understand you have come direct from General Beauregard?” We replied in the affirmative. “Why,” returned Major Anderson, “Colonel Wigfall has just been here as an aide to and by authority of General Beauregard, and proposed the same terms of evacuation offered on the 11th instant.” We informed him we had just left General Beauregard in the city, and had come in obedience to his orders, charged with the message just delivered. The major expressed regret for the misunderstanding and repeated that he had understood Colonel Wigfall to say he was direct from General Beauregard, and as one of his aides was authorized to propose terms of evacuation. We then inquired if he would reduce to writing the terms proposed by Colonel Wigfall. To which the major replied, certainly he would. Major Anderson then declared that he would immediately run up his flag; that he regretted it had ever been taken down, and that it would not have been lowered if he had not understood Colonel Wigfall to come directly Prom General Beauregard to treat. We requested that, under the peculiar circumstances, he would not raise his flag until we could communicate to General Beauregard the terms of evacuation with which he had furnished us; he-assented to the proposition, and we left the fort.

STEPHEN D. LEE, Captain, C. S. Army. ROGER A. PRYOR, WM. PORCHER MILES Aides-de-Camp.

Maj. D. R. JONES, Assistant Adjutant-General, Provisional Forces, C. S. A.


No. 26.

Joint reports of Maj. D. R. Jones, Assistant Adjutant-General, C. S. Army; and Col. Charles Allston, jr., Commander H. T. Hartstene (C. S. Navy), and Messrs. William Porcher Miles and Roger A. Pryor, aides-de-camp.

CHARLESTON, April 15, 1861.

SIR: We the undersigned, beg leave to submit the following report of our visit to Fort Sumter, and Of Our interview with Major Anderson, on Saturday, the 13th instant, in obedience to your orders.

We arrived at the fort about a quarter to 3 o’clock p.m.; were met at the wharf by Captain Seymour, and were at once conducted to the presence of Major Anderson. We informed him that we came from you to say that, on learning the fort was in flames, and his flag down, you had sent Colonels Miles and Pryor and Captain Lee, members of your staff, to offer any assistance in your power, and that as soon as his flag of truce was hoisted you sent us to receive any propositions he might wish to make. Major Anderson said an exceedingly disagreeable and embarrassing mistake had occurred; that his flagstaff had been shot down, but that as soon as it could be done his flag was again hoisted.

Just at this time it was reported to him that General Wigfall was {p.65} outside the fort demanding to see the commanding officer. Major Anderson said that he went out and met General Wigfall, who told him that he came from General Beauregard to demand the surrender of the fort, and urged Major Anderson to haul down his flag and run up a flag of truce; that General Beauregard would give him the same terms offered before the conflict began. Major Anderson then stated that he was much surprised to learn from Colonels Miles and Pryor and Captain Lee, who had arrived at the fort soon after he had lowered his flag, that although General Wigfall was on the staff of General Beauregard, he had been two days away from him, and was acting on the staff of some general on Morris Island; that as soon as be (Major Anderson) learned this, he told Captain Lee that he would immediately run up his flag and recommence his firing.

Major Anderson then read to us a note which he had sent to you by the hands of Captain Lee, in which he said that he would surrender the fort on the same terms offered by you in your letter to him on the 11th instant. On learning this we told him that we were authorized to offer him those terms, excepting only the clause relating to the salute to the flag, to which Major Anderson replied it would be exceedingly gratifying to him, as well as to his command, to be permitted to salute their flag, having so gallantly defended the fort under such trying circumstances, and hoped that General Beauregard would not refuse it, as such a privilege was not unusual. We told him we were not authorized to grant that privilege, and asked him what his answer would be if not permitted to salute his flag. He said he would not urge the point, but would prefer to refer the matter again to you, and requested us to see you again and get your reply.

Major Anderson requested us to say to Governor Pickens and yourself that, as in evidence of his desire to save the public property as much as possible, he had three times on Friday and twice on Saturday sent his men up to extinguish the fire under the heavy fire of our batteries, and when the magazines were in imminent danger of being blown up.

We then returned to the city and reported to you substantially as above.

We have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

D. R. JONES, Assistant Adjutant-General. CHAS. ALLSTON, JR., Colonel and A. D. C.

Brig. Gen. G. T. BEAUREGARD, Commanding Provisional Army.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 14, 1861.

GENERAL: In accordance with your order we have the honor to make the following report:

On Saturday, April 13, at about 7 o’clock p.m., we proceeded to Fort Sumter by your order to arrange finally the conditions of the evacuation. We presented your communication to Major Anderson, who, after perusing it, read it aloud to his officers, all of whom, we believe, were present. The major expressed himself much gratified with the tenor of the communication and the generous terms agreed to by you. We inquired of Major Anderson when he desired to leave. He said as soon as possible, and suggested 9 o’clock the next morning. It was arranged that the Catawba or some other steamer should convey the major and his command either directly to New York or put them on board the United States fleet then lying outside the bar, according as one or the other plan might be agreed upon after a conference with the commander of {p.66} the fleet. Major Anderson requested us to take Lieutenant Snyder down to the fleet for the purpose of arranging the matter. This Captain Hartstene undertook to do.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

D. R. JONES, Assistant Adjutant-General. WM. PORCHER MILES, R. A. PRYOR, H. J. HARTSTENE, C. S. N., Aides-de-Camp.

Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD, Comdg. Provisional Army, C. S. A.


No. 27.

Medical report of Surg. Gen. R. W. Gibbes, South Carolina Army.


SIR: From the returns received from the various posts I have the unexampled and happy privilege of stating that no serious casualty has occurred during the vigorous action of thirty-three hours in reducing Fort Sumter. Four trifling contusions are reported at Fort Moultrie, but none at other posts, and it is a subject of equal gratification that, even in the management of heavy ordnance by new recruits and unpracticed volunteers no accident to life or limb has occurred.

Immediately upon the flag of Fort Sumter being struck I proceeded to that fortress to tender my assistance and hospital at Mount Pleasant to Major Anderson, and received from him the pleasing intelligence that only four cases of slight injuries had resulted to his men. On Sunday a sad casualty occurred in saluting his flag, when the explosion of some loose cartridges beneath a gun struck down seven men. One war, instantly killed, and another so seriously wounded that be died soon after reaching my hospital in Charleston; one remaining in the hospital, doing well under the care of Prof. G. G. Chisolm, of the medical college of the State, and four were removed with the garrison. The precipitation suddenly of several regiments upon me during the past few days, totally without any preparation of their surgeons, has required a large supply of medicines, instruments, hospital stores, &c., but I am happy to say they have received promptly all their requisitions.


R. W. GIBBES, M. D., Surgeon-General South Carolina Army.

Adjutant-General JONES.


No. 28.

Report of Commander H. J. Hartstene, C. S. Navy, concerning the transportation of Major Anderson and his command from Fort Sumter to the U. S. fleet off Charleston Bar.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 16, 1861.

MAJOR: On the afternoon of the 13th instant, shortly after the surrender of Fort Sumter, I was placed on board the steamer Catawba to convey to the fort, in connection with Major Jones, Captains Miles and Pryor (aides to Brigadier-General Beauregard), to arrange, with Major {p.67} Anderson the means most acceptable to him for his evacuation the following day.

The major, agreeably to our offer, sent on board of us Lieutenant Snyder to confer with the commander of the fleet off the bar in regard to transportation. I accompanied him out on the morning of the 14th instant, and after a short conference he returned to the fort, where it was arranged that the steamers and all necessary facilities for the removal of the command should be ready at 11 o’clock, and that they should be conveyed to the fleet, and have the option either of taking passage in one of their vessels or of going on the one furnished by the Confederacy.

At 11 o’clock all facilities were at the disposal of Major Anderson, but the work of removal was delayed in consequence of the accidental explosion which killed and wounded five, of his command. They were not all embarked until sundown, when it was too late to cross the bar. This, however, was effected early the following morning, and the command shortly afterwards was transferred to the steamer Baltic, one of the transports of the United States.

All of which is respectfully submitted for the information of the brigadier-general commanding.

Respectfully, &c.,


Maj. D. R. JONES, Asst. Adjt. Gen. of Provisional Forces, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C.


Main TitleThe War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.
Corporate NameUnited States. War Department.
Published/Created[S.l.], L.McKee and C.G. Robertson, 1859.
ContentsSer. I. v. 1-53 [serial no. 1-111] Formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the southern states, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, order and returns relating specially thereto. 1880-1898. 111 v.--ser. II. v. 1-8 [serial no. 114-121] Correspondence, orders, reports and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war and to state or political prisoners. 1894 [i.e. 1898]-1899. 8 v.--ser. III. v. 1-5 [serial no. 122-126] Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Union authorities (embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials) note relating specially to the subjects of the first and second series. It embraces the reports of the Secretary of War, of the general-in-chief and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments ... 1899-1900. 5 v.--ser. IV. v. 1-3 [serial no. 127-129] Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the third series, but including the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series. 1900. 3 v.--[serial no. 130] General index and additions and corrections. Mr. John S. Moodey, indexer. Preface [by Elihu Root, Secretary of War]. Explanations. Synopsis of the contents of volumes. Special index for the principal armies, army corps, military divisions and departments. General index. Additions and corrections [arranged consecutively by volumes]. 1901.