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 Research | Napoleonic Cugnac Campaign of the Army of the Reserve in 1800 English Part 1 Chapter 8

CAMPAIGN
OF
THE ARMY OF THE RESERVE
IN 1800

(FIRST PART)
CHAPTER VIII
PREPARATIONS TO CROSS THE ALPS

Concentration of the army. – Headquarters in Lausanne. – Review of the troops. – New of Masséna and Moreau. – Provisions of the various columns emerging in Italy. – Orders for the passage of the Great Saint Bernard.

The First Consul leaves Geneva in the morning of the 12th May.

Lausanne, May 13. – “the First Consul reviewed, yesterday, in the plain of Saint-Sulpice (with one mile from here), divisions of the Chambarlhac generals and Loison. ” (Swiss Bulletin, become later Gazette of Lausanne, 1800, T. III, p. 99, no. of the 14th May.)

Lausanne, May 12. – “As of the morning, the Consular Guards and all the other troops French which are in Lausanne, was called under arms to prepare to undergo the inspection which must be done in Saint-Sulpice.

“A 9 hours, the staff, composed of General Berthier, Murat, Marmont, was started in this direction. It was followed at once of the 60th demi-brigade, then of the 58th and the 59th, which came from their cantonments of the districts of Lavaux and the surroundings. It has defile then a coming regiment of hussars d'Orbe and Romainmotier. One also led to Saint-Sulpice some of the artillery pieces which were on Montbenon. The troops left Lausanne for Saint-Sulpice were with the number of approximately 7,000 men.

“It had come from there from the district of Morges and surroundings 10 to 12,000.

“Before reviewing them, Bonaparte, who had come by transport from Geneva in the morning, came to go down from fits with body in Vidy. He remained there during one hour, making the conversation with the Piccard young person.

“It is then assembled on horse and went to make the inspection of the troops, which were arranged in two divisions on the plains of Saint-Sulpice. It has spoke, all the troop in a circle formed by the officers and the low officers…. ” (Journal of professor Pichard on the Swiss revolution.)

“…. It addressed a speech to them, where it pointed out to them the efforts of the French Government for the re-establishment of peace and the refusal which the united powers made to reach it. It pointed out to them that it would have had some reasons to be put at the head of the Army of the Rhine or that of Italy, but that it had preferred to fight with smallest, with that which would have to overcome the greatest difficulties, in order to sharing its dangers and its glory.

“…. It announced successes of the Army of the Rhine to them….

“…. The corps which compose these two divisions are more beautiful behavior and can go up together to 20,000 men. Already, more than 20,000 men have defile on the Valais Alps…. ” (Swiss Bulletin, no. of the 14th May.)

“When the inspection was finished, the troops come from Morges are returned in their cantonments; those which had left Lausanne there returned…. ” (Journal of professor Pichard.)

“…. The First Consul arrived here towards the 4 hours of the evening; it on horse, was preceded by the superb 12th of hussars, the 58th of line and two batallions of light infantry, and was surrounded of General Berthier, several other generals and general staff. A crowd of people was run to see this extraordinary man, whose engineers and fortune astonished Europe and balance the efforts of the coalition. A general cry of: “Bonaparte Lives! ” was made hear of all shares, and the hero appeared sensitive to these admiration and transports of delight which its presence excited. “(Swiss Bulletin, no. of the 14th May.)

“The First Consul entered to Lausanne to the noise of the gun, approximately the 5 hours after midday, and went in the apartment that one had prepared to him, in the house of the Steiner citizen, with the descent of Ouchy…. ” (1) (Register of the municipality of Lausanne, volume II, May 1800, 12.)

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne (2), 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

Testify, by an order of the day with the army, my satisfaction of the good control and discipline which it holds either in the march, or in the cantonments. Everywhere, it returned to to me from the praises.

Take the measures necessary to make confine in the villages, with one mile with the surroundings, 4 batallions which overload too the town of Lausanne, where one needs many lodgments, both for the First Consul the headquarters. One can immediately change the two batallions of the 60th. With the remainder, the municipality must see you; like it makes very for us, it is necessary to try to relieve it as much as it will be possible.

Alex. BERTHIER.

Order of the day.

Lausanne, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

The general-in-chief testifies with the army his satisfaction for the control which it held either during the road, or in the cantonments; he everywhere collected praises on the military discipline that the troops observed.

The large baggage and the women of the army will go to Geneva and, from there, Chambéry, where it will be given new orders for their meeting to the army.

The employees of the various services close each division will be held to present each day at the officers general and higher commanding the various cantonments the state of the distributions which will have taken place, so that one can note if they were regularly made, and it will be given of it an account with the general staff.

The major generals will hold the hand with the order which was given to pay the current of the pay, decade per decade, as from the 1st floréal.

The Major general, general chief of staff,

DUPONT.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with the chief of staff.

Lausanne, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

You will put at the order that the officers and warrant officers of all the demi-brigades must be armed with muskets, as well as the lieutenants and second lieutenants of the demi-brigades of light infantry. These muskets will be given while passing in Villeneuve.

All that is due pay for year 8 will be paid (3).

Alex. BERTHIER.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

Give the order to artillery of three Boudet's division, Loison and Chambarlhac to leave 23 tomorrow to go to Villeneuve or it will park and be supplemented in provisioning and cartridges, etc, and where it will pass the review of General Marmont.

Order with Boudet's division (4) to go 24th to Bex close Saint-Maurice.

Order with Loison's division to go to Aigle, borough with two miles in front of Villeneuve, 24th.

Order with Chambarlhac's division to go to Villeneuve 24th (5).

You will give the order to each one of these divisions to take, while passing to Villeneuve, of biscuit for the 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29 included.

Give orders so that all the horsemen, except for 12th of hussars and 21st of chasseurs, of 15th of chasseurs and the two squadrons of the 11th of hussars, which have orders to join divisions to which they are attachés, are brought together 25th in Lausanne to pass the review of the First Consul there.

General d'Harville will go consequently to Lausanne and you will prevent these provisions General Murat, so that it takes the orders of the general-in-chief (6) for this review.

Have care to warn the director as a commander of these movements (7), as well as the lieutenant generals in what relates to them.

Give orders so that all the small depots of the corps are centralized in Geneva, where all the conscripts made separately or in small detachments will go before joining their demi-brigades and where they will be armed, etc

The large depots will always remain in the places which will have been indicated in the 18th division, in accordance with the provisions put at the order of the day.

Order that in all demi-brigades one makes to draw as of tomorrow some rounds from musket with all conscripts, that one makes known to them of which eye one reflects to adjust, and finally how one charge his musket.

Instruct a staff officer to go to Villeneuve, where it will take care that all the corps while passing have 50 rounds per man and 2 stones with fire.

Prescribe with the director that it has to order to the payer to give from the funds to the payers of divisions to discharge the pay as it is prescribed in the order of the day.

The army, before passing to Villeneuve, must be paid of all that is owe him pay of year 8 until the 1st prairial one. The payer will remain responsible for the execution of this kind (8).

Order of my share which the payer makes give this evening using Duroc camp, which leaves to go to the advance guard, 50,000 francs for the pay. This sum will be versed in the hands of the payer of the Watrin's division, which will also discharge what can be due to the 28th. The Italians must be paid as exactly as the army.

Give the order to all the crews of the army and the headquarters to be returned 24th in Villeneuve.

The staff officers will go tomorrow to Vevey.

I will leave tomorrow morning with the First Consul to return to me in Vevey to pass the review there at midday; from there, I to Villeneuve will see the situation of the things and I will return the evening to sleep in Lausanne (9).

You are the master to come with me or to remain, if you judge to have to work in Lausanne on tomorrow (10). In all the cases, always made leave your horses for Villeneuve and part of the offices the staff.

24th, I will set out again in post to join my horses in Villeneuve and from there with the advance guard.

Put at the order of the day that it will be retained 30 grounds with each man who will have lost a bayonnette.

Order with General Lechi to march at great days to join the advance guard (11).

I greet you (12).

Alex. BERTHIER.

General Dupont, with General Lannes.

Lausanne, 22 floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

I warn you, my dear Général, that the First Consul and the general-in-chief will go tomorrow to Villeneuve, to activate all that relates to the march of the army.

Some reports announce that the enemy leaves Saint-Gothard and the Simplon to go to Piedmont. At all events of this news, it is quite important to mask our movement and not to inform too early the enemy of our. intentions.

The general-in-chief recommends to you, according to these considerations, of the 20th not to exceed the instructions that I transmitted to you by his order, in my letter of this month (13).

I greet you in a friendly way.

DUPONT.

The adjutant general Hulin (14). with the Dalbon commisioner of war.

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

I warn you, citizen commissioner, that all the division under command of General Watrin received order to meet tomorrow, 23 of this month, in Martigny. It is necessary, consequently, to make transport, without wasting time, all the flours, grains and oats on this point, so that the troop does not miss subsistence. I count on your accustomed zeal so that the subsistence in all kinds is assured.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with the General of Malher's brigade (15).

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

In accordance with the orders of the commanding general division, I dispatch you, citizen General, under the monitoring of the citizen Capizani, officer employed following the staff of division, 1,000 pairs of shoes (16), intended for the troops under your orders. I invite you to make them also distribute to the corps composing the brigade which you command and to make me pass the state of the distribution that you will have made some.

All division having to meet tomorrow in Martigny and surroundings, as I marked it to you last night, I invite you to y hurry on the batallions of the 22nd demi-brigade which is in Saint-Maurice.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with General Gency (17).

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

According to the provisions adopted by the commanding general division, all the troops which composes it in front of meeting tomorrow, 23 of the current, to Martigny and surroundings, I invite you to y hurry on the 40th demi-brigade.

The intentions of the commanding general are that you make transport in Martigny all the subsistence which can be in Bex, and which the bread which it can y have made either delivered with the troop before san departure.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with the General of Malher's brigade.

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

I receive at the moment, citizen General, your letter of this day. Not being the Dalbon director here, I write to him at once in Villeneuve, where I it believe in this moment, to press it to make with Captain Danthouard the expedition of the sum that it promised to him for the expenses that requires the transport of artillery on the mountains (18).

You will find, herewith, the series of the watchwords for the first five days of the third decade of floréal; I ask you of me to show the reception of it.

I will have, I hope, the pleasure of kissing you tomorrow or afterwards. Salute and attachment.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with the commander of the Villeneuve position.

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800)

I warn you, citizen commander, that the headquarters will be transported tomorrow in Martigny. You will want hurry on well on this place the 22 men of the 40th demi-brigade remained in the position which you command, at once that you will have been able to make them replace by men of the batallion of the Italian Legion which is in Villeneuve.

Salute and fraternity.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with the grenadier company of the 40th demi-brigade, hussars, gendarmerie.

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

Consequently provisions adopted by the commanding general division, it is ordered with…. opposite, being in Aigle, to leave there tomorrow, 23 of the current, at 5 o'clock in the morning, to go to Martigny, where they will meet in the corps of which they form part.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with the citizen Alexandre, inspector of fodder.

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

In accordance with the orders of the general-in-chief, it is ordered to the citizen Alexandre, inspector of fodder, to make at once transport in Martigny the fodder which is in the magazine of reserve in Villeneuve, intended for the advance guard.

HULIN.

The adjutant general Hulin, with the commander of the Italian batallion in Villeneuve.

Aigle, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

Consequently provisions adopted by the commanding general division, it is ordered with the batallion from the Italian Legion, which is in Villeneuve, to leave there tomorrow, 23 of the current, to go to lay down the same day with Bex and the following day with Saint-Maurice, where it will await new orders (19).

HULIN.

The countable inspector of the service of the meat rations of Watrin's division, with the General (20) Hulin, chief of staff, in Aigle.

Martigny, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

The service of the meat rations, citizen General, is ensured for several days for the 4,000 men approximately under the orders of General Malher.

The delay which an ox convoy belonging to me, intended for your division, me tested forces to have recourse to you, in order to make provide by the commune of Aigle, with the citizen Raimond, 8 oxen, making together 8,000 rations (21), for the distribution of the 23, 24, 25 and 26 with the 40th demi-brigade and the other recipients of the headquarters (22), with unquestionable promise with this commune of be refunded in the course of the day of the 27th. This cattle will be delivered in life, on the estimate of two contradictorily named experts.

With the help of this extraordinary measure, the service of all division assured and is balanced for until the end of the next decade.

Salute and consideration.

JULIEN.

Boinod, inspector with the reviews, the general-in-chief Berthier.

Bourg-Saint-Pierre, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

Transport of Martigny with Saint-Pierre is ensured for 400 quintals per day; those of Villeneuve with Martigny must give more.

The means of the country will not provide beyond that, as long as the troops which occupy of the distant points and for which it is necessary to carry the necessary one will keep their position. If the troops increase, our transport of reserve will decrease.

I did not have the mules of Saint-Pierre; they are daily necessary for the Saint-Bernard. The artillery horses are on the teeth; they should be raised, partly, by mules of feature. I also made give on the road of the pack mules.

One must start tomorrow to assemble the artillery (23). Though the snow melt is extraordinarily early, it will be longer than one does not think. The inhabitants hasten to work and help of all their means.

Saint-Pierre will be encumbered, if one does not have the objects promptly that one will pour there. He has just arrived 264 quintals of biscuit (24) and 20 brandy barrels, weighing 19 quintals and half.

I leave the Grobert commisioner of war here. It will deliver the food, until new order, only with the troops which will pass the Saint-Bernard: the biscuit for four days and the brandy for one.

It did not arrive yet of oats, in spite of the precise orders which I gave to make the sending in the proportion of 50 bags by 30,000 rations of biscuit. One could somewhat get hay on the road.

Not an employee did not appear.

Please transmit later orders to me. I have other instructions only to take the measures to make transport, of Villeneuve with Saint-Pierre, the biscuit, the oats and the brandy (25).

Funds are needed; this transport costs from 14 to 1500 francs per day. That of Saint-Pierre at the Hospice will be able hardly to be made with less than 24 to 30 grounds the quintal. We do not have, in the country, of animals able to go up more than 250 to 280 quintals per day.

I will fix myself at Sembrancher. It is the point where there is the most embarrassment and from where I will be able to correspond most usefully.

Salute and respect.

BOINOD.

The biscuit is put in pieces. The brandy is very weak; the barrels are not tarred.

B.

***

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne, 23rd floréal year 8 (May 13, 1800).

I ask you to write with the General Lannes which I received his letter by which it marks me that the advance guard will be joined together 22nd at the evening with Martigny (26).

Recommend to him to consult for the difficult passage of the Mount-Bernard people of the country, and, in particular, the directing citizen Dalbon. The difficulties are such with the passage, that, without the greatest precautions, there would be much danger.

I hope that it will pass the Saint-Bernard of the 25th as we are agreed, to the 26th. It should not start from Aoste without to have joined together all its advance guard.

When it arrives at the fortification of Bard and that it will have seized the heights, it will defend that one shoots on the strength, which would be useless, but it will deal with making place its artillery on an hill which dominates the strength. It will make also place the howitzers on the way and it will make begin the cannonade of the strength only when these two batteries are ready. When they damage the bad cover which the Austrians made on the batteries, then the shooting heights will be able to have an advantageous effect.

You will prevent it that General Marescot has order to go to the advance guard to deal primarily with the attack of the strength. You will consequently give orders to General Marescot. Furthermore, prevent the General Lannes which I will be in Aoste at once that him (27).

Alex. BERTHIER.

Lannes, major general who commands the advance guard, with the general-in-chief.

Saint-Pierre (28), 23rd floréal year 8 (May 13, 1800).

Citizen General,

We will have much more difficulties in assemble artillery than I did not believe, I hope however that all will be assembled after tomorrow early and that I will pass the Saint-Bernard with the advance guard 26th (29).

I ask you to give orders so that ropes are sent, so that one can assemble artillery with more celerity.

Transport of the subsistence goes very slowly; there are yet here only approximately 30 quintals of biscuit, and we have neither fodder, nor oats.

According to the intelligence that taken, citizen General, on the force of the Austrians from Saint-Remy to the strength Bard, it appears that there is only one strong regiment of approximately 1500 men.

Citizen Danthouard is indispensably necessary here for the passage of artillery; it had received the order to pass in another division; but, knowing the importance of his presence, I took on me to keep it; I ask you to inform General Marmont of it.

General Mainoni wrote to me that it could descend in Martigny with the 28th demi-brigade only 27th as soon as possible; you see, citizen General, that this demi-brigade will have difficulty well to join the advance guard; I ask you to send to me to replace it, the 9th of light infantry or 13th, which I know particularly.

Salute and respect.

LANNES.

Alexandre Lauriston, aide-de-camp, with the First Consul of the French Republic.

Villeneuve, 23rd floréal year 8 (May 13, 1800), 8 hours of the morning (30).

Citizen Consul,

I found other troops in Villeneuve only 250 men of the 3rd batallion of the 3rd demi-brigade cisalpine, corps strong evil equipped. It has need for 200 muskets, 200 cartidge boxes, 78 sabers and 100 bags with skin.

As for the corps of the advance guard, they were in Bex and Aigle; but they are believed parties (31).

During the stay of the troops in Villeneuve, they were nourished on the magazine of the food of the 1st division of the Army of the Rhine. This magazine is currently confused with the daily provisioning. There exists today, in magazine, 7,000 rations of bread.

There is one furnace in state, today; but one mends old and two new will be ready under two or three days. Each one of these furnaces can, one in another, make 3,500 rations, which would make 15,000 (sic) for the four, if however the mills of the place and surroundings were sufficient to feed them. The small quantity of water which is used to make them turn delays grinding considerably, so that one into small grinding only for 4 to 5,000 rations per day. However, the general inspector of the food, citizen Ditte, ensured me that one made some, Martigny and Saint-Maurice, 15,000 rations per day. The furnaces of these places are in activity.

This inspector, who has much zeal, ensured me that the corn would not miss.

It arrived today 400 quintals, which will make about 35,000 rations. The quantity of biscuit arrival so far is of 6,048 cases, to 72 each, which makes 435,456 rations. The 20, 21 and 22, one made leave on Saint-Pierre 1,067 cases, making 76,824 rations.

The quantity of brandy which one received is of 300 barrels, plus 13 large pipes.

One dispatched yesterday 150 barrels on Saint-Pierre, which makes 120,000 rations.

It would be urgent to order with that which makes make, in Geneva, the barrels, in better looking after construction; it of so badly joined there that many is with the empty thirds.

It left 28 oxen yesterday; one expects 60 today from them.

One made leave yesterday 270,000 cartridges infantry and 22,000 of gun; it will leave 118,580 today there, arrivals yesterday of Geneva.

There are neither sledges here, nor mounting-sledges. It has just arrived 500 mules, leading four pieces of 4 and four others of 4 Genevese, and the provisioning of these pieces, plus 18,000 rations of biscuit.

There does not exist here of oats for the busy troops, but only 300 bags for the provisioning.

As for the hay, one can currently count on 1200 quintals; but it is of any necessity to make pass from the funds to the inspector of fodder so that the service does not miss.

I will take intelligence on artillery at General Marmont and will carry on my road.

Salute and respect.

Alex. LAURISTON.

***

The First Consul, with the Consuls of the Republic.

Lausanne, 23 floréal year 8 (May 13, 1800).

I received your courier of the 19th. It would be necessary to be quite circumspect on these businesses of delegations. It is constant that all the cases of departments are full. It would be thus essential to be occupied without slackening to prevent this money to remain it, and to use for the public utility.

I passed yesterday the review of the army (32). All this part of Switzerland is absolutely French; the soldier is accommodated in the various houses as it would be in his.

The Italian Legion will conduct very whole to Italy, where the general-in-chief will organize it as he will hear it.

I do not know what you will have done for the review of the quintidi; but, if my absence were prolonged of one or two months, it could give place to great disadvantages.

I have news of Masséna of the 10th floréal. It was absolutely encircled in Genoa, fighting the every day and having constantly small advantages (33). I hope that in the first decade of prairial it will be relieved.

Activate as much as possible the departure of the division of the rear-admiral Lacrosse.

BONAPARTE.

Accompanied by Berthier and Dupont, the First Consul leaves Lausanne by transport, 13th May at midday (34) and arrives at 3 a.m. at Vevey.

Boudet's division, strong of 5,118 men (35), comprehending the 9th light, 30th and 59th of line, awaited it on the position of the Market.

“…. To 2 a.m. and 3/4, the First Consul finally arrived, announced by the noise of the gun, which ceased drawing only when it was on the position. Accompanied by General Berthier, Victor, of the general aide-de-camp and the general quatres above, it made the inspection of the troops while passing between the lines, with the noise of the drum and the music alternatively. He appeared strong satisfied of the behavior from 9th, but little of both others. After the inspection, the general aide-de-camp commanded the exercise of the charge and fires; after which, all this small army has defile by groups in front of him and other generals. After which, all the officers and warrant officers were called with the order. Bonaparte their addressed a small speech, in which one noticed this sentence: I offered peace to the Emperor, it did not want it; it any more but does not remain us to take it with the throat…. ” (36)

The First Consul and Berthier go then to Villeneuve, where they inspect the provisioning arrived by the lake, and the artillery of three Boudet's division, Loison and Chambarlhac, which have the order to come to supply itself there (37).

They return by transport to Lausanne at midnight (38).

Carnot, coming from the Army of the Rhine, had arrived there in the evening.

Left Paris on May 6, the Minister for the war was in Basle 8th (39), and, “after having travelled night and day without resting” (40), joined Moreau 10th May, at 9 o'clock in the morning, the shortly after the battle of Biberach (41), bringing the decree of the Consuls, under the terms of which 25,000 men of the Army of the Rhine were to enter to Italy by Saint-Gothard.

Carnot wrote the same day with Lacuée, Ministre by interim:

“…. I was one cannot more satisfied with General Moreau. My presence was very useful to dissipate preventions which one had sought to give birth to in his spirit against the Government, and the interview which I will have in Geneva with the First Consul must produce on its spirit a reciprocal and similar fact.

“I was to wait to me to do much difficulty to the general-in-chief, while coming, so to speak, to stop it in the course of the most brilliant victories, by the request for a considerable part of his forces for another army. It was really affected; but, as it is citizen as good as skilful General, it agreed, after me to have represented the disadvantages which could result from it for the Army of the Rhine, which fights with advantage against the enemies only by the ascending one of its bravery and its extraordinary efforts. It fears to be able to preserve the offensive, and then it could not preserve its advanced position any more. It would be obliged to retrogress, to give up the resources which the room provides; the discouragement would seize the spirits and the enemy would become more daring about it. These reasons did not prevent it from subscribing under command of the First Consul…. (42).

“CARNOT. ”

On its side, Moreau wrote, of Biberach, with the First Consul, a letter that Carnot gave to him, 14th, in Lausanne:

“…. The detachment that you ask to us disturbs us, but we will do our better. I will especially try to hide it with the army and the enemy. I take, to this end, less possible troop on line, the more so as the army is too distant….

“I will bring together as Switzerland, with greatest haste, 2nd batallions and 20 squadrons, and the artillery pieces that the Minister requires of us. These troops will be at the disposal of General Moncey….

“I provide to have another business tomorrow, by Hiller, towards Memmingen, and it is from there that I will make leave the troops that I send as Switzerland. I draw the others from Strasbourg and Brisach….

“MOREAU. ”

Carnot brought also the following situation:

Financial statement of the troops which pass from the Army of the Rhine to the Army of the Reserve.

NAMES OF THE CORPS. FORCE. LOCATION. DEPOTS.
29th demi-brigade of line. 2,273 Landau.
12th light demi-brigade 1,762 Brisach.
91e demi-brigade of line. 2,530 Mainz (1).
44th demi-brigade of line. 2,407 Vevey.
102nd demi-brigade of line. 2,187 Metz.
1st demi-brigade of line, a batallion. 898 2nd divis. center.
101st demi-brigade of line. two batallions. 1,654 3rd divis. center.
Demi-brigade of the corps of the lt general St - Cyr. 2,500
Demi-brigade of the corps of the lt General Lecourbe. 2,500
18,714
Cavalry.
1st regiment of dragoons. 800 Nancy.
6th regiment of dragoons. 510 3rd divis. left wing.
14th regiment of cavalry 209 Bourg. 8 dismounted men.
15th regiment of cavalry 500 Reserve.
25th regiment of cavalry 280 1st divis. center. 29 dismounted men.
12th regiment of chasseurs 504 3rd divis. right wing. 30 horses of surplus.
2803
(1) Two batallions on the way for the army by the valley of Kinzig have order to retrogress
towards Kelh and to go as Switzerland.

***

The First Consul had, 14th May, a conference with Carnot (43), which left Lausanne 15th (44).

At the same time, to Lausanne a letter of Masséna arrived, dated of the 3rd May (45). The news which it gave was to differ little from those sent by Lescuyer 29th April (46).

The First Consul, with the general-in-chief Moreau.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

The Minister for the war gave me, citizen General, your letter of Biberach, of the 20th floréal.

You have just illustrated the French weapons by three fine victories. That will cut down a little Austrian pride.

I received from Genoa of the news of the 13th. Masséna is always defended with much obstinacy, but it is encircled by considerable forces. Genoa behave with a devotion without example to our cause.

The Army of the Reserve starts to pass the Saint-Bernard. It is weak; there will be obstacles to overcome, which decides to me to pass myself to Italy for about fifteen days.

It is essential that you form good corps of troops with General Moncey. That that you intend to him is quite weak: moreover it could never be joined together in time. For example, 20th A two batallions in Mainz; the 91e is also coast of Mainz: these two corps will arrive doubtless too late. It is essential that you replace them and that you operate so as to join together 18 to 20,000 men, present under arms, under the orders of General Moncey, so that it can emerge by Saint-Gothard in the first decade of prairial. One should nothing save to save the town of Genoa and the headquarters of one of our armies, which is blockaded in this position.

The English are dawning every some small landing forces on the coasts of Provence, and it is out of doubt that a rather considerable landing force is on the open sea.

The Ferino General, with small corps of troops, is with the continuation of a core of the Vendée which is formed in Ardeche and Vaucluse.

If the diversion that the Government ordered by Saint-Gothard does not make with all diligence and the zeal which the circumstances require, it will be able to happen that 12 to 14,000 men whom we have in Genoa are made prisoners with the headquarters, and which the Army of the Reserve is beaten. It will be necessary well whereas you make a detachment of 20,000 men to support the South. You will have to fight against the Austrian Army of Italy, and even it would be necessary to draw from your army of the helps for the interior, because similar successes with these would give a general jolt to Vendean (47).

You see the circumstances in which we are. The success of the campaign can depend on the promptitude with which you will operate the diversion requested.

If it is carried out of a prompt movement, decided, and that you have it in heart, Italy and peace are with us. I say some to you already perhaps too much (48). Your zeal for the prosperity of the Republic and your friendship for me say some to you enough (49).

BONAPARTE.

The First Consul, with General Masséna (50).

Lausanne, 24 floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

I have been in Lausanne for two days, citizen General. The army (51) is in great movement. The aide-de-camp that you sent to me will make known you verbally the situation of the things here (52).

You are in a difficult position; but what reassures to me is that you are in Genoa: it is in cases as those where you are that a man is worth twenty thousand of them.

I kiss you (53).

BONAPARTE.

***

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with the general chief of staff.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

Prevent the General Turreau which I hope to have arrived 28th with the army at Yvrée, while passing by the Great Saint Bernard.

That the enemy necessarily will weaken in front of him to join together his forces; that consequently, it is necessary that it goes with all the possible forces on Suze, that he leaves simple depots in the strong positions which besides must have national guards to provide helps for the service; that it has with him 4th and the 9th regiments of chasseurs and the 21st of cavalry and the most artillery and cartridges possible.

Arrived at Suze, it will be put in communication with the army by Lanzo and Ponte; on my side, I will send reconnaissance in these two cities to have his news.

Prevent the General Turreau which my intention is to join together it with the army with Yvrée, marching by its left and passing further possible from Turin, however by a way where it can trail its artillery.

Still prevent it that I hope that our junction will be made towards 1st or the 2 prairial, and that then this division joined together with my army, I will operate according to the circumstances.

Say to him that the First Consul, which is in the middle of the army, and me, let us count on its zeal and its talent for the execution of this important movement.

Recommend to him to give me his news to Aoste, by the Little Saint Bernard, where I hope to be 26th.

General Turreau will leave the command of the part which formed the left wing of the Army of Italy to the general officer that it will consider able.

General Turreau will regulate the depots which it must leave in the positions and the posts that it will consider most necessary to make keep during its movement.

Send these orders by the Belin courier and duplicate by a staff officer (54) which will come to join me in Aoste by the Little Saint Bernard at the time when General Turreau will have gone master of Suze.

You feel that a moment ago to lose to forward these orders.

General Turreau will send an exact state of the troops to me which it will have with him as well as its artillery and another of what it will have left in the positions and the posts that it will have considered it essential to furnish.

Alex. BERTHIER.

Under command join the letter included here which you will send by the courier (55).

The commanding general the left wing of the Army of Italy, with Major General Dupont, general chief of staff of the Army of the Reserve.

Briançon, 29th floréal year 8 (May 19, 1800).

I received, Général, by triplicate, your letter of the 24th of this month. I differed to answer it until the moment when I could mark you positively the state where I leave the left of the Army of Italy.

The retirement of Lieutenant General Suchet and concerns that it gave me on Tournoux had me to make a general movement of my left on my line, and the orders that you transmitted to me by requiring an opposite, I could not determine my attack on Suze before the 1st prairial one, day to which the enemy will be attacked in this position by Cenis and the valley of Oulx.

I leave only 350 men of infantry and some gunners to Tournoux, similar quantity with Fenestrelles, 120 men in Queyras, and, in spite of the little of forces which I leave with the left wing, I will have hardly 2,400 men for the projected expedition, in y comprehending even 2 squadrons of 9th of chasseurs (the remainder of the regiment is not assembled) and 100 horsemen of the 21st regiment. (4th of chasseurs did not arrive yet and cannot be it.)

I mark with the major general Laboissière, which takes the command of the wing, to be made assist by the national guard and to even employ, if it considers it necessary, some joined together gendarmerie squads, not leaving him cavalry.

I left in Briançon only gunners. The enemy can arrive at this city only by the valleys of Pragelas and Oulx. Fenestrelles cuts the first and my march will cover the second.

I go on Suze with the 28th demi-brigade of light infantry, comprehending. 1,200 combatants.
The 26th line. 750
A grenadier reserve 200
Two squadrons of 9th of chasseurs. 200
2,350 combatants.

The artillery, which leaves Briançon, consists of two pieces of 8, two field howitzers and two pieces of 1 liv. 1/4. I will draw also some artillery from my left by Cenis; but I then to determine the number of the pieces of ordnance which I will reduce on this side, because we do not have enough artillery horses and that the march of that which is in Maurienne depends on the success of the requisitions of mules of feature, very rare in the country which I occupy.

The enemy occupies Suze with 7 batallions, 800 horses and of artillery. But I hope that with a little audacity and overall in the attack, I will manage of to dislodge it.

The adjutant general Ducs remains with me until this business had place.

Salute and fraternity.

TURREAU (56).

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

It appears that the staff forgot to send to the Harville major general the orders for the cavalry. It was not also prevented change which I made of the 11th of hussars with 15th of chasseurs.

Give the order to the Square-Saint-cyr General to leave at once in post to go near the 70th demi-brigade which is in Nyon. It will bring back the financial statement and will see of it what can it miss.

This demi-brigade will send (57) this very day in Geneva the muskets which it will be able to need and 50 cartridges per man.

These objects will have to be returned in Nyon in the night of the 24th to the 25th and this demi-brigade will leave 25th for Lausanne.

If this demi-brigade had left, which I do not believe, it would always send in Geneva to seek its weapons and its cartridges and would remain in Lausanne to await them and would join to forced marches Chambarlhac's division (58).

Alex. BERTHIER.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont, general chief of staff.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

Give orders so that the General of Monnier's division commands the reserve, made up of the 19th light demi-brigade, of line 44th and 70th (59).

The 70th will leave (Lausanne 26th to join the army.

The 19th light, which arrives at Nyon 27th, will join the 70th as quickly as possible.

Order that with its arrival with Gex, it there finds staff officer of position of Geneva, which is ensured of the muskets which it needs, as well as cartridges, at a rate of 50 rounds per man. They will be sent to them with their passage to Nyon.

As for the 44th, you will see by the provisions hereafter that General Monnier will find two batallions with Martigny of them, and successively, the third.

The brigadier general Saint-Cyr military school and the Schilt General and the adjutant general who is with the 70th will be under his orders.

Known as with the director in commander whom it has to organize at once all the administrative services, the ambulances, etc…. for this division of reserve. The First Consul will give orders for the artillery which it must have.

Give orders to General Moncey to announce to him that it belongs to the army that I command.

Order to him to make most promptly leave possible the two batallions the 44th demi-brigade, my intention being that this whole demi-brigade joins the army with the Saint-Bernard. Consequently, the batallion which General Moncey was to send to the Simplon, will be directed most promptly possible on Martigny, where it would be necessary that it was able 30th at the latest to meet in the column of General Monnier; the other batallion will follow more close possible the same movement.

Give the positive order to General Moncey to gather approximately 1000 men of the parts of Switzerland more with range of the Simplon, for sending to it in all diligence, and that they meet in the 400 men of the Swiss batallion, which is already under the orders of General Béthencourt, and to raise the batallion of the 44th which, in this moment, is in the Simplon, so that the three batallions of the 44th are most promptly possible joined together in Martigny, where they will successively be able to join General Monnier. The 1400 men approximately who will be in the Simplon will be enough for the moment and General Moncey will not make any pass more.

You will order with General Béthencourt to make pass to Martigny the batallion of the 44th which is in the Simplon, of the moment when it will have received 600 men of the 1000 that General Moncey has order to make pass to, the position of the 44th.

You will give an instruction to the officer commanding general the Simplon which the army being with Yvrée will probably march by its left on Tessin, which it must seek to make believe in the enemy that it has of great forces and to worry it by attacking his posts, but without imprudence (60). You will prevent it that General Moncey has order successively to carry great forces by Gothard, that thus it does not have anything to fear.

Prevent General Moncey that, according to the decree of the Consuls of the Republic, General Moreau detaches from its army the troops hereafter which will be under command of General Moncey, it is:

1 batallion of the 102nd demi-brigade;

1 batallion of the 1st light;

2 batallions of the 101st demi-brigade;

These four batallions, already under command of General Moncey, form corps of more than 3,000 men;

2 batallions of the 102nd coming from Vandamme division;

The 91e demi-brigade of line coming from Laval division, the side of Mainz;

The 12th light demi-brigade, coming from the reserve of the center of the Army of the Rhine;

The 29th of line, coming from the corps from Holy-Suzanne;

Finally two demi-brigades, which are not designated, not drawn from the corps of the General Saint-Cyr military school and Lecourbe.

All these troops will form a force of approximately 15,000 men of infantry, who will arrive successively and very promptly, except for the 91e demi-brigade and of the 2 batallions of the 29th, which comes on the side of Mainz.

It also comes to him as horsemen:

The 1st regiment of dragoons;

The 6th regiment of dragoons;

The 14th regiment of cavalry;

The 15th regiment of cavalry;

The 25th regiment of cavalry;

The 12th regiment of chasseurs; forming approximately 2,400 horses.

General Moncey already has with its orders several batallions of the troops indicated above.

Give him the order to join together these troops in Gothard and, successively, all those which will arrive, except those which it will have sent to the Simplon.

Prevent it that, 29th or 30th, I will be in Yvrée with the army, that arrived there I will go right on Milan while following the shortest way. It is to be supposed that the enemy will present large obstacles at Tessin, during time that I will force this line; that when I can establish my communication with Switzerland and him by the Simplon, I will be made join by the small corps that it has the order to send to the Simplon and who will be under command of General Béthencourt (you will prevent it that this officer commands at this point).

Still prevent the General Moncey which it is probable that, the 2 or the 3 of prairial, I will be in Romagnano and Arona.

Make feel to him how much the corps troops, which will be under its orders, will worry the enemy strongly. During the course of my movements, it is necessary that it shows the most forces possible and that he makes accroire with the enemy whom he has much more than he will not really have any and than at every moment he threatens it to go on Milan.

It would be possible that arrived at Yvrée, the news that I would have of General Masséna obliged me to carry me right on Genoa; in this case, it is also necessary that General Moncey draws the attention of the enemy by threatening it, so that it holds in the Milanese the most forces possible. Prevent it that, if I would make this movement, it would delay my arrival on Tessin only from five to six days and that then, instead of the first days of the decade of prairial, I would be on Tessin only towards the end of this decade.

It is essential that it operates so as to establish our communications by Bellinzona and Locarno, in order to be able to act in concert for our various attacks.

Prevent General Moncey that there is in Zurich and Lucerne of the biscuit, the oats and the brandy which will put it capable to nourish its troops.

There are in Lucerne 1,500,000 cartridges, which it must make approach more close possible, in order to make of it us provide of Gothard on Tessin, if the enemy retained me a long time on this position.

The sledges and the pieces necessary to General Moncey are in Lucerne.

Prevent it that I send to him 50,000 francs per the Tassin citizen, aide-de-camp of General Montchoisy, as well for transport as for the urgent services of the moment, and to overcome all the difficulties which it could encounter.

It is necessary that General Moncey tries to us hurry on by Bern and Freiburg 500,000 cartouches with the foot of the Saint-Bernard. If it can also send to us 1500 rounds of gun of 8, from 4 and howitzers, it would render a great service to us.

This object is essential and if the prompt execution is due to the money, that that does not retain it, will give we to him.

Say to him that I think well that all its troops will not be arrivals before the 2 prairial, but that it must always begin with hurry on in Gothard those with his orders, and as the others arrive.

Order to him to send officers ahead of them columns to make hasten their march without stay. That without the situation where Genoa is and who presses our movements infinitely, I would have waited eight days, which is not possible.

Order with General Moncey to frequently correspond with me by couriers and the Saint-Bernard, until I would be enough advanced to communicate by the Simplon.

The First Consul, which is in the middle of the army, counts on the zeal and the talents of General Moncey, as well by the difficulties as present the promptitude of the movement as by its importance.

You will send this order by the aide-de-camp of General Montchoisy and a double by a courier (61).

Alex. BERTHIER.

Moncey (62), lieutenant of the general-in-chief, commanding Switzerland, with General Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve.

Bern, 28th floréal year 8 (May 18, 1800).

Citizen General,

I received the 50,000 francs that you sent to me by the aide-de-camp of General Montchoisy. I will use them with wisdom, economy and understanding; but the sum is quite weak for our needs, because we do not have anything, it is necessary all to create: see to still send funds to me.

Previously to give an account of my situation to you, I must ask for mules of transport to you, the only object which I envisage not to be able to get to me here; for the remainder, I will make in kind have the essential one, or of me to pass some, if I cannot get it.

Artillery. – The train placed at my disposal, of the park of Huningue, must arrive today to Lucerne; it will conduct, from there, on the valley of Urseren; 7 gunners only accompany this train. I have, in all Switzerland, only two squads of gunners; I would need two complete companies for the service of the train which arrives to me. Where to take gunners? I am unaware of it.

What I will make after having emerged in the Levantine valley with more pieces than I will not be able about it to make be useful. I await your orders and instructions in this respect; if you do not do anything to me to say, I will do all to pass, because then I will have the hope that you will send gunners to me directly in this valley, as soon as you and me, we respectively establish our communications with the troops of the Simplon which you must make emerge.

On the 500,000 cartridges that you asked me, approximately 400,000 are moving for the Saint-Bernard; I made there join the 1500 rounds that you claim. I did not supplement the 500,000 cartridges in fear of miss some; the financial statements of the arsenal of Lucerne change the number from there only to 1,100,000. The damages which must exist and which will surely occur during a long road, painful and difficult, where we will not have very with wish to prevent the disadvantages, will reduce much this number.

Subsistence. – I make gather in the valley of Urseren all biscuit of Zurich and Lucerne, brandy and other menus objects. This must remain intact and be preserved for our passage and the marches which we will make in a ruined country and without resources.

I gave orders to ensure, by ordinary means, the subsistence of the troops moving up to the point of meeting, and, at the point of meeting, for time that the first troops will remain there to await all the others, or, at least, the greatest part. I wrote with the contractor meat rations, in Basle, so that it sends to us convoys of cattle for the distributions to make in Switzerland and to follow us in our passage of Gothard.

I did not have a director; I created provisional, the commissioner Souvestre wire; it is moving for the execution of my kinds and the gathering of all my means.

Fodder. – The oats will not miss. What was already gathered in Zurich and Lucerne, joint with the 6,000 bags taken by the General La Poype, in Bregenz, which it made evacuate on Zurich, leaves me without concern. Transport alone will embarrass us; it will be the object of a separate article.

The hay will embarrass more; we do not have any. To prevent this disadvantage, I asked the executive Commission, by the organ of the Reinhard minister, the formation of magazines of fodder with Seedorf, Altdorf, etc I represented that Switzerland was to give us a last help; that, dry fodder lack, I would be obliged to forage with the green and to thus make a consumption multiplies by ten. I await today an answer which, I hope, will be in conformity with my requests.

Transport. – It is the part most difficult to organize; we do not have anything with us of this kind; however, all our other means become null without that one. In order to provide for this part of the service, I authorized the Souvestre commissioner to rent all that it could find of mules or horses of bldg. I asked the executive Commission to provide me, during ten or twelve days, all that it would be possible to have; I hope for some helps, but must I hope for them whole?

I will pass, now, with the movement and advertisements of the troops.

Troop movement. – The order was given to all the 44th to go to Martigny; it is moving. The order was given to the 101st to go directly from Basle in the valley of Urseren, passing by Lucerne. The order was given to the General La Poype to join together at the same point all the troops with its orders. All finally is moving at the time when I write.

General Moreau leaving me the 22nd of cavalry to replace the 25th, it leaves Basle for Seedorf today.

Two batallions of the 12th light demi-brigade, arrived already to Basle, leave today to go to the foot of Gothard by Lucerne; the 3rd batallion, which is to the Brisach old man, will arrive only after it is raised by the 95th. His force is not sent to me; but a commissioner, who saw these corps two months ago, ensures that the demi-brigade was not 300 men.

General Moreau prevents me that the major general Lorge starts from his army with a division, made up of the 1st demi-brigade of infantry of line, 67e, 1st batallion of the 101st, 15th regiment of cavalry and 12th of chasseurs; it does not tell me the force of this column, the day of its departure of the army, that of its arrival as Switzerland, nor the point by where it must pass the Rhine. Any event, I gave the order to the General La Poype to transmit that to him to go to Gothard by Lucerne.

General Delaborde writes Landau to me that the 3rd batallion of the 29th demi-brigade will arrive to Basle the 3 or 4 prairial; the first two batallions of this demi-brigade being in Strasbourg, under the orders of General Freÿtag, General Delaborde wrote to him to transmit the orders of General Moreau to him, in order to hurry on these two batallions on Basle.

By supposing that General Freÿtag carries out continuation, that the 95th puts celerity to replace with the Brisach old man the batallion of the 12th; by supposing that they arrive the 3 or the 4 to Basle, these 4 batallions could not be with the foot of Gothard before 8th or 9th.

Division Lorge could there to be 4 or 5, if it left the day of the date of the letter of the General Moreau, which is of the 25th, of the headquarters It.

According to this table, General Moreau did not announce me yet the 91e of line, the two batallions of the 102nd, related to the state of the Minister. It did not announce to me one of the two demi-brigades without designation, which must come from the corps of the generals Saint-Cyr military school and Lecourbe, the 67e, belonging to Lorge division, having to be capture for one of both without designation, since it is not related to the state.

It remains to him to announce the 1st regiment of dragoons to me. I receive the opinion that 6th arrived to Zurich, leaving a third of his troop behind, at four days of march.

In last analysis, and always in the assumption which I made, I will be able to have with the foot of Gothard, the 4 or the 5 prairial one, the troops whose state is attached:

Lorge's Division. Observations.
1st demi-brigade of infantry of line. His force is not known.
67e
101st, 1st batallion
22nd regiment of cavalry 240 men.
15th His force is not known.
12th regiment chasseurs à cheval.
La Poype's Division. Observations.
1 batallion 1st light, strength of 800 men This force is, in
Part with the foot
Of Gothard, and y
Will be at the latest
With 1st.
1 102nd light, strength of 700
2 101st 1300
1st and 3rd batallions of the 12th light. His force is not known; one
suppose that it is almost
null.
6th regiment of dragoons 385 men.
14th regiment of cavalry 200

8th or 9th, I will be able to have, moreover, always in the already made assumption, the 29th demi-brigade of line, of which the force is not known, the 2nd batallion of the 12th light.

It remains to still send to me corps related to the state of the Minister which are not announced to me:

The 91e demi-brigade of infantry of line;

2 batallions of the 102nd;

A demi-brigade (without designation on the state of the Minister)

The 1st regiment of dragoons.

Here is, citizen General, the exact report of my situation. I would be already in Lucerne, if I had not wanted to await the return of the aide-de-camp of the First Consul, Lacuée, which will bring to me something of some and final on the troops that I must have under my command.

On this report, I ask you to give me orders, which could necessarily be only conditional, and whose execution will be subordinated to the arrival of the troops.

General Moreau had given me the order to make carry in Bregenz the 1st batallion of the 1st light; I answered him that this batallion being carried on the state of the troops to my orders, and that my troops having to be all with the foot of Saint-Gothard, I could not lay out about it for elsewhere; that thus, it was to warn with the means of covering its troops on its line.

Count, citizen General, that I will do all that it will be possible for me to assist you; I will put at it zeal, goodwill and devotion; but it is a term which one cannot cross (63).

Salute and consideration.

MONCEY.

P.S. – I receive the opinion that the artillery of Huningue left with horses requisition, for lack of horses attachés to the park.

Mr.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with the chief of staff.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

Establish the military road of the army, Dijon with Ivrée, while passing by Gex, Geneva, Lausanne, etc Déterminez the days of stages so that the troops at least make, per day, 6 miles of post. Regulate the places where, according to the localities, the troops will have to take the food for one or two days. Prevent that while passing to Villeneuve, one must take biscuit for five days and the cavalry of fodder for two or three days.

When you regulate this route, send of the copies to all the commanders of position which are on the road from Dijon to Ivrée. Give the order to the major generals to hold the hand so that the troops march in the best order; so that the commanders of corps hold their corps gathered well, and officers their companies; that the bivouacs are traced regularly; that the commanders are always with the head of their demi-brigade and the generals behind of their brigade; that the guards of the camp and the sentries are always placed militarily, even on the way.

That the most exact police force is maintained for cleanliness. That one follows, in this respect, which prescribes the military payments.

I greet you.

Alex. BERTHIER.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

You did not make me share, citizen General, of the provisions which you ordered for the gendarmerie (64); these corps, necessary to the police force of the army, are disseminated too much to fulfill this goal.

You will order that the part of these corps that you left in Geneva joins the headquarters, as well as the gendarmes who make the correspondence from here in Geneva.

The service of the dispatches must be done or by special couriers, or the post of the army.

I greet you.

Alex. BERTHIER.

You also gave too many gendarmes to divisions; one did not have more than 6 gendarmes and 1 sergeant by division.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

Give the order to the Boudet's division, which is in Bex, to go to Saint-Branchier or Orsières tomorrow 25 (65).

Order with Loison's division to go the same day to Martigny (66).

Order with Chambarlhac's division to go the aforementioned day, 25, with one mile beyond Saint-Maurice (67).

The 12th regiment of hussars and the 21st of chasseurs must join the advance guard as soon as possible and to be 25th with Saint-Petersbourg (68) with the foot of the Saint-Bernard. The 11th regiment of hussars will provide 100 men to each one of Boudet's division, Loison and Chambarlhac.

The cavalry will be definitively organized as it follows:

12th regiment of hussars and 21st regiment of chasseurs, under command of General Rivaud;

2nd and 15th of chasseurs, under command of the colonel Champeaux (69);

5th, 7th " 8th and 9th of dragoons, under command of General Duvignau;

1st, 2nd, 3rd and 20th of cavalry will be commanded by General Kellermann.

General Harville will particularly command the division of dragoons and cavalry.

The lieutenant general Murat who is supérieurement to command all the weapon of the cavalry will give more particularly of the orders to the two brigades of light cavalry.

Alex. BERTHIER.

***

As for the division of advance guard, General Watrin gives the following orders, in order to be able to pass the Great Saint Bernard May the 15 and 16 (70):

Saint-Pierre, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

With the commanders of the corps of division.

In accordance with the orders of the commanding general division, you will want well, citizen, to send to continuation your quatermaster at the payer, in this place, to receive there the fifteen days pay for the troop and that of one, month for the officers.

You will make also take this evening the brandy, at a rate of a ration per man. The goods will have to be aimed of the Trousset commisioner of war.

All the companies of grenadiers and carabiniers will at once be supplemented. The general officers and the commanders of the corps will take care that these companies are constantly maintained complete.

HULIN.

With the commander of the gendarmerie.

Consequently provisions adopted by the commanding general division, you will leave, citizen, following the 22nd demi-brigade of line, tomorrow, 25 of the current, and will follow its movement. You will lead all the gendarmes belonging to the detachment under your orders, except for those which are of escort at General Lannes, Watrin and Malher, that they will follow as they made until now.

HULIN.

With the General of Gency's Brigade.

In accordance with the provisions of the commanding general division, you will want well, citizen General, to give the order to the 40th demi-brigade (71), as to the other troops which belong to your brigade to leave to the receipt the present to go to Orsières, from where they will leave following day 25 to go to Saint-Pierre; they will take the food in any kind (72) for the 25, 26, 27 and 28 and will leave 26th to the point the day to join to us to the mount Saint-Bernard.

The major general recommends particularly that you give the most positive orders to the troop not to speak while crossing the mountain, to avoid the accidents which could result by making noise.

HULIN.

With the Trousset commisioner of war.

I inform you, citizen commissioner, that in accordance with the orders of the commanding general division, the three batallions of the 40th demi-brigade of line will arrive here 25th, to go 26th, with the point of the day, with the Saint-Bernard, where they will join division. I observe you that they will take here the subsistence in any kind for four days, it is, the 25, 26, 27 and 28. Take, consequently, the measures necessary to ensure the subsistence this troop. The 22nd demi-brigade leaves her cantonments (73) to come to bivouac this evening here.

HULIN.

The Malher's brigade, with which General Watrin is, had to receive verbal orders, since there does not exist of order relating to it on the register of correspondence of the adjutant general Hulin, commander of staff of Watrin's division.

The movement of this brigade appears aimed in the “Journal of the campaign of the Army of the Reserve, by the adjutant commander Brossier” (74),

“The advance guard of the Army of the Reserve, which commanded by General Lannes and control by General Watrin, passed the Great Saint Bernard 24th floréal of year 8, stopped this same day at the hospice and, the following day, at 2 o'clock in the morning it emerged…. , etc…. ”.

***

Marmont, adviser of State and General commander-in-chief the artillery of the Army of the Reserve, with the general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve.

Saint-Maurice, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

I announce to you with pleasure, my General, which I discovered that there exists in Bex 750,000 musket cartridges, a certain quantity with gun with several effects of artillery which will be useful for us. I gave the order that this depot was transferred to Martigny. I hope that it will be it tomorrow at the evening. However, as it would be possible that this transport was not completed at once, and that divisions did not find cartridges and flints in Villeneuve, I ask you to order that in this case they take some in Bex and that for that they are addressed to the commander of artillery.

There also exists in Martigny, independently of those which I sent to it, 150,000 musket cartridges and some with gun; there are still 50,000 with the Saint-Bernard. As, you can count as the day after tomorrow, so much in Saint-Pierre than in Martigny, we will have at least 1,500,000 musket cartridges, and a depot of cannon catridges (75).

A. MARMONT.

P.S. – There do not exist four pieces of 4 with the mount Saint-Bernard, as one you had given an account of it; they are in the valley.

A. Mr.
leaving at the moment for Martigny.

Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with General Dupont.

Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

The 60th demi-brigade left, citizen General, and there is still for my guard of grenadiers of these corps. Give orders at once so that they join their demi-brigade.

I do not need more guard; I will leave in a few hours (76). There should not remain any guard nowhere belonging to the ahead gone corps.

Alex. BERTHIER.

State of all the corps of made infantry and cavalry â Geneva or in the surroundings and of those left for the army of the 22nd to the 24th floréal.

Geneva, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

Italian Legion, made up of 1966 men, arrival 22nd, left 23rd for Nyon.

A detachment of 150 men of the 6th demi-brigade of light infantry, arrived 23rd to Geneva, party 24th for Villeneuve.

A detachment of 650 conscripts for the 60th of line demi-brigade, made 23rd to Geneva, party 24th for Lausanne.

A detachment of 59 men of the 22nd demi-brigade of light infantry, arrived 23rd to Geneva, party 24th for Moutiers, in Mont Blanc.

The 15th regiment of chasseurs, party 23rd for Lausanne.

The 8th regiment of dragoons, party 24th for Nyon.

The 9th regiment of dragoons, party 24th for Nyon.

The 2nd regiment of cavalry, party 24th for Nyon and surroundings.

The 3rd regiment of cavalry, party 24th for Nyon and surroundings.

The 20th regiment of cavalry, party 24th for Nyon and surroundings; it arrived 23rd to Geneva.

A detachment of 34 sappers of the 2nd batallion, party 24th of Geneva for Lausanne.

For certified copy with the states which were given to me by the Grillon adjutant general.

DEJEAN.

I believe duty to observe with the First Consul that the Italian Legion was armed here with muskets and that one delivered 30 cartridges with each man. But, deprived of cartidge boxes, it is well to fear that part of these cartridges is not to no purpose.

Previous: CHAPTER VII: STATION ON THE EDGES OF LAKE GENEVA
Next: CHAPTER IX: PASSAGE OF THE GREAT SAINT BERNARD
  1. The town of Lausanne, anxious to satisfy its host, had pushed the attention until defending with a “wine salesman”, close to this house, “to receive anyone in its garden during the stay of the First Consul, so that this one is not disturbed by the noise of the drinkers and players of skittles”. (Register of the municipality of Lausanne, May 11, 1800.)
  2. Berthier had arrived to Lausanne 11th May to 9 h. 1/2 of the evening (Geneva in Lausanne, 60 kilometers), and placed at the Haller citizen; 300 men of the Consular Guard arrive to Lausanne 12th May. (Writer of Vaud, number of the 12th May.)

    To haul (1768 - 1854) had directed the administrative services of the Army of Italy in 1794, 1796 and 1797. It occupied various important posts in Switzerland and was used in France for the Foreign Affairs, of 1828 to 1830.

  3. The order of the day of the 13th May reproduced these regulations; but, instead of “lieutenants and second lieutenants”, one read there (register of Watrin's division): “Officers and warrant officers of the light troops”.

    It is probable that Watrin's division could not carry out this order, because it had already exceeded Villeneuve.

  4. The 30th demi-brigade, which was 10th May in Nyon (see situation of the 9th, appendix no. 16), rejoined large division 11th, in Vevey, with the Guénaud General. (Couvreu Manuscript.)
  5. The stage of the 14th May will be thus:
    Division Boudet, Vevey with Bex 29 kilometers.
    Loison, Lausanne with Aigle 41
    Chambarlhac, Morges in Villeneuve 43

    These movements carried out, the large one of the army will not have any more that 18 kilometers of depth and its head will be with 30 kilometers of the advance guard.

  6. General as a commander, under the feather of Berthier, means the First Consul.
  7. “The bakers and brought together oven-keepers” of Lausanne manufactured, 12th May, “independently of the service of the city, 7,870 rations for the French Army”. (Register of the municipality of Lausanne, T. II.)
  8. Alex. Berthier, general-in-chief of the Army of the Reserve, with the chief of staff.

    Lausanne, 22nd floréal year 8 (May 12, 1800).

    Charge the major generals with supervising the order which I gave so that the current of the pay is paid from the 1st floréal. The movement that I ordered this morning for Boudet's division, Loison and Chambarlhac will be carried out only 24th.

    Alex. BERTHIER.

    The First Consul will pass the review of Boudet's division tomorrow, at 11 a.m., Vevey (*).

    B.

    (*) According to the primitive order, this review was to take place at midday.

  9. 20 kilometers of Lausanne with Vevey, 11 kilometers of Vevey in Villeneuve, is 62 kilometers in the course of the day.

    A relay was necessary, and Berthier wrote in Dupont:

    “Known as with General Boudet to give orders so that it is horses with the relays of Vevey, tomorrow, for the transport of the general-in-chief and for mine, so that we went promptly to Villeneuve. The horses of Lausanne will await us Vevey to return to Lausanne. Give orders so that tomorrow we have horses at 9 o'clock in the morning, for us and for the Consul. ”

  10. Dupont accompanied Berthier.
  11. The Italian Legion goes, 13th May, of Geneva with Nyon. According to the handwritten Journal of Bourdillon, it is strong of “5,000 men, who all were armed and vêtus in Geneva”. This strength does not agree with that which the various situations provide. (See with the Appendices.)
  12. Correspondence of Napoleon, no. 4783.
  13. V. p. 319, the letter with Lannes signed by Dupont.
  14. Hulin (Pierre-Augustin), born in Paris on 6 September 1758, enrôlé with the Champagne regiment 9th December 1771, grenadier on May 1, 1777, sergeant on April 7, 1780, captain who command the company of the volunteer of the Bastille of the national guard of Paris 15th October 1789, captain of the 14th batallion of light infantry on April 3, 1791, colonel 16th June 1797, adjutant general 13th April 1798.

    It became brigadier general 29th August 1803, major general 9th August 1807, count of the Empire in March 1808, was retired 18th October 1815 and died 9th January 1841.

  15. Malher (Jean-stone-Firmin), born in Paris, 29th June 1761, soldier with the regiment of Neustrie on December 5, 1777, sergeant 30th June 1780 until December 5, 1784, corporal in the chasseurs of the balanced national guard on October 6, 1789, sergeant 20th October 1791, adjudant warrant officer with the 14th batallion of light infantry 24th January 1792, second lieutenant 16th August 1792, lieutenant 24th April 1793, adjutant general colonel 30th April 1794, brigadier general 18th October 1799.

    It became major general 27th August 1803 and died in Valladolid, in Spain, 13th March 1808.

  16. The 1000 pairs were not to arrive at Malher's brigade. The soldiers of the 40th were appropriate some to the passage; and the commander of staff wrote the same day with the commander of the 2nd batallion of the 40th demi-brigade: “You will want well, citizen, to make at once stop all the guard which was last night at the house that I occupy, in order to know the sentinels which let fly of the shoes entrusted to their guard. ”
  17. Gency (Claude-Ursule), born in Meulan 13th June 1766, soldier in the regiment of infantry of Béarn 11th February 1783, corporal 11th August 1785, discharged by grace 21st February 1788, commander of the 9th batallion of Seine-and-Oise 17th September 1792, colonel in 1793, provisional brigadier general 17th August 1794, confirmed in this rank 13th June 1795.

    It was lieutenant general 8th February 1815 and pensioner in 1832.

  18. Written Hulin, the same day, in Dalbon, to make pass from following Captain Danthouard “1000 to 1200 pounds to pay the mules and men of the country”.

    The directing commissioner Dalbon requests money from the director as a Dubreton commander, who, of Lausanne, writing 13th May with the First Consul:

    “The 29,000 francs which I had given at the disposal of the directing commissioner Dalbon produced, Général, the most fortunate effects; but employment is made by it, and well beyond that, in particular for the department of transport.

    “It would wish, to prevent other needs which will press us at the time of the passage, that new melt of 50,000 francs was entrusted to him at once. If you could not be determined with granting to him in entirety, I make you the urgent request for him allocate at least a strong part of it.

    “Salute and respect.

    “DUBRETON. ”

  19. Villeneuve with Bex, 18 kilometers; Bex with Saint-Maurice, 5 kilometers.

    Hulin orders the same day with the Trousset commisioner of war to ensure the subsistence of this strong batallion “of 400 men”.

  20. The adjutant generals were made treat generals, without having the right of it. These were the abuse which made modify their title, which became adjutant commander on July 6, 1800.
  21. The ration was 250 grams. (V. Corr. of Napoleon, no. 4663.)
  22. That is to say a strength of 2,000 men for the 40th and the headquarters. On the situations of May the 9 and 10, the 40th has 1830 present under arms (V. appendices 16 and 17).
  23. The artillery of the Watrin's division, which was 10th with Martigny (v. p. 305, the order given 8th May by Hulin to the commander of artillery), had come 11th or 12th to Saint-Pierre. It is in order to pay the men and the mules for his transport that General Watrin orders the money sending with Captain Danthouard. (V. p. 342.)
  24. The following day, Lannes writes in Berthier which there is only 30 quintals of biscuit with Saint-Pierre. (V. p. 348.)
  25. The same day, May 12, the town of Vevey received the order of adjutant general Pannetier, general staff, “to provide all the possible transports in Villeneuve for the transport of biscuits and oats in the Valais Alps”. (Handbook of the municipality of Vevey, May 12.)
  26. The letter of Lannes, to which Berthier refers, was not found. It seems certain that he slipped a mistake in the date, or in the letter of Lannes, or that of Berthier.

    Indeed, the orders of Watrin of the 11th and of the 12th prove that its division was not joined together the evening of the 12th May with Martigny. (V. p. 331 notes 2 and p. 341 to 343.)

    The 6th light was in this point 12th; but the headquarters of division, the 22nd and 40th were in Saint-Maurice.

    It is 13th May which division was joined together in entirety with Martigny, except the artillery, which conducted already on the road of the Saint-Bernard.

  27. Gros-Bois archives, IX, A, XXX, register of orders of Berthier.
  28. Lannes, which was 12th May in Villeneuve, came directly to Saint-Pierre, at the head of his advance guard.

    The 28th being still in the Valais Alps, part of the 6th light replaced to escort artillery. A company of this demi-brigade, preceding the column, is since 10th May at the hospice of the Great Saint Bernard; of the 10th to the 14th, it receives there from 30 to 43 wine bottles per day (Archives of the Great Saint Bernard). Large fractions of the same corps occupy Saint-Pierre, Liddes, and especially Sembrancher (Archives of Martigny, transport of provisioning).

    The remainder of Watrin's division is in Martigny.

    The artillery of this division, made up of ten pieces, arrival 10th in Martigny, was carried 11th or 12th with Saint-Pierre; it comprehend “a piece of 8, an howitzer and pieces of 4”, eight (four Frenchwomen and four Genevese), according to the order sent 10th May by Dupont to Lannes, (V. p. 320.)

    The mounting-sledges are there also, because, in the same order of the 10th May, Dupont recommended of the hurry on “with the greatest speed, so that they arrived at the foot of the mountain before the column heading”.

    One begins 13th to assemble this artillery on the Great Saint Bernard.

    There are 13 kilometers of Saint-Pierre at the hospice and 842 meters of difference in level (Saint-Pierre, 1630 meters; hospice, 2,472 meters). The slope is not very strong of Saint-Pierre to the canteen of Proz, but the rise becomes very fast starting from the canteen. It takes four hours to reach the hospice without being charged.

    The path of 1800 is still seen along the torrent in a tightened throat. In remembering the passage of the Army of the Reserve, the famous place most dangerous is still named “Pas de Marengo”.

    It is not necessary to point out that in May, time of the passage, all the country was covered with a thick layer of snow.

  29. Orders of Watrin's division.

    Martigny, 23rd floréal year 8 (May 13, 1800).

    Order of the day of division.

    The General of Watrin's division prevents the troop which it must spare, with the greatest economy, the food which are distributed to him. We will make a few days of march in a country where there is not any resource.

    The commanders of the corps and the companies will take care well that one camps with order, that the beams and the face of banner are well aligned.

    There will be the every day a senior officer and a staff officer of round of night and day.

    The General awaits his comrades, who it commands, as much discipline than of bravery. He will make known with the general-in-chief the soldiers, who will have been particularly distinguished, so that they receive the honourable rewards that assigns the grateful fatherland to them,

    HULIN.

    With the General of Malher's brigade.

    Consequently provisions adopted by the commanding general division, you will want well, citizen General, to make join together the brigade under your orders, tomorrow 24 of the current, in Saint-Pierre.

    HULIN.

    With the General of Gency's Brigade.

    According to the provisions adopted by the commanding general division, the brigade which you command, citizen General, will have to meet, tomorrow 24 of the current, in Saint-Pierre. Each soldier must have 40 rounds to draw. It is, consequently, necessary that the damaged cartridges, which can be among those already delivered, are exchanged of continuation.

    HULIN.

    With the commander of the detachment of hussars of the 11th regiment.

    While leaving tomorrow for Saint-Pierre, citizen, you will leave near the commanding general division a sergeant and six hussars which will follow it; you will prevent General Gency of it.

    HULIN.

    With the Trousset commisioner of war.

    I warn you, citizen commissioner, that consequently provisions adopted by the commanding general division, the brigade under the orders of General Malher will meet, tomorrow 24 of the current, in Saint-Pierre. You will want to ensure it well the subsistence of the troops which make it up.

    HULIN.

    [De Martigny (480 meters) with Saint-Pierre (1630 meters) the difference in level is 1150 meters, the horizontal distance of 27 kilometers.

    Gency's Brigade did not reach Saint-Pierre 11th May. (V. p. 372.)]

  30. Lauriston, arrived 11th May to Geneva, ghost of its mission in Lyon, Grenoble and Chambéry, had come 12th from Geneva to Villeneuve.
  31. The 6th light confined indeed in Bex 9th May. The of line 40th remained there the 9, 10 and 11; it had left 12th for Saint-Maurice.
  32. By saying the army, the First Consul takes the part for the whole, since it reviewed 12th only two last divisions.

    Its letter arrives 17th May to Paris, where one inserts the same day into the Monitor the following note, by changing the term employed, which deteriorates the sounds seriously:

    “The headquarters were 23rd in Lausanne. The First Consul had reviewed the advance guard, which had to leave the very same day under the command General Lannes…. ”.

  33. The Lescuyer citizen, left Genoa 9th floréal (April 29), sent by General Masséna, with the First Consul.

    Marseilles, 18th floréal year 8 (May 8, 1800).

    General Consul,

    I left Genoa to midnight, 9 of the current.

    Here at that time the situation of Masséna: It recommended to me to expose it to the First Consul. A dispatch that I given while passing to the Oudinot General, that I found in Alassio, informed it of all; it you will undoubtedly have made share, Général of it, as of the verbal instructions of which had charged me the general-in-chief, and of which most urgent and the most repeated was: “That comes from there to free me; known as that one comes to free me! ”.

    As the passage was hazardous, it did not give me dispatches for the First Consul; but it highly recommended to me to speak to him as with the generals whose divisions are on my road.

    Moreover, it added, they would be reduced very to this point: “That one comes to free me; the city is invested by ground and sea; I fight almost the every day, and the every day I beat the enemy, but its resources are immense: me I have very to overcome.

    “I have 12,000 men, one knows their state; I have food for thirty days; and up to now Genoa is quiet. ”

    The idea of an army which must make a diversion supports the courage of the French, intimidates the agitators, and is used to contain the multitude that the dearness of the food, the vicinity and the insinuations of the enemy tend to raise.

    As of the point of the day, one sees Masséna crossing the city to visit his posts; its capacity is worth an army.

    All my desire was to discharge to me in person near the First Consul, of a commission of which I would like that the bottom and the details were less painful. A fall me removes faculty of it.

    But I must say it; and it is a feeling consolator tested of all the French who are in Genoa, and to which all stick with delight, and that they communicate at every moment: that Bonaparte starts itself and we are saved.

    Salute and respect.

    LESCUYER.

    P.S. – In spite of my wound I carry on my road, and I give and take instructions in accordance with the order of Masséna.

    This news was alarming, since they are summarized in this only word: “that one comes to free me”, but the situation from the point of view of the food was better than one could not hope for it, according to the preceding letters of Masséna.

    Indeed, it announced to have food for thirty days, as from April 29, i.e. for all May; while 23rd April it had written that it could “hold ten or twelve days or perhaps fifteen” and that the aide-de-camp left Genoa 27th April and made on May 5 to Paris estimated that the food would last until May 20.

    The situation of the food of Genoa established more exactly had undoubtedly shown more resources than one had believed it in the first moment.

  34. Writer of Vaud, Swiss Bulletin and Journal of Pichard.
  35. Handbook of the municipality of Vevey. Requisition of a ration of wine for each man.
  36. Manuscript Couvreu, Vevey.
  37. In the Memoires of Napoleon, one reads: “13th May, the First Consul passed to Lausanne, the review of the true advance guard of the Army of the Reserve. It was the General Lannes which commanded it; it made up of six old regiments of elite perfectly equipped, equipped and was provided with all. ”

    This sentence contains several errors, which were repeated by Jomini and other authors:

    1. the First Consul did not pass from review to Lausanne 13th; it is 12th which it had seen close to this city Loison's division and Chambarlhac (V. p. 335 and 336);

    2. 13th, it reviewed Boudet's division to Vevey and artillery of three divisions of large to Villeneuve, but neither 13th nor the previous or following days, it passed the review of the advance guard, which was with a strong stage ahead.

    Watrin's division, portion principal of the advance guard, was the only division of the army which the First Consul did not see before the passage of the Great Saint Bernard. It joined it later only fifteen days, 27th May, beyond Ivrée;

    3. the advance guard was far from being provided perfectly with all. Quoted pieces it results that the demi-brigades of Watrin's division missed even shoes.

  38. Writer of Vaud and Pichard Journal.
  39. Letter of Bern, of the 9th May, published by the Swiss Bulletin of the 11th.
  40. Notebook with Lacuée, May 10.
  41. Carnot with Lacuée:, May 10.
  42. Gouvion Saint-Cyr military school, in its Memoires, volume II, page 235, appreciated the mission of Carnot in the following way:

    “…. The sending of the Minister for the war in Germany, in a time when it had so much to make in the center of its administration, and that to claim the execution of an order (what a simple officer dispatched as a courier could do to him as well as); the sending, I say, of such a large civil servant, was to provide matter to conjectures: most probable was that the commander of the Government, not doubting the ambition of Moreau, and lending a character to him which it did not have, thought that it would refuse to make leave such a considerable detachment his army, in fear that this departure did not decrease its influence, or even did not stop its successes. Carnot having been a long time in connection with Moreau, one had hoped that it would have enough influence on him to overcome its repugnances. Those which knew best the character of Moreau, so timid in political businesses, thought that it would have obeyed without hesitation with the simplest order; that the mission of Carnot would only be used to increase its importance, and showing to him to how much cares the First Consul went down towards him…. ”.

  43. Pichard journal, May 14.
  44. It spent a few hours to Geneva, and set out again the evening for Paris (Journal of Dunant), where it arrived only 29th May (report of Decaying on its ministry arch. of the engineers, vol. 227).
  45. Not found letter but whose existence is proven by the letter of the First consul with Moreau, of the 14th May.
  46. Of the 29th April to the 3rd May Masséna had continued to fight with the Austrian outposts. The day of the 2nd May had cost to the killed French 43, 252 wounded, 114 prisoners, that is to say a reduction in strength of 439 men, including 42 officers, considerable loss for an army of 12,000 men.
  47. The First Consul initially dictated, then made strike the following sentence:

    “The Government entrusted all the forces of the Republic to you. You have just employed them with as many talents as from happiness. All becomes in…. ”.

  48. Phrases striked; You feel too the importance of the diversion….
  49. Correspondence of Napoleon, no. 4797.
  50. Correspondence of Napoleon, no. 4795.
  51. There was initially the Army of the Reserve. These the last two words were striked.
  52. II had there initially I know too your military talents and your strength to doubt…. This sentence was striked.
  53. This letter was carried by the captain Franceschi, aide-de-camp of Masséna, which had arrived to Paris on May 5. It managed to return in Genoa 27th May, while escaping the continuation from the English vessels (Memoires from Masséna, T. IV, p. 204).

    Franceschi was to be charged to say to Masséna which it would be helped “in the first decade of prairial”, 21 to the 30th May, as the First Consul had written it 13th May with the other Consuls.

    And the First Consul counted so much that its operation would relieve Masséna which it thought already of the continuation and wrote the same day with General Saint-Hilaire, commanding the 8th military division in Marseilles:

    “The Army of the Reserve, citizen General, enter Piedmont. When you read this letter, I will be with 30,000 brave in the heart of Italy.

    “Push all the cavalry on the side of Nice, so that, since Masséna will be freed, it can be put at the continuation of the enemy. ”

    He wrote also 14th May in Desaix which had just unloaded in Toulon: “I will go down to Italy with 30,000 men to relieve Masséna, to drive out Melas; after which I will go back to Paris. ”

    And in a letter with Mortier of the same day, he said:

    “…. Maintain Paris quiet. That will commit me to remain a few days of absent, which, I hope, will not be indifferent to Mr. de Mélas…. ”

  54. The adjutant general Ducs was in charge of this mission.
  55. Correspondence of Napoleon, no. 4793.
  56. Turreau de Linière (Louis-Marie, baron), born in Évreux on July 4, 1756, commander of the 3rd batallion of the Eure 16th September 1792, brigadier general 30th July 1793, major general 18th September 1793, commanding as a commander the army of the Eastern Pyrenees then that of the West 28th November 1793, suspended 13th May 1794, given in activity a few days afterwards and employed like major general, again relieved 8th September 1794, employed with the army of Sambre-and-Meuse 8th September 1797.

    It was in charge of a diplomatic mission in the United States of 1804 to 1811, commanded a territorial division in 1813, was employed with the defense of Paris in 1815 and died 10th December 1816.

  57. (2) It is obviously necessary to read: will send to seek, etc
  58. The 70th had left Nyon 14th May, and arrived the very same day to Lausanne (Swiss Bulletin of the 15th May).
  59. This division comprehended hitherto only the 70th and the 19th light. The 44th is taken on the troops of the Valais Alps, which commanded by General Moncey.
  60. With its arrival in Sion, 16th May, General Béthencourt found two officers of the French engineers and a Swiss officer knowing very well all the passages of the Alps. Their reports, it resulted that the way of the Simplon was very practicable, and that the enemy was founded to await from this coast the French attack, but that the defile of Wispach, driving in the valley of Sésia, so bad, that the Austrians had restricted themselves to bar of it the entry with 4 pieces of average gauge, hardly was kept. It is by this passage that Béthencourt proposes to enter to Italy.

    18th May, the commander of the Simplon carries its headquarters in Brieg; it always estimates that its passage in Italy must take place by Wispach, the throat of Saas and the Mount-Moro, then, from there, by Macugnaga and Omegna, only way making it possible “to turn the entrenchments furnished with 15 pieces, that the enemy established in Ornavasso”.

  61. Correspondence of Napoleon, no. 4792.
  62. Jannot de Moncey (Bon-Adrien), born 31st July 1754, voluntary in the regiment of Champagne-infantry in 1768. gendarme in the company of the English 18th April 1774, second lieutenant in the corps of infantry of Nassau-Siegen 16th August 1779, lieutenant in second 30th August 1782, lieutenant in first on July 1, 1785, captain on April 1, 1791, commander of batallion 26th June 1793, major general 9th June 1794.

    He became Marshal of France 19th May 1804, duke of Conegliano, and died 20th April 1842.

  63. By sending to the First Consul a copy of this report, Moncey added:

    “…. You will see there that I do not have all that would be necessary, that what appears essential is not even assured…. ”

  64. Gendarmerie of the Army of the Reserve comprehended 240 on horse men, trained in four companies of 60 men; each company was divided into two brigades (the Minister for the war to the Daru citizen, March 7, 1800). Its strength at the end of April rose with 204 men (see appendices Nos 10 and 14).
  65. The large one of the army had carried out 14th the order of the 12th (see p. 338). Boudet's division had come from Vevey in Bex.
  66. Loison's division had gone from Lausanne to Aigle.

    The account presented at the commune of Aigle “by the Movier citizen for supper and lunch provided 14th May to the Loison General, on the requisition made by a captain of the engineers, which had come ahead to prepare the lodgments” was assembled to 813 batz (Register of the municipality of Aigle, May 30).

    The batz was worth 15 centimes, 10 batz formed 1 franc which was worth 1 thus FR. 50 of our currency.

    The small change comprehended, in addition to the batz: the half-batz, the crutz or quarter of batz and grate it which was worth a tenth of batz.

    Moreover, each canton had its different currency. It is only into 1851 that Switzerland adopted the French monetary system uniformly.

    The account claimed for the meals of the Loison General was thus assembled to 81 francs Swiss or 122 francs French. One can suppose that, for this price, all the staff of Loison's division had been nourished.

  67. Chambarlhac's division left 14th Morges and crossed Lausanne.

    “We have just seen passing 8 batallions which ravel on the Valais Alps like 8 artillery pieces, accompanied by their caissons, the campaign forges and the implements necessary among which one noticed sledges”. (Swiss Bulletin, 1800, T. III, p. 100, no. of the 14th May.)

    The 24th light and the 43rd passed to Vevey “between 2 and 3 hours of the afternoon”, but “over the 7 hours of the evening one of these demi-brigades retrogressed of Montreux and Villeneuve for lack of position and overloaded the town of troops for this night”.

    The 96th was arrival with Vevey towards 5 hours, “strong of approximately 2,400 men who were part quartered…. and the remainder placed at the middle-class man. ” (Handwritten Couvreu, Vevey.)

  68. Saint-Pierre or Bourg-Saint-Pierre.
  69. General Murat with the general-in-chief Berthier.

    Lausanne, 24th floréal year 8 (May 14, 1800).

    You have in the army which you command, my General, two divisions of cavalry.

    You have only one major general and two generals of brigade. These general officers cannot be enough: the good of the service, the success even of this army can be compromised; it is thus necessary to increase the number of it. Allow me to propose to you for brigadier general the colonel of Champeaux gendarmerie. This officer is also advisable, and by his old services, his wounds, and his talents in the weapon of the cavalry. I ask you to request the confirmation of it from the First Consul.

    Salute and respect.

    J. MURAT.

    I request the First Consul to name the Champeaux colonel with the rank of brigadier general to be employed in the weapon of the cavalry.

    This officer by his talents will be greater utility.

    Alex. BERTHIER.

    Granted. Returned with the general-in-chief to do it reconnoiter and to put it in activity.

    Lausanne, 25th floréal, year 8.

    The First Consul,

    BONAPARTE.

    The decision of the First Consul arrives 17th May at the headquarters at Etroubles; it is put at the order of the 18th.

  70. In the order of the 10th May (see p. 319), it is a question of crossing the Saint-Bernard in the night of the 15th to the 16th. According to the order of Berthier of the 13th, transmitted to Lannes by Dupont, the passage of the pass must take place of the 15th to the 16th May (see p. 346). This regulation was undoubtedly interpreted, like indicating that the passage of the advance guard begun 15th, would be finished 16th, which took place indeed.
  71. The 40th had stopped in Sembrancher; its strength was as follows: 1 colonel, 4 majors, 2 quatermasters, 3 adjudants majors, 30 captains, 27 lieutenants, 26 second lieutenants, 2,217 warrant officers and soldiers. (Archives of Sembrancher.)
  72. It was already seen that the meat ration was 250 grams.

    The ration of bread was 24 ounces or 750 grams, that of biscuit of 550 grams.

    Fodder rations. horses with the armies were 5 kilogr. from hay, 5 kilogr. from straw, and 6lit, 5 of oats for the hussars and chasseurs, and from 7k, 5 of hay, 5 kilogr. of straw, and 8lit, 66 of oats for the cavalry, the dragoons, artillery, the officers general, engineers and infantry, staff officers. (Law of the 26th fructidor year 7 (September 1799 has) on the re-establishment of the masses. Bulletin of the Laws, 2nd series, year 7.)

  73. The 22nd had stopped in Orsières (Register of the military supplies. Archives of Orsières). The 6th light, which had always been in front of the 22nd, was to be already close to the hospice.
  74. Brossier (Simon-Pierre), born in Versailles 9th January 1756, used calculator with the Foreign Affairs, engineer topographer at the same department on April 1, 1775, second lieutenant of dragoons 8th December 1779, captain with the batallion of garrison of Normandy 11th March 1788, commander of batallion to the general staff on April 21, 1800.

    It was named provisional adjutant general by Berthier on June 3, 1800, wrote, after the campaign, the journal of march of the army and drew a map of the operations of which a part (valley of Dora Riparia) is reproduced in this volume.

    The title of adjutant general having become adjutant commander on July 6, 1800, it is this last name which is reproduced on the journal of march.

    Brossier became colonel with the corps of the topographical engineers 21st October 1800 and brigadier on December 3, 1817.

  75. For these ammunition, it is necessary to add 50,000 cartridges “of the depot of weapons of Chillon” which were given to the French Army “on the positive request of the Bonaparte General” at the same time as “a powder barrel and two covered caissons”. (Report at the executive Commission, May 16. Actensamlung für DER zeit DER helvetischen republik, T.V, p. 977.)
  76. Berthier leaves Lausanne “in the evening to transport its headquarters further” (Journal of professor Pichard, May 14).

Library Reference Information

Type of Material: Text (Book, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Personal Name: Cugnac, Gaspar Jean Marie René de, 1861-
Main Title: Campagne de l'armée de réserve en 1800 ...
par le captaine de Cugnac ...
Published/Created: Paris, R. Chapelot et ce., 1900-1901.
Description: 2 v. 21 maps (partly fold.) 14 facsim. (partly fold. 25 cm.
Contents: t. 1. Passage du Grand-Saint-Bernard.--t. 2. Marengo.
Subjects: Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815--Campaigns--Italy.
France--History--Consulate and Empire, 1799-1815.
LC Classification: DC223.7 .C96