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29 May, 2008

 Products The Guns of Gettysburg Design Diary Open Source

The Guns of Gettysburg Design Diary: Open Source

The previous entries pretty much covered the map-making process from a research and graphical perspective, up to the point where the game “grid” (loosely speaking in this case) is applied. Before moving on to that subject, I wanted to post the source maps that were used. And so, here is the list. The maps are all online (except of course, for the Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg maps, which are protected by copyright) for your viewing pleasure. The maps are, of course, also accessible from the research section of the website.

Source Maps

Adams County Wall Map Adams County Wall Map (partial) by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Under the direction of the government of Pennsylvania, large wall maps were commissioned on a county-by-county basis. The 1858 Adams County map shows detailed street maps of each town in the county, the names of landowners, and directories to the various businesses in the towns. The map also show roads, streams, and a rough indication of topographic features. Only sections of the map are shown here: one section showing the area around the Gettysburg battlefield, and the inset section for the town of Gettysburg itself. I was able to obtain a copy from Thomas Publications. (It is not in their catalog, but is available at a very reasonable price if you contact them and ask for it.)
Cope Horseback Survey Map Cope Gettysburg Horseback Survey Map by E. B. Cope. In 1863, U. S. Army Engineer E. B. Cope did a horseback survey of the battlefield. Although the map is crude from a perspective of both physical geography and the troop positions of the opposing sides, Cope did collect and record the names of the property owners on the battlefield. His record is much more geographically precise than the earlier Adams County Wall Map, and has the advantage of being much closer to the date of the battle than the later U. S. War Dept. map.
Atlas to Accompany the Official Records Battle Field of Gettysburg by the US War Dept. The base maps are the product of the U. S. War Dept. from an 1868 survey of the battlefield of Gettysburg. John Bachelder, the foremost Gettysburg historian of the 19th century, added troop positions down to the regiment and battery level based on his own extensive research. (Note: the maps available here are the so-called "daily maps". Bachelder did still more maps at more frequent intervals called the "hourly maps". The hourly maps are not available online at present.) The carefully made 1:12,000 base map is by far the best quality nineteenth century maps for a battlefield I have seen. Surveyed almost immediately after the battle, it includes a remarkable level of detail and is the primary source for all subsequent battlefield maps.
Pennsylvania at Gettysburg Pennsylvania at Gettysburg (map only) by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania This is a 1:15,000 map prepared by the Gettysburg National Park Commission under the direction of E. B. Cope for the two-volume book Pennsylvania at Gettysburg. (The rest of the book is not, at present, available online.) The map is primarily concerned with showing the locations of the various monuments to Pennsylvanians on the battlefield, but it is useful from a research perspective for several reasons. First, E. B. Cope, who prepared the map, also prepared the 1863 horseback survey map, and second, it extends farther south than most large-scale maps, all of which tend to derive their information primarily from the 1:12,000 War Dept. maps.
Italy 1:50,000 United States 1:50 000 by the USGS / U. S. Army Map Service. This is from a series of 1:50,000 maps published by the U. S. Geological Survey and U. S. Army Map Service starting in the early twentieth century. The maps in the series were repeatedly revised and re-published in the decades that followed. The large scale of these maps makes them suitable for battlefield research, although of course care must be taken when used for battles which occured decades before they were made. Typically they are best used in combination with period maps, which lack the topographic information and accurate scales of these maps. (Note: the 1:50,000 map series was started decades earlier than the 1:25,000 series, and so although it is less detailed than the 1:25,000 series, it remains valuable for ACW research.)
Italy 1:25,000 United States 1:25 000 by the USGS / U. S. Army Map Service. This is from a series of 1:25,000 maps published by the U. S. Geological Survey and U. S. Army Map Service starting in the mid-twentieth century. The maps in the series were repeatedly revised and re-published in the decades that followed. The large scale of these maps makes them suitable for battlefield research, although of course care must be taken when used for battles which occured decades before they were made. Typically they are best used in combination with period maps, which lack the topographic information and accurate scales of these maps. (Note: the 1:50,000 map series was started decades earlier than the 1:25,000 series, and so although it is less detailed than the 1:25,000 series, it remains valuable for ACW research.)
Digital Base Map of Pennsylvania Digital Base Map of Pennsylvania Imagery by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania This is aerial orthoimagery taken from the Digitl Base Map of Pennsylvania project, which is undertaken under the control of the Pennsylvania Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources and is associated with a USGS controlled project called The National Map. The scale of this imagery is 1 pixel = 1 foot.. The entire (extremely large) imagery collection is available for free download from the PA DCNR website, but that portion of the imagery that displays the Gettysburg battlefield has been assembled from fifteen different plates and is available here as a single image.
Digital Base Map of Pennsylvania The Battlefield at Gettysburg by the Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg This is essentially a modern update of the 1868 War Dept./Bachelder maps. It has the same coverage area, the same level of detail, and includes daily maps for each of the three days showing troop positions down to the regiment and battery level. Because of copyright restrictions, these maps cannot be made available online, but they can be ordered from the Friends organization. Although these maps are very good sources, and represent an excellent effort to straighten out the messy contradictions in the names of the property owners present in the primary sources, I am not persuaded of all of the road reconstruction work and I saw some odd small scale distortions when I overlaid this map on top of the other source maps and aerial imagery that I have. Still, this map set is a highly recommended addition to any Gettysburg map library.